Article

# Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States

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## Abstract

An obvious need for an updated and comprehensive study prompted this investigation of the complex of environmental and economic costs resulting from the nation’s dependence on pesticides. Included in this assessment of an estimated $9.6 billion in environmental and societal damages are analyses of: pesticide impacts on public health; livestock and livestock product losses; increased control expenses resulting from pesticide-related destruction of natural enemies and from the development of pesticide resistance in pests; crop pollination problems and honeybee losses; crop and crop product losses; bird, fish, and other wildlife losses; and governmental expenditures to reduce the environmental and social costs of the recommended application of pesticides. The major economic and environmental losses due to the application of pesticides in the USA were: public health,$1.1 billion year; pesticide resistance in pests, $1.5 billion; crop losses caused by pesticides,$1.4 billion; bird losses due to pesticides, $2.2 billion; and groundwater contamination,$2.0 billion.

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... In most regions of the world, the condition is even worse. Approximately 80% of the pesticides produced per annum in the world are used in developed countries [12], but less than half of all pesticide-induced deaths occur in these countries [31]. Increased proportion of pesticide poisonings and mortality occur in developing countries where there are insufficient occupational safety standards and regulations in its use on foods; insufficient enforcement; poor labelling of pesticides; illiteracy; and deficient knowledge of pesticide [31]. ...
... Approximately 80% of the pesticides produced per annum in the world are used in developed countries [12], but less than half of all pesticide-induced deaths occur in these countries [31]. Increased proportion of pesticide poisonings and mortality occur in developing countries where there are insufficient occupational safety standards and regulations in its use on foods; insufficient enforcement; poor labelling of pesticides; illiteracy; and deficient knowledge of pesticide [31]. Moreover, usual pesticide residue levels in food are often higher in developing countries than in the developed countries. ...
... One USDA study has shown that some pesticide residue remains in fruits and vegetables even after they have been washed, peeled, or cored [36]. Consequently, there are many justifiable reasons why 97% of the public is concerned about pesticide residues in its food [31]. ...
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Pesticides are usually applied to protect crops against insects and other pests. These pesticides of synthetic origin are potentially toxic to humans and can have both acute and chronic health effects, depending on the quantity and ways in which a person is exposed. They play significant roles in food production as they protect or increase yields due to less attack by insect pests. This is particularly important in countries that face food security challenges. The general population-who are not in the area where pesticides are used-is exposed to significantly lower levels of chemical insecticide residues through food and water. Chemical pesticides are among the leading causes of death by self-poisoning, in particular in low-and middle-income countries. Adverse effects from these synthetic pesticides occur only above a certain safe level of exposure. When people come into contact with large quantities of it in food, it may cause acute poisoning or long-term health effects, including cancer and adverse effects on reproduction. Production, distribution, and use of pesticides require strict regulation and control. Regular monitoring of residues in food and the environment is also required. Best among all is the promotion and adoption of bio-insecticides as a better alternative to chemical insecticides.
... Pesticide costs can be substantial, up to several thousand US dollars per crop (Fernandez-Cornejo et al., 2014). Moreover, pesticides may have undesired side effects on beneficial insects such as pollinators and natural enemies of pest species (Wilson & Tisdell, 2001;Rundlöf et al., 2015;Pimentel, 2005). Furthermore, the compound can wash off the plants and disperse into the soil and surface waters, where it can cause further pollution and cause lethality in non-target organisms (Aktar et al., 2009;Favari et al., 2002). ...
... En este sentido, los agroecosistemas citrícolas cuentan con una gran diversidad de insectos benéficos que se desempeñan como reguladores de plagas de importancia económica (Martínez, 2015). Entre el 50 % y el 90 % de las especies con potencial para adquirir el estatus de plaga es controlado por enemigos naturales nativos (Pimentel, 2005). La mayoría de los estudios entomológicos que comparan sistemas agrícolas orgánicos y convencionales sugieren que en ambientes orgánicos aumenta la abundancia de enemigos naturales, tanto depredadores como parasitoides (Zalazar y Salvo, 2007). ...
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... Pesticides are known to be the most vital tool for the production of enough food supply for an increasing world population and for the control of vector-borne diseases (Aktar et al., 2009). However, continuous use of pesticides could lead to long-term adverse effects on the environment and human health (Pimentel, 2005). The extensive use of pesticides does not only contaminate water, soil and air but also causes them to accumulate in crops such as fruit and vegetables. ...
... Children, in particular, are more endangered by short-term and chronic exposure to pesticides (Lozowicka, 2015). Cases of death from pesticide poisoning and other various negative health effects have been reported (Pimentel, 2005). Pesticides are widely used in vegetables to control pests and diseases during the farming season, transportation of produce and storage (Keikotlhaile et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products is posing serious health concerns for consumers. This study monitored the concentrations of pesticide residues in some selected fruit and vegetables, and their potential health risks were also assessed. Organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphate (OPPs) residues were extracted and quantified with a gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector. A total of 38 pesticide residues were identified and the results showed mean concentration (mg/kg fresh weight) of (OCPs) residues ranging from 0.02 to 0.37 and (OPPs) residues ranging from 0.01 to 0.33. The concentrations (mg/kg) of isodrin, heptachlor, dicofol, prothiophos, profenofos and dichlorvos were above the maximum residue limit. The non-carcinogenic health risk estimates revealed a possible potential health risk from consumption of the fruits and vegetables in adults and children for most of the pesticide residues. The cancer risk assessment estimates gave values below 10⁻⁶ which suggests no probable cancer risk. As a result of the increasing trend in pesticide use in Nigeria, routine monitoring of pesticide residues in agricultural produce is a necessity to ensure the safety of consumers.
... Hence, up to 80% yield losses are according in many vegetable and grain legumes because of M. vitrata harm in Asia and continent (Singh et al., 1990;Afun et al., 1991;Dreyer et al., 1994). However, it's conjointly calculable that pests still cause the loss of 37% of 50 potential crop yields (Pimentel, 2005). Pesticides may have several negative aspect effects as well as human health impacts, water contamination, the incidence of nontarget species, food residues, and chemical resistance (Carvalho, 2006;Chagnon et al., 2015). ...
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The research activity was conducted in major intensive yard long bean growing areas, such as Chittagong hill tracts regions of Bangladesh to know the population dynamics and to develop sustainable & eco-friendly management techniques for controlling major insect pests of yard long bean during 2016 and 2017 cropping season in the farmers' fields at three hill districts of Chittagong. The study was carried out following randomized complete block design (RCBD) having seven treatment combinations. Each treatment turned into replicated three (03) times. Results found that bean pod borer infestation on yardlong bean commenced from 2nd week of May while pod formation commenced after which gradually increased with the age of crop. During this period environmental temperature was gradually increased but rainfall was decreased. Among the treatments, T3 reduced the highest infestation of bean pod by 90.07% in Bandarban, 89.29% in Rangamati and 89.80% in Khagrachari over control, respectively. The highest pod yield (17.64 tha-1 in Bandarban, 15.14 tha-1 in Rangamati and 15.93 tha-1 in Khagrachari, respectively) throughout the season were achieved by the same treatment. So, spraying of voliam flexi 300SC @ 0.5 ml Liter-1 water at 10 days interval+hand collection & destruction of infested fruits and larvae+nappy trap (T3) is going to be the foremost effective treatment to control bean pod borer in the three hill districts of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
... Pimentel et al. suggested the combined cost of pesticides (purchase price and harm to health/livestock) is comparable to the economic benefits of improved crop production, hence there is both a moral and economic motive for safer and more cost-effective pesticides. 4 Atrazine (ATZ) is a herbicide which controls broad-leaved weeds, mainly in the production of maize, sorghum and sugar cane. 5 It is among the most commonly used herbicides worldwide. ...
Article
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Atrazine (ATZ), a commonly used agricultural herbicide, is potentially harmful to animals and humans. Nanoencapsulation of ATZ (NC–ATZ) within non-toxic, biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) improves the herbicidal activity of ATZ 10-fold and moderates its environmental persistence, possibly reducing off-target ecological effects. These compounds may reach the pulmonary respiratory units following inhalation; thus, we investigated the effect of ATZ and NC–ATZ on an immortalised human lung alveolar type 1-like epithelial cell model (TT1 cells). The concentration-dependent effect of the compounds was analysed by assessment of viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammatory cytokine release. Confocal microscopy was used to visualise TT1 cell-nanoparticle interactions. NC–ATZ caused cellular effects not observed with ATZ or the PCL nanocapsule alone. NC–ATZ significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release at ≥1 μg ml−1 after 48 hours of exposure, peaking at 5 μg ml−1 (3-fold of the non-treated control, ***p < 0.001). Moreover, ≥1 μg ml−1 NC–ATZ was pro-inflammatory at 48 hours, peaking at 5 μg ml−1 (IL-6 release ∼125 pg ml−1; IL-8 release ∼46 pg ml−1). Confocal microscopy of fluorescently-labelled ATZ and NC–ATZ indicated high intensity fluorescence nanoparticle uptake into the cytoplasm and co-localisation in the Golgi, suggesting nanoparticle recycling within 24 hours. We provide evidence that nanoencapsulation of the pesticide ATZ alters bioreactivity, stimulating more necrosis and inflammation in human lung alveolar type 1 epithelial cells in comparison to ATZ or the PCL nanocapsule alone. However, nanoencapsulation improves the efficacy of pesticides, thus lower pesticide concentrations could be used, reducing environmental contamination. Further investigation, particularly with different exposure scenarios, is warranted in order to generate safer nanoencapsulated pesticides.
