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The Future of Large Dams: Dealing with Social, Environmental, Institutional and Political Costs

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Abstract

Viewed by some as symbols of progress and by others as inherently flawed, large dams remain one of the most contentious development issues on Earth. Building on the work of the now defunct World Commission on Dams, Thayer Scudder wades into the debate with unprecedented authority. Employing the Commission's Seven Strategic priorities, Scudder charts the 'middle way' forward by examining the impacts of large dams on ecosystems, societies and political economies. He also analyses the structure of the decision-making process for water resource development and tackles the highly contentious issue of dam-induced resettlement, illuminated by a statistical analysis of 50 cases.

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... This section elaborates on the said concepts and the relevant conceptual frameworks that will be utilized in the present study. The said frameworks are, Stress and Settlement Process of involuntary resettlement [22], Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction Model for Resettling Displaced Population [23], and the Model of Residential Satisfaction of Public Low Cost Housing [24]. ...
... Cernea [22] took this stance one step further through the conceptual framework of Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction Model for Resettling Displaced Population. According to this model, people face risks of economic, social, and cultural impoverishment when they resettle in a new location and prevention is a challenge for officers in charge of the resettlement plan. ...
... This section will present the research findings based on two thematic orientations of the relocation process and the impact of relocation. The impact of relocation is presented utilizing the thematic orientation of the model of residential satisfaction of public low cost housing formulated by Mohit, Ibrahim, and Rashid (2010) [22]. The thematic mapping of these results has been visualized in the following Table 1: The above-mentioned findings will be presented in detail as follows under several themes. ...
Article
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Disaster induced displacement is one of the most frequent phenomena occurring in the contemporary world and has been aggravated by factors such as climate change. With the systematic interpretation of disaster risks, planned relocation has been recognized as a durable solution for post-disaster reconstruction and disaster mitigation. Planned relocation initiatives that have been executed as post-disaster reconstruction initiatives in Sri Lanka have mainly followed donor driven and owner driven approaches. This study is a comparative analysis of the status quo of owner driven relocation options that were implemented after the landslide which took place in 2016 in the X District of Sri Lanka. Two research fields were selected based on the two owner driven options as part of the selected case study: Government Resettlement Sites and Individual Resettlement Sites. This exploratory study utilizes both secondary and primary data. A purposive sample of ten households was selected from each setting to conduct in-depth interviews. Furthermore, five structured interviews with key informants were conducted using an expert sample. Secondary data were collected based on the concepts of relocation and satisfaction of housing. The findings suggest that the respondents were satisfied with the housing units in both settings despite concerns in relation to the suggested plans of the housing units. Furthermore, common concerns were raised in terms of delays and issues in fund management in construction of houses. However, there was a drastic disparity in terms of other infrastructural, public, and neighborhood facilities in the two settings. Hence, this study suggests the need for an overall management and monitoring strategy for all owner driven relocation options.
... Hydro-dams have been constructed for meeting human needs such as water, food and energy (Fearnside, 2016;Kornijów, 2009;Lin & Qi, 2017;Pueppke et al., 2018), but they have also brought various unintended consequences for the environment and society, including land loss (Zhao et al., 2010), land degradation (Chen et al., 2015;Qi et al., 2012), water pollution (Gauthier et al., 2019), ecosystem disturbance (Han et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2013), sediments blockage (Bonnema & Hossain, 2017), dislocation (Fearnside, 2016;Scudder, 2005), and lifestyle changes (Pueppke et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2013). The unintended consequences are spatially heterogeneous and thus are difficult to quantify (Kirchherr et al., 2016;Moran et al., 2018;Tullos, 2009;Winemiller et al., 2016). ...
... The spatial pattern refers to a shape that can represent the two-dimensional extent of a geographical feature Maceachren, 1985;Zick & Matyas, 2016), and it plays a significant role in representing impacts in spatial pattern, dimension, and size (Miller & Wentz, 2003;Wentz, 2000). Since the consequences of dams tend to occur along the river (Jiang et al., 2018;Ouyang et al., 2013;Scudder, 2005), the circular shape might omit some spatial patterns of dam impacts. Some previous studies assumed the spatial pattern to be a circular area centered on the dam and assessed the variability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Lin & Qi, 2019), deforestation (Chen et al., 2015) and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) (Zhao et al., 2010). ...
... Kent and Leitner (2007) proved that the ellipse model had superior explanation on spatial distribution of crime than the circular-shape model (hereafter, referred it to as the 'circular model'). Since the consequences of dam impacts tend to occur along the river (Jiang et al., 2018;Ouyang et al., 2013;Scudder, 2005) and appear to be strongly a symmetric around the dam sites (Chen et al., 2015;Lin & Qi, 2019;Vaidyanathan, 2011;Zhao et al., 2010), the ellipse model was selected to fit the spatial patterns of dam impacts. The mathematical ellipse model was first developed by Lefever (1926), but it was criticized due to its unclear shape (Furfey, 1927;Gong, 2002;Yuill, 1971). ...
Article
Many hydro-dams have been constructed in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) due to their high potential in hydro-power and economic development, but there are many knowledge gaps in understanding unintended, negative social and environmental consequences. One of the knowledge gaps is spatially explicit impact assessment of hydropower dams, especially when it comes down to policies for pay for ecosystem services. In reality, the spatial patterns of dam impacts are obvious, but little is known about the pattern and scope of the impact. Thus, this paper adopted an ellipse shape model in quantifying dam impacts and determined the spatial extents at different dam construction stages. The methods used were the proximity, trend, and cluster analysis on the time-series nighttime lights and enhanced vegetation index, which were then fitted to the ellipse model. The ellipse model was compared to the circular model using three criteria (compactness index, omission index, and ellipse index) to show the usefulness of the ellipse model. The spatial impacts of dams were measured by land use/land cover changes, at different spatial scales and different stage of dams. The results suggested that the ellipse model was able to capture the spatial and temporal effects of dams at different construction stages, when compared with satellite observations. This paper suggested an asymmetric pattern of dam impacts and there were spatial boundaries. These findings may help devising dam-related policies, especially when it relates to pay for ecosystem services.
... The impacts of these projects on displaced people are influenced by socio-cultural, economic, environmental and many other factors (Cernea, 1997;Scudder, 2005;Smyth & Vanclay, 2017;Zaman & Gonnetilleke, 2016;Zhang et al., 2018). While projects benefit some people in terms of employment, business opportunities and access to basic needs, others may lose their resources and become impoverished due to project interventions (Smyth & Vanclay, 2017;Yuefang et al., 2021). ...
... However, there are ways to compensate for losses and mitigate the risks that displaced people face; among them are cash compensation, trading land for land, resettlement with compensation and various forms of benefit-sharing (Mathur, 2006;Saychai & Shi, 2016;Smyth et al., 2015;Vanclay, 2017). Unfortunately, there is evidence that many displaced people's lives have not been adequately restored due to the severity of impacts and the methodologies aimed at restoration and reconstruction in the post-resettlement period (Cernea, 2000;Mathur, 2012;Scudder, 2005). The severity of impacts and their prolonged effects on resettlers put pressure on project developers, governments and financing institutions to undertake safeguard measures to reduce project risks and re-establish the communities of project-affected people (PAP). ...
Article
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This case study of the Dasu Hydropower Project in Pakistan investigates the impacts of delays in resettlement on project-affected people. The analyses presented here suggest that delays in the implementation of resettlement plans lead to additional socio-economic, environmental and psychological impacts on local communities. In addition, temporary resettlement of some households prior to relocation and resettlement at the planned sites aggravated these impacts, further complicating planned resettlement. The authors argue in favour of resettlement ahead of any civil works to reduce negative project impacts.
... Many North African countries, particularly Algeria, Egypt, Libya and Morocco, but also other Mediterranean countries including Cyprus, rely on dams and reservoirs to provide irrigation water (AQUASTAT Programme 2007;Water Development Department Cyprus 2009). While the importance and benefits of dams for the provision of water and hydroelectric power for many of the Mediterranean countries is obvious, there are a number of adverse impacts that need to be considered (Scudder 2006;Tortajada et al. 2012). ...
... The impacts of dam building on people are also significant (Scudder 2006;Tortajada et al. 2012). In many cases, dam construction requires the state to displace individual households or entire communities in the name of the common good, leading to hardships and conflicts. ...
... Almost two decades ago, a study of 44 large dams built between the 1950s and early 2000s, which together displaced 1.2 million people, found that resettlement worsened living standards for most households in 82% of cases. 8 After being removed from their homes, land, and communities, displaced households must attempt to rebuild livelihoods amid new-and often poorer-social and economic conditions. People may be resettled far from others in their community, losing the social support of nearby family and friends. ...
... Resettlement programs associated with large dams have historically been characterized by inadequate funding, limited staffing, and inattention to the needs and concerns of affected populations. 8 The cost of resettlement can be extremely high and varies according to the number of people displaced as well as the geographic and socioeconomic context. However, most dam projects do not allocate an adequate portion of their budget to resettlement, resulting in a lack of funds for compensation, relocation, and livelihood restoration. ...
Article
Dams pose considerable social, environmental, and climate risks, including the displacement of millions of people. As investments in new hydropower dams accelerate—with most planned for low- and middle-income countries—it is critical to reduce their risks while at the same time prioritizing less harmful forms of renewable energy.
