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The purpose of the paper is to create the evaluation model of stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects. To attain the papers purpose the literature review, content analysis, expert survey and qualitative synthesis are used. The main results of study reveal that training participants mostly consider the training projects’ appropriateness to own professional and personal interest. While managers and training providers highly value the application of new knowledge, skills and attitudes derived from training projects. Therefore, in order to generate stakeholders’ interest to human resource training projects and to ensure the projects’ usefulness, the individual benefits of training and the possibilities of learning application should be analysed and communicated for relevant stakeholder group. In view of the fact that human resource training projects are primarily focused on improvement of organisational performance, the congruence of training participants’ and their managers’ expectations about such projects is significant.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
Available online at
1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of Kaunas University of Technology, School of Economics and Business
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.477
20th International Scientific Conference Economics and Management - 2015 (ICEM-2015)
The Importance of Stakeholders in Human Resource Training
Inga Erina
*, Iveta Ozolina-Ozola
, Elina Gaile-Sarkane
a, b, c
Riga Technical University, Kalnciema street 6, Riga, LV1048, Latvia
The purpose of the paper is to create the evaluation model of stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects. To
attain the papers purpose the literature review, content analysis, expert survey and qualitative synthesis are used. The main results
of study reveal that training participants mostly consider the training projects’ appropriateness to own professional and personal
interest. While managers and training providers highly value the application of new knowledge, skills and attitudes derived from
training projects. Therefore, in order to generate stakeholders’ interest to human resource training projects and to ensure the pro-
jects’ usefulness, the individual benefits of training and the possibilities of learning application should be analysed and commu-
nicated for relevant stakeholder group. In view of the fact that human resource training projects are primarily focused on im-
provement of organisational performance, the congruence of training participants’ and their managers’ expectations about such
projects is significant.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of Kaunas University of Technology, School of Economics and Business.
Keywords: Stakeholder; Human resource; Training, Project; Evaluation.
Nowadays, the innovative approaches to human resource training should be applied to ensure organisation with
knowledgeable and skilful human resources. The fast “ageing” of knowledge and skills make reasonable the devel-
opment of short-term training as projects that are worked out for specific training needs. To provide maximal bene-
fits the training projects must incorporate interests of main stakeholders groups.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +37126112265
E-mail address:
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of Kaunas University of Technology, School of Economics and Business
Inga Erina et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
The stakeholder theory, elaborated by Freeman (1984), has growing interest in various areas of management. In
project management literature, stakeholder research is viewed as complex and difficult, but there are clear under-
standings that stakeholders have a key role in project implementation and performance indicators.
In project management theory, the stakeholders are analysed in the context of innovation (e.g. Elias, Cavana &
Jackson, 2002), construction project management (e.g. Olander, 2007), information and communication technology
(e.g. Bailur, 2006) etc. However, there are a few studies devoted to t
he application of stakeholder approach in man-
agement of human resource training projects. The theme of stakeholder approach to training as such is popular in
human resource development, but in the most of studies, conducted in this area, the stakeholders are analysed in the
context of training viewed as formative or standardised process (e.g. Michalski & Cousins, 2000) or in the context
of the certain model of training evaluation (e.g. Nickols, 2005). Therefore, this paper is focused on exploration of
stakeholders’ interests or requirements in the different phases of the training project lifecycle, based on the theory of
e project lifecycle and the human resource training stages, and on the different, well-known models of training
1. The theoretical background of human resource training projects for stakeholders
In human resource management literature, human resource training is defined as the application of formal pro-
ses to impart knowledge and help employee to acquire the skills necessary for them to perform their jobs satisfac-
torily (e.g. Armstrong, 2009). The term “formal” in this and similar definitions of training emphasizes the training
that follows some designed form, contrary to informal training that does not have a consistent form. The effective
man resource training should be systematic, therefore some authors stress that training is the systematic process
by which employee learning is promoting (e.g. Latham, 1988).
There are some differences between human resource training process, system and project. A training process pro-
ces results through work being done in the process, while a training system produces results through the interac-
tion of processes (Hoyle, 2009). Training process is uniform and regular, but training project is more innovative,
unique, with clear beginning and end states (Lidow, 2014). Therefore, training projects are managed in distinctive
ay than standardised training in organisations.