... If not controlled, the menace caused by pest is a threat to food security and the national economy. Thus, globally, an enormous estimated cost of about USD 10 billion is spent annually to control pests (Pimentel, 2005;Mesterházy et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The importance of pest control measures in the management of post-harvest losses and ensuring food security cannot be overemphasized. This paper identified the indigenous and chemical pest control measures known and used by farmers, determined farmers' frequency of usage, perceived effectiveness of measures used, and assessed the constraints encountered by farmers. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 150 respondents in five communities and a structured interview schedule was used to obtain data. Results revealed that eight indigenous and nine chemical pest control measures were identified out of 37 listed measures. The frequency of usage was low, with grand mean scores of 0.36 for the indigenous and 0.27 for chemical measures. In contrast, the chemical pest control measures were more effective than the indigenous measures with scores of 1.47 and 1.26, respectively. Also, inadequate extension and training services were the only major constraint experienced by the farmers in both measures. The results of correlation analysis showed that farmers’ age (r = -0.310) had a significant negative relationship with the frequency of usage of chemical pest control while years of formal education (r = -0.082), annual income (r = -0.400) and farm size (r = -0.262) had a significant negative correlation with usage frequency of indigenous frequency of usage of indigenous pest control. In conclusion, with most farmers not using many of the indigenous and chemical pest control measures in addition to inadequate extension service delivery, the quality and quantity of arable crops produced will be adversely affected. Consequently, food security and the rural household economy would be at risk without quick intervention. Key words: Indigenous measure, chemical measure, pest control, arable crop, food security
... The number of invasive species continues to grow worldwide at an unprecedented rate [56,63,27,61,17], thereby making the development and implementation of control strategies crucial [17]. Chemical pesticides, despite negative environmental and human health impacts are used heavily for such control, [62]. This includes large scale use in the North Central United States, where losses due to invasive pests such as the European corn borer, Western corn root worm and Soybean Aphid exceed $3 billion annually [19,21,22,6]. ... Preprint Full-text available The literature posits that an introduced predator population, is able to drive it's target pest population extinct, if supplemented with high quality additional food of quantity$\xi > \xi_{critical}$, [36, 58, 20, 59]. We show this approach actually leads to infinite time blow-up of the predator population, so is unpragmatic as a pest management strategy. We propose an alternate model in which the additional food induces predator competition. Analysis herein indicates that there are threshold values$c^{*}_{1} < c^{*}_{2} < c^{*}_{3}$of the competition parameter$c$, s.t. when$c < c^{*}_{1}$, the pest free state is globally stable, when$c^{*}_{2} < c < c^{*}_{3}$, bi-stability is possible, and when$c^{*}_{3} < c$, up to three interior equilibriums could exist. As$c$and$\xi$-$c$are varied, standard co-dimension one and co-dimension two bifurcations are observed. The recent dynamical systems literature involving predator competition, report several non-standard bifurcations such as the saddle-node-transcritical bifurcation (SNTC) occurring in co-dimension two [39, 66], and cusp-transcritical bifurcation (CPTC) in co-dimension three, [67, 66]. We show that in our model structural symmetries can be exploited to construct a SNTC in co-dimension two, and a CPTC also in co-dimension two. We further use these symmetries to construct a novel pitchfork-transcritical bifurcation (PTC) in co-dimension two, thus explicitly characterizing a new organizing center of the model. Dynamics such as homoclinic orbits, concurrently occurring limit cycles, and competition driven Turing patterns are also observed. Our findings indicate that increasing additional food in predator-pest models, can hinder bio-control, contrary to some of the literature. However, additional food that also induces predator competition, leads to novel bio-control scenarios, and complements the work in [52, 9, 33, 67, 66, 41]. ... black pod and cocoa swollen shoot virus). These pests and diseases cause huge financial losses of as much as 30% or even more in severe cases to farmers (David, 2005). Residues of the pesticides applied are deposited on tree tops (branches and leaves), the undergrowth and leaf litter on the plantation floor, which are respectively micro-habitats for different species of frogs. ... Article Full-text available Cocoa pods are vulnerable to pest and diseases which often cause huge financial losses to farmers. To address this challenge and improve yield, cocoa farmers often resort to pesticide application on the cocoa trees. This leads to deposition of pesticides residues on the cocoa trees, the undergrowth and plantations floor with devastating consequences for amphibians including tree frogs. Previous studies have reported the immune suppressive nature of pesticides on anurans thereby rendering them more susceptible to infection. This study is part of an on-going investigation of the effect of pesticide application on the pattern of helminth parasitic infections of anurans in pesticide-treated cocoa plantations at Ugboke, Edo State. A total of 354 tree frogs belonging to three genera (Leptopelis, Hyperolius and Afrixalus), consisting of 14 species were examined. A high species richness (d=1.971) and diversity (H’=2.215) was recorded. Ten species (71.43%) of these frogs were infected while four (28.57%) were uninfected. The overall prevalence of parasitic infections was 30.23%. Thirteen helminth parasites including three cestodes, two digeneans and eight nematode species were recovered. A significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence of infection was recorded during the wet season (31.64%) than in the dry (10.53%). There was high parasite diversity with low prevalence and infection intensity of infection as previously reported for other anurans collected from the same cocoa plantations ... In developed countries like the United States, the major use of pesticides is in the agricultural sector (Pimentel and Burgess 2014). Every year, around 500 million kilograms of pesticides are utilized in the United States at an expenditure of$10 billion a year (Pimentel and Greiner 1997). ...
Article
Two million tonnes of pesticides are currently used globally to improve crop production, yet these pesticides induce adverse effects on soil quality and biodiversity. Moreover, less than 1% of pesticides reach the target pests, while the rest contaminate the surrounding environment. In particular, earthworms are exposed to pesticides and are thus an ideal biological model for ecotoxicological research. Here, we review acute and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on earthworms. We found that pesticides alter growth, reproduction, behaviour, essential enzymes, and DNA of earthworms, even at low pesticide concentrations. These sub-lethal biomarkers allow to evaluate the overall response of an earthworm to pesticides, and to identify the risk for other non-target organisms.
... Most of the farmers used agrochemicals to manage the crop pests. Extensive usage of pesticides creates health threats rising from the exposure of farmers while mixing and application or working in the treated field or from residues on agricultural products and drinking water for the common consumers have been raised (Pimentel et al., 2005). And also creates problems for domestic animals and also killing the beneficial organisms. ...
... Agricultural practices are often accompanied by a range of environmental costs including soil degradation, freshwater contamination, eutrophication, and biodiversity and habitat loss (McLaughlin and Mineau, 1995;Pimentel et al., 1995;Bennett et al., 2001;Pimentel, 2005;Gomiero et al., 2011). Organic agriculture has been suggested as a more sustainable alternative with lower environmental costs than conventional high-input agriculture (Dimitri and Greene, 2002;Vogt, 2007). ...
Article
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Conventional high-input farming systems in Europe are often regarded as unsustainable with severe environ- mental impacts on biodiversity, soils, water and climate. Low-input farming approaches, such as organic farming, have been proposed to reduce environmental impacts while further improving soil properties such as soil organic matter content and aggregate stability. Whether these changes also influence ecohydrological properties and improve the water relations of organically grown crops remains unclear. In this study we assessed the long-term effects of conventional and organic farming systems on the water relations of soils and crops in the “DOK” (bio- Dynamic, bio-Organic & ‘Konventionell’ = conventional) trial. In particular, we tested if organic and conven- tional farming lead to marked differences in soil moisture, soil water evaporation, as well as root water uptake depth and stomatal conductance of winter wheat and soybean during the growing seasons 2017 and 2018. Stable isotope analyses and ecophysiological measurements revealed that organic compared to conventional farming did not affect soil water evaporation or root water uptake depths. Instead, we found higher soil moisture in the rooting zone and reduced stomatal conductance (gs) in organically grown wheat. Treatment effects on soil moisture and gs of soybean were smaller but showed similar tendencies as observed in wheat. Also, leaf area, and grain and straw yield of wheat decreased under organic farming while yields of soybean were not affected by the treatments. Based on our data we suggest that reduced plant water use observed under organically managed farming lead to the observed higher soil moisture in organically compared to conventionally managed farming systems in the DOK trial. These results suggest advantages of organic farming regarding agronomic water use as well as for the resistance of farming systems to current or future drought scenarios.
... Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are widely used to improve agricultural production, contributing to 70% of pesticide consumption in agriculture. 1 The OP residue that persists in the environment has a serious public health impact, since it can lead to mental disorder, coma and death. 2 Due to human poisoning and associated illnesses from OP, an annual economic cost of $1 billion is estimated in the U.S. alone. 3 The typical analytical techniques to monitor OP include mass spectrometry 4 and liquid or gas chromatography, 5 but these require complex sample processing, skilled professionals, and are costly. 6 Due to their lower cost, rapid response and high sensitivity, electroanalytical methods have emerged as promising methods for OP monitoring. ... Article Planar bare electrodes fabricated with surface-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are used to detect organophosphate (OP) compounds, which are used as herbicides and fungicides but are harmful to human health. Deposition of carbon nanotubes on the surfaces of bare electrodes enhances electrocatalysis, increasing the electrode to analyte current response and narrowing peak�to-peak potential separation during cyclic voltammetry (CV). We hypothesize that, as the thickness of the deposited MWCNT layer decreases, FT mass transport between the layers of porous multiwalled carbon nanotubes changes from semi-infinite to thin-layer diffusion. This influences the electrode electrochemical response to the analyte. Using simulations and experiments, we show that when porous MWCNT are deposited on a conductive glassy carbon electrode the mass transport of fenitrothion (FT, an OP) changes from semi-infinite to thin-layer diffusion during CV. This alters the electrochemical response of the electrode and reduces peak-to-peak potential separation. To simulate CV response to FT, both the semi-infinite and thin-layer diffusion models are employed for the planar bare and modified porous surface electrodes. The transition from thin layer to semi-infinite diffusion is clear when the nanotube layer thickness on the bare electrode increases. The model is applicable to other toxic chemicals, such as 4-nitrophenol, parathion, or methyl parathion that have similar electrode kinetics. ... One of the major economic and environmental losses is the application of pesticides in croplands due to public health, pesticide resistance, crop losses, biodiversity losses because of pesticides, and groundwater contamination (OERKE, 2006;PIMENTEL, 2009). The use of biological control is a non-chemical and environmentally friendly method for the management of crop pests (SANDA; SUNUSI, 2014), with a highly favorable cost-benefit ratio and much lower development costs than chemical control (BALE; VANLENTEREN;BIGLER, 2008). ... Article One of the major ecosystem services delivered to agriculture worldwide is the reduction of pests by natural enemies. However, the landscape composition affects multiple dimensions of pest control, and non-crop habitat surrounding farm fields shows variable responses across geographies. Here, crop damage and pest abundance were compared between local farms with two antagonistic land cover and land use aspects (1- High conservation, landscape with high structural complexity; 2- High degradation, landscapes with low complexity). The field data were collected at experimental guava orchards in the Cariri Paraibano, one of the driest regions in the Brazilian Caatinga. The results show that damage caused by orthopterans and their abundance was significantly smaller in the landscape with high structural complexity. Therefore, the results support the hypothesis that crop damage and pest abundance are smaller in landscapes with high structural complexity. Additionally, the results are very important for the dryland regions as they provide information about the relationship between landscape structure and crop damage plus pest abundance in a regional gap. As drylands are critically endangered in all American continents, sustainable agricultural landscapes with the application of natural cover restoration can help drylands to achieve sustainable development. ... It was estimated that about 672 million birds are exposed to pesticides and 10% of these die in the USA every year (Mitra et al 2011). More than 4000 Swainson's Hawk ( died in Argentina during 1995-96 Buteo swainsoni) (Pimentel and Burgess 2014) pertaining to the use of pesticide. Austin (2018), has reported that insecticide poisoning is one of the greatest threats to Blue Crane (Grus paradisea) in South Africa during 1980's and 90's as well as the cause of mass mortality for 145 Demoiselle Crane ( Grus virgo) in Mangolia. ... Article Full-text available The Demoiselle crane (Linnaeus 1758) is one of the winter migratory bird in Thar desert of India. The study aims Anthropoides virgo, to critically analyze the major threats and post-rehabilitation scenarios faced by the crane. The scan and focal sampling methods were used for the study of crane behavior and their threats. Powerlines are considered to be havoc when contacted take a toll on almost 50% of the crane. A total of 138 birds were injured and post-rescue treatment shows only 32% healthy Individuals and 14 % of crane mortality was observed due to dog attacks. Insecticide poisoning due to Monocrotophos is a major threat. Furthermore, change in land-use pattern remains another threat with an increase of IGNP network for agricultural expansion. This species also shows lesser improvement in rehabilitation. Post rescue rehabilitation observes the death of 49% of species and only 16% of the bird can be successfully released back into the wild. With a globally-declining trend of the majestic bird due to facing several pressures, in pertinence to their habitat, population, and above-mentioned threats. Thus, there is an urgent need for the hour to conserve this species. ... Ever since the beginnings of viticulture, insects and diseases have caused significant yield and quality losses, their management often leading to pollution [1], human health deterioration [2] and economic consequences [3]. Climate change impacts on grapevine and parasites biology and their populations are obvious, therefore, plant protection is expected to evolve. ... Thesis Dès aujourd’hui, l’agriculture doit s’adapter et anticiper le changement climatique. L’impact de ce dernier est d’ores et déjà observé sur la biologie des cultures et de leur production. Au-delà des plantes, cette modification du climat impacte aussi les organismes pathogènes et donc les interactions hôte/pathogène. Ainsi, construire des stratégies d’adaptation nécessite non seulement de considérer les cultures mais aussi les organismes avec lesquels elles interagissent.L’objectif de cette thèse est de caractériser l’impact du changement climatique sur le risque phytosanitaire lié à l’oïdium de la vigne (Erysiphe necator) dans les régions viticoles de Bourgogne et de Champagne. Elle interroge plus particulièrement deux aspects centraux liés au risque épidémique : la période de sensibilité de la vigne à cette maladie ainsi qu’aux impacts des conditions climatiques sur le développement du pathogène.Sur la période actuelle, après comparaison avec des observations à la parcelle, différents modèles sont utilisés pour simuler la phénologie de la vigne et le développement de l'oïdium. Sur le XXIème siècle, des projections climatiques issues de Modèles de Circulation Générale (GCM) à la résolution grossière (100-150 km) sont simultanément désagrégées et débiaisées statistiquement afin de produire des données à la résolution de 8 km et conformes à ce qui est observé sur la période historique (1961-2005). Ces données permettent d’alimenter ces modèles simulant l’évolution des stades phénologiques de la période sensible de la plante et des conditions de développement du pathogène. La méthode développée est testée sur la période historique puis projetée sur l’ensemble du XXIème siècle. Elle permet d’appréhender des incertitudes liées à la modélisation climatique (22 GCM), aux trajectoires d’émission de gaz à effet de serre (RCP4.5 et 8.5), à la modélisation phénologique (3 modèles) ainsi qu’à la simulation des paramètres météorologiques influençant l’intensité de l’oïdium (températures, précipitations, humidité relative).Au sein des vignobles de Champagne et de Bourgogne, plusieurs facteurs, dont l’avancée et le raccourcissement de la période sensible associée à une modification des conditions climatiques durant celles-ci, sont identifiés comme jouant un rôle sur la pression oïdium ainsi que sa potentielle évolution au cours du XXIème siècle. Les résultats de cette étude permettront de mieux appréhender et anticiper les risques liés à ce pathogène tout en considérant des stratégies d’adaptation au changement climatique. ... The greater chance of exposure in the working area of the pesticidesis at the time of production and formulation because in this practice risk is very high. In manufacturing site probability of danger is high as they deal with several hazardous chemicals including pesticides, crude materials and harmful solvents (Maroni et al., 1999(Maroni et al., , 2006Wilson and Tisdell, 2001;Pimentel, 2005;De Roos et al., 2005;Tariq et al., 2007;Atreya et al., 2008;Aktar et al., 2009;Soares et al., 2009;Martníez-Valenzuela et al., 2009;Damalas, 2009;Damalas and Eleftherohorinos, 2011;Mittal et al., 2014;Tago et al., 2014;Damalas and Koutroubas, 2016;Nicolopoulou-Stamati et al., 2016;Gangemi et al., 2016;Grewal et al., 2017). Various types of health problems, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, reproductive (sexual/genital) syndromes and oxidative stress are caused due to the direct exposure, handling of pesticides or pesticide residues present in the food stuffs. ... Article Celastrus paniculatus is a traditional herb belonging to the family Celastraceae and is widely used for a number of medicinal activities in the Indian Unani and Ayurvedic systems. In this study, the extensive literature search was carried out on phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus (Willd.) in various scientific databases as well as patents. Research on phytochemical investigation has shown the presence of monoterpenes (linalool, α‐terpinyl acetate, nerol acetate), sesqueterpene esters (such as malkanguniol, malkangunin, valerenal, globulol, viridiflorol, cubenol and agarofuran derivatives), diterpenoids (such as phytone, isophytol), triterpenoids (such as lupeol, pristimerin, paniculatadiol, zeylasteral, zeylasterone, β‐amyrin, squalene), alkaloids (celapanin, celapanigin, celapagin, paniculatine, celastrine, maymyrsine), fatty acids, steroids (β‐sitosterol, carpesterol benzoate), flavonoids (paniculatin), benzoic acid, and vitamin C in this plant. All the reported pharmacological activities of this plant could be due to the presence of these phytochemicals. This plant possesses strong antioxidant activity which includes total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, nitric oxide scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity. This plant possesses multiple pharmacological activities including cognition‐enhancing, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, anti‐depressant, antibacterial, anti‐arthritic, anti‐malarial, analgesic, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐fertility, cardiovascular, locomotor, anxiolytic, wound healing activity, anti‐spasmodic, hypolipidemic, anti‐cancerous and iron‐chelating activity with different extracts of this plant as well as various phytoconstituents present in this plant. The objective of this review article is to discuss in detail the reported ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and various pharmacological activities of C. paniculatus. ... This pests has been traditionally controlled with wide spectrum pesticides (Perera et al., 2009). Nevertheless, insecticidal control is problematic due, in part, to pesticide resistance, its effects on non-target organisms (Biondi et al. 2013), market and governmental residue tolerance requirements (Directive 2009/128/CE, Royal Decree 1311/2012), and environmental and human health concerns (Pimentel and Burgess 2014). Therefore, interest in biological control and other alternative control methods of this pest is increasing. ... Conference Paper The banana mealybug (Dysmicoccus grassii) is a major pest in banana plantations in the Canary Islands, for which chemical control is becoming ineffective and more restricted due to new governmental regulations and consumer preferences for pesticide residue free products. Consequently, alternative control methods, such as biological control, are receiving more attention. Nevertheless, there are not yet effective natural enemies that allow an efficient augmentative biocontrol of D. grassii in commercial banana crops. For that, we conducted this study in which we surveyed a total of 19 and 8 banana platations in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, respectively, between April and August of 2016. Similarity index among plantations was high, whereas little diversity was found, as a total of 9 species of predators and parasitic wasps were found. Interestingly, there are some species that can be new records for natural enemies associated with D. grassii populations. ... As other parts of integrated pest management strategies (Kogan 1998), it can contribute to a reduction in pesticide use. The contribution of natural enemies to pest management was estimated as being more important than pesticides (Pimentel and Burgess 2014). The conservational biological control relies on the statement that diversity of natural enemies may be conserved or increased through maintaining natural habitats in agrosystems, and that, in return, natural enemies would contribute to pest regulation (Begg et al. 2017). ... ... Global food production has doubled over the last 60 years to meet rising demands of the growing human population and the increasing consumption per capita (Wittwer et al., 2021). However, this has come at a high environmental cost, including in particular the strong negative impacts of synthetic pesticides and mineral fertilizers on non-target organisms, human health and food quality (Tilman, 2002;Pimentel et al., 2005). To counteract these impacts in the European Union (EU), where agriculture currently occupies 48% of the land (Rega et al., 2020), policies are increasingly promoting organic management and principles of integrated pest management (IPM) as more environmentally-friendly options. ... Article Agricultural policies in the European Union (EU) are increasingly promoting organic management and integrated pest management (IPM) as environmentally friendly alternatives to high-input conventional management. While there is consensus that organic management is largely beneficial for biodiversity, including the natural enemies of crop pests, IPM has been much less scrutinized. We conducted a meta-analysis based on 294 observations extracted from 18 studies to compare the effects of conventional, IPM and organic management on biocontrol potential and herbivore pressure in olive, an important cash crop in the EU. Information about the management practices used was also compiled, to assess differences in intensity between the three management strategies. Results suggest that IPM is predominantly based on intensive practices, employing chemical control rather than preventive measures as a first resort. Biocontrol potential and herbivore pressure were similar in conventional management and IPM. Moreover, biocontrol potential was higher in organic crops than in crops under IPM, especially when considering canopy-dwelling natural enemies. Although organic management enhanced biocontrol potential, it also benefitted some olive pests, and in both cases effects were more pronounced at warmer temperatures. Our results suggest that, in its current form, IPM might not significantly affect biocontrol potential or herbivore pressure when compared with conventional olive crop management. A shift to a more comprehensive implementation of IPM practices is thus needed, involving the use of proactive measures to promote natural enemies and regulate olive pests before resorting to chemical control. Moreover, greater use of non-chemical inputs might be required for effective regulation of olive pests in organic olive crops. ... In the United States alone, crop losses directly due to pesticide resistance are estimated to be approximately 1.5 billion USD per year [1]. The potential direct toxic effects of pesticide application on humans and non-target terrestrial and aquatic species, as well as environmental contamination, are typically assessed prior to approval. ... Article Full-text available Bactericides, fungicides, and other pesticides play an important role in the management of plant diseases. However, their use can result in residues on plants and in the environment, with potentially detrimental consequences. The use of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, copper-based products, and some fungicides is correlated with increased resistance among plant pathogens to these agents. Likewise, the recent rise in the incidence of environmental triazole fungicide-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, the cause of aspergillosis in humans, has caused concern, particularly in Europe. Through horizontal gene transfer, genes can be exchanged among a variety of bacteria in the plant production environment, including phytopathogens, soil bacteria, and zoonotic bacteria that are occasionally present in that environment and in the food chain. Through mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, co-resistance, cross-resistance, and gene up-regulation, resistance to one compound may confer resistance and multi-drug resistance to other similar, or even very dissimilar, compounds. Given the global rise in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) organisms, and their effects on plant, animal, and human health, the prudent use of pesticides is required to maintain their effectiveness for food security and sustainable production, and to minimize the emergence and transmission of AMR organisms from horticultural sources. ... (2) impacts on the environment that lead of the biodiversity loss (Geiger et al. 2010;Beketov 2013;Park et al. 2015;Mingo et al. 2016;Dudley et al. 2017;Brühl and Zaller 2019), as well as water, air, and soil pollution (Anderson et al. 2013;Belenguer et al. 2014;Riah et al. 2014;Meftaul et al. 2020); (3) impact on the economy that in the USA, an estimated$9.6 billion of the economic damage was caused by the overuse of pesticides (Pimentel and Burgess 2014). ...
