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An Introduction to Everyday Science

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By Frederick Roberts London: Museum Press Ltd. 1964. Pp. 143. Price 15s. 'The beginnings of our present age of science were about three hundred years ago, during the sixteenth century.' Mr. Roberts' book does have the nineteenth century flavour suggested by this quotation from the opening chapter.

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... The everyday life sociologies in the 1960s and 1970s saw an explosion of interest in mundane topics and the life of 'ordinary' people in society, including detailed explorations of subcultural groups with an everyday perspective (Adler, Adler, & Fontana, 1987;Jacobsen, 2009). Jack Douglas (1980), one of the early sociologists of the everyday, reflects that this focus was characterised by three approaches: first, the sociologist of everyday life studies social interactions by observing and experiencing them in natural (not clinical) situations; second, the focus is on natural and not contrived social interactions; and third, analysis of members' own meanings are important to elicit, not just those of the researcher. ...
... Collectively, by making the ordinary the focus of inquiry, these everyday researchers also raised the awareness of groups which had previously been marginalised in society and underscored the significance of the everyday in understanding social and public life. A focus on the everyday therefore can also serve to fulfil a political agendato encourage a critique of the familiar in a way to make it appear strange; and to make the unfamiliar appear less strange (Jacobsen, 2009). In this way, a focus on the everyday is inherently political. ...
... Yet, it is impossible to pin this down to one theoretical framework, and indeed it would be foolish to try. Instead, it is more helpful to see theories of everydayness as associated with philosophical paradigms including phenomenology, interactionism, existentialism, pragmatism and hermeneutics (Jacobsen, 2009). In the following section, the influence of feminist theory is outlined as a key pathway by which everydayness entered into the lexicon and research of children and young people's geographers, and initiated ideas of everyday citizenship. ...
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the concept of “everyday citizenship” by children and young people’s geographers. But what are the origins of “everyday” approaches, and what can an everyday approach offer the field of children and young people’s citizenship? This chapter undertakes a brief disciplinary and theoretical genealogy of the everyday and how it has emerged as a feature of analysis within children and young people’s citizenship. This examination also traces the integration of the everyday into citizenship research through feminist theory and the “new” social studies of childhood. The second half of the chapter examines how everyday citizenship has been applied across a range of disciplines. Applying everyday citizenship approaches in research with children and young people has contributed to expanded notions of citizenship through a closer examination of spatial and relational attributes of young citizens and an interrogation of what constitutes acts of citizenship. The chapter concludes by raising a number of issues that require further debate and consideration.
... He views them as opposing interventional strategies in the design of cities, and yet as entirely compatible strategies in urban resuscitation efforts, with the ability to function within a loose both/ and somewhat randomized pattern as opposed to a rigidly didactic either/ or polarity (deCerteau, 1988). Denise Scott Brown and other leading urban designers have similarly advocated for the virtues of both/ and spontaneous spatial interventions in the everyday urban milieu (Scott-Brown, 1990;Crawford, 2008). Portable architecture personifies what can be achieved if thoughtfully, imaginatively, and effectively implemented. ...
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A substantial literature exists on commercial vernacular architecture in North America. This literature has examined everyday places and iconic building types including suburbia, roadside motels, vintage diners, fast food franchises, residential trailer parks, signage, unique commercial establishments, and shopping malls. These places and buildings are generally classified as expressions of folk vernacular culture. In response, Attention Restoration Theory, an environmental cognition perspective based in human information processing research, provided the foundation for an investigation of the food truck/ trailer and its immediate installation context within a North American case study context. Visual documentation, interviews, and archival fieldwork provided the basis for the articulation of a typology. These structures were found to express automaticity, as satisfying the timeless human preference for association with nature, a sense of psychological respite, and as a physical setting visually distinct from its larger urban environment context. Directions for future research on this topic are outlined together with insights for application by architects and urban planners. © 2016 Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research.
... In literature, urban roads are among everyday spaces and Crawford (1999) claims that the incoherent landscape of roads defeats any conceptual or physical order. According to Augé's (2008) theorization, roads remain among non-places being spaces experienced through journeys. ...