To analyse the stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects, Weiss’s and Wysocki’s (1992) the-
ory of project phase and Armstrong’s (2009) list of human resource training stages are linked up. Thus, a number of
training stages as Establishing of learning needs, Defining of learning objectives, Deciding on content, methods of
delivery and on the location and facilities required, the budget and who delivers the programme, Preparing infor-
mation on the event relate to Project Planning phase. The stage of Delivering the learning corresponds to Project
ecution phase, and the stage of Evaluating the learning corresponds to Project Monitoring and Control phase.
Only phases of Project Initiation and Project Closure have not analogic stages of human resource training what is
conformable to meaning of project.
Since stakeholders involved in human resource training project consider various aspects of such training oppor-
tunity, the models of training evaluation are screened out. Af
ter analysing of reviews on training evaluation theme
(e.g. Scofield, 2010; Zinovieff, 2008), the thirteen models were c
hosen for further exploration to identify essential
criteria of training evaluation to different groups of stakeholders.
In despite of analysed models’ conceptual (mainly between so-called “goal-oriented” and “system-oriented”
evaluation models) and terminological differences, the similarities between models’ proposed criteria were summa-
rised. To summarise these similarities, the content analysis method was used, by which the specific criteria of mod-
els were aggregated into thematic groups. As a result, the nine criteria groups are highlight (see Fig. 1). The “Con-
text” comprises aspects of training project referred to target group, training necessity and training goals accordance
with training needs of target group. The “Input” relates to such aspects as required resources, number of trainees,
project uniqueness, and appropriateness of training content, form and methods to training goal. The “Process” con-
sists of training project’s aspects characterised the feedback, adjustment and attendance. The “Reaction” comprises
aspects of trainees’ satisfaction with the organisation of training and with the training in overall. The “Learning”
includes aspects of direct results from training, i.e. acquired knowledge, developed skills and changed attitudes. The
“Application” refers to aspects described the application of training results in workplace, organizational support for
such application, and changes in trainees’ behaviour. The “Effect” consist of aspects expressed the changes in train-
796 Inga Erina et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
ees’ professionalism level in general, in theirs work indicators as productivity, quality etc. and theirs job satisfaction
and motivation. The “Efficiency” includes aspects related to changes in financial and economic indicators of organi-
zation. The last criteria group, “Societal impact”, consists of training aspects characterised the social and economic
impact of training on large social groups.
The identified criteria groups and specific criteria within these groups represent the more comprehensive list of
potentially significant aspects of training for different stakeholder groups. This list enables training project managers
to take into account the broader scope of stakeholders’ interests or requirements that could facilitate the usefulness
of project.
Fig. 1. Aggregation of training evaluation criteria derived from training evaluation models.
In accordance with functional role of stakeholders in human resource training projects, there are such stakeholder
groups as trainers, participants, participant’s managers, finance managers, executive directors, and personnel spe-
cialists (Allan, 2008). For detailed analysis of stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects the three
stakeholder groups were selected potential participants of training project (participants), m
anagers of potential
participants (managers), and training specialists (providers).
2. Method
o verify the importance of the criteria of human resource training projects for chosen group of stakeholders the
expert method was applied. The three expert groups were formed representing three stakeholders’ groups using the
opportunity sampling method. Initially each expert group comprise 10 experts, but because of unsatisfactory agree-
ment level of experts was found from preliminary data analysis the expert groups size was reduced. The experts
tated different opinion from majority were eliminated. Table 1 shows characteristics of expert groups.
All experts were contacted by face-to-face or e-mail and asked to fill questionnaire, respectively, to rank a) train-
ing evaluation criteria group and b) specific criterion within criteria groups. The untied ranking scale was exploited.
Experts were offered to rank each of the scale’s item in order of importance, from the “1” most important item
through the m” least important item.
Inga Erina et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
Table 1. Characteristics of expert groups.