... La asociatividad de las zonas rurales de América Latina con la presencia de pobreza extrema genera tres aspectos preocupantes desde el punto de vista del desplazamiento involuntario: a) manifiestan los mayores indicadores de pobreza extrema (CEPAL, 2014), b) los países latinos presentan condiciones naturales por su clima y topografía para que se faciliten los desastres naturales y existe una población susceptible a su impacto (Sanahuja, 2011), c) las zonas rurales son las más recurrentes para la construcción de megaproyectos (Scudder, 2005;Pettersson, 2002) Aspectos alarmantes al sopesar que en las áreas rurales la población a desalojar por la construcción de los megaproyectos suele ser la que se encuentra rezagada y en condiciones de pobreza y de pobreza extrema; presentando una condición desfavorable inicial, dado que un proceso de desplazamiento involuntario puede contribuir a vulnerar las condiciones de la población, duplicando así la pobreza existente (Cernea, 2005). ...
... Estudio de caso: desplazamiento involuntario planificado: un acercamiento a la restitución de los medios de vida en el reasentamiento involuntario de Arenal, Tilarán, Guanacaste, Costa Rica La experiencia del reasentamiento de Arenal ha sido catalogada como exitosa por Partridge (1993), utilizada como una base ejemplar difundida en los lineamientos internacionales sobre reasentamiento por entes financiaros (BID, 1999); en un análisis de 50 estudios de caso, de acuerdo con Scudder (2005), resultó ser la de mayor éxito nacional y tercera en el mundo. En una evaluación expost, según Stocks (2014), la comunidad logró superar las adversidades y asumir las responsabilidades de la gestión, e incluso la integración política regional en defensa de sus intereses, que fue pensada como una decisión estratégica al seleccionar el sitio de reasentamiento, lo cual es tan normal hoy como cualquier otra del territorio rural. ...
Article
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Costa Rica, para solucionar un problema energético, desarrolló el megaproyecto de la hidroeléctrica de Arenal en la década de 1970, los diseños propuestos representaban desplazar de forma involuntaria a 2500 personas. Se analizó la comunidad de Arenal, la cual presentaba mayor densidad poblacional. El objetivo fue identificar los capitales alcanzados en los programas brindados en el sitio de reasentamiento y su efecto para contrarrestar el riesgo al empobrecimiento de la población. Se efectuó un análisis cualitativo de fuentes secundarias. Se entrevistó a expertos. La población reasentada (325 familias) logró con el tiempo recuperar su medio de vida en un 83.11% contrarrestando de forma alta los riesgos al empobrecimiento. Recuperar la economía y estabilizarla les conllevó tiempo. Trataron de replicar diversos modelos agropecuarios sin éxito; sin embargo, utilizando la base de los programas brindados en el reasentamiento, a partir de 1990 realizaron actividades económicas vinculadas al turismo en forma sostenida que les permitió estabilidad.
... We can imagine that dam-induced resettlement in South Africa, South Asia, Latin America, and other regions went through the similar paths as China. As concluded by various studies (McCully, 2001;Scudder, 2005;WCD, 2000), in the early stages, relocated people received very low compensation (focused only on material wealth) and were rarely involved in the decision making process. Countries then began to mandate stricter Environmental and Social Impact Assessment before dam construction and require better planning for resettlement of displaced people. ...
... Compensation policy came to more reasonably address material wealth, as well as recognize embodied and relational wealth. (McCully, 2001;Scudder, 2005;WCD, 2000). Despite the particularities in social and political contexts, and perhaps some measure of a time lag, China's experience is parallel to this general account of the global experience. ...
Article
Large scale hydro projects have displaced millions of people in China, and many more large scale projects are expected in future years. Compensation policy for relocated people has evolved over time. We identify distinguishing features in four historical epochs between 1949 and the present, and conducted an institutional analysis of Chinese compensation policy applied to hydro projects based on a multi-dimensional conception of wealth. Transitions between epochs are linked to accountability crises, and adaptive policy responses are seen as strategies to maintain legitimacy and stability. Our analysis demonstrates linkages among state, market, and civil society in compensation policy and in Chinese governance, more broadly.
... Ces projets hydroélectriques sont cependant aussi largement décriés, notamment pour leur impact environnemental (modification de l'écologie des cours d'eau) (Duganp, Barlow et al. 2010), et leurs émissions carbone (Chanudet, Desclox et al. 2011, Boh April 2013. L'impact socio-économique est aussi très important : les déplacements de population, l'inondation de terres agricoles, la baisse des activités de pêche, etc. (Mccully 2001, Scudder 2005, WCD 2008, Barney 2009, Molle, Foran et al. 2009, Hirsch 2011. D'autre part on peut également citer le problème de manque d'attention accordé au relogement par les développeurs de projets hydroélectriques et fréquemment la sous-estimation du nombre de personnes affectées par ces projets (Scudder 2005 p.68). ...
... Bref, les barrages hydroélectriques provoquent des impacts environnementaux et sociétaux avérés : la littérature scientifique et les expertises (Mccully 2001, Savoie 2003, Scudder 2005, Heggelund 2006, WCD 2008, Molle, Foran et al. 2009, Bhatia, Cestti et al. eds, 2008) mettent généralement en avant les déplacements de population induits en amont du barrage à cause de l'ennoiement du lac de retenue et les changements de l'écosystème des rivières aménagées. ...
Thesis
Depuis deux décennies, les projets de barrages hydroélectriques se multiplient au Laos. Ces projets sont souvent décriés dans les médias, par la société civile pour leurs impacts sociaux et environnementaux négatifs, qui peuvent être également la cause de tensions géopolitiques régionales en Asie du Sud-est. Dans ce contexte délicat, notre intérêt s’est porté sur les populations rurales en aval de barrages hydroélectriques, souvent ignorées des programmes de compensation réservées aux populations déplacées vers l’amont. L'objectif de la recherche est d’identifier et mesurer les effets socio-économiques dans la vallée de la Nam Nyam (Province de Vientiane, RDP Lao), en aval du barrage hydroélectrique de Nam Mang 3. Une analyse-diagnostic du système agraire actuel de la vallée, ainsi qu’une caractérisation de son évolution récente a été menée à partir d’enquêtes auprès de paysans de différents villages. L’étude diachronique des dynamiques agraires et la compréhension des liens de causalités nous a permis de modéliser un scénario contrefactuel pour isoler, par différence avec la situation actuelle (scénario « avec projet »), les effets spécifiques du barrage. En parallèle, une approche similaire a été retenue en aval du barrage de Nam Lik 1-2 à Meuang Feuang (Province de Vientiane, RDP Lao) afin de comparer les résultats de la vallée de la Nam Nyam, pour mieux caractériser les effets spécifiques des aménagements hydroélectriques.Il en résulte que l'évolution des systèmes agraires des vallées situées en aval dépend de la combinaison, variable au cours du temps, de nombreux facteurs politiques, économiques, démographiques, environnementaux, techniques, sociaux, etc. Un barrage hydroélectrique, comme celui de Nam Mang 3, s’inscrit dans des dynamiques complexes et continues de transformation ; son seul impact n’est pas l’unique cause des changements affectant les sociétés villageoises. Les effets socio-économiques affectent durablement une population beaucoup plus nombreuse en aval qu’en amont, même si le caractère médiatique du déplacement ponctuel de villages pour la mise en eau d’un réservoir concentre l’attention (et les compensations).Les effets du barrage hydroélectrique diffèrent selon les phases du projet (construction, remplissage du réservoir, opération) et les catégories sociales, en fonction des capacités d’investissement, d’adaptation et des réseaux de chacun. Si l’impact socio-économique en aval ne semble pas corrélé à la taille de l’aménagement hydroélectrique, sa conception et le mode de gestion de l’eau sont des critères déterminants de l’importance des externalités négatives.Les investissements massifs dans ces projets ont également des effets positifs pour les populations locales, comme le développement des infrastructures locales, qui désenclavent les villages et permettent l’accès aux services publics et aux marchés. Cependant, ces externalités positives concernent principalement les villageois aisés possédant le capital et les réseaux pour saisir les nouvelles opportunités, tandis que les familles pauvres sont plus vulnérables aux changements de contextes politique, environnemental, technique et socio-économique.Ainsi, les barrages hydroélectriques contribuent à l'augmentation de la différenciation socio-économique dans les villages en aval, avec les plus pauvres laissés en marge des bénéfices tirés de l’exportation de l’énergie.
... Governments pursue modernization and socio-economic development, but they must pay a substantial social price for dam development. The price of such projects is tremendous, yet social factors always receive less consideration (Scudder 2012). Governments around the world, international organizations such as the World Bank and NGOs have acknowledged the economic and social effects of mega-dams in the form of voluntary and involuntary resettlement, which are by no means the only major side effects of dam development (Murdoch 1994). ...
... The Sudanese government's misrepresentation of the Merowe Dam resettlement through its control of the media portraying the substantial facilities of the new houses, land, services, and financial compensation misled the Sudanese public and encouraged a dialogue that was critical of the Manasir, and others affected who protest or show dissatisfaction with resettlement. These opinions about the new settlement are supported by many respondents who challenge the critics of dam resettlement, such as Scudder (2012) and Jackson and Sleigh (2000). Singh's study of 50 large dam resettlements in five continents (1997) acknowledged that living standards in resettlement areas have improved slightly and livelihoods have been restored to some degree. ...
