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Plant growth characters and productivity of wetland rice (Oryza sativa L.) as affected by application of different manures

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Abstract

The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (90°33' E longitude and 23°77' N latitude) during June to November, 2008 with a view to observe the comparative performance of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and productivity of transplanted rice. The experiment comprises of 10 treatments viz. T1 (Control), T2 (Green manure @ 15 t ha-1), T3 (Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e.50% NPK), T4 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1), T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T6 (Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1), T7 (Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T8 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1), T9 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK) and T10 (N80P12K72S10 i.e.100% NPK). Plant characters, yield attributes and yield were significantly influenced by different treatments. Except plant height, total tiller per hills and biological yield all the parameters were found to be highest with the treatment T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK). From ourstudy we observed that among the treatments T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + 50% of recommended NPK) produced the highest grain yield (4.79 t ha-1) of rice which was statisticallyidentical to T10 (100% of recommended NPK) and T9 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10) which resulted grain yield of 4.57 t ha-1 and 4.51 t ha-1, respectively. Vermicompost was found as the best manures when it was applied alone. The economic analysis also showed that the application of T5 maximized the profit and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was the height (1.75) in the treatment which was almost similar to T10. The lowest BCR (1.07) was obtained from control treatment (T1).
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2010. 22 (1): 46-58
http://ffa.uaeu.ac.ae/ejfa.shtml
46
Plant growth characters and productivity of wetland rice (Oryza
sativa L.) as affected by application of different manures
Mirza Hasanuzzaman1, K. U. Ahamed2, N. M. Rahmatullah3, N. Akhter2,
K. Nahar2 and M. L. Rahman4
1Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207,
Bangladesh; 2Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University,
Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh; 3Department of Agricultural Statistics, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural
University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh; 4Farm Division, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural
University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural
University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (90°33´ E longitude and 23077´ N latitude) during June to
November, 2008 with a view to observe the comparative performance of different organic
manures and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and productivity of transplanted rice. The
experiment comprises of 10 treatments viz. T1 (Control), T2 (Green manure @ 15 t ha-1), T3
(Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e.50% NPK), T4 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1), T5
(Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T6 (Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1), T7
(Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK), T8 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1), T9
(Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK) and T10 (N80P12K72S10 i.e.100% NPK).
Plant characters, yield attributes and yield were significantly influenced by different treatments.
Except plant height, total tiller per hills and biological yield all the parameters were found to be
highest with the treatment T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK). From our
study we observed that among the treatments T5 (Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + 50% of
recommended NPK) produced the highest grain yield (4.79 t ha-1) of rice which was statistically
identical to T10 (100% of recommended NPK) and T9 (Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10)
which resulted grain yield of 4.57 t ha-1 and 4.51 t ha-1, respectively. Vermicompost was found as
the best manures when it was applied alone. The economic analysis also showed that the
application of T5 maximized the profit and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was the height (1.75) in the
treatment which was almost similar to T10. The lowest BCR (1.07) was obtained from control
treatment (T1).
Keywords: Organic farming, paddy, vermicompost, poultry manure, yield, economic benefit
ﺺﺋﺎﺼﺧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ ةﺪﻤﺳأ ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ ﻟاإو ﻮﻤﻨجﺎﺘﻧ لﻮﺼﺤﻤﻟزرﻷا (Oryza sativa
L.)
