Two new species of Ceropegia (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from eastern Thailand

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Two new species from Pha Taem National Park, eastern Thailand, Ceropegia acicularis Kidyoo and C. tenuicaulis Kidyoo (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), are described, illustrated and compared with the related C. thailandica Meve, from which they differ in growth form, stem branching pattern, type of flower, shape of corolla tube and lobe, and type of hair present on corolla lobe.

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... ). All species are endemic to the park, growing in sandy soil in the open areas of dry deciduous dipterocarp forest (see Figs. S4, S5 for more details on study site and species)47,56,57 . The main study area was located near the national park's headquarters. ...
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Possession of flowers that trap fly pollinators is a conservative trait within the genus Ceropegia,in which pollination systems can be generalized or highly specialized. However, little is knownabout the role of plant–pollinator interactions in the maintenance of species boundaries. This studyexamined the degree of plant–pollinator specialization and identified the parameters responsiblefor specificity among four co-occurring Ceropegia species with overlapping flowering times. Allinvestigated plant species were functionally specialized on pollination by Chloropidae and/orMilichiidae flies and each Ceropegia species was, in turn, ecologically highly specialized on only twopollinating fly morphospecies, though one plant species appeared more generalist. Species-specific flyattraction was due to the differences between plant species in floral scents, floral morphology, colourpatterns, and presence of other functional structures, e.g., vibratile trichomes, which were shownto contribute to pollinator attraction in one study species. The combination of these olfactory andvisual cues differentially influenced pollinator preferences and thus hindered heterospecific visitation.Furthermore, a pollinator exchange experiment also highlighted that species integrity is maintainedthrough efficient ethological isolation (pollinator attraction). The mechanical isolation mediated by the fit between floral morphology and size and/or shape of fly pollinators appears less pronounced here, but whether or not the morphological match between male (pollinium) and female (guide rails)reproductive organs can impede hybridization remains to be investigated.
... Just one species with pitfall flowers, C. laotica Rodda & Meve has so far been found in Laos, and is endemic to Champasak Province (Rodda & Meve, 2017). This is in stark contrast with neighbouring countries, such as China, where 18 species have been recorded (Li et al., 1995;Wu et al., 2019), and Thailand, where currently 19 species are recorded (Kidyoo & Suwannakote, 2020). During botanical field surveys in Gnommalard and Nakai District, Khammouan Province (August 2019 and 2020), and Phoukhaokhouay National Protected Area, Vientiane province, central Laos (September 2020), two Ceropegia species with pitfall flowers were collected, neither of which could be identified as Ceropegia laotica. ...
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A newly discovered species from central Laos, Ceropegia longicaudata, is here described and illustrated. It is compared with the morphologically similar species Ceropegia cochleata Kidyoo. Ceropegia longicaudata displays clear differences in the leaf pubescence and venation, length of the corolla lobe tips, colour of corolla lobe, and shape of staminal corona lobes. Ceropegia cochleata is newly recorded for the Flora of Laos. A key to the now three species of Ceropegia in Laos is also provided.
... However, the peninsular Indian and SE Asian species form a wellsupported clade. Several new species have been described from Thailand recently (Kidyoo, 2014a(Kidyoo, , 2014b(Kidyoo, , 2015a(Kidyoo, , 2015b(Kidyoo, , 2018Kidyoo & Paliyavuth, 2017a, 2017b) that resemble the peninsular Indian species morphologically. It will be important to carry out a better sampling of SE Asian species to study the biogeographic relationships of these species with Indian Western Ghats species. ...
