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Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyze the motivations for return migrations to Bolivia from Spain in a context of economic crisis. From the analysis of in-depth interviews with men and women in the areas of Cochabamba and La Paz, the decision to return home is proven to be embedded within relational gender dynamics. It is argued that the latter is the reflection of a patriarchal ideology that makes the difference when it comes to participation of both sexes in the economic and reproductive responsibilities taking place within the home in the societies of origin.

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... Los datos mencionados en torno a las tasas de desempleo y precarización laboral, además del recorte en los servicios, han afectado las trayectorias migratorias en ambos colectivos. No obstante, teniendo en cuenta los motivos que los propios entrevistados mencionan en la toma de decisión no cabe reducirlos a este aspecto de la vida económica (Vega 2014;Martínez-Buján 2015). Tanto en las razones aducidas para regresar como en las estrategias llevadas a cabo para organizar la vuelta a casa, la vulnerabilidad vivida en España o el encauzamiento de nuevos proyectos profesionales en origen se entretejen con dinámicas afectivas y familiares que dotan de una mayor complejidad a los procesos de retorno. ...
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RESUMEN Este artículo analiza las motivaciones de las migraciones de retorno de los colectivos ecuatorianos y bolivianos que habiendo residido en España han regresado a sus comunidades de origen durante la etapa de crisis económica iniciada en el año 2008. A partir del análisis de 22 entrevistas en profundidad realizadas en Ecuador y 38 en Bolivia a mujeres, hombres y jóvenes pertenecientes a familias migrantes, se demuestra que este proceso de toma de decisión se incrusta en una dinámica relacional de género. En concreto, se indaga en los elementos afectivos y económicos que influyeron en la decisión de retornar, así como en las estrategias desplegadas para proyectar su reacomodo en origen. Hombres y mujeres ocupan posiciones diferenciales en el entorno familiar, laboral y social, estando sus expectativas construidas de manera generizada. Si bien la migración ha supuesto para las mujeres un mayor poder económico dentro del grupo familiar, su reinserción en el retorno redefine su papel como gestoras principales de la unidad doméstica y de las dinámicas que permiten su reproducción social. Por su parte, los hombres aspiran a reactualizar su papel como proveedores a pesar de su frágil situación laboral al regreso. La movilidad social para ellas se transfiere generacionalmente a través de una fuerte inversión educativa proyectada sobre sus hijas e hijos, mientras que para ellos, ésta se articula en la creación de negocios familiares y su capacidad demostrativa.
... However, what mattered was the type of migration experience and the returnees' skill levels and social capital, some of which were acquired in the previous country of residence. While some returnees return because of the economic situation in the receiving countries (Buján 2015), this was generally not the case among the interviewed Armenian returnees. The structural barriers to reintegrationsuch as high levels of unemployment and difficulties in obtaining a jobrelated particularly to the labour-market conditions in Armenia. ...
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Return migration has been increasingly gaining prominence in migration research as well as in migration policies across the world. However, in some regions, such as the Caucasus, the phenomenon of return migration is little explored despite its significance for the region. Based on 64 interviews with returnees and key informants together with additional online surveys with Armenian migrants, this study discusses important issues about return and reintegration with policy implications. It covers voluntary returnees as well as the participants of the assisted voluntary return and reintegration programmes and presents the case for a multiplicity of the return migration motivations and experiences which are dependent on the return preparedness and the strategies which the returnees use.
... Para algunos de los países -Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de), el Ecuador y Venezuela (República Bolivariana de)-, la proporción de hogares extensos y múltiples se reduce en el último año observado. Este descenso, y también parte del descenso generalizado de este tipo de hogares, podría estar relacionado con el retorno o la reemigración (Martínez-Buján, 2015), factor que no debemos obviar a la hora de relacionar migración y crisis económica. Cierto es que las bajas padronales de extranjeros con destino al extranjero se mantienen por el momento en niveles bajos, pero los latinoamericanos representan el colectivo continental que más retorna en términos relativos. ...