م .نﺎﻣزﻮﻧﺎﺴﺣ
*1
،ك .ي .ﺪﻤﺣا
2
ن ،.م .ﷲاﺔﻤﺣر
3
ن ، .ك ،ﺮﺘﺧا .م ،رﺎﻬﻧ.ل .نﺎﻤﺣر
4
1
ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،ﻞﻴﺻﺎﺤﻤﻟا ﻢﺴﻗ ﺮﻴﺷيا ﺎآد ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا لﺎﻐﻨﺑ - 1207 ؛ﺶﻳدﻼﻐﻨﺑ ،
2
تﺎﺒﻨﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ﻢﺴﻗ ، ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﻴﺷياﻐﻨﺑ ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا لﺎ
ﺎآد- 1207 ؛
3
ا ﻢﺴﻗ ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا تاءﺎﺼﺣﻹ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﻴﺷيا ﺎآد ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا لﺎﻐﻨﺑ - 1207 ؛
4
ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،ﺔﻋرﺰﻤﻟا ةﺪﺣو ﺮﻴﺷيا لﺎﻐﻨﺑ
ﺎآد ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا 1207 ،ﺶﻳدﻼﻐﻨﺑ
ﺺﺨﻠﻤﻟا:ﺔﺑﺮﺠﺗ ﺖﻳﺮﺟأ ﺔﻴﻠﻘﺣ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﺮﻴﺷﻳا ﺎآد ،ﺔﻴﻋارﺰﻟا لﺎﻐﻨﺑ 1207 ، ﺶﻳدﻼﻐﻨﺑ
) 90033´و ﺎﻗﺮﺷ 23077´ لﺎﻤﺷ ( مﺎﻋ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺒﻤﻓﻮﻧ ﻰﻟإ ﻮﻴﻧﻮﻳ ﺮﻬﺷ لﻼﺧ2008 ﺔﻳﻮﻀﻋ ةﺪﻤﺳأ ﺔﻓﺎﺿا ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟ ﺮﻴﻏ ةﺪﻤﺳأو
زرﻷا ﺔﻴﺟﺎﺘﻧإو ﻮﻤﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻳﻮﻀﻋ .ﺖﻤﺿ ﺔﺑﺮﺠﺘﻟا 10 ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻣ: ﻰﻟوﻻا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا) ﺪهﺎﺷ ( ، ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا) دﺎﻤﺴﻟا
ﺮﻀﺧﻷا @15 ﻦﻃرﺎﺘﻜه
-1
( ، ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا)ﺧﻷا دﺎﻤﺴﻟا ﺮﻀ @15 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+ N40P6K36S10 i.e.50% NPK( ،
ﺔﻌﺑاﺮﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا) ﻦﺟاود دﺎﻤﺳ @4 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
( ، ﺔﺴﻣﺎﺨﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا) دﺎﻤﺳ ﻦﺟاود @4 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+N40P6K36S10 i.e.
50% NPK(، ﺔﺳدﺎﺴﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ) ﺮﻘﺑ دﺎﻤﺳ@ 12 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
( ﺔﻌﺑﺎﺴﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ،)12 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+N40P6K36S10 i.e.
50% NPK(، ﺔﻨﻣﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا )ﺖﺳﻮﺒﻤآﻮﻣﺮﻴﻓ @ 8 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
( ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ،)ﺖﺳﻮﺒﻤآﻮﻣﺮﻴﻓ @ 8 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+
N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK(، ةﺮﺷﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا)N80P12K72S10 i.e.100% NPK .( ﻮﻤﻨﻟا تاﺮﺷﺆﻣجﺎﺘﻧﻹاو اوﺮﺛﺄﺗ
تﻼﻣﺎﻌﻤﺑ يﻮﻨﻌﻣ ﻞﻜﺸﺑﺪﻴﻤﺴﺘﻟا ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻤﻟا . ﻴﻤﺟ ﻮﻤﻨﻟا تاﺮﺷﺆﻣ جﺎﺘﻧﻹاو تﺎﺒﻨﻟا عﺎﻔﺗرا ءﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳﺎﺑ ﻲﺟﻮﻟﻮﻴﺒﻟا نزﻮﻟاو ءﺎﻄﺷﻻا دﺪﻋو
Corresponding Author, Email: mhzsauag@yahoo.com
Mirza Hasanuzzaman et al.
