Article

Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolite from Amorphophallus paeoniifolius for hepatoprotective activity

Authors:
  • set college of pharmacy dharwad
  • SET's college of Pharmacy, Dharwad, India
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Abstract

The present study was designed to isolate the flavonoid from the ethylacetate fraction of corm of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius by coloum chromatography using gradient elution method. The isolated flavonoid was characterized by spectral studies and screened for hepatoprotective activity on ccl4 induced model. The flavonoid (Quercetin) was subjected to various biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, SALP, bilirubin, total protein and histopathology of rat liver were studied. The results were found to be significant by reducing the elevated enzyme levels, increasing the protein level and attenuating the damaged hepatocytes toward the normal texture. The results were further supported by histopathology of isolated rat liver. Therefore the present study justifies that the isolated flavonoid exihibits significant hepatoprotective activity.

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... The isolated flavonoid was characterized by spectral studies. [24] Pharmacognostic studies A detailed pharmacognostic morphological, anatomical work and quantitative microscopic standards for the leaves of A. ...
... The results were further supported by histopathology of isolated rat liver. [24] ...
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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.
... The crude drug is either used singly or in combination with other materials of plant, animal or mineral origin. Such medicines are prepared under special methods of heating and roasting, extraction with water, oil, milk, fat or even animal urine; fermentation under specifically controlled conditioning or regulated grinding [7]. The final products used in traditional systems of medicine are powders (Chumams). ...
... It is an important constituent of many Ayurvedic preparations [4]. The phytoconstituents present in the corms are quercetin, rutin, sitosterol, etc. [5]. A watersoluble polysaccharide containing galactose, glucose, 4-O-acylmethyl galacturonate, and arabinose was isolated from the aqueous extract of tuber [6]. ...
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Aim: The tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Family-Araceae), commonly called suran or jimikand, has medicinal and food value. It is used in ethnomedicinal practices for correction of gastrointestinal disturbances such as constipation and hemorrhoids. The present study evaluated the effect of A. paeoniifolius tuber on gastrointestinal motor functions. Materials and methods: The tuber was collected in December 2011, and its methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rats were orally administered methanolic (APME) or aqueous (APAE) extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, each) of tuber for 7 days. Metoclopramide (MET) (3 mg/kg, orally) was used a reference prokinetic drug. The gastrointestinal parameters viz. number of feces, wet and dry weight and moisture content of feces, gastric emptying, and intestinal transit were evaluated. The isolated tissue preparations were used to check the effect of the extracts on fundus and intestinal contractility. The glucomannan and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: The pre-treatment of extracts significantly increased the number of feces, wet and dry weight of feces, moisture content, gastric emptying, and intestinal transit. Results were comparable to MET. Further, APME and APAE showed a contraction of fundus and ileum in isolated preparations. APME and APAE were also found to have fair amount of glucomannan, total phenolics, and flavonoids. The results indicate the gastrokinetic potential of the tuber extracts. This may be attributed to the presence of glucomannan and betulinic acid present in the extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, the tuber of A. paeoniifolius exhibits gastrokinetic activity and substantiates its traditional use in gastrointestinal motor disturbances.
... High performance thin layer chromatography analysis of tuber extracts showed presence of quercetin and gallic acid (Nataraj et al., 2012). Quercetin and a water-soluble polysaccharide were isolated from the tuber (Sharstry et al. 2010;Das, D. et al., 2009;Das, S.S. et al., 2009). Despite the extensive ethnomedicinal use of the tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius in treatment of hemorrhoids, there are no systematic scientific studies to delineate its influence on experimental models of hemorrhoids. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Family- Araceae) is a crop of south East Asian origin. In India, its tuber is widely used in ethnomedicinal practices by different tribes for the treatment of piles (hemorrhoid). Aim: The present study evaluated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on croton oil induced hemorrhoids in rats. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by HPLC. The hemorrhoids were induced by applying 6% croton oil preparation in the ano-rectal region. Rats were orally administered methanolic and aqueous extract at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg, each for 7 days. Pilex (200mg/kg) was used as reference anti-hemorrhoidal drug. Hemorrhoids were assessed on eighth day by measuring hemorrhoidal and biochemical parameters along with histology of ano-rectal tissue. Results: Croton oil application caused induction of hemorrhoids as indicated by significant (p<0.001) increase in plasma exudation of Evans blue in ano-rectal tissue, macroscopic severity score and ano-rectal coefficient as compared to normal rats. It significantly (p<0.001) elevated lactate dehydrogenase and cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in serum and increased myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in ano-rectal tissue along with marked histological damage as compared to normal rats. Treatment with tuber extracts and pilex significantly (p<0.05-0.001) ameliorated Evans blue exudation, hemorrhoidal parameters and other biochemical parameters with attenuation of tissue damage compared to hemorrhoid control rats. The results indicate that tuber extracts exhibited curative action on hemorrhoids. The aqueous extract showed more pronounced effect than methanolic extract. The effects may be attributed to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Conclusion: Results indicate that tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius exhibited curative action on hemorrhoids through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The study validates the ethnomedicinal use of tuber in hemorrhoids and implicates its therapeutic potential as an anti-hemorrhoidal agent.