Article
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Household structure often differs between migrant and non-migrant populations. The role played by social networks in easing the settlement process and the potentially stronger intergenerational ties in migrant families have been identi ed as factors explaining this. However, changes in economic conditions can in uence the composition of already- settled immigrants’ households. Using data from the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) between 2005 and 2012, we ask how and to what extent Latin American migrants’ propensity to live in extended or multigenerational households increases in an economic recession. The results suggest a trend differentiated by gender and highlight the importance not only of economic conditions but also of life events in explaining the probability of living in complex households.
... La decisión de retornar es formulada siguiendo las normas sociales sobre los comportamientos que son aceptables para los hombres y para las mujeres (Hofmann, 2014). Por ejemplo, Martínez-Buján, analizando el caso de la migración boliviana en España, señala cómo los hombres regresan para establecer estrategias de autoempleo, mientras que las mujeres lo hacen, por encima de otras motivaciones, para cumplir con sus funciones como madres (Martínez-Buján, 2015). Para el caso de las mujeres caribeñas, el retorno se relaciona con la generización del parentesco y las normas de cuidado, de manera que no se vincula con cuestiones materiales, sino con el papel de las mujeres en tanto buenas madres o hermanas, tras haber migrado para ser proveedoras de la familia (Olwig, 2012) 2 . ...
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This article looks beyond the explanation of returning Ecuadorian migrants in the light of the impact of Spain's economic crisis, analysing return within the framework of the articulation of mobility and immobility strategies and the social and cultural gendered and inter-generational relations of transnational households. It addresses the way in which female migration and return are closely linked to women's role as carers, whilst male return is frequently conditioned by crises of masculinity, stemming from the loss of their role as 'breadwinners'. The article concludes that return, must not merely be considered a journey back, but rather as a continuum of mobility, framed by gender ideologies regarding the role of men and women, as well as by inter-generational strategies that are activated within the transnational space. The article is based on the empirical data obtained from a multi-sited fieldwork carried out in Spain and Ecuador with Ecuadorian transnational families.
... The decision to return is made in accordance with the social norms governing behaviour considered acceptable for men and women (Hofmann, 2014). For example, in her analysis of Bolivian migration in Spain, Martínez-Buján shows how men return in order to initiate a strategy of self-employment, whilst women are primarily motivated by the desire to comply with their role as carers (Martínez -Buján, 2015). In the case of Caribbean women, return is related to the genderisation of kinship and accepted behaviour in the provision of care. ...
Article
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This article looks beyond the explanation of returning Ecuadorian migrants in the light of the impact of Spain’s economic crisis, analysing return within the framework of the articulation of mobility and immobility strategies and the social and cultural gendered and inter-generational relations of trans- national households. It addresses the way in which female migration and return are closely linked to women’s role as carers, whilst male return is fre- quently conditioned by crises of masculinity, stem- ming from the loss of their role as ‘breadwinners’. The article concludes that return, must not merely be considered a journey back, but rather as a con- tinuum of mobility, framed by gender ideologies regarding the role of men and women, as well as by inter-generational strategies that are activated within the transnational space. The article is based on the empirical data obtained from a multi-sited eldwork carried out in Spain and Ecuador with Ecuadorian transnational families.
... El bienestar de los hijos es un factor muy común en la decisión de emigrar o retornar (Gregorio, 2002;Parella, 2003;Recaño y Jaúregi (2014). En general, las mujeres entrevistadas que vinieron a España dejando a sus hijos en los lugares de origen nos comentaron, a menudo, que tomarían la decisión de regresar a su país, si percibían que los cuidadores de sus hijos no conseguían controlar bien determinadas situaciones; en esta misma línea encontramos referencias de otros autores (Martínez-Buján, 2015). Un motivo alegado, sobre todo por las mujeres, son los problemas con los hijos cuando llegan a edades adolescentes y jóvenes. ...