47
ﺖﻧﺎآ ﻰﻠﻋأ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟاﺔﺴﻣﺎﺨﻟا ) دﺎﻤﺳ ﻦﺟاود @4 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+N40P6K36S10 i.e. 50% NPK( . نﺎﺑ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻆﺣﻮﻟ
ﺔﺴﻣﺎﺨﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﺖﺠﺘﻧأ لﻮﺼﺤﻣ ﻰﻠﻋأ ﻟا ﻦﻣ بﻮﺒﺤ)4.79رﺎﺘﻜه ﻦﻃ
-1
(و ﻲﺘﻟاﺮﺒﺘﻌﺗ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﻄﻣ ﺎﻴﺋﺎﺼﺣإ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻠﻟ ةﺮﺷﺎﻌﻟا
)N80P12K72S10 i.e.100% NPK( و ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا)ﺖﺳﻮﺒﻤآﻮﻣﺮﻴﻓ @ 8 ﻦﻃ رﺎﺘﻜه
-1
+ N
40P6K36S10 i.e. 50%
NPK(ﻼﻟاو ﻲﺗﺘﺠﺘﻧا بﻮﺒﺤﻟا ﻦﻣ لﻮﺼﺤﻣ ﻩراﺪﻘﻣ 4.57 رﺎﺘﻜه ﻦﻃ
-1
و 4.51 رﺎﺘﻜه ﻦﻃ
-1
ﻲﻟاﻮﺘﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ . دﺎﻤﺳ نﺎﺑ ﺪﺟو
ﻞﻀﻓﻷا نﺎآ ﺖﺳﻮﺒﻤآﻮﻣﺮﻴﻔﻟاادﺮﻔﻨﻣ ﻪﺘﻓﺎﺿإ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﻲﻓ . ﺮﻬﻇأ يدﺎﺼﺘﻗﻻا ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺘﻟاﺔﻴﺣﺎﻧ ﻦﻣ ﻰﻠﻋﻷا ﺖﻧﺎآ ﺔﺴﻣﺎﺨﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا نأ
و حﺎﺑرﻷا ﻢﻴﻈﻌﺗ ﻒﻴﻟﺎﻜﺘﻟاو ﺔﻌﻔﻨﻤﻟا لﺪﻌﻣﻩراﺪﻘﻣو 1.75راﺪﻘﻤﻟا ﺲﻔﻧ ﻮهو ﺎﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ ةﺮﺷﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻠﻟ . ﻰﻟوﻷا ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﺖﻧﺎآ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ
)ﺪهﺎﺸﻟا ( ﻞﻗﻷا ﻲه1.07.
Introduction
Due to the extensive and improper
use of chemical fertilizers in the soil, our
soil is degrading to an alarming level,
causing an imbalance in the ecosystem
and environmental pollution as well.
More recently, attention is being focused
on the global environmental problems;
utilization of organic wastes, FYM,
compost, vermicompost and poultry
manures as the most effective measure
for the purpose. Organic materials are
the safer sources of plant nutrient
without any detrimental effect to crops
and soil. Cowdung, farm yard manure,
poultry manure and also green manure
are excellent sources of organic matter
as well as primary plant nutrients
(Pieters, 2004).
However, after the industrial
revolution widespread introduction of
inorganic fertilizers led to a decline in
the use of organic material in the
cropping systems (Rosegrant and
Roumasset, 1988). The impact of
increased fertilizer use on crop
production has been large and important
(Hossain and Singh, 2000). It has been
estimated that fertilizer use growth
contributed to about 25% of the total
increase in rice production in Asia
between 1965 and 1980 (Barker et al.,
1985). However, in recent years there
has been serious concern about long-
term adverse effect of continuous and
indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers
on deterioration of soil structure, soil
health and environmental pollution
(Ghosh and Bhat, 1998; Shukla et al.,
1998; Singh, 2000). The fact that use of
green manures and other organic matter
can improve soil structure, improve
nutrient exchange and maintain soil
health has again raised interest in
organic farming (Ayoub, 1999; Becker
et al., 1995). Poultry manure is an
excellent organic fertilizer, as it contains
high nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
and other essential nutrients. It was also
indicated that poultry manure more
readily supplies P to plants than other
organic manure sources (Garg and
Bahla, 2008). Vermicompost has been
shown to have high levels of total and
available nitrogen, phosphorous,
potassium (NPK) and micro nutrients,
microbial and enzyme activities and
growth regulators (Parthasarathi and
Ranganathan 1999; Chaoui et al., 2003)
and continuous and adequate use with
proper management can increase soil
organic carbon, soil water retention and
transmission and improvement in other
physical properties of soil like bulk
density, penetration resistance and
aggregation (Zebarth et al., 1999) as well
as beneficial effect on the growth of a
variety of plants (Atiyeh et al., 2002).