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Ethnobotany of Indonesian communities utilizes plants as botanical pesticides. Recently, there has been no comprehensive data and information related to the ethnobotany of plants as potential botanical pesticides on a nationwide scale. This paper aimed to depict an overview of ethnobotany as botanical pesticides in Indonesia. The comprehensive literature was collected from the 29 published articles and theses (doctoral, master's, and bachelor's degrees) in English and Bahasa Indonesia. After the data was validated, only 27 papers were related to the study topic. Most literature data is from the western part of Indonesia (Oriental Realm): Java (n=10); followed by Kalimantan (n=7), and Sumatra (n=4). The results showed that 149 plant species were used as botanical pesticides. It consists of 130 species as an insecticide, 12 as a fungicide, 8 as a bactericide, 8 as a molluscicide, 3 as a rodenticide, and 2 as a nematicide. These species were dominated by the Compositae family (14 species) and plant parts used from leaf parts (38.9%). However, 11 species have two to four functions: Archidendron pauciflorum, Areca catechu, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Caryota mitis, Cerbera manghas, Jatropha curcas, Melia azedarach, Morinda citrifolia, Pangium edule, Piper betle, and Piper ningrum. The data of ethnobotany can be used as database information for further research regarding the bioprospecting, formulation, efficacy, and conservation for sustainable use. Furthermore, the development of botanical pesticides is also an alternative to reduce synthetic/chemical pesticides to provide sustainable agriculture.
... Ek olarak tarım işçileri yüksek oranda doğrudan pestisitlere maruziyet riski altındadır. 8,9 Pestisit güvenilirliğinde günümüzde yapılan iyileştirme çalışmalarına rağmen pestisitler halen uygulandıkları ekinlerden ve topraktan yüzey sularına bulaşabilmektedir. Birleşik Devletler Jeolojik Araştırma Birliği (USGS) tarafından yapılan bir araştırmada, birleşik devletlerde bulunan akarsulardan alınan balık ve su numunelerinde %90'dan fazla oranda bir veya daha fazla pestisit bulunduğu belirtilmiştir. ...
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Our country is a large scale agricultural country. Usage of crop protection drugs to provide agricultural sustainability is common as in worldwide. Negative effects of these drugs on ecosystem is inevitable despite their many benefits. In terms of food safety, they have high risk and the residue of some crop protection drugs was showen to be maximum in meat. Preventation cares are very important to avoid more important losses. Among these, monitoring of pesticides, organic agriculture, good farming practices and entegrated pest management are considered.
... A very large number of pesticides are employed to safeguard crops from pests, consequently enhancing the agricultural productivity [88]. The implications of pesticides lead to a loss of approximately $10 billion yearly on account of environmental and social destruction in the United States [89]. Regulating the amount of pesticides could forbid the excess use and help in protecting the environment and individual's health. ... Chapter Various advanced innovations are usually employed to enhance the yield and the quality of the crops in the agricultural field. The growing research in the agricultural sector has promoted explicit technologies for targeting a particular application for crop growth. The application of the nanotechnology is expanding and gives a new outlook to the agrotechnology, enhances fertilizer usage, and reinforces food productivity. Nanoagriculture is enriched by the use of nanoparticles in agriculture which can boost the yield. Currently, researchers are giving prime attention to the advancement of innovative nanomaterial-based sensors possessing potential applications in the agricultural field. The primary role of such sensors is to determine and detect the level of concentration of toxins/unwanted chemicals or compounds like pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and fertilizers residues. In view of this, the present chapter highlights the implications and recent progress of various types of nanomaterial-based sensors in agriculture. ... Sugar beet is attacked by many pests which may directly (feeding on plant tissue) or indirectly (vectors of plant pathogens) affect the plants. Pimentel (2005) estimated the world wide losses (due to weeds, pathogens and insects) as 25-35% pre-harvest and 10-20% postharvest agricultural plants. Viral diseases and nematodes are a serious problem for beet cultivation, in most parts of the world. ... Article Full-text available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of different date of insecticidal treatment against Noctuinae caterpillars on the technological yield from sugar beet using the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The AMMI model is one of the most widely used statistical tools in the analysis of multiple-environment trials. The results of the analysis of the dependence of the components of the sugar beet yield, carried out separately in individual years (2011–2018) of the experiment, indicate a significant and directly proportional impact of the root mass on the technological yield of sugar in all years. The average sugar content per years also varied from 16.22% (2014) to 19.68% (2015). Potassium molasses from the base of the tested protective treatments varied from 27.27 to 61.43 mmol kg⁻¹. The average sodium molasses per years also varied from 1.196 mmol kg⁻¹ (2015) to 6.692 mmol kg⁻¹ (2018). α-amine-nitrogen of the tested protective treatments varied from 6.03 (for phenological criterion in 2011) to 37.95 mmol kg⁻¹ (for intervention criterion in 2018). Technological yield of sugar beet tested protective treatments varied from 171.4 (for phenological criterion in 2015) to 360.0 t ha⁻¹ (for soil spraying of plants—in 2012) throughout the 8 years, with an average of 280.47 t ha⁻¹. The use of the AMMI model to estimate the interaction of conducted insecticidal treatments based on environmental conditions showed the additivity of the effects of the applied treatments on the effectiveness of the obtained quality features of the technological yield of sugar beet. ... Globally, around 2 million tonnes of pesticides are utilized annually (Sharma et al., 2019). The U.S is the second major pesticide consumer globally after China (Pimentel, 2005;Sharma et al., 2019). Annually, 500 million kg of pesticides are used in the U.S.A, costing around 10 billion USD per year (Atwood and Paisley-Jones, 2017). ... Conference Paper Full-text available Approximately 45% of annual food production is lost due to pest infestation. To alleviate this, pesticides are extensively used in modern agriculture. Soybean is a major crop in the USA, accounting for 22% of total pesticide consumption. The current U.S. agricultural practices apply pesticides uniformly to the entire field. The excessive use of pesticides puts an unsustainable chemical load on the environment. Reduction in pesticides, is a need of the hour to preserve human health and the environment while maintaining the necessary level of food production. The excessive use of pesticides can be potentially averted with integrated pest management (IPM). However, crop monitoring, insect pest identification, and severity assessment are critical components of IPM success. Therefore, identifying the pest type and locating pest outbreak sites in soybean fields is the first step in developing an effective pest control management system. This study uses an open-source dataset of insect-damaged soybean leaves collected under realistic weather conditions using a cell phone and UAV cameras. The dataset includes 6410 images classified into three classes i.e, healthy plants, plants infected by caterpillars, and plants infected by diabrotica speciosa. Pretrained deep learning models such as 1) VGG16, 2) ResNet50, 3) InceptionV3, and 4) DenseNet201 were used with a transfer learning approach to classify the pest-damaged images accurately. The success of designed models was evaluated with classification accuracy and confusion matrix. The overall classification accuracy was 88%, 86%, 84% and 74% respectively for DenseNet201, VGG16, InceptionV3 and ResNet50. The DenseNet201 outperformed the other models in the study and is recommended for the soybean image classification problem. ... This important sale increase is closely associated with the land area occupied by agriculture, which is a limited resource (∼38% of the earth's terrestrial surface; 1/3 − cropland, 2/3 − meadows and pastures for livestock). 4 The major issues related with the extensive use of these agrochemicals, "their ecological footprint", are as follows: (i) the projected population growth, which will require, by 2050, the overall agricultural production to increase by an astonishing 60%; 5 (ii) the limited efficacy of the current pesticides on the market since a large proportion (10−75%) is not able to reach their target; 6,7 (iii) their environmental toxic impact; (iv) the development of acquired resistances, with an estimated economic cost of 1.3 billion € only in the United States (US); and (v) their safety, which may result in both acute and chronic health problems. 8 Although pesticides need to possess a toxicological effect to a specific target, the current challenge in agriculture is to sustain production and profitability using less toxic agrochemical inputs. ... Article Full-text available Pesticides are agrochemical compounds used to kill pests (insects, rodents, fungi, or unwanted plants), which are key to meet the world food demand. Regrettably, some important issues associated with their widespread/extensive use (contamination, bioaccumulation, and development of pest resistances) demand a reduction in the amount of pesticide applied in crop protection. Among the novel technologies used to combat the deterioration of our environment, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as innovative and promising materials in agroindustry since they possess several features (high porosity, functionalizable cavities, ecofriendly composition, etc.) that make them excellent candidates for the controlled release of pesticides. Moving toward a sustainable development, in this work, we originally describe the use of pesticides as building blocks for the MOF construction, leading to a new type of agricultural applied MOFs (or AgroMOFs). Particularly, we have prepared a novel 2D-MOF (namely, GR-MOF-7) based on the herbicide glufosinate and the widely used antibacterial and fungicide Cu2+. GR-MOF-7 crystallizes attaining a monoclinic P21/c space group, and the asymmetric unit is composed of one independent Cu2+ ion and one molecule of the Glu2– ligand. Considering the significant antibacterial activity of Cu-based compounds in agriculture, the potential combined bactericidal and herbicidal effect of GR-MOF-7 was investigated. GR-MOF-7 shows an important antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (involved in agricultural animal infections), improving the results obtained with its individual or even physical mixed precursors [glufosinate and Cu(NO3)2]. It is also an effective pesticide against germination and plant growth of the weed Raphanus sativus, an invasive species in berries and vines crops, demonstrating that the construction of MOFs based on herbicide and antibacterial/antifungal units is a promising strategy to achieve multifunctional agrochemicals. To the best of our knowledge, this first report on the synthesis of an MOF based on agrochemicals (what we have named AgroMOF) opens new ways on the safe and efficient MOF application in agriculture. ... Natural enemies have been envisioned to account for at least 50% of pest manipulation happening in crop fields [9], imparting a critical atmosphere provider valued at$ thirteen billion in step with 12 months within the USA alone [7]. Among herbal enemies, each predatory and parasitic bugs had been proven to be powerful in suppressing pest species [8] and [10]. ...