Article
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Los movimientos migratorios de retorno desde España están sufriendo cambios significativos en la última década. Este trabajo analiza la situación actual tras el llamado boom de los retornos durante los años más duros de la crisis. La metodología utilizada combina el análisis cuantitativo de los datos estadísticos con técnicas cualitativas que ayudan a interpretar las cifras y a indagar en las causas que llevan a los inmigrantes al retorno o, por el contrario, a permanecer en España. El análisis e interpretación de la evolución cambiante de los saldos migratorios exteriores recientes, tanto en los países de destino como en las comunidades autónomas de origen constituyen la aportación principal de la investigación.
... Respecto del retorno, hombres y mujeres manifiestan razones diversas. Mientras las mujeres regresan para dar continuidad a su papel como gestoras principales de la unidad doméstica y de las dinámicas que permiten su reproducción social (Martínez, 2015), como el cuidado de los hijos o de adultos mayores, para los hombres, volver a Santa Ana implica dar continuidad a su responsabilidad de proveer al hogar. Así, la decisión de regresar se da por la conjunción de diversos factores cuando los migrantes reflexionan acerca de las condiciones de vida en el lugar de llegada, visualizan el reencuentro con sus familiares o proyectan la vida en el lugar de origen. ...
... La mujer que migra en muchos casos es cabeza del hogar, al marcharse deja reflejado un vacío inexplicable en casa que piensa llenar al regreso, lo nuevo es confirmar ¡quizás! que al retorno de estas mujeres ecuatorianas en primera instancia no les motivó tanto sus ingresos económicos y los negocios a emprender, sino venir a inundar esa esfera vacía que llevaron en su corazón por un buen tiempo, el mismo que se comprueba cuando en los resultados se encontró que desean estar junto a su familia con la particularidad que la mayoría de estas mujeres tenían un estado civil de divorciadas, aspecto que no deja de ser un dato de peculiaridad pues sus hijos estaban con cuidadoras y en algunos hogares probablemente el padre no está; sentimientos que pueden llegar a ser similares a los de la muestra analizada en sus investigaciones por: Recaño & Jáuregui, (2014) Martínez-Buján, (2015); Resino, Jiménez, & Arranz, (2018) al coincidir de que es muy importante para la mujer el bienestar de los hijos, ellos se convierten misteriosamente en una razón fuerte para que su madre retorne a casa, más aún cuando los cuidadores de sus hijos no lograron controlar ciertas situaciones que ayudan a la formación integral de los mismos a lo que se añade que en ciertos hogares papá no está. Este fenómeno nos describe un cambio frente a la teoría neoclásica, demostrando que estas mujeres probablemente vivieron una nueva economía de la migración laboral (NELM) (Cassarino, 2004) en relación a la acumulación de ingresos para beneficio de los suyos, del hogar. ...
Article
Las mujeres ecuatorianas que retornaron son actores fundamentales en la transformación y cambio social del país, sin embargo, algunos estudios realizados en la zona norte y sur del Ecuador hasta ahora son insuficientes en este aspecto. Por tanto, la finalidad de esta investigación consiste en describir una realidad encontrada en relación a los motivos de migración que se correlacionan con los motivos de retorno de estas mujeres, la familia y su implicación en el emprendimiento y planes de retorno previstos para su regreso. En esta investigación se utilizó una metodología a modo de «caja de herramientas» y la técnica «bola de nieve», el análisis estadístico y descriptivo, al igual que la encuesta en escala de Likert que reflejan datos contrarios, frente a especulaciones sobre: progreso económico, emprendimiento desde una política pública e integración-familiar en contextos transnacionales.