In Bangladesh, most of the cultivated
soils have less then 1.5% organic matter
while a good agricultural soil should
contain at least 2% organic matter.
Evidences from different AEZ of the
country have shown a decrease in the
content of organic matter by the range of
15 to 30% over the last 20 years (Miah,
1994). Moreover, this important
component of soil is declining with time
due to intensive cropping and use of
higher dose of chemical fertilizers with
little or no addition of organic manure.
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2010. 22 (1): 46-58
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Majority of food grain of Bangladesh
come from rice. About 80% of cropped
area of this country is used for rice
production, with annual production of
43.72 million metric tons (IRRI, 2006) in
total acreage of 11.59 million ha. The
average yield of rice in Bangladesh is
2.52 t ha-1 (MoA, 2006). This is almost
less than 50% of the world average yield.
The yield of rice has reached a plateau due
to declining factor productivity under
increasing intensification. Therefore,
farmers are compelled to apply increasing
rates of fertilizers to maintain current yield
levels (Pagiola, 1995).The reasons for low
yield of rice are manifold; some are
varietals, others are technological and rests
are climatic. Undoubtedly, with the
introduction of high yielding varieties the
yield of rice has been increased, but the
trend of increase is not linear. The yield
can be increased by using improved
cultural practices like use of quality seed,
high yielding varieties, adopting plant
protection measures, judicious application
of fertilizers, etc. Integrated nutrient
management for rice can increase the
productivity of rice.
The long-term research of BARI
revealed that the application of cowdung @
5 t ha-1 year-1 improved rice productivity as
well as prevented the soil resources from
degradation (Bhuiyan, 1994). Poultry
manure is another good source of nutrients
in soil. Meelu and Singh (1991) showed
that 4 t ha-1 poultry manure along with 60
kg N ha-1 as urea produce grain yield of
crop similar to that with 120 kg N ha-1 as
urea alone. Use of organic manures alone,
as a substitute to chemical inorganic
fertilizer is not profitable and will not be
enough to maintain the present levels of
crop productivity of high yielding varieties
(Garrity and Flinn, 1988). Therefore,
integrated nutrient management in which
both organic manures and inorganic
fertilizers are used simultaneously is
probably the most effective method to
maintain healthy sustainable soil system
while increasing crop productivity
(Janssen, 1993). Combined applications of
both chemical and organic fertilizers need
to be applied for the improvement of soil
physical properties and supply of essential
plant nutrients for high yield. However, it
is necessary to carry out studies by using
fertilizers and manures in an integrated
way in order to obtain sustainable crop
yield without affecting soil fertility.
Materials and Methods
Experimental site
The experiment was conducted at the
Agronomy field of Sher-e-Bangla
Agricultural University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh during June to November,
2008. Geographically, the experimental
area is located at 240 75 N and 900 50 E
longitude at the elevation of above 18 m
from the sea level. The soil of the
experimental field belongs to the Shallow
Red Brown Terrace Soils. Physical and
chemical properties of initial soil have
been presented in Table 1.
Experimental treatments and design
The treatments were as follows:
T1= Control
T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1
T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 +
N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK)
T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1
T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 +
N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK)
T6= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1
T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 +
N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK)
T8= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1
T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 +
N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK)
T10= N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK)
The experiment was laid out in a
randomized completely block design
(RCBD) with 3 replications. The unit
plot size was 12 m2.
48
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2010. 22 (1): 46-58
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Table 1. Physical and chemical characteristics of the initial soil (0-15 cm depth).
Characteristics Value
Mechanical fractions:
% Sand (0.2-0.02 mm)
% Silt (0.02-0.002 mm)
% Clay (<0.002 mm)
22.26
56.72
20.72
Textural class Silt Loam
pH (1: 2.5 soil: water) 6.2
CEC (cmol kg-1) 17.9
Organic C (%) 0.686
Organic Matter (%) 1.187
Total N (%) 0.032
Exchangeable K (cmol kg-1) 0.12
Available P (mg kg-1) 19.85
Available S (mg kg-1) 14.40
Table 2. Chemical compositions of the organic manures used for the experiment
(Oven dry basis).
