Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1): 29-34 29
AN ANNOTATED LIST OF HAWKMOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES
(LEPIDOPTERA) FROM HAMMOND ISLAND, TORRES STRAIT
D.A. LANE1 and M.S. MOULDS2
13 Janda St, Atherton, Qld 4883 (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2Entomology Department, Australian Museum, 6 College St, Sydney, NSW 2010
During a visit to Hammond Island, Torres Strait, between 22 March and 4 April 2014, records
were kept of adult butterflies and hawkmoths taken, observed or identified from the presence of
their early stages. The list of hawkmoths totals 25 species. An additional hawkmoth species is
included from records of a 1987 trip to Hammond Island by R.B. Lachlan, bringing the total to
26 species. The list of butterflies totals 49 species, comprising 7 of Papilionidae, 4 of Pieridae,
16 of Nymphalidae, 14 of Lycaenidae and 8 of Hesperiidae.
Hammond Island lies in the southern part of Torres Strait immediately to the
north-west of Thursday Island, which is the administrative centre of the
Torres Strait islands. Hammond is a hilly continental island, with the highest
point known locally as Command Post Hill at 143 m. It is 6.5 km long and
reaches a maximum width of 3.5 km. Much of the island retains its original
vegetation, a mixture of rainforest, open sclerophyll forest, some grassland
and clusters of fringing mangroves. The rainforest is mostly confined to
rocky hills that are made up of numerous large volcanic rocks. Very little
appears to have been published on the insect fauna of Hammond Island.
We collected hawkmoths on the island at ultraviolet lights between 22 March
and 4 April 2014, near the Catholic Church. The lights were run from dusk to
dawn and checked for moths three to four times nightly, including pre dawn.
During the day, considerable time was spent searching for eggs and larvae,
but mostly without success. The only eggs or larvae found were those of
Macroglossum hirundo errans (Walker) and Daphnis moorei (W.J. Macleay).
Hawkmoths have been collected previously on Hammond Island by R.B.
Lachlan in January 1987 (R.B. Lachlan pers. comm.). He took only one
species not recorded by us: Macroglossum rectans Rothschild & Jordan.
Other species he collected are marked by an asterisk in Table 1 below.
During this trip, a checklist of the butterflies taken or observed, or identified
from their early stages, was also compiled, with a total of 48 species
recorded. The timing of this visit coincided with the very end of the wet
season and hence was not deemed to be the most productive time to fully
document the local butterfly fauna.
Hermann Elgner visited the island on 31 March 1910 (Moulds 1977), when
apparently he took just one species, Neopithecops zalmora lucifer (Röber)
(now N. lucifer heria (Fruhstorfer)). This was subsequently recorded by
Waterhouse and Lyell (1914). There appear to be no other published records.
30 Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1)
Table 1. List of hawkmoths and butterflies recorded from Hammond Island, Torres
Strait, Queensland. Nomenclature of hawkmoths follows Kitching and Cadiou (2000)
except where indicated. Nomenclature of butterflies follows Braby (2000) or Page and
Treadaway (2013). * = also recorded by R.B. Lachlan in January 1987.
Species list Comments
Subfamily SPHINGINAE Latreille, 
Tribe Acherontiini Boisduval, 
Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758) Common
Tribe Sphingini Latreille, 
Cerbernoton rubescens severina (Miskin,
Infrequent. Meganoton rubescens
severina was recently transferred to
genus Cerbernoton by Zolotuhin
and Ryabov (2012)
Psilogramma nebulosa (Butler, 1876)* Common
Psilogramma papuensis Brechlin, 2001* Infrequent
Subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE Harris, 1839
Tribe Macroglossini Harris, 1839
Acosmeryx nr anceus (Herrich-Schäffer,
Common. Status subject to revision
by Moulds, Tuttle and Lane, in
Acosmeryx miskinii (Murray, 1873) Scarce
Daphnis moorei (W.J. Macleay, 1866) Infrequent. D. hypothous moorei
was recently raised to species status
by Eitschberger and Melichar
Daphnis placida placida (Walker, 1856)* Frequent
Gnathothlibus eras (Boisduval, 1832) * Common
Macroglossum hirundo errans (Walker, 1856) Common. Eggs and larvae found
on Pogonolobus (= Coelospermum)
Macroglossum micacea micacea (Walker,
Macroglossum prometheus lineata (T.P. Lucas,
Macroglossum rectans Rothschild & Jordan,
Infrequent. Taken only by R.B.