Article
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The paper assesses social impacts of a mega-dam project (Merowe Dam in Sudan) as perceived by host and affected communities (i.e., upstream, downstream, and relocated residents), which is not commonly seen in the literature. Primary survey and interviews were conducted with 300 residents, government officials, the Dam Implementation Unit (DIU), NGOs and other key informants. Five inter-related areas of impact were scrutinized: (a) displacement of communities; (b) resettlement of displaced communities in a new location; (c) technological factors; (d) social mobility factors; and (e) economic and political institutions. Results show that Merowe Dam exerted positive as well as adverse social impacts on local communities. Increase in home sizes, opportunities for children’s schooling and quality of life improvement ranked as the top three positive impacts with residents located downstream scoring relatively higher than relocated and upstream residents. Relocated residents also showed positive attitudes towards the provision of essential services (schools, health facilities, availability of running water, electricity, marketplace, etc.), thereby enabling them to enjoy and flourish in their social lives. The adverse impacts are centered on intangible factors, such as, sentimental effects closely related to their feelings, loss of history, memories, nostalgia about the old place, and grievances regarding compensation packages and its management. Therefore, it is important to recognize the need for long-term monitoring of the resettlement process and provide emotional support to those displaced and resettled. Furthermore, there is also a need to address the livelihood requirements of local communities in the affected region.
... A thorough review of the risks to ecosystems and human communities from hydropower development and management is beyond the scope of this paper, but we do provide a review, with extensive references, in the Supplementary Material. In brief, these impacts include displacement of communities and the loss of agricultural lands, conversion of flowing river habitats to reservoirs, barriers to migration of fish and other aquatic species, alterations in downstream flow patterns and water quality, and the capture of sediment within reservoirs leading to downstream changes in channel morphology and accelerated erosion of deltas (Ligon et al., 1995;Collier et al., 1996;World Commission on Dams, 2000;Thayer Scudder, 2005). In this section we examine how these environmental and social risks contribute to a set of financial risks, such as delays and cost overruns and regulatory uncertainty, that negatively impact developers and investors. ...
Article
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As governments and non-state actors strive to minimize global warming, a primary strategy is the decarbonization of power systems which will require a massive increase in renewable electricity generation. Leading energy agencies forecast a doubling of global hydropower capacity as part of that necessary expansion of renewables. While hydropower provides generally low-carbon generation and can integrate variable renewables, such as wind and solar, into electrical grids, hydropower dams are one of the primary reasons that only one-third of the world’s major rivers remain free-flowing. This loss of free-flowing rivers has contributed to dramatic declines of migratory fish and sediment delivery to agriculturally productive deltas. Further, the reservoirs behind dams have displaced tens of millions of people. Thus, hydropower challenges the world’s efforts to meet climate targets while simultaneously achieving other Sustainable Development Goals. In this paper, we explore strategies to achieve the needed renewable energy expansion while sustaining the diverse social and environmental benefits of rivers. These strategies can be implemented at scales ranging from the individual project (environmental flows, fish passage and other site-level mitigation) to hydropower cascades to river basins and regional electrical power systems. While we review evidence that project-level management and mitigation can reduce environmental and social costs, we posit that the most effective scale for finding balanced solutions occurs at the scale of power systems. We further hypothesize that the pursuit of solutions at the system scale can also provide benefits for investors, developers and governments; evidence of benefits to these actors will be necessary for achieving broad uptake of the approaches described in this paper. We test this hypothesis through cases from Chile and Uganda that demonstrate the potential for system-scale power planning to allow countries to meet low-carbon energy targets with power systems that avoid damming high priority rivers (e.g., those that would cause conflicts with other social and environmental benefits) for a similar system cost as status quo approaches. We also show that, through reduction of risk and potential conflict, strategic planning of hydropower site selection can improve financial performance for investors and developers, with a case study from Colombia.
... Poorly planned or badly executed hydroelectric projects, however, with frequent cost overruns and long delays, lack of transparency and insufficient communications with local communities, have increased the opposition to hydropower [7,8,9]. Public concerns over large social and environmental impacts, including land flooding, migration barriers, loss of biodiversity, changes to flow regimes and so on [10]. ...
Preprint
Hydropower is a renewable, controllable, and flexible source of electricity. These are instrumental features to support decarbonization efforts, as an enabler of non-controllable and variable sources of renewable electricity. Sometimes hydropower is accompanied by other services provided by multipurpose reservoirs, such as water supply, irrigation, navigation, flood control and recreation. Despite all these benefits, hydropower can be a polarizing issue. A large sample of projects with poor planning and execution provides numerous arguments for its opponents. Large and complex projects frequently suffer overcost and delays. The direct impacts are related to the disruption of river ecosystems and surrounding habitats due to the flooding of large areas, and the fragmentation of rivers caused by the construction of dams and the reduction of sediment transport that impoverishes aquatic life. People displacement and compensation are always a complex issue. Hydropower projects can also cause indirect impacts, such as additional deforestation related to the construction of workers' villages, access roads and transmission lines. Finally, reservoirs may also become a significant source of methane emission, especially in tropical areas. This paper offers an analytical approach for sustainable hydropower planning at the river basin scale called HERA: Hydropower and Environmental Resource Assessment. Built on three main components, namely geoprocessing, engineering, and optimization, HERA screens and compares hydropower development alternatives to guarantee social and environmental objectives while maximizing mentioned economic benefits. It was designed to encourage a transparent and participatory hydropower planning process from the early stages. Experience has shown this approach increases the chances of better and balanced outcomes. A case study is presented in the Ogooue river basin in Gabon.
... There is a substantial body of literature on the WCD. It includes the report of the Commission itself (WCD 2000), an external review of the Commission's work by the World Resources Institute (Dubash et al. 2001), and retrospectives by people involved in the process (e.g., Briscoe 2010; Moore et al. 2010;Scudder 2005;Steiner 2010). A full review of literature on the WCD is beyond the scope of this article (see Schulz and Adams 2019 for an overview). ...
Article
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Recent discussion of global environmental assessment processes suggests that the process of consensus creation is central to understanding the way knowledge is produced and conclusions are reached. Here we contribute to this literature by providing a case study of the World Commission on Dams, which brought together supporters and opponents of large dams, at the height of controversy about dams in the 1990s. The Commission reviewed evidence and formulated guidelines for best practice, finding a way through a political stalemate. The article draws on interviews with those involved in the Commission and discusses the historical context, form of stakeholder representation, time horizon, and leadership style as consensus-enabling conditions. We conclude that an ambitious consensual process was successful within the life of the Commission, but at the cost of carrying external actors with it, leading to challenges with dissemination and uptake of consensual recommendations.
... Hydropower dams, on the other hand, are seen as enhancing overall sustainability because they produce renewable energy or are carbon-neutral (Berga et al., 2006). In reality, dams have a finite life of 50-100 years because of siltation (and often less: Cooper et al., 2018), may not be zero-emission (Fearnside, 2016), and dambased irrigation often leads to water logging and salinity (D'Souza et al., 1998;Scudder, 2005;World Commission on Dams, 2000). Finally, compensatory efforts notwithstanding, such projects inevitably lead to a decline in the intrinsic value components of nature (McAllister et al., 2001;Murguía et al., 2016;Winemiller et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
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This is the final text version of Chapter 4. A laid-out version of the full assessment report will be made available in the coming months.
... Low-carbon energy technologies can produce negative externalities (e.g., wind turbine shadow flicker, pollution from methane generating landfills, exacerbation of local inequality due to differing accessibility to sustainable products and services). Some such effects are substantial, as with creation of large reservoirs for hydropower that flood well established communities (110) and disproportionately impact those who live nearby, who are likely to be rural, less educated and less wealthy (104). Nonetheless, in the long run, inequities associated with low-carbon energy development will be small compared to inequities ameliorated by dampening the disproportionate direct effects of fossil fuel operations, as well as the disproportionate indirect effects of climate change, on underserved, poorer communities in countries at every stage on the wealth continuum (6, 50) (Fig. 7a) Technology. ...
... Downstream, altered flood patterns affect fisheries, riverine and floodplain ecosystems, and communities. Impacts, social costs and benefits are unevenly distributed, and have often been a source of legal and political opposition Scudder 2005; WCD 2000). ...
Article
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The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was active between 1998 and 2000. Despite the Commission’s short life, it left a lasting mark on the global debate on large dams, one of the most intractable and conflicted issues in environmental governance. Existing accounts of the Commission focus chiefly on its recommendations and their influence on dam planners. Another major topic of interest has been the novelty of making global environmental policy through multi-stakeholder dialogue rather than through intergovernmental negotiation. This focus on technicalities, results, and institutional design underplays the Commission’s political significance. It was a bold and innovative attempt to find common ground between promoters and opponents of dams on which a new way of thinking about and planning dams could be built. In this paper, we focus on the emergence of the Commission, in response to the evolving conflict over dams, particularly between the World Bank and its critics. We explore the processes that led to the establishment of the Commission and its role as an attempt to transform conflict into cooperation by bringing together pro- and anti-dam communities.
... Rigorous research on the consequences of peace or human security for the environment is virtually non-existent. Scudder, in 2012 [43], provided a comprehensive assessment globally by examining the political costs, benefits, and risks of the development of large dam projects and questioning the suitability of the current development paradigm for large dams. In his next contribution, Scudder, in 2018 [44], conducted a long-term analysis of the negative impacts of large dams on different continents, the Middle East, and Africa within three sets of periods, i.e., 1956-1973, 1976-1997, and 1998-2018. ...