Nutrient content
Organic manure
C (%) N (%) P (%) K (%) C: N
Cowdung 36 1.48 0.29 0.75 24
Poultry manure 29 2.19 1.98 0.81 8
Sesbania Green manures 46 2.95 0.26 1.56 15
Vermicompost 11.54 1.66 1.25 0.254 9.60
Crop establishment and application of
treatments
The experiment was carried out with
rice variety BRRI dhan40 which is suitable
for aman (autumn) season. A common
procedure was followed in raising of
seedling in seed bed. Seedlings of 25 days
old were uprooted from the nursery beds
carefully. Seedlings were transplanted
according to the treatments in the well-
puddled experimental plots. Spacings were
given 20 cm × 15 cm. Organic manures was
applied before land preparation as per
treatments. The nutrient compositions of the
manures used in this experiment are
presented in Table 2. Thirty-days-old
Sesbania rostrata green plants were
incorporated as green manure. Others
manures were used as decomposed.
Chemical fertilizers were applied as per
treatments during final land preparation.
Urea, triple superphosphate, muriate of
potash and gypsum were applied as sources
of N, P, K and S. In case of N one-third
urea was applied as basal dose at the time of
final land preparation and incorporated well
into the soil. Rest two-third of urea was
applied in two equal splits at 30 and 55 days
after transplanting (DAT). All intercultural
operations were done carefully. The first
weeding was done at 15 DAT followed by
second and third weeding were done at 15
days interval after first and second weeding.
Irrigation was done by alternate wetting and
drying from transplanting to maximum
tillering stage. From panicle initiation (PI)
to hard dough stage, a thin layer of water
(2-3 cm) was kept on the plots. Water was
removed from the plots during ripening
stage. The crop of each plot was harvested
separately on different dates when 90% of
the grains become golden yellow in colour.
Data collection and analysis
The number of tillers hill–1 was recorded
at the maximum tillering stage. Ten sample
49
Mirza Hasanuzzaman et al.
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2010. 22 (1): 46-58
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hills were collected from each plot for
collection of data on plant characters and
yield components. Leaf area index (LAI)
was worked out by using average leaf area
plant-1 with the help of the formula as
suggested by Watson (1952). The grain and
straw weights for each plot were recorded
after proper sun drying and then converted
into t ha-1. The grain yield was adjusted at
12% moisture level. Harvest index was
calculated by dividing the economic (grain)
yield by the total biological yield (grain +
straw) from the same area (Donald, 1963)
and multiplying by 100.
The data was analyzed using MSTAT-C
(Russel, 1994) programme. The mean
differences among the treatments were
compared by multiple comparison tests
using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test
(DMRT).
From beginning to ending of the
experiment, individual cost data on all the
heads of expenditure in each treatment were
recorded carefully and classified according
to Mian and Bhuiya (1977) as well as
posted under different heads of cost of
production. Gross return from transplant
rice cultivation was calculated by summing
the value of grain (Tk ha-1) and value of
straw (Tk ha-1). Net return was calculated by
subtracting total cost of production (Tk ha-1)
from gross return (Tk ha-1). Benefit cost
ratio indicated whether the cultivation is
profitable or not which was calculated as
the gross return multiplied by the total cost
of production.
Results and Discussion
Plant characters
From the study it was observed that
different plant characters of rice viz. Plant
height, number of tillers and leaf area
indices significantly influenced by different
manure application in combination with
inorganic fertilizers (Table 3). From the
observation the tallest plants of rice were
observed with the application of
N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK) which was
statistically identical with the application of
50% NPK and Sesbania green manure
incorporation (T3). Significant roles of
Sesbania green manures to plant height
might be due to it high N content which
influence the vegetative at the earlier stage
of plant growth. Any organic manure
applied in combination with 50% NPK gave
identical results in this study (Table 3). In
case of rice vegetative growth is greatly
mediated by N fertilizers. In this study
treatment T10 produced the tallest plant
because it provided sufficient N available
for plant. The amount of N released by
Sesbania with 50% NPK was also sufficient
to suppliant the required amount N.