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YAYALARIN KENT İÇİYOL BOYU YAN-MEKÂNLARDAKİ KAMUSAL MEKÂN ALGISI: ANKARA ESKİŞEHİR YOLU ÖRNEĞİ Yol boyu yan-mekânlar, kent içinde sundukları yüksek erişilebilirliğe bağlı olarak yoğun yaya kullanımı barındırdıklarında kamusal mekân özellikleri gösterirler. Yollar, çeşitli ve çok sayıda kullanıcıyı bir araya getirerek karşılaşma olasılığı yaratmak yanında ortaya koydukları etkinlikler ve canlılıkla da kentselliğin oluşmasında temel oluştururlar. Günümüzde artan araç hızı nedeniyle araç sürücülerinin görsel algısı ve karşılaşma deneyimi indirgenmiştir. Bunun yanında, yan-mekânlardaki yayalar yüksek hız ve yoğun trafiğin sebep olduğu pek çok olumsuz etkiye maruz kalmaktadır. Bu çalışma, kentte kamusal mekân olarak hem olumlu hem de araç trafiği sebebiyle olumsuz özelliklere sahip olan yol boyu yan-mekânların kullanıcıları yayalar tarafından hangi özelliklerinin baskın olarak algılandığını ve bu algının örnek bir alanda gerçekleşen yol genişletme işlemi ile nasıl değiştiğini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma alanı, Ankara’nın ana ulaşım hatlarından biri olan Eskişehir yolunun kentsel gelişim ve yaya kullanımının en yoğun olduğu doğu kısmıdır. Yayaların mekânı algılarını gürültülü/yorucu, hızlı/güvensiz, tozlu/sağlıksız gibi olumsuz özellikler yanında dinamik/canlı, eğlenceli ve yeşil gibi olumlu özelliklerle tanımlamaları istenmiş, bu tanımlar yanında kamusal mekân olarak algıyı ölçmek amacıyla herkesin bildiği tanım sıfatı da seçeneklere eklenmiştir. Olumlu tanımlar arasında dinamik/canlı tanımı, kentsellik algısını ölçmek için kullanılmıştır. 214 kullanıcının profillerine bakıldığında mekânın çevreden yürüyerek gelenler (%14.3) yanında araçla hem kent içinden (%53.8) hem de kent dışından gelen (%14.3) kullanıcı çeşitliliği oluşturduğu görüldü. Kullanıcıların mekânı öncelikle olumsuz özellikleriyle gürültülü/yorucu (%60.7), hızlı/güvensiz (%41.6) ve tozlu/sağlıksız (%39) olarak algıladıkları, sonrasında herkesin bildiği (%32.7) ve dinamik/canlı (%26.2) bir yer olarak tanımladıkları görüldü. Çalışmanın ikinci aşamasında, yol genişletme işleminden sonra mekânın algısı sorgulandı, tanımlayıcı sıfatlar arasında en büyük değişikliğin herkesin bildiği ve dinamik/canlı tanımlarındaki artışla gerçekleştiği, olumsuz algılar arasında ise sadece hızlı/güvensiz algısında artış olduğu görüldü
... These traditional approaches tended to portray an overly passive and deterministic view of actors, and failed to capture the complexity of daily existence (Adler, Adler, and Fontana 1987). In response, a number of researchers began to turn their focus upon the life of 'ordinary' people in their natural contexts in order to form a critique of the familiar in a way to make it appear strange; and to make the unfamiliar appear less strange (Jacobsen 2009). Michel de Certeau (1984 states that the goal of such a focus will be achieved: if everyday practices, 'ways of operating' or doing things, no longer appear as merely the obscure background of social activity, and if a body of theoretical questions, methods and categories, and perspectives, by penetrating this obscurity, make it possible to articulate them. ...
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This paper reports on a research study which drew attention to the constitutive nature of the everyday world in young people’s subjectivities and practices of citizenship. Central to the aim of this research was a need for alignment between the focus of the research (‘everyday’ citizenship), with methods which could illuminate the day-to-day experiences of being a citizen. In this paper, I re-examine some of the ‘everyday’ data generated by two research methods which were initially discounted as rambling or divergent. This data characteristically had frequent interjections, incomplete sentences, questions and queries, or a sense of ambiguity and uncertainty. Through a re-analysis of this data, I consider the potential it offers to contribute conceptual and theoretical insights into young people’s citizenship dispositions and practices. The research revealed the diverse, complex and contested understandings of citizenship that young people were forming in the context of day-to-day social and spatial interactions.
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