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On the basis of data collected by the RETTRANS survey (2011–2012) on Bolivian migrants living in Spain, this article aims to identify the influence of the 2008 economic crisis on the determinants marking the migrants’ return intention. In this regard, there is a need to incorporate the concept of double embeddedness based on migrants’ social networks (meso level), the way migration is imbricated in persons’ lives (micro level); and how, at a macro level, economic and social transformations of different contexts affect these decisions. The article highlights that unexpected changes in living conditions trigger a reconfiguration of these mixed factors that condition return intentions. Resumen En base a los datos procedentes de la encuesta RETTRANS (2011–2012) sobre los migrantes bolivianos residentes en España, este artículo analiza la influencia del impacto de la crisis económica en los factores que explican la intención de retorno. En este sentido, se discute la necesidad de incorporar el concepto de “doble imbricación”, basado en las redes sociales de los migrantes (nivel meso), la forma en la que la migración se imbrica en las vidas de las personas (nivel micro); y cómo afectan, a nivel macro-estructural, las transformaciones económicas y sociales de los contextos estas decisiones.
Chapter
I think I’ve done here enough of what I had to do and that’s time for me to return, because I don’t see the situation improving, I see that each time it’s worse, I’ve been offered to work as live-in carer for a miserable wage, honestly it both saddens me and makes me laugh when they tell you. And that’s like this everywhere, so that’s the current situation, it’s difficult. It’s very complicated for people working as carers honestly. So I plan on staying until the end of the year and return home. I’m not sure I will but I plan on going back. (Mayra, 52, Ecuador, Madrid)
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This paper explores the characteristics of and transformations that Spanish domestic service has undergone in the since 2000. The paper also analyzes the domestic service’s contribution to the Spanish economy since the beginning of the country’s economic crisis. Relying on quantitative analysis of the domestic work data from the Active Population Survey, the most relevant changes identified are the increase of its demand and the consolidation of migrants workers in it. The paper also looks at the tasks carried out in the households of employers. The recent conversion of the domestic services in a nonprofessional care sector seems to mitigate the burden of personal care work that Spanish families aim to provide to their older relatives. This transformation of domestic work into care work has changed some traditional features of this occupation: the outcomes of qualitative data show changes in the intensification of the tasks carried out, a tendency to higher male workers, a reappearance of live-in workers, and key modifications in the relationship between employer families and employees. Finally, this paper incorporates a short assessment of Real Royal Decree 1620/2011 (which regulates domestic service) and Law 39/2006 (Law on the Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons) to analyze which is the legal space delegate to the labor category related with the non-professional caregivers in private homes.
Article
This article analyzes how patriarchal gender ideology, economic imperatives, and individual agency influence men's and women's migration decisions in the Republic of Georgia. Research on labor migration demonstrates both the empowering potential of migration for women and the tenacity of patriarchal norms and structures. These contradictory findings can be explained in part by differences in the households of origin of female migrants. Drawing on both a national survey of migration and thirty-four interviews with returned migrants and family members of migrants in two Georgian cities, I argue that women who migrate tend to come from households that are either more inclined to egalitarian beliefs or structured in such a way that women's migration provides the least possible challenge to patriarchal household organization. More traditional households are likely to send a male migrant. Although women's labor migration is becoming increasingly common in Georgia, women, particularly mothers, face practical constraints to migration that men do not, to the extent that some mothers remain home even when migration appears to be economically imperative. Because of the unique aspects of mothers' labor migration, the effects of labor migration on norms may vary widely across different contexts.
Article
Return migration has recently become an important topic of research within the gender and migration literature. Drawing on multi-sited ethnographic research carried out in Romania and Italy, this paper focuses on the gendered patterns of return, highlighting the relationship between the motivation to return, family life plans, challenges and individual responses to structural factors that shape the decision to return. Based primarily on participant observation and in-depth interviews with women and men from a Romanian village, the findings suggest competing ways in which men and women resettle in their community. While men transfer large amounts of money and make use of their new skills and their contacts with their Romanian peers in Italy in order to gain their livelihoods in the village, women encounter conditions that are deterrents to such economic transfers. Women tend, therefore, to maintain contact with Italian families as an alternative to their imperfect economic reintegration into the village.