The Indian subcontinent has experienced a major shift in climatic regime from wet tropical regime to increased seasonal rainfall, since the late Miocene. This shift has been attributed to the intensification of monsoons, which led to opening up of dry habitats in humid forests, and the formation of deciduous forests. We explored the role of this climatic shift in the origin and diversification of dry‐adapted plant genera Ceropegia and Brachystelma (Ceropegiae, Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae). We sampled Ceropegia and Brachystelma from across India and used five markers (two nuclear, three plastid regions) to reconstruct a global phylogeny of this group. Indian members of tribe Ceropegiae were derived from Africa through at least four independent dispersal events. All dispersal events occurred in late Miocene after the establishment of a monsoon climate. One of these early dispersing lineages underwent rapid radiation in peninsular India giving rise to around 50 species. Thus, both dispersal and diversification events coincided with the intensification of monsoons and concomitant aridification. The role of environment in the evolution of floral characteristics and root type in the Indian radiation is also discussed. This is one of the first reports of a dry‐adapted endemic radiation of plants in India. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... It is a perennial herb having stem arising from tuber, acicular leaves, one-flowered inflorescences and corolla lobes being connate at tips. Having such a combination of morphological characters, this plant most likely belongs to the section Tiloris (Huber 1957, Bruyns et al. 2017, series Attenuatae (Huber 1957), whose members are mainly distributed in peninsular India (Huber 1957, Manudev et al. 2016, Kambale & Yadav 2019) and a few of them are found in Thailand (Kidyoo 2014a, 2014b, 2015, Bruyns et al. 2017. Thereby, it was thoroughly compared to the known species of the series as well as all Ceropegia species from Thailand, and also extending to those from the other parts of mainland Asia. ...
Ceropegia chuakulii is a new species from eastern Thailand. Illustrations, photographs and comparison of diagnostic characters to the morphologically similar species, C. acicularis Kidyoo are provided. These two species are characterized by erect stems, needle-like leaves, one–flowered sessile inflorescences and spathulate corolla lobes that are connate at tips. Ceropegia chuakulii is, however, clearly distinguished from C. acicularis by its ovoid to globose corolla tube, corolla lobes being as long as corolla tube, deeply bifid interstamial corona lobes with triangular-lanceolate segments. In addition, the analyses of quantitative morphological traits of flowers also strongly supported the distinctiveness of the new species.
... บางชนิ ดสามารถรั บประทานหั วสะสม อาหารได้ (Muthukrishnan et al., 2013) ส่ วนใน ประเทศไทยมี รายงานการพบพื ชในสกุ ลนี ้ 17 ชนิ ด (Boonjaras and Thaithong, 2003;Meve, 2009;Kidyoo, 2014a;Kidyoo, 2014b;Kidyoo, 2015a;Kidyoo, 2015b;Kidyoo and Paliyavuth, 2017a;Kidyoo and Paliyavuth, 2017b;Kidyoo, 2018a;Kidyoo, 2018b;Thaithong et al., 2018) หญ้ าพั นเกลี ยว หรื อ C. thailandica เป็ นพื ช สกุ ล Ceropegia ชนิ ดหนึ ่ ง ซึ ่ งเป็ นพื ชถิ ่ นเดี ยวและ ใกล้ สู ญพั นธุ ์ อย่ างยิ ่ ง (critically endangered, CR) ( (Patil, 1998;Nikam et al., 2008;Chandore et al., 2010;Chavan et al., 2011;Krishnareddy แ ละ Pullaiah, 2012;Nikam et al., 2012;Chavan et al., 2013;Phulwaria et al., 2013;Chavan et al., 2014;Reddy et al., 2015 Baker, K., Lambdon, P., Jones, E., Pellicer, J., Stroud, S., Renshaw, O., Niissalo, M., Corcoran, Clubbe, C. and Sarasan, V., ...
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Ceropegia thailandica Meve is endemic and critically endangered. Plant tissue culture is the efficient method for ex situ conservation. This study aims to find a suitable method for in vitro propagation of C. thailandica. Nodal segments were sterilized with four different surface sterilization methods and cultured on MS medium for 5 weeks. The result showed that the explants sterilized with 0.3 % (v/v) NaOCl for 10 minutes followed by 0.2 % (w/v) HgCl2 for 5 minutes had the lowest contamination rate (40 %) and the highest survival rate (26.66 %). Effect of BA and Kn on shoot and tuber induction from nodal segment was studied. Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA and Kn (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L) for 8 weeks. The result showed that the best shoot induction (15.80 shoots) was found in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA, and the best tuberization (87 %) was found in MS medium supplement with 2.5 mg/L Kn. Regenerated shoots of C. thailandica were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA and NAA (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L) for 8 weeks to observed root induction. The results showed that 0.5 mg/L IBA had the highest root induction (3.60 roots), and at all concentrations IBA and 1.5 mg/L NAA gave the highest callus induction (100 %)
... Myanmar has nine species, according to the last compilation by Kress et al. (2003) and the inclusion of Ceropegia farrokhii McCann in C. kachinensis Prain by Singh et al. (2015), and in Vietnam just three species are recorded (Costantin, 1912; Vietnam Plant Data Center: However, recent research on Ceropegia in Thailand has led to the discovery of numerous new species bringing the count for the country to ten (Kerr, 1951;Boonjaras & Thaithong, 2003;Meve, 2009;Kidyoo, 2014aKidyoo, , 2014bKidyoo, , 2015aKidyoo, , 2015bKidyoo & Paliyavuth, 2017). Finally, in Laos, only one unidentified Ceropegia species has so far been recorded (Newman et al., 2007). ...