However, control treatment (without
fertilizer) produced the shortest plants in
this experiment. The variation in plant
height due to nutrient sources was
considered to be due to variation in the
availability of major nutrients. Chemical
fertilizer offers nutrients which are readily
soluble in soil solution and thereby
instantaneously available to plants. Nutrient
availability from organic sources is due to
microbial action and improved physical
condition of soil. These results were
supported by Sarker et al. (2004).
Tillering is an important trait for grain
production and is thereby an important
aspect of rice growth improvement.
Production of tillers in rice plant was also
influenced by different fertilizer
combination (Table 3). In the present study
maximum number of tillers (13.4 per hill)
was produced with T10 which was followed
by T5 and T9. Tiller production with these
treatments was 90.14%, 80.28% and
70.42% higher than control (T1) treatment.
In case of control treatment there was
deficiency of N and other essential nutrients
which was required for tiller production
while the other treatments supplied it which
rendering the higher number of tillers. The
productivity of rice plant is greatly
dependent on the number of productive
tiller (tillers which bears panicle) rather
than the total tiller numbers. Hence we
observed the maximum number of effective
tillers (10.4 per hill) with T5 (Poultry
manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10) which
50
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was at per with T10 and T9. However,
application of cowdung with 50% NPK (T7)
also gave higher number of effective tillers
than any organic manures alone (Table 3).
From this study it was observed that excess
application of inorganic fertilizers is not
necessary to produce effective tillers if we
can supplement it from organic manures.
However, organic sources offer more
balanced nutrition to the plants, especially
micro nutrients which has caused better
affectivity of tiller in plants grown with
poultry manure and vermicompost (Miller,
2007). This result was partially supported
by Rakshit et al. (2008).
In case of any plant leaves are important
organs which have an active role in
photosynthesis. To achieve high yield
maximization of leaf area might be an
important factor. In our study we found that
leaf area indices were significantly affected
by different manuring treatments. From
Table 3 it is observed that maximum leaf
area index was resulted with the treatment
T10 (5.9) which was statistically similar with
T5 (5.8), T9 (5.5) and T7 (5.3). Sufficient
nutrient facilitated to plant might have
maximum cell elongation or cell division
rendering better size of leaves and hence the
maximum leaf area index. Control
treatments produced the lowest leaf area
index (2.6) In our study the treatments T10,
T5, T9 and T7 gave 126.92%, 123.07%,
111.53% and 103.84%, respectively over
control. Leaf area index in untreated control
remained generally flat and well below
other treatments. Sarker et al. (2004) also
reported the increased LAI with manure
application in combination of inorganic N
fertilizers.
Table 3. Plant characters of wetland rice cv. BRRI dhan40 as affected by
different organic manures.
Treatments
Plant height
(cm)
No. of total
tillers hil-1
No. of effective
tillers hill-1
Leaf area
index
T1 74.6 g 7.1 f 4.2 f 2.6 e
T2 81.7 f 8.3 ef 5.6 d 3.1 de
T3 106.5 ab 10.9 bcd 7.1 c 4.6 bc
T4 95.7 cd 9.0 ef 6.3 cd 4.1 c
T5 91.4 de 12.8 ab 10.4 a 5.8 a
T6 87.7 ef 8.5 ef 5.8 d 3.7 d
T7 101.2 bc 11.2 bc 8.3 b 5.3 ab
T8 95.0 cd 10.2 cde 5.3 de 4.0 d
T9 103.4 b 12.1 abc 10.1 a 5.5 ab
T10 110.5 a 13.4 a 10.3 a 5.9 a
LSD0.05 6.3 1.9 1.1 0.9
CV (%) 5.44 8.23 8.08 6.78
Values in a column sharing common letter(s) do not vary significantly at P < 0.05
T1= Control; T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1; T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1; T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T6= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1; T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK); T8= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1; T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK) and T10= N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK)
Yield attributes
Yield contributing characters are
directly correlated with economic yield of
plant. In this study a significant response
of different manuring treatments was
observed on the yield attributes viz.