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Research on female migrant caregivers has tended to focus upon the emotional and social problems they encounter working abroad, given women's traditional role as caregivers for their own families. This article analyses how Caribbean women who have returned after a period abroad as domestic workers inscribe their migration experiences within the gendered narrative of the good relative who migrates to help the family left behind and therefore deserves social recognition in the community of origin. It argues that this narrative allows the women to both affirm and reinterpret local family and gender roles within the context of migration. This analysis points to the close connection between narrative structures, accounts of migration experiences, and self-presentations and suggests that narratives about family and gender roles not only reflect people's lives, but are also a malleable resource that can be (re)shaped to validate a variety of life-courses.
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This contribution examines the dynamics of Ecuadorian international migration in the context of the global financial crisis that began in 2008. Ecuadorian migration has increased steadily over the past fifteen years – as have remittances, the rate of family reunification in destination countries, and migrants’ ownership of assets in both their countries of origin and destination. The current global crisis has affected these dynamics, particularly in Spain, which is one of the main destination countries for Ecuadorian migrants. A preliminary analysis of the impact of the crisis reveals an important decline in immigrant employment, but one that has not translated into a proportional decrease in remittances. Drawing on fieldwork in Spain and Ecuador, this study examines the strategies migrant families employed to cope with the financial crisis.
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This article explores ongoing return migration to Somaliland within a gendered perspective and sees it as a distinctly male practice. Whereas many studies of gender and migration focus primarily on women, this article unfolds practices and perceptions of masculinity among Somaliland male return migrants. Somali notions of masculinity, virility and potency have been challenged as a result of the civil war and global dispersal of Somalis. In the article it is argued that return migration from Western countries can be seen as a way of recreating lost images of masculinity and femininity. Male returnees express their masculinity in installing themselves as the potent agents of change and penetration of the purified, feminised and virgin homeland. The article argues that the actual circumcision of the male and the female body, that plays a fundamental role in the establishment of categorically clear and opposed gender categories, is replaced by a symbolic or more abstract circumcision of the diaspora and homeland.
Article
IMI does not have a view as an Institute and does not aim to present one. The views expressed in this document are only those of its independent author.
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By analyzing the migration behavior and transnational residential strategies of first-generation, aging migrants from a particular Moroccan sending region, this study contributes to a conceptual critique of migration theories that identify the household as the most relevant decisionmaking unit. It highlights the role of intra-household power inequalities and conflicts in migration decisionmaking as well as the effects of migration decisions for intra-household power relations. Many labor migrants who left Morocco to work in Europe in the 1960s and 1970s did not realize their wish to return but instead ended up reunifying their families at the destination. An increasing proportion adopts a pendulum migration strategy to reconcile their own wish to retain strong ties with Morocco with the reluctance of children and spouses to return. Migrants who unilaterally decided not to reunify their families usually return after their active working life. However, this unilateral decision also blocks legal entry into Europe for their children, which has generated considerable intergenerational tensions.
Article
In the last 15 years, anthropology and other disciplines have begun to treat migration as a system. The article reviews the findings of the growing body of literature on return migration, attempting to synthesise the various typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. -J.Sheail
Article
This review culls disparate elements from the theoretical and research literature on human migration to argue for the construction of a theory of migration that simultaneously incorporates multiple levels of analysis within a longitudinal perspective. A detailed review of interconnections among individual behavior, household strategies, community structures, and national political economies indicates that inter-level and inter-temporal dependencies are inherent to the migration process and give it a strong internal momentum. The dynamic interplay between network growth and individual migration labor, migration remittances, and local income distributions all create powerful feedback mechanisms that lead to the cumulative causation of migration. These mechanisms are reinforced and shaped by macrolevel relationships within the larger political economy.