... New species are frequently described (e.g. Bruyns, 2003;Malpure et al., 2006;Dold, 2006;Meve 2009;Thulin, 2009;Sujanapal, 2013;Punekar et al., 2013;Kidyoo, 2014;Kidyoo & Paliyavuth 2017) and the full diversity of the (currently paraphyletic) genus may exceed 250 species. Regardless of taxonomy, the Ceropegieae is one of the largest monophyletic clades within the Asclepiadoideae. ...
... Members of the genus are often characterized by a cage-like structure of flower formed by corolla lobes, which are apically connate to various degrees (Hooker, 1883;Huber, 1957;Ansari, 1984;Li et al., 1995;Meve, 2009;Kullayiswamy et al., 2013). The records acquired from taxonomic revision of Ceropegia in Thailand show that there are not less than 10 species described from different regions of the country, with relatively higher species diversity in northeastern region (Kerr, 1951;Boonjaras and Thaithong, 2003;Meve, 2009;Kidyoo, 2014a;Kidyoo, 2014b;Kidyoo, 2015a;Kidyoo, 2015b). Recently, Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo was discovered from two populations in Bueng Kan Province (northeastern Thailand): Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary and Phu Langka National Park. ...
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A new species, Ceropegia digitiformis Kidyoo, was discovered from northeastern Thailand. It is here described and illustrated. Photographs and a diagnostic comparison with the morphologically similar related species, Ceropegia thwaitesii Hook., are also provided. These two species display clear difference in shapes and pubescence of the corona lobes.
... Despite their great variation in shape, size, color and embellishments, most Ceropegia flowers can be recognized instantly by the corolla that basally unites to form a tube with inflated lower portion and a more or less fused tip forming a globular-ovoid cage. In Thailand, 10 species have been reported so far (Kerr 1951, Boonjaras and Thaithong 2003, Meve 2009, Kidyoo 2014a, 2014b, 2015. However, after several years of intensive field expeditions, several new Ceropegia species have been discovered in various regions. ...
Ceropegia cochleata Kidyoo, described a new below, is known from three populations in northern and northeastern Thailand. Comprehensive description, illustrations, photographs, and comparisons with the morphologically similar C. beddomei Hook. f., are here provided. Ceropegia cochleata is distinguished by its conspicuously hairy inner surface of the swollen basal part of the corolla tube and by the shape of inner coronal lobes.
... The genus comprises at least 200 species, occurring from the Canary Islands and Africa (except Mediterranean region), through Madagascar and tropical Arabia, to India, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and northern Australia (Hooker 1883, Huber 1957, Ansari 1984, Li et al. 1995, Meve 2002. In Thailand, fewer than 10 species have been reported (Kerr 1951, Boonjaras & Thaithong 2003, Meve 2009, Kidyoo 2014a, Kidyoo 2014b, some of which need to be revised. An additional, unknown species has also been discovered during field trips to the Tha Song Yang district (Tak Province). ...
Ceropegia tribounii Kidyoo (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), a recently discovered, endangered species from western Thailand, is described as new. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and diagnostic comparisons with morphologically similar species, such as C. anjanerica, are provided here. Ceropegia tribounii can be easily recognized by its sessile, linear leaves and its broadly obovate corolla lobes that are shorter than the corolla tube, as well as by its interstaminal corona with a pilose inner surface.