Article
One of the most significant biological limits on rice productivity is insect pests, but the extent of the damage depends on the crop's growth and the number of biotic and abiotic pressures that are influencing it. The study's objective was to evaluate the distribution, biology, and damage caused by novel insect pests in three rice-growing regions in Ethiopia's South Gondar Zone in 2021. Visual evaluation was used to identify the insects and to gather additional natural enemies using hand nets. Taxonomic keys were used to identify natural enemies morphologically. In this experiment, the natural enemy density was calculated using the frequency of insect pest presence on rice plants at various locations using 2m 2 quadrants. The biology of the insect was studied by using rearing cage in the FNRRTC entomology laboratory. The result implied that the insects, Creatonatos sp. found in all assessed area, and found in both upland and lowland rice. Even though, the insect found in all the assessed area, its damage seams less. The survey also found the diversity of natural enemy on rice paddy in south Gondar Zone. From the biological study Creatonatos sp are Holometabolous (Complete metamorphosis), insect life cycle passes 4 stage, which are egg, instars, pupa, and adult.
... No entanto, quando eles são concedidos aos agrotóxicos, há um estímulo ao custo social relacionado com o seu uso, fato que é contrassenso do prescrito na literatura internacional 17, 18 . Esses custos (externalidades negativas) são refletidos nas políticas públicas da seguridade social e do meio ambiente [19][20][21][22] . Portanto, conclui-se que a concessão de benefícios fiscais distorce a eficiência econômica dos agrotóxicos percebida pelos agricultores. ...
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RESUMO O presente artigo avaliou o fim dos benefícios fiscais dados aos agrotóxicos a partir dos microdados do Censo agropecuário de 2017. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo explorando duas variáveis pesquisadas: a despesa com agrotóxicos e o lucro obtido com a atividade agropecuária. Foram traçados cenários de aplicação de alíquotas de tributação dos agrotóxicos e os seus respectivos aumentos de preços, o que possibilitou avaliar os impactos diretos na lucratividade dos produtores. O cenário de tributação que gere um aumento de 15% nos preços dos agrotóxicos reduziria a lucratividade em cerca de 5,1% em 2017 (R$4,8 bilhões). Contudo, os maiores impactados seriam os produtores de commodities, com uma redução média de 9,6% na lucratividade. Discutiram-se esses resultados à luz de dois prismas: o impacto na renda do produtor e possíveis consequências no aumento de preços da cesta básica; e a capacidade da função extrafiscal do imposto em regular o uso dos agrotóxicos e redirecionar possíveis mudanças na tomada de decisão sobre os métodos de controle de pragas mais sustentáveis. Concluiu-se que há necessidade de harmonizar regras fiscais à uma política pública mais equilibrada no âmbito do setor agropecuário que garantisse a defesa da saúde da população e a sustentabilidade ambiental. ... The consequence of the selection of resistant plants for world agriculture is reflected in the economic impact of such production systems, either by loss of production due to damage or competition, or by the need to use alternative tools. In the United States, losses related to resistance selection are estimated to be around US$1.5 billion per year (Pimentel and Burgess 2014). Adegas et al. (2017) The complex of Conyza species (Conyza bonariensis, C. canadensis and C. sumatrensis) includes morphologically similar species which are important weeds in agricultural production systems, with the possibility of hybridization, high genetic diversity and adaptability to agricultural production systems (Lazaroto et al. 2008;Soares et al. 2015;Marochio et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Reports of weed resistance to herbicides have increased in recent years and differentiation in resistance mechanisms is considered to be a concern for the future of weed science. The aim of this work was to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to herbicides associated with Conyza sp. complex and analyze their implications. Aspects of the action of herbicides commonly used in their control will be addressed, in addition to a description of the mechanisms involved in multiple resistance in Conyza species.
... A recent study conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides from the existing data and found an overall improvement of efficiency by 20-30% to their conventional counterpart (Kah et al. 2018). The major drawback of conventional agrochemicals is their low efficacy, as high as 75% of the applied agrichemical may not even reach their target site, as high as 50% can be lost by volatilization, and 5-10% can be lost by leaching (Kah et al. 2018(Kah et al. , 2019Pimentel and Burgess 2014). Nanotechnology-based approaches can address this low efficacy in the agricultural sector, which will not only increase food production but also decrease application rate, which can be beneficial for the environment. ...
Chapter
Current limitations on water, energy, and food supplies are further exacerbated by climate change and an increasing global population, as are the nexus (or linkages) between these resources. Nanotechnology is seen as one of the new strategies to improve yield and sustain the nexus of water, energy, and food globally, but risks associated with nanotechnology are not fully known. In the water sector, methodologies designed for the treatment of water pollutants may solve the issue of limited water by enabling greater water reuse, as well as the creation of high sensitivity sensors for safer drinking water. Nanomaterials have the potential to enable higher production of food with better safety and shelf life at lower costs. In the energy sector, there is abundant potential for the utilization of nanotechnology for green energy generation through the production of powerful solar cells, as well as more efficient energy distribution and better energy storage. However, the utilization of nanotechnology can come with negative consequences, in addition to the positive aspects. The ubiquitous presence of nanoparticles in water bodies globally is a cause for concern as enhanced toxicological and ecotoxicological properties have been observed at the nanoscale. In agriculture, nanomaterials produce inhibitory effects on plants for human consumption, with some effects capable of extending into future plant generations. Large amounts of nanoscale waste are released to landfills from nanotechnology-based energy sector products, which are susceptible to escape into the environment. The nanotechnologies in these three sectors have a high potential to increase the efficiency of water, food, and energy production and use; however, the negative consequence of the high amounts of nanomaterials in the environment is still unknown and requires careful consideration before full implementation of nanotechnologies.
... Pest control is thus one of the most important services determining the efficiency of crop production. While farmers aim at controlling crop pests actively via the application of chemical agents, a large part of the total pest control is actually provided clandestinely by natural enemies (Pimentel 2005). European agricultural landscapes currently have, however, comparably low natural pest control potentials (Rega et al. 2018). ...
Thesis
... Most of the farmers used agrochemicals to manage the crop pests. Extensive usage of pesticides creates health threats rising from the exposure of farmers while mixing and application or working in the treated field or from residues on agricultural products and drinking water for the common consumers have been raised (Pimentel et al., 2005). And also creates problems for domestic animals and also killing the beneficial organisms. ...
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CONSERVATION OF PREDATORY COCCINELLIDS FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION. The article includes information regarding mass culturing methods of coccinellids, habitat management, Supplementary or alternative food for coccinellids and hibernation refugees.
... Unfortunately, the promotion of gardening and continuity based only on productivity motivations (economic or to maintain social standing) can also signify the continued use of agricultural methods that may not be environmentally friendly, e.g., using chemical pesticides and fertilizers [50,103,121]. Even if the benefits are preserved for decades, inadequate NRM practices have been shown cause environmental degradation (loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity) as well as negative health effects (reduction in water quality, agrochemical exposure), which will eventually compromise the livelihoods and nutrition outcomes of the beneficiaries [122][123][124]. ...
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F ood and nutrition security (FNS) is a priority for human development since different facets of malnutrition still prevail in many parts of the world. Home garden interventions (HGI) have been proposed to improve FNS, generally obtaining positive results. This review aimed to evaluate reports of HGI, discussing their characteristics and outcomes in terms of three sustainability dimensions (social, environmental, and economic). A total of 40 papers (n-number of papers) were included, mainly published since 2009. According to literature review, measurement, or discussion of economic (productivity, n=20) and social (diet improvement, n=33) outcomes has taken precedence over environmental ones (agrodiversity, n=15) in HGI's impact assessment (IA). Furthermore, sustainability has not been assessed beyond the continuity of the proposed changes (n=5). Future HGI should apply Systemic-Transdisciplinary approaches with adequate metrics and multidimensional IA methodologies linking FNS and sustainable development. This would allow a contextualisation of the research, establishing the current situation of the study system and identifying precise needs. Also, it would be possible to identify and monitor trade-offs and synergies of the intervention. Such approach would generate a strong body of scientific evidence and awareness of the benefits of a sustainable agricultural system in the prevention and treatment of the double burden of malnutrition (hidden hunger and overweight/obesity).