Article
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Using water to enforce a political agenda is a global concern for peacebuilding. Hence, understanding hydro-politics is essential when predicting possible water-based conflict scenarios between riparian countries. A structured theory covering most of the possible events involved in hydro-politics would help assess with a sufficient understanding the reasons and consequences of water conflict. This study proposed a comprehensive theory of hydro-politics, particularly those related to water impoundment and water control through upstream country dams, to identify the root causes of water conflicts between riparian states and the factors of global challenges that arise in conflicts. The framework used eight phases elaborated on the key theories of international relations and demonstrated the possible connection between water conflict/cooperation events and the adopted international relations doctrine at the state level. Each phase illustrates the hydro-political relations between the riparian countries, expected level of conflict, power balance, and possible consequences. Additionally, 21 international case studies were used to illustrate these phases. The theory may assist decision makers in analyzing collective risk and alleviating any expected negative implications of water conflicts.
... Storages associated with surface reservoirs can be problematic because of concerns related to environmental impacts, safety, size of these investment infrastructure, increasing dependence on foreign credit, dispossession of rural indigenous communities, and loss of rural livelihoods (Carr, 2017;Tatlhego & D'Odorico, 2022;Muller et al., 2021). While we refrain from venturing in the heated debate on the pros and cons of large dam infrastructure and whether they are needed for economic development of these countries (Scudder, 2012), we point to the fact that water storage can also be achieved through managed aquifer recharge, farm-scale detention ponds (e.g., He et al., 2021;Van Der Zaag and Gupta, 2008), or small-scale reservoirs that could be less challenging both environmentally and financially (Ross & Hasnain, 2018;Sprenger et al., 2017). These options need to be adequately explored as a possible pathway for irrigation development in Africa. ...
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Africa is a major hotspot of food insecurity with climate change and population growth as major drivers. Irrigation expansion can sustainably increase agricultural productivity and adapt crops to climate change. We use agro‐hydrological, climate, and socio‐economic models to quantify crop production with irrigation expansion and perform food security analyses for different adaptation scenarios for African countries under baseline and 3°C warmer climate conditions. We find that under a 3°C warmer climate the total food production in Africa can only feed 1.35 billion people, when the continent's population is expected to reach 3.5 billion, leaving a food deficit equivalent to 2.15 billion people. Increasing agricultural productivity with irrigation alone will not be enough to achieve food self‐sufficiency. Therefore, future food demand will likely be met by other means such as cropland expansion or greater reliance on imports which would further expose African populations to uncertainty from the volatility in global food prices.
... They assessed E-Flows using flow data of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers for 1972-1982 and 1977-1987, respectively. The annual average reduction in potential energy production due to E-Flows provision in the Alaknanda-Bhagirathi basin provision of the fish passage in HEPs design needs modification due to the low effectiveness of these passages (Brown et al., 2013;Raut et al., 2020), whereas many other developed methods are regional (O'Hanley et al., 2020;Person et al., 2014) or not a feasible solution due to ecological, socio-economic, and political constraints, i.e., the removal/reallocation of existing dams (Bednarek, 2001;Doyle et al., 2003;Scudder, 2012). Various researchers proposed a regime of flows (Richter et al., 1997), i.e., environmental flows or simply E-Flows (Arthington et al., 2018;Tharme, 2003), to fulfill the necessary conditions for the maintenance of river ecosystems. ...
Article
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Significant hydropower projects have resulted in fragmentation of the rivers and alteration of flow regimes with consequent adverse effects on the river’s ecosystems. To conserve aquatic ecosystems, the minimal desired river flow regime—environmental flows—is advised to maintain in the river system. While maintaining environmental flows, it is equally important to carry out the impact of environmental flows over the hydro-energy generation capacity of hydropower projects. In the present study, the energy generation reduction of provisioning environmental flows has been assessed for five major hydro electric projects on Rivers Bhagirathi and Alaknanda, the two significant head-streams of India’s national river Ganga, located in the Himalayan uplands. The E-Flows assessment done by Tare et al., (2017) is used in the present study, which rationally integrates the ecological and geo-morphological needs of the river. Tare et al., (2017) recommended monthly E-Flows for the upper Ganga basin from ~ 23 to ~ 40% and ~ 29 to ~ 53% of natural flows for the wet and lean periods, respectively. They assessed E-Flows using flow data of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers for 1972–1982 and 1977–1987, respectively. The annual average reduction in potential energy production due to E-Flows provision in the Alaknanda-Bhagirathi basin is found in between 14.9 and 21.0% for these hydro electric projects. The estimated reduction in energy generation is higher in the lean flow period than in the wet period. This study shows that about 79 to 85% of capacity power generation is possible in the basin after provisioning E-Flows.
... Therefore, lessons from the DIDR scholarship can be transferred into retreat praxis. In terms of its pitfalls, studies show DIDR projects involving highways, dams, hydroelectricity, transportation systems, energy infrastructure, and urban renewal programs have not only impoverished those forcibly resettled (de Wet, 2006;Bisht, 2014;Scudder, 2012) but have resulted in landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, increased morbidity and mortality, food insecurity, economic marginalization, and negative social, cultural and psychological impacts (de Sherbinin et al., 2011;Picciotto et al., 2018). A study by Piggott-McKellar et al (2020) which examined the success of 203 DIDR case studies using a sustainable livelihoods approach found physical outcomes as the only aspect in which improvement was seen while social, financial, human, natural and cultural outcomes fared worse. ...
Article
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As managed retreat programs expand across the globe, there is an urgent need to assess whether these programs are reducing exposure to climatic hazards, enhancing adaptive capacity, and improving the living conditions of communities in a just and equitable manner or are they exacerbating existing risks and vulnerabilities? Strictly speaking, are retreat programs successful? Using an expansive intersectional justice approach to examine 138 post-resettlement case studies published between 2000 and 2021 across the Global North and South, we identified five typologies of success – techno-managerial, eco-restorative, compensatory, reformative, and transformative – and their trade-offs and synergies. Our meta-analysis incorporated a variety of metrics: relocation types, funding, decision making, socio-economic class, land use change, livelihood options, and social impacts. We found 26% of cases failed, 43% were successful, and 30% are on-going and therefore success was undetermined. The techno-managerial cases, while successful in the limited terms of relocating residents, paid little attention to equity and justice. The eco-restorative and compensatory cases reduced hazard exposure but revealed the synergies and tensions associated with social, ecological, and intergenerational justice. The reformative and transformative cases improved community wellbeing, rootedness, and access to livelihoods while incorporating diverse justice concerns to different degrees. By intersecting these typologies with multiple dimensions of justice, this study advances a novel planning and analytical tool for assessing the potential success or failure of current and future retreat programs.
... A significant reason for this were the growing critiques of such large, top-down infrastructure projects including increasing evidence of their economic costs and serious questions over their ability to deliver promised gains (McCully 2001;Khagram 2004;Adams 1992). This precipitated major funders like the World Bank and US ExIm Bank to withdraw, whilst a global enquiry, the World Commission on Dams (WCD), was instigated to assess the infrastructure's record (Scudder 2005;Everard 2013;Schulz and Adams 2019). Meanwhile movements in America and Europe campaigning to pull dams down gained momentum (Lowry 2003). ...
Article
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Globally, and especially in Africa, twentieth-century dams were typically imagined through high modernist ideology as the premier development project, but this ended with the decade-long hiatus in dam construction from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. However, dam-building is back. Does this mark the resurgence of a modernising ideology, of grand plans of mega-infrastructures implemented from an enlightened vanguard? This article analyses this question using Rwanda and Tanzania as case studies. It makes a twofold contribution. The first, to the literature on why the resurgence of dams is happening. Using theory, it shows how to understand the influence of ideology alongside other strategic factors and conceptualises the application of high modernism to dam building. This allows a more precise assessment of the influence of ideology on dam resurgence, with the cases of Rwanda and Tanzania demonstrating significant contrasts with past tendencies to aggrandise the infrastructure itself as the harbinger of progress. The second contribution is to this special issue on the ideology influencing a raft of 21st century illiberal states in Africa that have embarked on grand development missions. The article compliments other texts in this issue, demonstrating the presence of an evolved illiberal modernisers ideology that combines tenants of the past with more recent norms. Thus, an assumption of technologies’ ability to linearly generate development is combined with contrasting ideas about sustainability, the importance of the private sector’s role and hydropower’s limitations. This demonstrates the way today’s illiberal modernisers, engaged in global debates, adapt and update development ideology. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... First, this article expands how resettlement scholars have analysed displaced populations' hydropower-induced food insecurity. Recent studies on hydropower development in Laos and in other countries have revealed how substandard construction or poor maintenance of dams causes the obstruction of migratory fi shes and agricultural land degradation (see Dombrowsky and Hensengerth 2018;Lebel et al. 2020;Scudder 2005). Th ese adverse impacts of building dams in turn have serious consequences for food security (see Baird and Barney 2017;Baird and Shoemaker 2008;Blake and Barney 2018;Fullbrook 2013;Ziv et al. 2012). ...