Participants Managers Providers
Number (n) 669
Occupation manager 062
specialist 607
Years of experience in current occupation less than 1 100
1 -2 0 0 2
3 -5 3 3 5
6 - 10 122
more than 10 110
To ensure data reliability the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) and Chi-Square were calculated for each
questionnaire’s scale separately for each expert group, and to identify the importance of criteria group or criterion
the Moda (Mo) was detected. The interpretation of expert survey results is formed on the data that show statistical
3. Results
ble 2 demonstrates that there are average level of agreement among experts in majority of questionnaire’s
scales.It might be explained partly by the small size of expert groups and the request to rank criteria towards train-
ing i
n general, without specifying training details. Nevertheless, there are certain tendencies observed. The training
participants have consensus on Context of training, while managers and training providers on Effect and Societal
impact of training; managers have a similar views on importance of learning results’ Application as well.
Table 2. Agreement level among experts.
Context Input Process Reaction Learning Application Effect Societal
Participants Kendall’s W 0,764* 0,778 0,448 0,361 0,444 0,000 0,361 0,028 0,000
Chi-Square (df) 36,67(8) 9,33(2) 13,43(5) 4,33(2) 2,67(1) 0,00(2) 4,33(2) 0,33(2) 0,00(1)
Asymp. Sig. 0,000** 0,009 0,020 0,115 0,102 1,000 0,115 0,846 1,000
Managers Kendall’s W 0,374 0,444 0,606 0,
694 0,444 0,361 0,861 1,000 1,000
Chi-Square (df) 17,96(8) 5,33(2) 18,19(5) 8,33(2) 2,67(1) 4,33(2) 10,33(2) 12,0(2) 6,00(1)
ymp. Sig. 0,022 0,069 0,003 0,016 0,102 0,115 0,006 0,002 0,014
Providers Kendall’s W 0,761 0,
160 0,571 0,333 0,012 0,444 0,481 0,753 1,000
Chi-Square (df) 54,82(8) 2,89(2) 25,70(5) 6,00(2) 0,11 (1) 8,00(2) 8,67(2) 13,56(2) 9,00(1)
ymp. Sig. 0,000 0,236 0,000 0,050 0,739 0,018 0,013 0,001 0,003
*- figures in Bold indicate higher level of agreement
**- figures in Italic indicate that related level of agreement is statistically significant
Based on the results of expert survey the model of stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects
is developed (see Fig. 2). The importance of projects’ criteria groups is presented for participants and providers, bu
not for managers becaus
e relevant expert group did not demonstrate sufficient level of agreement in order to draw
strong conclusions.
The expert survey results reveal that the Context and the Input of training projects have higher importance for
training participants, w
hile training providers value higher the Learning and the Application. As least important
criteria group participants as
sessed the Societal impact, and providers the Reaction. Managers have not strong
798 Inga Erina et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
agreement on priorities of criteria groups, but it should be noticed that rank “1” was most given to the Application
(n=3; mean rank = 3, that is most higher value in managers
estimations) and rank “9” to the Process (n=3).
Fig. 2.Model of stakeholders’ importance in human resource training projects (1 = most important; 9 = least important).
Looking through opinions of participants it could be detected that the most important criterion of training pro-
jects within the Context is the eligibility of training goal to participants’ pr
ofessional or personal needs. Conse-
quently, the importance of training necessity and the target group is assessed as second and third criterion. As for the
Input, where participants have average level of agreement, there is a tendency to value more the appropriateness of
training content to training goal, the project uniqueness and the required resources (financial, time etc.). The least
important criterion in this criteria group is the size of training group.
For training providers, in despite of their consensus on high importance of the Learning and Application, there is
some disagreement concerning significance of specific criteria. However, in both criteria group is relative conso-
nance about the most important criterion. Respectively, this is the level of developed skills and the application of
training results in workplace”.
Having rather low level of agreement on priorities o
f training projects’ criteria groups, managers share the opin-
ion that the most significant in the Application is the application of training results in workplace. The second is the
changes in trainees’ behaviour, and third is the organizational support. In other criteria groups received lower esti-
mation as the Effect (Mo = 6; mean rank = 3,5), the Societal impact” (Mo = 5; mean rank = 5,7) and the Process
(Mo = 9; m
ean rank = 7,5) there is consensus on following matters:
- the changes in trainees’ work indicators are most important
than the changes in social indicators (employee turn-
over, cohesion, reputation of organisation etc.) and the trainees’ benefits derived from training;
- the economic benefits of human resource training projects for society are more important than the social bene-
- the trainees’ attendance is most important factor than the p
ossibility to adjust training process and to receive or
give feedback in accordance with managers’ wi
Inga Erina et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 213 ( 2015 ) 794 – 800
It is worthy to notice that, within criteria group “Effect”, managers and providers have similar viewpoint on im-
portance of the changes in trainees’ work indicators, but providers va
lue higher the trainees’ benefits than the
changes in social indicators of organisations. As for the Societal impact of training project, providers, un
like man-
agers, consider as more important the social benefits.