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The experiment was conducted to clarify sumithion induced hematoxicity in silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) through in vivo exposures (25 % and 50 % of LC 50 of sumithion) and subsequent recovery patterns using normal and probiotic treated feed were also assessed. Three treatments each incorporating three replications were used in the experiment for different days (1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). Treatment T 1 was control (0 mg/L), and two concentrations , such as 2.61 mg/L (25 % of 96 h LC 50), 5.21 mg/L (50 % of 96 h LC 50) were used as Treatment T 2 and T 3 , respectively. After 28 days of exposure to pesticide half of the fishes of T 2 and T 3 were reared in sumithion free water with normal (T 2 N, T 3 N) and probiotic treated feed (T 2 P, T 3 P). The median lethal concentration (50 %) for 96 h was 10.42 mg/L. In pesticide-treated groups, values of each hematological parameter (blood glucose, red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) decreased but prevalence and severity of micronucleus and white blood cells increased significantly (p< 0.05) with concentration and time duration. Other blood indices including mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were correspondingly changed in comparison to the control. In the recovery experiment, the silver barb recovered spontaneously, but the recovery rate was significantly higher in probiotic treated groups than normally treated groups in time and duration reliant fashion. In conclusion, persistent sublethal dosages of sumithion caused hematological abnormalities in silver barb. Probiotic supplement can recover the damage but only 28 days of recovery is not enough to recover the total alterations.
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Pesticides have long been important for the development of agricultural production. However, improper use of pesticides may result in inefficiency with respect to farm profitability, in addition to external effects of pesticide use on environmental and human health. This paper employs the directional distance function to estimate efficiency scores of Vietnamese rice and fruit farms, analyzes pesticide efficiency of these two sets of farms, then investigates determinants of pesticide overuse. The empirical application uses data on Vietnamese fruit and rice farms drawn from the 2016 Vietnamese Household Living Standards Survey. Results indicate considerable potential for improving pesticide use efficiency, especially of rice farms. Pesticides were overused by about one-third of both rice and fruit farms, while no farm was found to use pesticides optimally. The results of the determinants of pesticide overuse versus underuse suggest overusing rice farms were more likely to have higher off-farm income or be located in the Mekong Delta (the "Rice Bowl" of Vietnam). For fruit farms, younger, more educated farmers with more debt were more likely to overuse pesticides.
Chapter
This chapter introduces to conventional agrochemicals that have played a remarkable role in modern agriculture. It starts by defining them as commercially produced, usually synthetic, chemical compounds used in farming and recalling their contribution to the increase in agricultural productivity since the middle of the 20th century. It then emphasizes fertilizers and pesticides as key types of conventional agrochemicals and presents their advantages and disadvantages, and benefits and risks connected with their use, including health and environmental problems. By the end of the chapter, future prospects for conventional agrochemicals are presented, as well as recommendations for minimizing hazards arising from their use.
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A lo largo de la historia, el movimiento y la dispersión de forma natural de especies entre diferentes regiones, constituye un componente integral dentro de la dinámica poblacional de las mismas. Sin embargo, este fenómeno ha aumentado en los últimos 150 años, debido a que los seres humanos aumentamos la capacidad de mover grandes volúmenes de alimentos y de personas, como consecuencia del comercio y la globalización. Como resultado de lo anterior, el impacto fitosanitario hacia las regiones y agrosistemas ha sido muy fuerte, ocasionando entre otros efectos: la disminución de biodiversidad, pérdidas económicas, así como el cierre de fronteras a mercancías agroalimentarias que ponen en peligro la seguridad alimentaria. En este contexto, en los últimos 20 años han ingresado al territorio mexicano más de 31 plagas y enfermedades, mismas que han impactado 12 sistemas-producto estratégicos, entre ellos, cítricos (limón y naranja, sobre todo), caña de azúcar, oleaginosas, aguacate, jitomate, papa, cítricos uva, papaya, plátano y hortalizas como tomate rojo. Esto significa un enorme costo financiero para el Estado mexicano, debido a que estas 31 plagas tienen la capacidad de reducir entre el 20% y el 100 % la producción de alimentos de acuerdo a los registros que se tienen en los países de origen de estas plagas. Para el caso de México, el mayor impacto se refleja en los productores de subsistencia, quienes no tienen los recursos para enfrentar este problema; además, dichas plagas impactan directa o indirectamente sobre alrededor de 4,920,361 unidades de producción, mismas que representan un valor anual de U$D 17 326 173 de dólares. Dentro de este panorama, la geografía a través de estudio de análisis espacio temporal y la caracterización del paisaje epidemiológico, nos permiten conocer los parámetros y variables que propician la introducción, dispersión y difusión de plagas y enfermedades invasoras, contribuyendo con esto a la mitigación del impacto ambiental y el costo económico. Chapter In this chapter, we describe a mathematical model to simulate the development of insecticide resistance. First, The relationship between the mutation rate y and the dosage of insecticide use x is expressed as: y=f(x)a+bx. The total mutation rate, z(t), after the ith insecticide use changes with time t: z(t)=z(ti)exp(-r(t-ti))+c, tit<ti+1. Insect mutation rate model is: y(t1)=(1-c)f(x(t1)), z(t1)=c+y(t1),i=1; y(ti)=(1-c-z(ti-1)exp(-r(t-ti-1))) f(x(ti)), z(ti)=c+z(ti-1)exp(-r(t-ti-1))+y(ti),tit<ti+1, i=2, 3, … where y(ti): the rate of newly increased mutant individuals after the ith insecticide use, z(ti): the total mutation rate after the ith insecticide use, ti: the time of the ith insecticide use, and y(ti) the theoretical mutation rate of the ith insecticide use. The relationship between the pest population resistance R(ti) and z(ti) is represented as: R(ti)=p+q/(1-z(ti)). Thus the variables as insecticide use dosage, timing and frequency of insecticide uses, genetic mutagenicity of insect individuals, insecticide-resistant individuals’ fitness, etc., were included in the model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the lower the fitness (r) of the insecticide-resistant individuals is, the slower the increase of insecticide resistance will be. The greater the insect individuals’ mutagenicity (b) is, the more quickly the insecticide resistance will rise. The greater the insecticide use dosage (x(t)) is, the more quickly the insecticide resistance will increase. The higher the frequency of insecticide uses is, the greater the insecticide resistance will increase. The results showed that the insecticide dosage is more important than usage frequency in determining the development of insecticide resistance, which highlights the importance of joint use of reducing insecticide dosage and adopting IPM technologies. The model can be used to not only the dynamic simuation of development of insecticide resistance but also the assessment of IPM technologies in reducing insecticide resistance. For example, with a set of specific parametrical values, the simulation of the model demonstated that insecticide resistance will reduce 83.74% when the insecticide dosage is reduced from 180 to 20 by jointly using IPM technologies. Full codes of Matlab, R and BASIC programs for the model were given. Article This review summarizes (1) the U.S. status quo for aquatic food animal production and marketing; (2) major food safety and quality issues/concerns for aquatic food animals in the United States, including fish misbranding, finfish/shellfish allergies, pathogens, toxins and harmful residues, microplastics, and genetically engineered salmon; and (3) various U.S. regulations, guidances, and detection methods for the surveillance of fishery products. Overall, fish misbranding is the biggest challenge in the United States due to the relatively low inspection rate. In addition, due to the regulatory differences among countries, illegal animal drugs and/or pesticide residues might also be identified in imported aquatic food animals. Future regulatory and research directions could focus on further strengthening international cooperation, enhancing aquatic food animal inspection, and developing reliable, sensitive, and highly efficient detection methods. Chapter Pesticides such as rodenticides, insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, and molluscicides are found naturally and are widely used in agriculture to increase the crop yield and productivity and generally protect plants from harmful effects such as plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The most commonly used nanopesticides (nanoherbicides, ‐fungicides, ‐insecticides, and ‐nematicides), as well as frequently used nanoformulations based on encapsulation of biodegradable organic based matrix systems and silica based nano carriers or silver‐and copper – based nanoformulations are discussed in this chapter. Preventing workplace health hazard from pesticides requires a comprehensive “risk identification and control” throughout their manufacturing; pre‐ and postpesticides are approved into use. Risk analysis includes “risk assessment,” “risk management,” and “risk communication,” according to the schemes used by international organizations. The risk characterization aim is to determine the extent of danger to public health. A national pesticide risk management plan must be constructed in each country and reviewed by the national authority. Article Full-text available Typical non-parametric frontier analysis based on material balance principle (MBP) is superior for measuring agricultural economic-environmental trade-offs when considering the flow of materials, but fails to incorporate the serious health effects caused by excessive use of pesticides. Here, using MBP-based data envelopment analysis, we measure the economic-environmental-health performances and trade-offs of agricultural production in China during 2006–2016. Evaluation results indicate that (i) the average agricultural sector would be able to produce current output with 16.3% fewer inputs; (ii) 17 million tons CO2 reduction potentials (9.6% of total emissions in 2016) could be realized through technical efficiency promotion without damaging environmental, health, and economic performances; (iii) synergistic effects on agricultural performance promotion exist in 12 regions indicating that the improvement of technical efficiency and the adjustment of input mix would simultaneously lead to 0.2–74.3% reductions on costs and pollutions; and (iv) improving cost efficiency in 18 regions and improving pollution efficiency in another 11 regions would be the most beneficial strategies for their agricultural sectors which would lead to additional reductions on total (economic, environmental, and health) costs by 10.3–22.5%. Article The gap between the spray plume and the cylindrical charging electrode for an aerial electrostatic spray nozzle is critical to achieve maximum chargeability of spray formulations prior to aerial applications of pest control products. Seven discrete gaps from the nozzle tip to the trailing edge of the electrode were tested for spray chargeability. A spray mixture of tap water and a non-ionic surfactant with an electrical conductivity of 1012.75 ± 6.70 μS was atomized through three different-sized nozzle tips (TXVK-3, TXVK-4, and TXVK-6) in a controlled high-speed wind tunnel operated at 6 different airspeeds between 80 and 177 km/h with two atomizing air pressures, 310 and 517 kPa, representing minimum and maximum values commonly used in rotary wing agricultural aircraft. The TXVK-3 nozzle yielded significantly higher charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M > 1.0 mC kg-1) compared to the TXVK-4 and TXVK-6 nozzles. At 310 kPa liquid pressure, the 6.5- and 9.3-mm gaps produced significantly higher spray charge. Data indicated that the chargeability of aerial electrostatic sprays can be improved using a smaller orifice and lower flow rate nozzle operated at a lower liquid pressure and higher airspeed. Results from this study may help aerial applicators better understand the optimum operational parameters required to maximize the electrostatic charge of spray formulations while flying low speed aircraft. Preprint Full-text available Following the development and dissemination of new climate-smart agricultural technologies to farmers globally, there has been an increase in the number of socio-economic studies on the adoption of climate-smart integrated pests’ management (CS-IPM) technologies over the years. In this study, we review empirical evidence on adoption determinants of CS-IPM technologies and identify possible science-policy interfaces. Generally, our review shows that socioeconomic and institutional factors are influential in shaping CS-IPM adoption decisions of farmers. More specifically, income was found to positively influence the adoption of CS-IPM technologies while land size owned influences CS-IPM adoption negatively. Registered land tenure (registered secure rights) positively influences CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, implying that efficient land markets that enable competitive and fair distribution and access to land, more so by the vulnerable but efficient smallholder producers do indeed increase the adoption of CS-IPMs technologies. Social capital, achieved via farmers’ organizations is also central in fostering CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, just as markets reforms that minimize market failures regarding access to credit, labor, and agricultural information, which could indirectly hinder farmers’ use of CS-IPM practices. Functional extension systems that improve farmers’ awareness of CS-IPM do also improve CS-IPM technologies’ adoption. However, the adoption of CS-IPM technologies in Ghana and Benin is slow-paced because of factors like lack of access to farm inputs that facilitate uptake of these technologies, lack of credit facilities, and limited extension services among others. Interestingly, our review confirms that CS-IPM technologies do indeed reduce and minimize the intensity of pesticide usage and foster ecosystem (environmental and human) health. Therefore, this review unearths strategic determinants of CS-IPM adoption and makes fundamental guidance around climate-smart innovations transfer and environmental policies that should be prioritized to curb environmental pollution and ensure agricultural ecosystems’ sustainability. Chapter The biopesticidal organisms and their products are useful in preventing phytoparasitic nematodes which inflict diseases in agricultural crops. Plan nematode biopesticides possess many beneficial traits over synthetic nematicides