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This article investigates how poorly monitored relocation programmes of a Chinese hydropower project in Laos have negatively influenced food experiences of resettled villagers as corporeal, social and communal beings. It extends the analysis of recent hydropower resettlement studies that have focused on how dam construction induces food insecurity but paid less attention to the villagers’ strategies to tackle food shortages. The point of departure is an anthropological investigation of two prevailing eating phrases in the new settlement: ‘eating together’ (commensal encounters) and ‘eating with the people’ (a corruption metaphor in Laos). I argue that many indigent interlocutors have become more food insecure and poorer after their resettlement because their livelihood and food support are inadequately provided, and the ‘big people’ allegedly steal their financial compensation. This precarious situation has deepened as the new neighbourhood arrangement has halted some commensal or foodsharing practices. This ethnographic analysis of how hydropower-induced hunger is experienced, viewed and confronted from below contributes to ongoing discussions in hydropower resettlement research and food anthropology. French Abstract: Cet article étudie comment les programmes de réinstallation mal suivis d’un projet hydroélectrique chinois au Laos ont influencé négativement les expériences alimentaires des villageois réinstallés en tant qu’êtres corporels, sociaux et communautaires. Il approfondit l’analyse des études récentes sur la réinstallation des populations vivant de l’hydroélectricité, qui se sont concentrées sur la manière dont la construction des barrages induit l’insécurité alimentaire, mais qui ont accordé moins d’attention aux stratégies des villageois pour faire face aux pénuries alimentaires. Mon point de départ est une enquête anthropologique sur deux expressions alimentaires courantes dans la nouvelle colonie : « manger ensemble » (rencontres commensales) et « manger avec les gens » (métaphore de la corruption au Laos). Je soutiens que de nombreux interlocuteurs indigents sont devenus plus pauvres et ont été plongés en situation d’insécurité alimentaire après leur réinstallation parce que leurs moyens de subsistance et leur soutien alimentaire sont insuffisants et que les « grands » leur volent leurs compensations financières. Cette situation précaire s’est aggravée car le nouvel arrangement de voisinage a mis fin à certaines pratiques commensales ou de partage de la nourriture, de sorte que les villageois ont actuellement du mal à manger à leur faim. Cette étude ethnographique contribue aux discussions en cours dans la recherche sur la réinstallation de l’hydroélectricité et l’anthropologie alimentaire.
... Therefore, dams are built for specific purposes such as water supply, flood control, irrigation, navigation, sediment control, and hydroelectric power. A dam is a cornerstone for the development and management of the water resources of a river basin (Scudder, 2012). Multipurpose dam projects have also been implemented in many developing countries and regions (GAP/Southeastern Anatolia Project, Ataturk Dam in Turkey (Bilen, 2009), Bhakra Nangal in India and High Aswan Dam in Egypt . ...
... The negative social-ecological impacts generated by large-scale hydropower dams have been reported widely in the literature (Benchimol and Peres, 2015;Fearnside and Pueyo, 2012;Grill et al., 2019;Hay et al., 2019;Winemiller et al., 2016;Ziv et al., 2012). One of the most severe impacts is population resettlement or displacement (Égré and Senécal, 2003) because it is a multigenerational process (Scudder, 2005) that impoverishes and disrupts the lives of those being resettled (Cernea, 1997a). The World Commission on Dams (WCD) estimated that last century up to 80 million people were displaced due to dam construction (WCD, 2000). ...
Article
Construction of large-scale hydroelectric dams has increased in recent decades in the Global South and emerging economies. Population resettlement is one of the most severe socioeconomic impacts caused by dam construction. Processes aiming to mitigate its impacts and restore livelihoods are often described as inadequate. The resettlement process’ ineffectiveness could be explained by persistent deficiency in citizen participation, which is also a sign of the impacted population not being able to participate in the process affecting their lives. Our research presents a medium-N comparative study showing the pathways explaining deficiency of participation across 23 large-scale hydroelectric dams in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. We conducted a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis based on information from a qualitative meta-analysis and secondary sources. Our results suggest that there are at least two scenarios to explain deficiency in participation. The first scenario includes dams constructed during autocracies, mostly before the release of the World Commission on Dams guidelines. The second scenario involves the largest dams in our analysis, with high economic and political interests at stake built under both autocratic and democratic regimes, despite the presence of what we categorized as effective forms of public opposition to the project and resettlement process. We discuss features that make large hydroelectric dams less participatory or inherently undemocratic in the Global South.
... But empowerment approaches are above all, in the sense of improving the competencies and capabilities among affected people to enhance the social linkages and experiencebased learning. These training and skill development programs would enable them to take part in project activities, to be informed at every stage, and be active in setting new developmental plans (Scudder, 2005). ...
Article
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In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
... But empowerment approaches are above all, in the sense of improving the competencies and capabilities among affected people to enhance the social linkages and experiencebased learning. These training and skill development programs would enable them to take part in project activities, to be informed at every stage, and be active in setting new developmental plans (Scudder, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
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The aim of this research is to determine the factors that threaten sustainable socioeconomic development in the Rio de la Plata Basin, the second largest river in the South American Continent in terms of drainage area. Within the scope of the research, the literature was scanned and data on the subject were obtained. From these data reviewed by the text analysis method, the following conclusions were reached: In order to expand the agricultural areas, large forest areas in Plata Basin are eliminated. This situation in the basin causes problems such as flood, erosion and sedimentation. Another factor that threatens sustainable development in the basin is pollution. The source of this situation is the insufficient infrastructure in many of the rapidly growing cities, the lack of adequate treatment facilities in industrial areas and the intensive use of chemicals in agricultural areas. In addition, floods occur in the basin from time to time. Moreover, the economic growth, which is achieved by destroying the environment and the change in the climate around the world will probably increase the floods in Plata Basin and the damages arising therefrom. However, drought is effective in some parts of the research area. Consequently; there is a water shortage, agriculture and livestock activities are damaged and there are disruptions in river transportation. Another factor threatening sustainable development in the basin is the loss of habitat caused by human interventions. Hidrovia Channel Project is another issue that has the potential to threaten sustainable development in the basin. Indeed, the opening of this channel in the basin; can further increase deforestation and habitat destruction.
Article
The Lao People's Democratic Republic's aspirations to become the ‘battery’ of Southeast Asia has involved plans for a cascade of hydropower dams on the mainstream of the transboundary Mekong River. This has triggered the unprecedented undertaking of public stakeholder consultations under the Mekong River Commission's Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement (PNPCA). This paper focuses on PNPCA stakeholder consultations organized in Thailand and Cambodia, and seeks to understand how these stakeholder consultations, despite their merits in information sharing, have come to be criticized by civil society as a ‘rubber stamp’ for ‘participation’ in Lao hydropower development. Building upon the literature on public participation in development, critical hydropolitics, and stakeholder engagement in Mekong water governance, we seek to conceptualize a critical politics of public participation by adopting a relational approach towards identifying the key challenges relating to participation. We suggest that a relational approach must consider how the interrelations between the multiple formal and informal tracks of stakeholder engagement shape one another and overall opportunities for participation, and how power relations within these spaces impact on perceptions towards public participation. Distrust towards state-organized participatory spaces can be traced from the state-organized participatory spaces to another key interrelation: the power relations between state and nonstate actors in the multi-scalar political spaces that extend beyond participatory spaces. This paper examines how anti-participatory forces pose a challenge to the emergence of both state and nonstate participatory spaces, providing additional insights into the state-society dynamics that influence environmental outcomes around large-scale infrastructural development.
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A growing debate concerns the developmental implications of booming relations between ‘Southern’ powers and countries across Africa. Whilst mainstream commentary worries about nefarious influences, others explore supposedly increasing ‘African agency’, a term capturing the ability of African states to define their international relations. South-South Cooperation, given its supposed principles asserting sovereignty, non-interventionism, and demand-led projects, is understood to boost such agency. This article analyses such claims with a detailed case study of Indian governmental infrastructure financing in Africa, the Nyabarongo Dam in Rwanda, filling a significant gap concerning under-researched India–Africa relations. Originally, South-South cooperation was rooted in a programme that combined technical cooperation with a radical political critique of global power and a call for reform. However, this study of India’s concessional finance suggests that in its twenty-first century manifestation, South-South Cooperation is often decoupled from a political programme, leaving only open-ended, depoliticized state-to-state cooperation initiatives. The article demonstrates that whilst India’s development cooperation generated useful opportunities, it acted to empower companies and exacerbated the Rwandan state’s structural regulatory weaknesses. The article traces this to the policymaking practices of India’s development cooperation, showing that a decoupling of political ambitions results in a narrow state-to-state focus with an abdication of responsibility for development outcomes, marginalizing accountability to average African citizens.
Article
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Hydropower is an important renewable energy resource and one of the most efficient power generation systems on the planet. Despite all of the benefits of hydropower plants, there may be some drawbacks. However, its growth is accompanied by negative environmental consequences. Hydropower dams are still being constructed at a rapid pace in the developing world and are causing disturbances to river ecology, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, increased greenhouse gases emissions, as well as displacing thousands of people and affecting their food system, water sources, and agriculture. While environmentalists around the country reject massive projects with large reservoirs, locals in Himachal Pradesh consider modest projects as a scourge as well. The steady deterioration in environmental parameters in the hills has serious connotations for sustainable development, not only for the hill areas, but for the country as a whole. The goal of this research is to look at the environmental effects of hydropower and possible mitigating strategies. In short, our aim has been to study how damming has had ecological impacts on the dislocated people, to assess their reaction, receptivity, and outlook towards the projects. The interview method was adopted for collecting data. Survey has been conducted with the help of a well designed interview schedule.