... The most diverse centres of diversity for the genus are Africa and India, each containing about a third of the taxa respectively . In the last ± decade a number of new Ceropegia species have been described from various areas: Africa (Gilbert 2002;Bruyns 2003Bruyns , 2004Masinde 2004;Dold 2006;Masinde 2012;Goyder 2013), India (Yadav et al. 2006Soumen 2013;Kullayiswamy et al. 2013) and Thailand (Kidyoo 2014). ...
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... Several new species and varieties of Ceropegia were described by Siro Masinde in the Flora of Tropical East Africa (Goyder et al. 2012). But it is interesting how many novelties in both Ceropegia and Brachystelma are now coming out of India (Dikawar & Singh 2011;Kambale et al. 2012Kambale et al. , 2014Kambale & Yadav 2013;Kullayiswamy et al. 2012;Prasad & Rao 2013;Punekar et al. 2013;Rahangdale & Rahangdale 2012;Rao et al. 2011;Rasingam et al. 2013;Yadav & Shendage 2010), and to a lesser extent Thailand (Kidyoo 2014). Kambale & Yadav (2013) is a beautifully illustrated account of Ceropegia in the Western Ghats. ...
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Possession of flowers that trap dipteran pollinators is a phylogenetically conserved trait within the genus Ceropegia , in which pollination systems can be generalized or highly specialized. However, little is known about the role of plant–pollinator interactions in maintaining reproductive isolation between plant species. This study examined the degree of specificity in plant-pollinator interactions and identified the mechanisms responsible for specificity among four synchronopatric species of Ceropegia . These species showed significant differences in floral scents, floral morphology, colour patterns, and presence of other functional structures, e.g., vibratile trichomes, whose essential role in fly attraction was experimentally demonstrated here. Similarity in chemical compositions of the floral scents to that of crushed Cletus trigonus bugs living in the same habitat suggests kleptomyiophily in at least some of the species studied. This is the first study to empirically demonstrate that mechanical isolation plays no discernable part in floral isolation in Ceropegia , but instead that a combination of olfactory and visual cues differentially influenced pollinator preferences and hindered heterospecific visitation, ensuring specificity through pollinator constancy, thereby driving ethological isolation among these congeneric sympatric species. We also showed experimentally that specificity was not maintained outside these plants’ native range, where other fly species occur.
Ceropegia luzhiensis X.D. Ma & J.Y. Shen, a new species from Yimen, Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to C. hookeri C. B. Clarke, C. intermedia Wight and C. manoharii Sujanapal, Salim, Anil & Sasidh., but clearly differs in its indumentum, the shape of leaf, the length of peduncle and pedicel, the shape and size of corolla and the shape of interstaminal corona lobe. A table including the morphological characters of related species and a dichotomous key to all 20 species of Ceropegia occurring in China are provided.
Ceropegia boonjarasii Kidyoo, a new species from eastern Thailand is here described, illustrated and compared morphologically and ecologically to C. sootepensis Craib and C. laotica Rodda & Meve, its putative close relatives. These three species display clear differences in habitat choice, hairiness of leaf surface and corolla lobes, and in the shape of interstaminal corona segments.
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Key to Ceropegia acicularis, C. tenuicaulis, and closely related species 1. Flower solitary; corolla lobes spatulate, connate at tips
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FIGURE 4. Distribution map of C. acicularis (1), C. tenuicaulis (1), and C. thailandica (2-3). (1) Pha Taem National Park, Ubon Ratchathani Province, (2) Phu Langka National Park, Bungkan Province, (3) Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary, Bungkan Province. Key to Ceropegia acicularis, C. tenuicaulis, and closely related species 1. Flower solitary; corolla lobes spatulate, connate at tips......................................................................................C. acicularis -Flowers in 1-flowered cyme; corolla lobes linear, free at tips............................................................................................... 2 2. Stem to 15 cm tall; corolla tube ovoid or urceolate, corolla lobes glandular hairy.......................................... C. thailandica -Stem to 30 cm tall; corolla tube tubular-urceolate, corolla lobes non-glandular hairy...................................... C. tenuicaulis Additional specimens examined (paratypes):