in order to occupy a major market share in commercial market. Significant research efforts are still needed to develop plant nematode biopesticides market and their commercialization in order to integrate them in nematode management programs. Active interactions and collaboration are required between biopesticidal industries and research institutions to evolve biopesticides into a global market product. Modern technologies such as fermentation, genetics, biotechnology, molecular biology, and artificial intelligence must be incorporated in their development as a product. In their production and new discoveries, RNAi technology, microbial and plant products appear to play a significant role in developing secondary metabolites as plant nematode biopesticides. Above all, the attitude of biological control workers, biopesticide industry, regulatory agencies and the farmers need to be attended and awareness about the benefits of plant nematode biopesticides must be generated. Various barriers restricting their commercialization and factors promoting their marketing must be removed and implemented respectively. Chapter Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology. In other words, myconanotechnology represents the green synthesis of nanoparticles using fungi. The field is recently gaining attention due to the simple, resource efficient, and ecofriendly nature of fungal biotechnology. Therefore, Myconanotechnology is at the core of cost-effective and sustainable solutions for many industrial processes. This volume provides readers at all academic levels with a broad background on some of the fastest developing areas in myconanotechnology. It is organised into two sections, A and B. Section A updates readers on several cutting-edge aspects of the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles through the use of fungi. Section B describes applications of myconanotechnology including: the management of bacterial and fungal diseases, pest control, among other applications in medicine and agriculture. The breadth of topics covered in the contents make this volume an informative resource on the field. Contributions are written by experts in industrial biotechnology, and include extensive references to published studies. This book is a timely reference for researchers, teachers and students, and all readers who are interested in new developments in industrial mycology and nanotechnology. Chapter Full-text available Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology. In other words, myconanotechnology represents the green synthesis of nanoparticles using fungi. The field is recently gaining attention due to the simple, resource efficient, and ecofriendly nature of fungal biotechnology. Therefore, Myconanotechnology is at the core of cost-effective and sustainable solutions for many industrial processes. This volume provides readers at all academic levels with a broad background on some of the fastest developing areas in myconanotechnology. It is organised into two sections, A and B. Section A updates readers on several cutting-edge aspects of the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles through the use of fungi. Section B describes applications of myconanotechnology including: the management of bacterial and fungal diseases, pest control, among other applications in medicine and agriculture. The breadth of topics covered in the contents make this volume an informative resource on the field. Contributions are written by experts in industrial biotechnology, and include extensive references to published studies. This book is a timely reference for researchers, teachers and students, and all readers who are interested in new developments in industrial mycology and nanotechnology. Article Full-text available The municipality of Ahuazotepec presented a complex food insecurity scenario, mainly because there are limitations regarding food supply/local maize production and the inhabitants so their access to food can be disrupted quite easily. A transdisciplinary approach and methodology were adapted to analyze, design, implement, and evaluate an agricultural intervention to improve agroecosystems in the region using agroecological practices. The experimental results indicated that the application of agroecological fertilization management improved soil fertility indicators, grain yield, benefit-to-cost ratio, and the resilience of the system. For the intervention, when a transdisciplinary scheme in which collaboration between actors was intensified, the benefits are greater than in a conventional scheme, where only economic or in-kind aid is provided, even when based on similar practices. Chapter Full-text available Fusarium causing disease in maize is probably the one of the most serious diseases among the crop plants all over the world. It not only damages the maize plant, reduces its potential yield and its nutritional values but imposes threatening to the human life through the induction of mycotoxin development. F. graminearum and F. moniliforme syn. Fusarium verticillioides are two important maize pathogens that cause substantial damage to its ear, stalk and foliage, causing contamination of grains with mycotoxins. Since conventional methods of controlling the diseases including the chemical methods proved not enough for total control of the disease with creating situation even worse for our surroundings, the application of PGPR and PGPF can play significant role to control the damage caused by Fusarium. Article Full-text available We reviewed cases of raptor mortality resulting from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. We compiled records from the U.S., U.K. and Canada for the period 1985-95 (520 incidents) and surveyed the relevant literature to identify the main routes of exposure and those products that led to the greatest number of poisoning cases. A high proportion of cases in the U.K. resulted from abusive uses of pes- ticides (willful poisoning). The proportion was smaller in North America where problems with labeled uses of pesticides were as frequent as abuse cases. Poisoning resulting from labeled use was possible with a large number of granular pesticides and some seed treatments through secondary poisoning or through the ingestion of contaminated invertebrates, notably earthworms. With the more toxic products, residue levels in freshly-sprayed insects were high enough to cause mortality. The use of organophos- phorus products as avicides and for the topical treatment of livestock appeared to be common routes of intoxication. The use of insecticides in dormant oils also gave rise to exposure that can be lethal or Article Full-text available Various organic technologies have been utilized for about 6000 years to make agriculture sustainable while conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Among the benefits of organic technologies are higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, lower fossil energy inputs, yields similar to those of conventional systems, and conservation of soil moisture and water resources (especially advantageous under drought conditions). Conventional agriculture can be made more sustainable and ecologically sound by adopting some traditional organic farming technologies. Article Full-text available To assess the factors behind possible global declines in some birds and to investigate the vulnerability of birds to agricultural practices, information is needed on bird use of farmland in much of Canada, including the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of southern Ontario. We examined the pattern of bird use of four crop types in three counties of southern Ontario (6 corn and 6 soybean fields, Essex County; 5-6 cornfields and 5-6 apple orchards, Norfolk County; 6 cornfields and 6 vineyards, Niagara County) during July-September 1987 and May-September 1988. Of the 138 species recorded in all three counties (1987-1988 combined), 25 were seen on 50% of visits and 16 at frequencies between 25 and 50% of visits in at least one crop during any one month. Cornfields had more species than orchards in Norfolk and vineyards in Niagara, whereas in Essex, soybeans had more species than corn. The species most frequently observed in cornfields were Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula). In soybean fields, the most frequently recorded species were Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), Song Sparrow and Common Grackle, whereas in orchards, Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) was the most frequently recorded species. In vineyards, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) were the species most commonly observed. Most species occurred uncommonly (recorded on < 25% of visits) in all months, and very few species were recurrent (75% of visits). Omnivorous and insectivorous species were most abundant in all crop types, and more ground feeders were observed than species foraging in the canopy, aerially or in aquatic habitats. Thirty-five species were only recorded during the migration period of August/September. Article Full-text available Turfgrass is a uniform stand or mixture of grass maintained at a relatively low height and used for recreational or functional purposes. Following comments on the turfgrass system, discussion centres on arthropod pests of turfgrass soil and of turfgrass leaves and stems, and on the current status of integrated pest management. Only a small number of specific, alternative control methods are available for turfgrass insects, and these are often more slow-acting, less reliable or more difficult to use than conventional insecticides. -P.J.Jarvis Article Full-text available Effects of several chemicals registered or considered for Heliothis zea (Boddie) suppression on strawberries were evaluated for impact on plant physiology, yield, and nontarget arthropods. During a period when Tetranychus urticae Koch populations had not reached damaging levels, bifenthrin significantly increased photosynthesis rates and significantly reduced stomatal resistance compared with the untreated control. Bifenthrin treatments produced significantly heavier fruit than controls on 3 of 8 dates in 1985 and 5 of 11 dates in 1986. Foliage and fruit treated with naled at 1.12 or 1.68 kg (AI)/ha on alternate weeks developed visual symptoms of phytotoxicity, but plants did not produce significantly lighter fruit compared with control plants or exhibit a trend toward reduced photosynthesis. However, application of naled (1.68 kg [AI]/ha) showed a strong trend of fewer fruit in 1985 compared with controls. Repeated applications of methomyl, carbaryl, and permethrin produced only transient effects on photosynthetic activity. Although all chemicals tested provided acceptable levels of aphid control, only bifenthrin and avermectin bl reduced T. urticae populations to below economic injury levels. The incorporation and use of these chemicals in an integrated control program on strawberries are discussed. Article Full-text available Various organic technologies have been utilized for about 6000 years to make agriculture sustainable while conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. Among the benefits of organic technologies are higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, lower fossil energy inputs, yields similar to those of conventional systems, and conservation of soil moisture and water resources (especially advantageous under drought conditions). Conventional agriculture can be made more sustainable and ecologically sound by adopting some traditional organic farming technologies. Chapter Full-text available Several studies suggest that it is technologically feasible to reduce pesticide use in the United States 35—50% without reducing crop yields (PSAC, 1965; OTA, 1979; NAS, 1989; Palladino, 1989). Two recent events in Denmark and Sweden support these assessments. Denmark developed an action plan in 1985 to reduce the use of pesticides 50% before 1997 (Mogensen, 1989). Sweden also approved a program in 1988 to reduce pesticide use by 50% within 5 years (NBA, 1988). The Netherlands is developing a program to reduce pesticide use 50% in 10 years (Süddeutsche Zeitung, 1989). These proposals, along with Huffaker’s (1980) assessment that the United States overuses pesticides, prompted us to investigate the feasibility of reducing the annual use of synthetic organic pesticides by approximately one-half. Article Full-text available Pesticides cause serious damage to agricultural and natural ecosystems. Thus, there is a need to curtail pesticide use and reduce the environmental impacts of pesticides. This study confirms that it should be possible to reduce pesticide use in the US by 50% without any decrease in crop yields or change in ‘cosmetic standards’. The estimated increase in food costs would be only 0.6%. This increased cost, however, does not take into account the environmental and public benefits of reducing pesticide use by 50%. Article Full-text available An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department of Agriculture; the Marketplace Surveillance Program of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation; and private tests by the Consumers Union, an independent testing organization. Organically grown foods consistently had about one-third as many residues as conventionally grown foods, and about one-half as many residues as found in IPM/NDR samples. Conventionally grown and IPM/NDR samples were also far more likely to contain multiple pesticide residues than were organically grown samples. Comparison of specific residues on specific crops found that residue concentrations in organic samples were consistently lower than in the other two categories, across all three data sets. The IPM/NDR category, based on data from two of the test programmes, had residues higher than those in organic samples but lower than those in conventionally grown foods. Chapter Worldwide, over 2.5 million tons of pesticides are applied each year 1 at a purchase price of$32 billion. In the United States alone, approximately 500,000 tons of 600 different types of pesticides are used annually,2 with a yearly price tag of \$6.5 billion, including application costs.3
Article
Insects and other related arthropods make up about 90% of all plant and animal species in the world. They are vital to the functioning of the ecosystem and biosphere, and neither of these systems can operate effectively without insect interactions. Because of their major ecological and economic roles in nature and society, the beneficial and pest activities of insects need to be clearly understood. Insect populations are being stressed directly by the action of temperature, moisture, and a wide array of chemical Ö öpollutants (pesticides, fertilizers, air pollutants, and numerous other chemicals) that are dispersed through air, water, and soil. Insects are affected by this same group of stresses indirectly, through their food plants, parasites, and predators. Depending on the species and the particular stress affecting it, insect populations respond by increasing or decreasing in numbers. The responses of insect populations to various direct and indirect environmental stresses and chemical pollutants are assessed. Some insect populations increase, while others decline. The responses were determined by the particular environmental stress, the insect species, and the stage at which they were exposed to the stress.Key words: insects, environment, pollutants, stress, water, herbicides.