Preprint
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Hydropower energy is a clean alternative energy that has less impact on global climate change than fossil energy. However, the subsequent displacement and resettlement caused by dam construction is a global challenge perplexing the displaced population and the stability of the local socio-economic system. Without proper reconstruction and rehabilitation, the resettlers were highly risked in impoverishment. The Chinese government has formulated and implemented the post-relocation support (PReS) policy for reservoir resettlement and has continuously supported the resettlers to improve their livelihoods and socio-economic conditions since 2006. This paper focus on the 20 years dimension before and after policy formation, tests the variation of resettlers’ livelihood capital and explores the effectiveness of the PReS policy and its blank spots based on a survey of 360 affected households by three big hydroelectric dams in China. The results show that reservoir resettlers would have caused the overall decline of resettlers’ livelihood capital. The prominent problem is that the reduction of land resources and population relocation leads to the changes of resettlers’ livelihood diversification and lifestyle change, which puts forward new requirements for the improvement of job skills and personal capability; the policy plays a significant role in rapidly improving the social, economic, and physical assets of resettlers in the early stage of reservoir resettlement; from the time scale of 15 years of policy implementation, the resettlement policy has an obvious slow-release effect on making up for the improvement of natural resources development and human capital; there are still blank spots in the current resettlement policy. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust and extend the policy for specific groups of people. Keywords: reservoir resettlement; resettlers; livelihoods capital; post-relocation support (PReS)
Book
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Research has been conducted on the social and spatial impacts of dam expropriation, large displacements and re�settlement. For practical reasons, this study focuses on the expropriation and resettlement observed around the Çat Dam, located in the central eastern province of Malatya. The study attempts to shed light on its impacts with particular at�tention to resettlement, education, economic conditions, gender issues, and social change in relation to policymaking. The study is presented in five chapters. The introductory chapter presents a literature review of dam projects and the displace�ment processes in Turkey and around the world. This chapter also includes the study’s methodology. The second chapter concentrates on displacements with particular attention to those caused by dam construction, and discusses some gene�ral problems related to resettlement. In this respect, some em�pirical studies on the resettlement process and the outcomes of various dam projects around world are presented. Further, the risks of poverty and risk management are discussed in detail. The reconstruction (IRR) model of Michel Cernea and Thayer Scudder’s theory of the patterns of resettlement pro�cess are explained. In the third chapter, the experiences of the displaced populations are presented with an overview of the geographical, economic, social, and cultural structures of expropriated villages within the Çat Dam project in Malatya. The problems that emerged from expropriation and the dist�ribution of compensation will also be taken up in this chapter. The fourth chapter reports the results of an empirical survey. Following an overview of Malatya, the village of Tohma, sett�led by the government, Sütlüce and Tecde neighborhoods, those neighborhoods having received compensation and be�ing resettled by their choice, and the economic, cultural and social conditions of those settled are summarized. The condi�tion of the resettled populations is assessed and interpreted in the light of Cernea and Scudder’s theories on resettlement risks and the state of the displaced populations.
Chapter
As mentioned in the introduction, dam projects tend to be discussed mainly from two points of view, one side stressing the advantages, the other insisting on the disadvantages of such undertakings. This Chapter looks into these discussions; to do so it is subdivided into three parts. In the first one, two controversial projects are presented, the Aswan High Dam and the Three Gorges Dam. The second part deals with the interesting and highly relevant question of sustainability of hydropower, while the third gives a few examples of some wrong arguments which have been used against hydropower or a specific project. The aim here is to show, once again, that the situation does in no way correspond to a simple black and white picture, but that there are many graduations in between, and that simple answers often tend to be wrong.
Chapter
This subject includes all topics related to living organisms (with the exception of the human population) and their habitats. For the practical purpose of an ESIA, under this heading one has to deal with the species of plants and animals living in the affected area, and with their habitats.
Chapter
As mentioned in the introduction, the focus of this book is on environmental impacts of dam projects and their assessment. The issues related to social impacts and resettlement have found broad coverage in the literature.
Chapter
Mitigation is “the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something. (Oxford English Dictionary, https://www.lexico.com/definition/mitigation).
Chapter
As shortly described in Sect. 4.2.4, the construction period is the time where most of the impacts become manifest, either in the form of impacts directly caused by construction activities—many of which will then be over and no longer of any relevance—or as a preparation of the permanent changes which will then characterise the new situation once the project goes into operation.
Chapter
In his book entitled The Future of Large Dams, under the heading Should large dams be built?, Thayer Scudder states that “The unfortunate answer is yes, but …” (Scudder in The future of large dams. Dealing with social, environmental, institutional and political costs, Earthscan, London, 2005: 295). The “but” is a request for best practice in environmental and social issues related to hydropower projects, and his book provides ample evidence, mainly from a social perspective, showing that best practice is still not reached, and often by a wide margin. This is certainly also true for topics of environmental concern, as has been shown above with numerous examples. In this final chapter, after a few comments on the future of hydropower (keeping this very short, since this is not my area of expertise, and in the hope not to pass as too much of a “terrible simplifier”), the question of how to go on and hopefully to improve the ESIA process is addressed. This needs to be done on two levels: first, the ESIA as such has to be improved, and this does not only refer to carrying out the necessary studies and preparing the reports, but has to include preparation (TOR!), the administrative procedure and the evaluation process as well. Secondly, and arguably even more important, progress must be made in implementation of the measures identified, proposed and accepted. Without reaching a good level in this respect, everything else would have been in vain. A number of points are raised for aiming at improvements on both levels, being aware of the fact that a final “best practice” will never be reached, not least because, as emphasised in Sect. 21.2.3, “… the times they are a’changin”! Improvement is an ongoing process.
Article
This paper examines whether the prosociality of village leaders who were involved in the original implementation of a resettlement decision impact the well-being of households from seven villages four years after the displacement. In particular, we report the significant statistical correlation between the level of group cooperation of village officials as elicited from a public good game in seven rural villages and the reported levels of life satisfaction four years after the resettlement. The data comes from two sources: (i) a laboratory experiment with village officials at the time of resettlement, and (ii) follow-up telephone interviews with resettled villagers. We find that these prosocial attitudes of leaders complement other sustainable livelihood measures in promoting the well-being of resettled villagers.
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Lagging other components, project-induced resettlement rarely, if ever, is completed after those resettled are compensated and replacement infrastructure handed-over. Initiating livelihood restoration programs may jumpstart but fall short of re-articulating dismantled local economies. Successful resettlement requires pre- and post-relocation actions that will help resellers and their hosts re-articulate new routine social and economic arrangements and improve their well-being. This Special Issue examines the distinct challenges of the post-relocation phase of resettlement. During this phase, the resettlement burdens shift from the relocation project to the resettlers, their hosts, and third parties; from individual to collective issues; and from mitigation to development. For decades, China has experienced with a variety of long-term, post-relocation policies, programs and methodologies. The contributors provide a glimpse of an extensive toolkit being crafted for use in this localized context-defined phase. Some are transferable. Others are not. Post-relocation support (PReS) adds value to improving the likelihood of successful outcomes.
Article
Nations in the global South have developed hydropower projects at a rapid pace in recent decades, most notably Brazil and China. These projects have long-documented impacts on social and ecological systems, yet the implications of hydropower for human well-being and health are not fully understood. In this paper, we examine eight Brazilian Amazon communities in the Madeira river basin, near the Jirau and Santo Antônio dams (sample size: 536 households). We evaluate how impacts on community resources, social capital, and the experience of resettlement influence self-rated health in these communities. Results suggest that the dams strained community resources and social capital, which were associated with reductions in self-rated health. In particular, cognitive social capital (i.e., trust) is lower after the dams' construction. The effect of resettlement and compensation is more nuanced and qualified. This work suggests that hydropower projects have broad deleterious impacts on well-being and health of human populations in hosting regions and that better directed efforts are required on the part of dam developers to reduce these negative outcomes.
Article
En Costa Rica, en la década de 1970, se desplazó de forma involuntaria a 2500 personas de las comunidades de Tronadora, Arenal y otros poblados desconcentrados en el campo para construir el megaproyecto Hidroeléctrico Arenal. Al presentar mayor población, Arenal fue de interés para la investigación, cuyos resultados se exponen en este artículo. Se indagó sobre la restitución agroforestal, recurriendo a fuentes secundarias, y se aplicaron entrevistas a conocedores del caso. El análisis fue cualitativo, con un alcance exploratorio y descriptivo. Un 94 % de la población de Arenal optó por el reasentamiento involuntario. El 100 % de las familias reasentadas (325) contó con espacio para replicar el huerto casero. Se les brindó árboles para usos diversos y, con el tiempo, la agroforestería recuperó su funcionalidad y fue engalanando el paisaje.
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The societal roles that hydropower and dams can play, including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, are neither fully appreciated nor understood in most countries. These have been a serious bone of contention between pro- and anti-dam lobbies since mid-1980s. During the post-2010 period, discussions on the benefits and costs of large dams became more nuanced. Institutions like the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank decided to reverse their earlier policies and started to fund large dams again.
Article
Relocating communities out of increasingly risk-prone areas is effective for adapting to climate change. Relocations are particularly relevant for small island regions, where sea-level-rise-induced retreat from the coast will be inevitable for some communities. However, relocations are contested because communities are generally reluctant to move, and decision-makers face high political risks. As a consequence, relocations mostly occur after extreme events. In such situations, existing rules can be undermined by politics and power, driving relocation policy and resulting in varying relocation outcomes. However, these political and policy dimensions of post-disaster relocations have received little attention. Here, we study the politics and power dynamics of two post-tsunami relocations in the Maldives. Using process tracing, we find that vested interests, rather than adaptation considerations, explain varying relocation outcomes. Our findings highlight the complex power structures inherent in post-disaster relocations, which explain why similar events and drivers did not produce similar outcomes.