Article
Return migration to Jamaica is associated closely with the existence and nature of the transnational linkages established between migrants and their home country, especially at the level of the household and family. Remittances invariably precede, accompany and follow the actual return of migrants and comprise money as well as a range of consumer goods. Data on the number of returning migrants to Jamaica have been collected officially only since 1992; other information is derived from field studies. The figures show that the US is the source of most return migrants to Jamaica, with the United Kingdom second. Likewise, there are few official statistics on remittances, especially of those entering the country through informal channels. Nevertheless, data on the receipt of money through the Bank of Jamaica, indicate that during the 1990s remittances as a percentage of GDP exceeded that of the traditional foreign currency earners of bauxite and sugar. Growing awareness of the potential of the Jamaican overseas community has led the Government of Jamaica to establish programmes, including The Return of Talent programme, supported by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), to encourage the return of nationals. Different types of return migrants have the potential to make different kinds of contributions to national development – some through their skills, educational and professional experience, others through the financial capital which they transfer for investment or as retirement income. However, the most significant development potential of return lies in the social and economic conditions in Jamaica itself. If confidence levels are high, there will be little difficulty in attracting persons to return and financial transfers and investments will increase. Furthermore, the social and economic environment largely conditions the extent to which skills and talent as well as the financial capital are effectively utilized.
Article
Return migrants exhibit a high tendency for self-employment over waged employment. Using cross-sectional data from Pakistan, the paper explores the determinants of this choice. Retirement from the domestic labor market is not a reason for opting for self-employment. The preference for non-farm self-employment is a two-period process of self-selection. Migrants who expect to switch occupation to non-farm self-employment upon return save more from high transitory overseas income than do their counterparts. Upon return, savings become a significant factor in the choice of self-employment over waged employment. International migration and return have little influence on the choice of farm self-employment. Copyright 1999 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
New trends in Bolivian migratory fields in the face of the crisis
  • V Baby-Collin
  • G Cortés
Baby-Collin, V., & Cortés, G. (2014). New trends in Bolivian migratory fields in the face of the crisis. Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals, 106-107, 61-83.
The reproduction of gender-based inequalities at origin and destination: A transnational study based on Bolivian migrations
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Bastia, T. (2014). The reproduction of gender-based inequalities at origin and destination: A transnational study based on Bolivian migrations. Papeles del CEIC, 14(2), 1-20.
Entre las políticas de retorno y las prácticas transnacionales de los migrantes brasileños. Re-pensando el retorno desde una perspectiva transnacional
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Cavalcanti, L., & Parella, S. (2012). Entre las políticas de retorno y las prácticas transnacionales de los migrantes brasileños. Re-pensando el retorno desde una perspectiva transnacional. Crítica e Sociedade: Revista de cultura política, 2(2), 109-124.
Female labour migration in South East Asia: Change and continuity
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Chantavanich, S. (2001). Female labour migration in South East Asia: Change and continuity. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Research Centre for Migration.
Entre crisis y crisis: experiencias de emigración y retorno
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Hernández, K., Maldonado, M., & Calderón, J. (2012). Entre crisis y crisis: experiencias de emigración y retorno. El caso de los barrios populares de noroccidente de Quito. Quito, Ecuador: Abya-Yala.
Voluntary return programmes in Bolivia and Spain in the context of crisis
  • S Parella
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Parella, S., Petroff, A., & Serradell, O. (2014). Voluntary return programmes in Bolivia and Spain in the context of crisis. Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals, 106-107, 171-192.
El retorno más allá del mito del emprendedor. Paper presented at the Seminar "La migración de retorno en Ecuador: nuevos y viejos desafíos
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Vega, C. (2014, June 11). El retorno más allá del mito del emprendedor. Paper presented at the Seminar "La migración de retorno en Ecuador: nuevos y viejos desafíos," Quito, Ecuador.
Between crisis, agency and return: The vulnerability of the Bolivian migrants in Italy
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Yépez, I., & Marzadro, M. (2014). Between crisis, agency and return: The vulnerability of the Bolivian migrants in Italy. Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals, 106-107, 129-149.
Impactos de la crisis sobre la población inmigrante
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Colectivo IOÉ. (2012). Impactos de la crisis sobre la población inmigrante. Madrid, Spain: OIM.