... One previous study states the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids in the phytochemical screening of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers which may be responsible for analgesic activity. 20,21 CONCLUSION It was also concluded that the extract show analgesic activity either centrally and peripherally. The plant may have the phytoconstituents which peripherally inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme for producing analgesia or act on central opioid receptors (and receptors. ...
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Background: Pain is defined as an unpleasant feeling caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius known as “Elephant foot yam” is a highly potential tropical tuber crop of Araceae family. The tubers are used as antihaemorrhoidal, haemostatic, expectorant, appetizer, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac and rejuvenating agent. Diclofenac, a COX inhibitor is used as analgesic widely. Analgesic activity of alcoholic extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius has been proved in previous animal studies.Methods: Swiss Albino mice of either sex (20-30g) were procured from the central animal house of KFMS&R, Coimbatore. Animals were maintained under controlled temperature and light conditions with food and water ad libitum. Mice were kept in the department to get acclimatized. 24 mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6). Drugs were given orally after 12 hours of fasting. Group I was the control received normal saline, Group II received standard-diclofenac (25mg/kg). Group III and Group IV received aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.Results: The latency period of Group IV (aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius 400mg/kg) was significant (p<0.01) compared to Group I (controls) and Group II (standard) was significant (p<0.001) when compared to Group IV (aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius 400mg/kg) by hot plate method. In acetic acid induced writhing when compared to control, the percentage inhibition of aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius was 43.65% at 200mg/kg, 46.09% at 400mg/kg and that of the standard was 54.39%.Conclusions: It was concluded that aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius has analgesic activity due to peripheral and central inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis. The extract may have phytoconstituents which inhibit COX enzyme peripherally or act on central opioid receptors(µreceptors) for producing analgesia. It can be used as an add-on drug there by reducing side effects by conventional analgesics.
... Quercetin, a flavonoid compound has reportedly screened for the same activity. This study supports the previous findings, but more bioactive compounds need to clarify the exact mechanism of its activity (Hurkadale et al., 2012;Singh & Wadhwa, 2014;Benil et al., 2017;Dey et al., 2016a;Sharstry et al., 2010;Sanjay et al., 2009). ...
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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is a very common tuber plant having diverse secondary metabolites and palatability levels. Keeping the problems of food shortage & novel infectious diseases throughout the world, an attempt has been made through field works during 2009 to 2020 to gather the information on its ethnobotany, bioactive compounds from lab work and pharmacological properties from secondary sources to make it future nutraceutical against food disorders & novel microbial diseases. The tuber is used as food and medicines, it is rich with primary & secondary metabolites and its extracts are used to treat various infectious diseases. The compounds present in the species have potential to make novel drugs against present health problems throughout the world. The present study highlights the importance of wild tuberous plants in mitigation of food shortage, food disorders, anti-microbial resistance, novel bacterial & viral diseases like MDR-TB and COVID-19.
... There are reports on the traditional use of this plant as medicine (9). The plant demonstrate anti-inflammatory (20), hepatoprotective (21), anthelmintic (22), and analgesic (23) properties. To understand the mechanism of its anticancer activity, hydroethanolic extract of the tuber of this plant was prepared by cold extraction method to ensure maximum extraction of bioactive compounds (24). ...
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Medicinal plants offer enormous possibilities in the quest of novel bioactive formulation for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the anticancer efficacy of the extract of edible tuber Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) (APTE) against estrogen positive MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. APTE showed significant cytotoxic activity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The effect of APTE on metastatic parameters e.g., migration, adhesion, and invasion in MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cells were studied using wound healing, collagen adhesion, and transwell matrigel invasion assays, respectively. APTE significantly reduced migration in both the cell lines, however, its effect on the inhibition of adhesion and invasion was higher in MDA-MB-231 cells. Annexin V-Cy3 staining suggested that APTE induced apoptosis in these cells which was further validated by attenuation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and induction of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-7 expression and cleavage of PARP. High resolution-liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis with bioactive ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of APTE detected several compounds with anticancer activities. Overall, the study described the mechanism of anticancer activity of a common edible tuber A. paeoniifolius and contributes to growing list of naturally occurring chemo-preventive strategies.