Article
This paper outlines the ‘People’s Livelihoods Analysis in Economic Displacement’ (PLANNED) framework. It aims to strengthen the knowledge base that informs decisions around avoiding project-induced economic displacement in the project design phase. The PLANNED framework emphasises the need for empathy and respect for human rights. It advocates for adequate timing, resources and capacity to assess impacts on livelihoods and develop livelihood restoration and enhancement measures. It also advocates for collaborative approaches to planning that involve project and lender staff, communities, civil society, and government at early stages. The framework was developed by reflecting on a review of relevant literature and on interviews with practitioners experienced in assessing the impacts created by project-induced physical and economic displacement. The PLANNED framework places the potentially economically-displaced people at the centre of the assessment and appraisal of projects.
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Dams are the biggest ‘development’ displacement agent. In this paper, we explore the gendered processes and structures of dam-induced displacement and resettlement on Indigenous communities and how displaced men conceptualise masculinities and gender relations within those communities. Drawing upon results of previous research undertaken in India and Malaysia, these two disparate cases allow us to examine how displacement affected men and changed their lives, and subsequently how they (re)constructed and (re)negotiated masculinities and gender-social relations in post-resettlement lives. We highlight two critical issues, namely, household and community land/resources, and compensation and rehabilitation processes to illustrate how gender roles, and in particular masculinities and men’s roles, were transformed in dam displacement in both the countries, and analyse the consequences for women, family life and gender relations. We argue that the outcomes of gender and social asymmetries have largely depended on the realities of power, allowing men to reconstruct their masculinities to retain stereotyped notions of male superiority and female subordination.
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Background: two Swedish engineering firms, ABB and Skanska, signed a private contract with the Government of Sri Lanka to construct the Kotmale hydro power plant, a rock-filled dam, roads, and associated infrastructures. As it happened, they defaulted on this economically. The Swedish Parliament decided to take over the project and complete it, in effect making it an official Swedish infrastructure development project. It soon became clear - as should be expected - that next to no attention had been given to the resettlement of the many people who lived in the Kotmale valley above the dam. There were no data on who had been involuntarily resettlement, how many they were, which of several downstream Mahaweli resettlement schemes they were moved to, and compensation issues, to just name the most glaring problems. Sida decided, after the project was completed, that an evaluation of the resettlement aspects of the project was necessary. I was hired to do this evaluation, working together with a team of local people in the Dept. of Geography, Sri Jayewardene University. We prepared a report that, in spite of completely lacking baseline data, managed to conclude with some certainty how the resettled people had fared. As the project was completed, and the people resettled, there was very little to do about the situation, not the least because the government did not seem to be very interested in it. The report did give recommendations to Sida on how to avoid a similar situation in the future.
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Explores the impact of the long-term experiences of a North American Indian tribe which has resisted relocation for over 70 years. -C.J.Barrow
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The work of the Mahaweli Development Programme based on this Master Plan commenced in 1972, with the objectives of overcoming three major problems, namely, unemployment, constraints on balance of payments arising from large imports of food, and a shortage of power for industrial development and rural electrification. Its early success level is indicative of its potential to increase family incomes and the social status of the beneficiaries who were all of very low income levels when they were initially inducted into the project area. In this sense, the success of a settlement project should be primarily judged from the margin of the overall progress among beneficiaries in relation to their initial background rather than from the absolute return to investment on the project. There are comments by T.Scudder. -from Author
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This book concerns a part of the floodplain of the Komadugu Yobe Basin in north east Nigeria. This area is no exception to the general pattern of local exploitation and externally-imposed development. Flooding patterns in this area are described in Chapters 3, 4 and 9. The wetlands support extensive wet-season rice farming, flood-recession agriculture and dry-season irrigation. The extent of irrigation has greatly increased over the 1980s, largely as a result of the advent of small petrol-powered pumps and the ban on the importation of wheat in 1988. The floodplain also supports large numbers of fishing people most of whom also farm, and is grazed by very substantial numbers of Fulani livestock. There is also an important dispatch from the wetlands of fuelwood and fodder for horses. There is now a strong export of other agricultural products, for example peppers and wheat, and fuelwood. Economic activities in the wetlands are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8. -from Authors
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This paper has four parts: 1) a brief resume of recent developments in the Canadian north; 2) a critical analysis of previous anthropological assessments of the changes being undergone by hunting societies in the light of recent data on Cree hunters in Quebec; 3) an account of the nature of the dependences encountered by the Cree in interaction with the state; and 4) an account of some new and innovative responses initiated by the Cree, and designed to enhance their autonomy in the face of present changes. The paper concludes by indicating some implications of these developments for the theoretical orientations and the practical activities of anthropologists who study hunting peoples. -Author
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Hydropower can be a major bridge to the urgently needed transition to sustainable energy. Today the hydro industry risks facing stagnation because it has not kept up with the need to become environmentally sustainable. Much of the hydro industry seems unaware of what environmental sustainability is when applied to hydro. This paper defines sustainability, and suggests how to select better hydro sites, demote worse ones, and maximize the sustainability of a selected site.
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Scenarios for the 21st century range from technology and business-oriented visions of a global boom to more pessimistic ones based on increasing environmental degradation, poverty with a rising gap between rich and poor, and societal breakdown. Drawing on his own views and those of 53 other anthropologists, the author discusses the likelihood of the more pessimistic vision prevailing if present trends continue.
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(1) Different forest types are related to the frequency and duration of flooding on the Tana River floodplain in Kenya, which supports mainly evergreen forest in an otherwise semi-arid area. (2) The results suggest that floodplain forest growth can only be sustained at or above elevations which receive floods of a critical maximum frequency and duration. Tolerance to flooding thus seems to be a major determinant of forest distribution. (3) A series of dams have been constructed in the Tana headwaters. The probable changes to the floodplain forest resulting from a new hydrological regime are discussed. Low regeneration levels in the Tana floodplain forest may reflect dependence on periodic favourable hydrological conditions for regeneration. It is suggested that while tolerance to maximum flood levels is important in all floodplain forests, floodplain forests in semi-arid areas also depend on minimum flooding frequencies and durations.
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The Bakolori Dam was built in the mid-1970s on the River Sokoto in Northwest Nigeria to supply a 30 000 ha irrigation scheme. The dam reduced the magnitude of the wet season floods which supported an extensive and sophisticated agricultural system and a fishery on which a population of some 50 000 people depended. Reduced flooding caused a shift from rice to lower value millet and sorghum crops in the wet season, and a significant reduction in the extent of dry season cultivation. Fish populations apparently declined, and fishing decreased. Estimates of the consequent loss of production show how a more complete economic appraisal of the scheme at Bakolori would have been less favourable than the calculation upon which it was approved. Downstream effects of dam projects are rarely considered in project appraisal. Some reasons for this are discussed, and opportunities for remedial development in the flood-plain are outlined.
Article
Publication describing forests on floodplains in semi-arid and arid parts of Africa are reviewed in order to identify common features in their form and functioning. These forests are little studied but valuable natural resources. Their composition and extent appear to be greatly influenced by both natural and human factors. The distribution of vegetation within them is related to frequency of flooding, and their overall extent to the depth of the water table. On most floodplains, mature trees can only exist on the highest parts, whilst grasslands dominate in the more frequently flooded areas. On floodplains in areas of very low rainfall, the forest vegetation is more dependent on groundwater and the outer forest edge tends to be more abrupt than in wetter areas. These general patterns are complicated by the firing of floodplain grasslands by pastoralists to improve grazing for their stock and by browsing by wild animals. A study of some of these factors in the Tana River floodplain forests of Kenya is then described, and the results discussed in the context of general trends apparent from the literature.
Article
(1) The importance of the emergent grass, Echinochloa stagnina, in Lake Kainji as a source of dry season fodder is described. (2) A simple model of the colonization potential of E. stagnina is described and is used as a means of exploring the effects of harvesting of the grass. (3) The model demonstrates that between 28% to 46% of the Lake's surface could have been covered by E. stagnina during the years 1972-1983. (4) Approximately 75% of the E. stagnina standing crop could be cut for harvest each year on a sustainable basis, assuming a colonization factor of 5.1 and assuming constant productivity from year to year. (5) The model is particularly sensitive to variation in the colonization factor and an accurate estimate of this is important.
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In this article the author argues the need for a new approach to African river basin development whereby dams combine hydropower generation with the release of a controlled flood, synchronized with reservoir drawdown, for the benefit of riverine populations and eco-systems. Annual flood regimes have sustained the economies of mil-lions of African producers for centuries without environmental degradation. Not only are those producers dependent on annual flood regimes, but their productivity, with associated multiplier effects, could be significantly increased by low resource development strat-egies, including the improved water management that controlled flooding would provide.
Article
Man-made lakes are fast multiplying, particularly on the developing continent of Africa. The latest, Lake Cabora Bassa on the Middle Zambezi, began to fill on 5 December 1974 and is expected to produce electricity by September 1975. As with all new large reservoirs, the formidable engineering problems have been overcome at great cost. However, little attention has been paid to the consequences of the barrage on the valley ecosystem. Some of the major ecological problems, such as aquatic infestant macrophytes, effects on man in terms of health and welfare and the effects on the river downstream from the dam, are discussed. If care is taken to set up a dialogue between engineer and ecologist, then some of the problems can be avoided or at least foreseen. There is a great need for conservation legislation in order to protect certain elements of the Zambezi ecosystem in Moçambique from over-exploitation and ignorance. Wise conservation management—setting up of game parks and reserves, management of tourism, fishing restrictions, etc.—must be brought into effect ab initio if the full potential of Lake Cabora Bassa is to be realised and safeguarded. With sparing use of such legislation, Cabora Bassa could become one of the most important resources in the development of Moçambique.