Lachlan in January, 1987
Nephele hespera (Fabricius, 1775) Scarce
Nephele subvaria (Walker, 1856) Infrequent
Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1) 31
Species list Comments
Tribe Dilophonotini Burmeister, 1878
Hippotion boerhaviae (Fabricius, 1775) Frequent
Hippotion brennus (Stoll, 1782)* Infrequent
Hippotion rosetta (Swinhoe, 1892)* Frequent
Hippotion velox (Fabricius, 1793) Infrequent
Theretra celata celata (Butler, 1877) Infrequent
Theretra indistincta indistincta (Butler, 1877)* Infrequent
Theretra inornata (Walker, ) Frequent
Theretra latreillii latreillii (W.S. Macleay,
Theretra oldenlandiae oldenlandiae (Fabricius,
Theretra silhetensis intersecta (Butler,
Theretra tryoni (Miskin, 1891) Infrequent
Graphium choredon (C. & R. Felder) Reasonably abundant; adults often
encountered drinking moisture
from ground puddles
Graphium macfarlanei macfarlanei (Butler) Two adults observed
Papilio aegeus aegeus Donovan Common, widespread
Papilio fuscus indicatus Butler Often observed feeding on flowers
Cressida cressida cressida (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Pachliopta polydorus queenslandicus
Ornithoptera priamus poseidon (Doubleday) Several observed
Catopsilia pomona (Fabricus) Adults common; eggs and larvae
observed on Cassia sp.
Eurema herla (W.S. Macleay) Common in open grassland
Eurema hecabe hecabe (Linnaeus) Common in open grassland
Elodina queenslandica queenslandica De Baar
Limited to areas adjacent to its
Capparis food plant
32 Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1)
Species list Comments
Mycalesis terminus terminus (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Mycalesis perseus perseus (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Ypthima arctous arctous (Fabricus) Several observed
Melanitis leda bankia (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Pantoporia consimilis consimilis (Boisduval) Common along rainforest margins
Phaedyma shepherdi shepherdi (Moore) Common along rainforest margins
Doleschallia bisaltide australis C. & R. Felder Common along rainforest margins;
also adults feeding on Eucalyptus
Hypolimnas alimena lamina Fruhstorfer Common along rainforest margins
Hypolimnas bolina nerina (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Yoma sabina parva (Butler) Common along rainforest margins
Junonia orithya albicincta Butler Common, widespread
Junonia villida calybe (Godart) Common, widespread
Junonia hedonia zelima (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Danaus chrysippus petilia (Stoll) Common, widespread
Danaus affinis affinis (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Euploea core corinna (W.S. Macleay) Common
Hypochrysops narcissus sabirius (Fruhstorfer) Common along mangrove/rain-
forest interface margins
Hypochrysops apelles apelles (Fabricus) Common along mangrove margins
Arhopala centaurus centaurus (Fabricus) Common along rainforest margins
Arhopala madytus Fruhstorfer Locally common
Arhopala micale amytis (Hewitson) Common, widespread
Hypolycaena phorbas phorbas (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Rapala varuna simsoni (Miskin) Several observed
Anthene seltuttus affinis (Waterhouse & R.E.
Anthene lycaenoides godeffroyi (Semper) Several observed
Candalides erinus erinus (Fabricus) Common, widespread
Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1) 33
Species list Comments
Psychonotis caelius taygetus (C. & R. Felder) Common, widespread
Neopithecops lucifer heria (Fruhstorfer) Collected once by H. Elgner in
Euchrysops cnejus cnidus Waterhouse & Lyell Common in open grassland
Famegana alsulus alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer) Several observed
Badamia exclamationis (Fabricus) Common along rainforest margins
Hasora hurama hurama (Butler) Larval shelters observed on Derris
trifoliata; no adults sighted
Hasora chromus chromus (Cramer) Several observed
Toxidia thyrrhus Mabille Infrequently observed
Suniana sunias rectivitta (Mabille) Common, widespread
Telicota augias (Linnaeus) Common along rainforest margins
Pelopidas lyelli lyelli (Rothschild) Common, widespread
Pelopidas agna dingo Evans Common, widespread
We sincerely thank several people for their generous assistance in giving us
permission to visit Hammond Island and for welcoming us into their
community. In particular, we wish to thank Rita Dorante who made much of
this trip possible and Brian Arndt for their kind assistance during our visit.
We are most grateful also to Councillor Mario Sabatino and his wife Sharon
for much assistance and providing permission to visit and conduct our
research on Hammond Island. To all the residents of Hammond Island, we
thank you for making us so welcome. We also wish to thank Robert Lachlan
for generously providing his hawkmoth records.
BRABY, M.F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia, Their Identification, biology and distribution.
CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood; xx + 976 pp.
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die neugliederung der unterarten von Daphnis hypothous (Cramer, 1780) mit neuer
unterartbeschreibung und der neotypusdesignation von Sphinx hypothous Cramer, 1780
(Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). European Entomologist 2: 49-91.
KITCHING, I.J. and CADIOU, J-M. 2000. Hawk moths of the World: an annotated and
illustrated revisionary checklist (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Natural History Museum, London
and Cornel University Press, Ithaca; i-viii + 1-227pp, pls 1-8.
MOULDS, M.S. 1977. Bibliography of the Australian butterflies. Australian Entomological
Press, Greenwich; 239 pp.
34 Australian Entomologist, 2015, 42 (1)
PAGE, M.G.P. and TREADAWAY, C.G. 2013. Speciation in Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus)
and allies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera: Papilionidae). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde A,
Neue Serie 6: 223-246.
WATERHOUSE, G.A. and LYELL, G. 1914. The butterflies of Australia. A monograph of the
Australian Rhopalocera. Angus and Robertson, Sydney; vi + 239 pp, 43 pls.
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