The study results approve that training participants, providers and managers value differently the various aspects
of training projects. For participants the projects’ accordance with own professional and personal interests is most
important. Providers and managers highly evaluate the application of acquired knowledge, developed skills and
changed attitudes in workplace that might be viewed as positive factor for successful cooperation.
From theoretical standpoint, the highlighted criteria of training project evaluation can contribute to further devel-
opment of the stakeholder value theories. To gain the more complete insight into the importance of stakeholders in
the different phases of the training project lifecycle, it remains for further research to investigate the larger sample of
stakeholder groups, analysed in this study, and other possible stakeholder groups such as personnel specialists, inner
and external sponsors of training, consumers. Because the stakeholders’ priorities may differ for specific types of
ng, it is rationally to explore in future studies the stakeholders’ preferences in the context of the certain type of
From practical consideration, the proposed model can be used by human resource professionals to develop or
choose the human resource training project in accordance with stakeholder approach in organisation management.
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The paper proposes both theoretical and experimental approaches to the analysis of laminated composite response to impact loading. For theoretical modelling of dynamic behavior of a composite, the generalized model is used that takes into account the spatial character of deformation on near to the impact point. This model is based on a power series expansion of the displacement vector component in each layer for the transverse coordinate. The results of calculations are compared with the data obtained by other researchers for the case of low-velocity impact, as well as with the experimental data obtained by ourselves at medium-velocity impacts on composite panels. In the experimental study, maximum deflections of composite samples during the impact of an indenter were investigated. A pneumatic gun was used to launch the indenter, and a crusher was used to register the maximum deflections. An experimental study of the response of an eleven-layer fiber-glass composite to indenter impacts at different velocities was performed. For launching, the 600 g indenter was used. It is established that the calculation results and experimental data are in good agreement.
The paper offers an analytical solution of the problem of the stressed state of an infinite plate with a circular opening reinforced with a concentric round cover plate. The cover plate is assumed to be elastically attached to the main plate along its perimeter. The structure is loaded at infinity with uniform tension. The solution is obtained by expanding the components of the stress-strain state into a Fourier series about the angle coordinate. After satisfying the edge conditions, the solution retains only the first series terms. The model problem is solved. The cover plate was shown to reduce the stresses near the opening. The solution was verified by comparing computational results with calculations performed using the finite element method. The model suggested is highly accurate. A parametric study was performed to examine the impact of cover plate thickness and plate thickness ratios, and cover plate radius and opening radius ratios on the stress in the most loaded section.
The paper presents a validation of the authors’ model of a bird-impactor for bird masses MB = 0.7–3.65 kg, bird impact velocities VB = 100–200 m/s and impact angles α = 30–90°. Validation was performed by computations of bird impact with an obstacle by using a bird-impactor model and comparing computational data with available experimental data of bird impact field tests. The obstacles considered were steel plates: a weakly deformable (rigid) plate and a deformable plate. Computations were performed using the explicit LS-DYNA Solver. The bird-impactor model was validated for the load created on the rigid plate by using experimental research data of the Dayton Research Institute. The bird-impactor model was validated for plate strains by using data of experimental research at A. Podgorny Institute for Mechanical Engineering Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Validation found that the bird-impactor model is capable of adequately reproducing impact loads acting like those as in the case of a strike by a real bird. This enables using the bird-impactor model for mathematical modelling of the processes of bird impact and of the damage to turbofan engine parts.
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As the title of this chapter suggests, training is intended to have an impact. Impact of training typically refers to the benefit that an organization expects to achieve because it provided that training. But what is this benefit? If a company provides training to its employees, what should it expect: Greater loyalty? Better performance? Less employee costs? Increased profits?