... There are reports on the traditional use of this plant as medicine (9). The plant demonstrate anti-inflammatory (20), hepatoprotective (21), anthelmintic (22), and analgesic (23) properties. To understand the mechanism of its anticancer activity, hydroethanolic extract of the tuber of this plant was prepared by cold extraction method to ensure maximum extraction of bioactive compounds (24). ...
Article
Medicinal plants offer enormous possibilities in the quest of novel bioactive formulation for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the anticancer efficacy of the extract of edible tuber Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) (APTE) against estrogen positive MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. APTE showed significant cytotoxic activity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The effect of APTE on metastatic parameters e.g., migration, adhesion, and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied using wound healing, collagen adhesion, and transwell matrigel invasion assays, respectively. APTE significantly reduced migration in both the cell lines, however, its effect on the inhibition of adhesion and invasion was higher in MDA-MB-231 cells. Annexin V-Cy3 staining suggested that APTE induced apoptosis in these cells which was further validated by attenuation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and induction of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-7 expression and cleavage of PARP. High resolution-liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis with bioactive ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of APTE detected several compounds with anticancer activities. Overall, the study described the mechanism of anticancer activity of a common edible tuber A. paeoniifolius and contributes to growing list of naturally occurring chemo-preventive strategies. ARTICLE HISTORY
... There are reports on the traditional use of this plant as medicine (9). The plant demonstrate anti-inflammatory (20), hepatoprotective (21), anthelmintic (22), and analgesic (23) properties. To understand the mechanism of its anticancer activity, hydroethanolic extract of the tuber of this plant was prepared by cold extraction method to ensure maximum extraction of bioactive compounds (24). ...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal plants offer enormous possibilities in the quest of novel bioactive formulation for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the anticancer efficacy of the extract of edible tuber Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) (APTE) against estrogen positive MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. APTE showed significant cytotoxic activity in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The effect of APTE on metastatic parameters e.g., migration, adhesion, and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied using wound healing, collagen adhesion, and transwell matrigel invasion assays, respectively. APTE significantly reduced migration in both the cell lines, however, its effect on the inhibition of adhesion and invasion was higher in MDA-MB-231 cells. Annexin V-Cy3 staining suggested that APTE induced apoptosis in these cells which was further validated by attenuation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and induction of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-7 expression and cleavage of PARP. High resolution-liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis with bioactive ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of APTE detected several compounds with anticancer activities. Overall, the study described the mechanism of anticancer activity of a common edible tuber A. paeoniifolius and contributes to growing list of naturally occurring chemo-preventive strategies. ARTICLE HISTORY
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In this study chloroform and ethanolic stem extracts of Acalypha indica were examined for phytochemical, GC-MS analysis and antifungal activities that use the disc diffusion method against two fungal species, including Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. A preliminary phytochemical screening was found in the both extracts using standard qualitative procedures that revealed the presence of the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides, saponins, catachols, coumarins, terpenoids and quinones present in the chloroform and ethanol. Antifungal activities of the ethanolic extracts was assessed by disc diffusion assay and exhibited strong inhibitory activity against the Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani produced inhibition zone ranging from ethanolic extract 20.10±0.60 and 18.37±0.55mm. The minimum inhibition was recorded with the extract of chloroform 17.36±0.52 and 15.66±0.45 mm on tested fungi, whereas the ethanolic stem fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis for the identification of various antifungal and antioxidant constituents. Twenty compounds were identified through GC-MS analysis of this fraction. Among these, eight compounds possessed antifungal and antioxidant properties as reported in literature.
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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson
Article
In this study chloroform and ethanolic stem extracts of Acalypha indica were examined for phytochemical, GC-MS analysis and antifungal activities that use the disc diffusion method against two fungal species, including Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. A preliminary phytochemical screening was found in the both extracts using standard qualitative procedures that revealed the presence of the alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides, saponins, catachols, coumarins, terpenoids and quinones present in the chloroform and ethanol. Antifungal activities of the ethanolic extracts was assessed by disc diffusion assay and exhibited strong inhibitory activity against the Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani produced inhibition zone ranging from ethanolic extract 20.10±0.60 and 18.37±0.55mm. The minimum inhibition was recorded with the extract of chloroform 17.36±0.52 and 15.66±0.45 mm on tested fungi, whereas the ethanolic stem fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis for the identification of various antifungal and antioxidant constituents. Twenty compounds were identified through GC-MS analysis of this fraction. Among these, eight compounds possessed antifungal and antioxidant properties as reported in literature.
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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius commonly known as "Jimikand", "Elephant foot yam" is one of the underutilized aroid of araceae family. It is one of the widely used tuberous, stout indigenous herbs used in ayurvedic medicine system for treating various human ailments. In recent years the popularity of complementary medicine has increased. The present review compiles the existing literature related to botanical description propagation, nutrient composition, phyto-chemical constituents, traditional uses, pharmacological actions and production of value added products of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius.
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