Article
Various herbivore population control mechanisms and evolution are examined and how these function interdependently to achieve some equilibrium in the economy of herbivore-plant systems. In the long-term, it is proposed that the control of exploiter populations generally changes from being dominated by density-dependent competition and patchiness to density-dependent genetic feedback and natural enemy controls. The model postulates that herbivore and other parasite numbers are often controlled by a feedback evolutionary mechanism interdependent with the other density-dependent population controls.
Article
Mortality of birds, fish, frogs, crayfish, earthworms, and nontarget insects occurred in rice fields after treatments of Furadan 3G granules in 3 Texas counties in 1970 and 1973-75. Three western sandpipers (Ereunetes mauri), 1 pectoral sandpiper (Erolia melanotos), and 2 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were found dead or moribund between 17 and 24 hours after treatment. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans blanchardi) were intoxicated 15 minutes post-treatment, and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) showed effects 1 hour post-treatment. Mortality of mosquito fish, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), and European carp (Cyprinus carpio) usually occurred between 24 and 28 hours after treatment. Mortality of frogs, crayfish, and nontarget insects generally occurred in rice field water between 1 and 45 hours after treatment. Mortality of earthworms in soil persisted for 52 hours. As a replacement for aldrin in Texas rice fields, Furadan 3G appeared to cause less mortality of birds than aldrin, but Furadan 3G was toxic to birds, fish, and invertebrates.
Article
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields have declined since 1965 despite improvements in technology and introductions of higher yielding cultivars. Cotton scientists have been unable to identify exact causes of the yield decline. One suggested cause is the increased use of herbicides and their toxic effects on root growth in the herbicide incorporated zone. In this study, the computerized crop simulation model, GOSSYM, was used to predict cotton performance under several levels of herbicide-induced root reduction under various environmental conditions in a Leeper clay loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, thermic Vertic Haplaquept). The model predicted a small increase in yield when root reduction was moderate and at shallow depths. However, when the depth of root reduction increased to 200 mm or the percentage of root reduction increased, there was a predicted decrease of up to 40% in cotton lint yield. This decrease in lint yield was much larger when decreased root length was combined with reduced soil water permeability in remaining roots. Predicted yield was also reduced under unfavorable weather conditions. With increase in the depth of root reduction or increase in the percentage of root reduction and with permeability reduction there was a decrease in the root growth throughout the season. Increased N and water shortages were apparent with increase in the depth or level of root reduction. It was concluded that improper application of herbicides was one of the contributing factors for the cotton yield decline. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Copyright © . .
Article
The use of the fungicides benomyl and thiophanate-methyl on experimental orchard plots for 3 years and of benomyl on a commercial orchard for 1 year resulted in a drastic reduction of earthworm populations. The species of earthworms affected were Lumbricus terrestris, L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, Allolobophora caliginosa, A. chlorotica, A., longa, A. rosea, A. tuberculata and Octolasium cyaneum. L. terrestris and A. chlorotica were more affected than the other species, both being virtually eliminated after 2 years' spraying. The depleted populations of species other than L. terrestris and A. chlorotica recovered to normal levels after a 2-year rest period following a single year's treatment with benomyl (1.40 kg/ha). The role of the surface-feeding L. terrestris is discussed in relation to the spray fall-out on the sward and to grass management.
Chapter
Worldwide, about 2.5 million tons of pesticides are applied each year with a purchase price of 20 billion ( < cite > PN, 1990 < /cite > ). In the United States approximately 500,000 tons of 600 different types of pesticides are used annually at a cost of20 billion (PN, 1990). In the United States approximately 500,000 tons of 600 different types of pesticides are used annually at a cost of 4.1 billion (including application costs) (Pimentel et al., 1991).
Article
The influence of various inorganic and organic fertilizers was assessed in three long-term “classical” experiments and two short-term field experiments, one on grass and one on wheat. The long-term experiments included Broadbalk which had grown continuous wheat since 1843, Barnfield, continuous root crops since 1843 and Park Grass, continuous grass since 1836. Annual fertilizer treatments were farmyard manure (48 and 96 kg N ha−1), various forms of inorganic nitrogen (48, 96, 144 and 192 kg N ha−1), liquid and solid sewage sludge and sewage cake in a wide range of doses.In the three arable experiments, all species of earthworms were more numerous in plots treated with organic fertilizers than in untreated plots.There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.9825) between amounts of inorganic N applied and populations of earthworms. Plots receiving both inorganic and organic N had the largest populations of earthworms.The effects of both inorganic and organic N were much less on earthworm populations in grassland than on those in arable crops, even in the long-term experiments, and there was some evidence of adverse effects when an excessive amount of liquid sludge was applied in a single dose.Effects of organic fertilizers were greater on populations of Lumbricus terrestris than on those of Allolobophora longa, A. caliginosa or A. chorotica.
Article
Increasing food supplies to feed her rapidly expanding population has been prioritized in the overall agricultural development programme of Indonesia.
Article
Chapter 1 contains a short historical introduction. Chapter 2, represents an updated review of microbial diversity and systematics. It also provides essential information required for the understanding of the form, function, and systematic relationship of microorganisms. Chapter 3 is devoted to the formation and structure of microbial communities, and deals with this subject both in the evolutionary and successional senses. Chapter 4 describes the interactions between microorganisms, and Chapters 5 and 6 explore the interactions of microorganisms with plants and with animals, respectively. Chapter 7 discusses the quantitative measurement of numbers, biomass, and activity of microorganisms; Chapter 8 examines the influence and the measurement of their environmental determinants. Chapter 9 presents air, water, and soil as microbial habitats and describes the typical composition of their communities. Chapters 10 and 11 contain an expanded discussion of the biogeochemical cycling activities performed by microbial communities. Chapters 12-15 deal with applied aspects of microbial ecology evident in biodeterioration control, sanitation, soil conservation, pollution control, resource recovery, and biological control.
Article
To investigate whether semen quality has changed during the past 50 years. Review of publications on semen quality in men without a history of infertility selected by means of Cumulated Index Medicus and Current List (1930-1965) and MEDLINE Silver Platter database (1966-August 1991). 14,947 men included in a total of 61 papers published between 1938 and 1991. Mean sperm density and mean seminal volume. Linear regression of data weighted by number of men in each study showed a significant decrease in mean sperm count from 113 x 10(6)/ml in 1940 to 66 x 10(6)/ml in 1990 (p < 0.0001) and in seminal volume from 3.40 ml to 2.75 ml (p = 0.027), indicating an even more pronounced decrease in sperm production than expressed by the decline in sperm density. There has been a genuine decline in semen quality over the past 50 years. As male fertility is to some extent correlated with sperm count the results may reflect an overall reduction in male fertility. The biological significance of these changes is emphasised by a concomitant increase in the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities such as testicular cancer and possibly also cryptorchidism and hypospadias, suggesting a growing impact of factors with serious effects on male gonadal function.
Article
Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.
Article
There is substantial experimental, epidemiological and other evidence that many pesticides in widespread use around the world are immunosuppressive. This poses a potentially serious health risk in populations highly exposed to infectious and parasitic diseases, subject to malnutrition, and inadequately serve by curative health programmes. An expanded programme of research is needed to investigate this potential risk and to design precautionary measures.
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ECONOMICSBy using new assumptions on the dollar value of a human life, among other things, director John Graham of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) hopes to determine which regulations deliver the biggest bang for the buck. Economists generally support the call for more rigorous cost-benefit analyses, but some question whether OIRA's techniques are ready for prime time.