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The problem and the solution. After more than 40 years, the reigning framework for evaluating training—the four-level Kirkpatrick model—rarely gets beyond the first level: trainee reactions or the “smiles test.” The author argues that this is because current approaches to training evaluation are primarily of interest to trainers but not to the many constituencies served by training, trainers, and the training function. To these other constituencies, current approaches to evaluating training are largely irrelevant. Adopting a different approach to the evaluation of training, a stakeholder-based approach, can solve this problem of irrelevance. Using a stakeholder-based approach requires trainers to incorporate stakeholder requirements into the design, development, and delivery of training, increasing stakeholder interest in the outcomes and in evaluating those outcomes in ways that offer meaning, value, and relevance to all of the stakeholders.
Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
At a time when we are more conscious than ever before of the interconnectedness of our actions we are still publishing international standards that ignore the advances made in system theory and process management since the 1950s. David Hoyle author of the ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook, shows that we are rooted in the past using standards that promote unhelpful models of systems and processes. He highlights the key differences between systems and processes and how we can gain a better understanding of the interacting variables that determine organizational outcomes and thus enable us to manage processes and systems more effectively. Personal reflections I have changed jobs a few times in my career and went through a termination process each time. When I now look at the ISO 9000:20051 definition for a process I see that I should have been transformed but I can assure you my form was just the same after the process as it was before. During my time as a seagoing engineer office with Cunard on the old RMS Queen Elizabeth I learnt that I was performing a function that the ship had been designed to perform through instrumentation but which had become defunct though neglects and decay. The ship had been adapted to compensate for the reduction in functionality; a characteristic often not possible with other mechanistic systems but quite common with systems that include components of the human kind. During my time as a product assurance manager in spacecraft development with British Aerospace I leant that in physical systems the components have to work together to achieve the goal of the system, that they can't fulfil their function outside the system; that control over interfaces was critical to project success and that all systems are effected by the environment in which they operate. Thus, I was well aware of the properties of systems but less aware of processes. In fact I was only aware of manufacturing processes like a plating process or welding process and it was to be many years later before I became aware of management and business processes. In common with most organizations at the time, the emphasis was on following procedures, adhering to codes of practice and standards; not in managing a system of interacting processes. What does ISO 9000 say about systems and processes? Intent and requirements The new edition of ISO 90012 contains some interesting statements that suggest there is a move towards recognising the true properties of systems and processes. However, the intent expressed in the introduction to the 2008 edition is not reflected in the requirements. There are no requirements for managing process interactions, no requirements for taking account of changes in the business environment, no requirements for producing desired outcomes and the explanation of a process approach looks too similar to that given for a systems approach to convey clarity. It therefore appears that ISO/TC 176 are somewhat confused about the differences between systems and processes thus making their standards a less than satisfactory source of reference. Definitions
1. To enable the students to acquire basic knowledge about contemporary theory and practice in the area of strategic human resources management with a particular focus on HR planning and development. 2. To enable the students to acquire applied experience through a group research project. 3. To build the capacity of the students for self-learning and development in the area of human resources.
A standardized training valuation system (TVS) is built around a set of analytic tools and employs a four-step process: situation, intervention, impact, value. The methodology identifies specific, current, and potential values as well as value obtained. It also helps determine why a training program failed. (JOW)
Basic questions about the evaluation of professional development efforts are explored, including the nature and purposes of evaluation, the critical levels of professional development evaluation, and the difference between evidence and proof in evaluation. Evaluation, which is defined as the systematic investigation of merit or worth, can be characterized as planning, formative, or summative evaluation. All three types of evaluation involve the collection and analysis of data. In evaluating professional development, there are five critical levels of information to consider. These are: (1) participants' reactions; (2) participants' learning; (3) organization support and change; (4) participants' use of new knowledge and skills; and (5) student learning outcomes. In the real-world setting of professional development evaluation, it is nearly impossible to obtain proof of the impact of the effort, but it is possible to obtain good evidence. A list of guidelines is included to help improve the quality of professional development evaluations. (Contains 1 figure and 25 references.) (SLD)
IBM has found that an input-process-output (IPO) approach to training evaluation enables decision makers to select the package that will ensure the effectiveness of a training program. Those who use the IPO model can determine whether programs are achieving their purposes and can detect the changes needed to improve course design, content, and delivery. (JOW)