Article
Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.
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Introduction Students of West African rice agriculture (cf. Dresch 1949, Mohr 1969) often distinguish between the Upper Guinea coast, where wet rice has been grown for centuries in permanent swamp fields recovered from the mangrove, and a more extensive area further inland, where the predominant form has been dry or mountain rice grown by shifting agriculturalists (fig. 1). The Diola of Senegal (Pélissier 1966, Linares 1970), the Balanta of Guinea Bissau (Espírito Santo 1949), and the Baga of coastal Guinea (Paulme 1957), belong to the first category. They transplant rice in inundated fields that are desalinated, diked, ridged and irrigated. In contrast, the Mande-speaking peoples of Sierra Leone and Liberia are mostly ‘upland’ farmers. They broadcast rice on rain-fed fields that are rotated and fallowed.
Article
The remarkable progress in social science research on resettlement during the last decade is defined by the author in terms of (a) knowledge acquisition-the addition of considerable in-depth and 'extensive' new knowledge; (b) significant shifts in research trends-from academic inquiry to operational research, from description to prescription, from writing ethnographies of past cases to crafting forward-looking policy frameworks; and (c) development and diversification of research models-particularly an evolution from the stress-centred model to the impoverishment/re-establishment centred model in analysing resettlement. The impoverishment risks model consists of eight recurrent and interlinked processes. It reveals how multifaceted impoverishment caused by displacement occurs via induced landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, marginalization, increased morbidity, food insecurity, loss of access to common property and social disarticulation. The conceptual model of impoverishment through displacement also contains, in essence, the model for the positive re-establishment of those displaced, which requires turning the impoverishment model on its head. The author analyses in detail the drop and the reversal in the income curve of resettlers during displacement and relocation, and points out the financial premises for income recovery. The two key priorities recommended for future resettlement research are: (a) research on re-establishment experiences, and (b) research on the economics of displacement and recovery.
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Responding to the unanimous recommendation of a multi-stakeholder workshop, the creation of the World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formally announced in February 1998. Financially supported by 53 public, private and civil society agencies, the twelve Commissioners released the WCD Final Report in London in November 2000. In this article a former Commissioner discusses the "WCD process" from its origin to the present. The contents of the final report are described, with special attention paid to the significance of the WCD's rights and risks approach as a first step toward a new development paradigm for an increasingly global, 21st century society.
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The Gwembe Study was launched in 1956 to monitor the responses of 57,000 Tonga-speakers from the Middle Zambezi Valley to involuntary relocation. Since then, periodic censuses and frequent field visits have generated a wide variety of information. This article examines the demography of four Gwembe Tonga villages from 1956 to 1991, a period characterized first by relocation, then prosperity, and finally by economic hardship. White nuptiality does not respond significantly to socio-economic trends, marital fertility falls sharply during relocation, rebounds with the onset of prosperity, and decreases slowly during the most recent decade of economic hardship. Mortality of the very young and old is also sensitive to such changes. There is striking excess male mortality in all periods, especially among male infants and in particular male twins. The sex ratio at ‘birth’ is 92. This abnormal sex ratio at birth may be the result of conscious sex preference favouring females.
Article
No single resource development project has aroused more controversy than the high dam that stores the flow of the Nile River above the first cataract at Aswan. It is praised as the mainstay of the Egyptian economy and vilified as an environmental catastrophe. Twenty-one years after its completion there has been sufficient time to permit a first approximation of what is known about the dam's environmental effects and how they compare to what was anticipated when engineers and politicians decided to undertake the massive project. Although the evidence from post-audit study over the past decade is far from complete, there is enough to warrant general observations on direct economic impacts and to suggest several possible lessons of importance to scientists engaged in predicting and tracing environmental linkages from major water projects.
Article
In the 1990s the feared witch among Tonga-speakers of Gwembe Valley, Zambia, is often the father, whose adult children accuse him of using witchcraft to gain power over the child's life force to use in his enterprises. Suspicions of the father arise from changing family dynamics associated with restricted economic opportunities and a changing agricultural system involving cash cropping where family labour is of vital importance. Witchcraft fears, as elsewhere in Zambia, have become more salient as worsening economic conditions have led to general malaise and the loosening of restraints on public accusation. Feeling victimised and vulnerable in a world where transport minimises distance has led to witches being endowed with the power to operate without regard to distance. Nevertheless witchfinding deflects hostility from national political figures to elders in the neighbourhood, especially fathers, who are continuous sources of immediate frustration and are also vulnerable to local action.
Article
Change and stability can be understood not as polar opposites but as conditions necessary to the viability of organic life. Social transformation may be accomplished, in part, because there exists a mythopoeic faculty which during processes of transformation acts to preserve one's self-concept and collective identification. Although the Nubian practiced labor migration over centuries, he asserts, today, that no one could have left Nubia had it not been for the construction of the Aswan dam in 1902. By reference to the mythical effect of the dam on his natural history, the Nubian could bring into congruence the apparent contradiction between his urban commitment and his loyalty to collective sentiments. Allegorically, by extracting his migratory behaviors from their historical roots and by attaching them to an artifact of symbolic significance for the collectivity, migration would represent no denial of his relation to nature. Myth and ritual may be cohesive forces when they act on a society undergoing change.
Article
The creation of drawdown areas in dam projects illustrates the secondary consequences of development projects. These secondary consequences can have major potential benefits for local and regional development. Management plans for drawdown areas, however, are usually absent from dam project planning. Even in cases where management of the drawdown area is planned, implementation of the plan may be impeded by: project managers' decisions; the perspectives of planners and consultants which overlook the economic importance of drawdown cultivation; and failure of officials to recognize the sound ecological knowledge and practices of the local people in utilizing the drawdown habitat.
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Surveys the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the first and most controversial big impoundment - the Aswan High Dam (Saad el Ali), Egypt. Examines its impacts on the population of the flooded region including resettlement and the acquisition of new livelihoods. Describes the origins of the dam, the progress made so far, and the development potential and limitations of the dam and lake. In 4 interrelated parts: 1) cost benefit variables of dams; 2) the social effects of the dam; 3) the development potentials and constraints; 4) conclusion including policy considerations for future planning. -C.Barrow
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Persons living in the planned reservoir areas of large dams constitute classic instances of involuntary relocatees, and the largest funding institution for these dams in the Third World, the World Bank, has elaborated guidelines for their resettlement. Guidelines are necessary but insufficient steps in confronting victimization from development actions, first, because they are often ignored, and second, because there are no guidelines to protect the often larger number of persons downstream from dams who experience environmental, economic, and political dislocations. The Senegal River Valley is a current case in which dam construction and water management policy will inflict hardships both upstream and downstream, but only upstream has there been any attempt to compensate people for their losses. A different management policy would contribute to mitigating many of the downstream hardships without causing losses in either hydropower or irrigation. Whether so enlightened a policy will be adopted remains problematic.
Article
The health facilities in the proposed Lake Jebba area are described. A hospital, four dispensaries and a maternal and child-health centre exist, among which, only two dispensaries and the maternal and child-health centre provide free medical care to the people. A survey of the household and compound composition in Awuru and Sabonpeggi (villages close to the Niger River below the Kainji Dam) showed that the interpersons contact which could promote the spread of communicable diseases is higher in Awuru than in Sabonpeggi. The mortality of children born in the two villages showed that about 30% died before the age of 5 years mostly from fever (49·7%) and gastroenteritis (12·86%). Of the deaths occurring in persons aged 0-35 years about (86%) occurred in children below 5 years. The impact of the proposed Lake Jebba on the already known endemic diseases and on the child mortality is discussed. Suggestions are made to define the Lake Jebba area for development, emphasize maternal and child-health care in the health planning and to establish a port health station where the River Niger enters Nigeria.
Article
This article explores the socio-economic and environmental impact ofCahora Bassa Dam and South Africa s destabilisation campaign on the communities and ecology of the Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. It argues that the historical memories and lived experiences of these riverine communities provide important insights into the history of the area and must take centre stage in any scholarly analyses of the history, role and impact of the Cahora Bassa Dam and that concerns with "development" must not be allowed to obscure some of the real negative effects of big dam construction on the lives and livelihood of the inhabitants and the damage to the surrounding environment in areas where such dams are conshvcted. Since the end of the Cold War policy makers and students of international relations have begun to shift their attention from the threat of global conflicts to regional crises precipitated, in part, by the inequitable access to scarce natural resources. Fresh water is a particularly precious commodity. Besides air it is probably the single most critical ingredient in sustaining life and is integral to all societal and ecological activities. Recurring tensions between Turkey, Iraq and Syria over the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the Hungarian-Czech dispute over the management of the Danube, South Africa's controversial appropriation of the waters of the Lesotho Highlands and the saber-rattling between the Koreas following Kim 11-Sung's plans to build a hydro-electric project on the Han River, underscore the political as well as symbolic importance of water (Gleick, 1999). Given the growing realization that competition for water resources is a volatile issue, scholars in the burgeoning field of "environmenta l security" have sought to map out the linkages between water allocation and conflict. They stress that inter-state tensions over fresh water resources or over their use have a long history and are not unique to a particular geographic or cultural region (Gleick, 1993).