panicle length, spikelets per panicle,
fertile grains per panicle and grain weight
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(Table 4). Panicle length of BRRI dhan40
was highest with the treatment T5 which
was even higher than 100% NPK
application. It was statistically identical
with T10 and T9. The treatment T7 also
gave better results compared with single
application of any manures. This result
revealed that combined application of
organic manures and inorganic fertilizers
can uplift the panicle formation and
panicle growth which gave maximum
number of grains per plant. From Table 4
it was observed that maximum number of
spikelets (139.3) in a panicle was
produced by the treatment T5 (Poultry
manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10) which
was statistically superior to any other
treatments except T10. It means that even
50% of the recommended NPK can give
best results if it is combined applied with
poultry manures. It might be due to more
grain formation as well as growth of rice
which was enhanced by poultry manures.
Grain fertility was also enhanced by the
same treatment (T5) which was
statistically different from other
treatments (Table 4). The treatment T5
and T10 produced 144.54% and 126.89%
higher number of fertile grains compared
to control treatment. In our study 100%
of the recommended NPK which was
supplied from inorganic fertilizer
produced the second highest number of
fertile grains per panicle. A significant
loss of grain was occurred due to less
fertility mediated by only single
application of manures. It was due to less
nutrient capacity of organic manures
which did not meet the requirements of
the rice plant to produce fertile grains. It
was also observed significant differences
in 1000-grain weight of rice cv. BRRI
dhan40 as affected by variation in
fertilizer packages (Table 4).
Table 4. Yield contributing characters of wetland rice cv. BRRI dhan40 as affected by
different organic manures.
Treatments
Panicle
length (cm)
No. of spikelets
panicles-1
No. of fertile
grains panicle-1
1000-grain
weight (g)
T1 14.5 g 72.1 g 54.1 h 18.3 e
T2 17.1 f 91.2 f 73.0 g 19.8 de
T3 20.4 cde 123.4 d 104.9 d 21.4 a-d
T4 18.9 def 103.4 e 82.7 e 21.0 bcd
T5 23.6 a 139.3 a 129.3 a 23.9 a
T6 17.8 f 92.4 f 73.9 fg 20.7 cd
T7 21.1 bcd 129.4 c 110.0 cd 22.6 abc
T8 18.5 ef 98.2 e 78.6 ef 20.3 de
T9 22.6 abc 133.2 bc 113.2 c 22.9 ab
T10 22.9 ab 136.3 ab 122.7 b 22.5 abc
LSD0.05 2.3 5.3 5.1 2.1
CV (%) 6.54 7.54 6.09 8.11
T1= Control; T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1; T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1; T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T6= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1; T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK);
T8= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1; T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK) and
T10= N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK).
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The treatment T5 also produced the
heaviest grain which was statistically
similar to any combined application of
50% NPK and organic manures (T9, T7,
T10 and T3). Thousand grain weight is
mostly mediated by genetic potential but
in this case it declines significantly with
single application of organic manures as
well as with control treatment due to
severe deficiency of essential nutrients
and hence the plants failed to produced a
bold grain. The increased values of yield
attributes with the application of manures
was due to the fact that use of green
manures and other organic matter can
improve soil structure, improve nutrient
exchange and maintain soil health has
again raised interest in organic farming
(Ayoub, 1999; Becker et al., 1995).
Poultry manure is an excellent organic
fertilizer, as it contains high nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium and other
essential nutrients. These findings were
supported by Meelu and Singh (1991)
who reported that 4 t ha-1 poultry manure
along with 60 kg N ha-1 as urea produce
grain yield of crop similar to that with
120 kg N ha-1 as urea alone. Uddin et al.
(2002) also observed the beneficial effect
of poultry manures on the yield
contributing characters of rice.
Yield and harvest index
Yield is the ultimate reflection of the
yield components. In this study the
differences in yield attributes by different
combination of manures application
rendered the differences in yield of rice cv.
BRRI dhan40 (Table 5). Grain yield, straw
yield and biological yield were
significantly affected by different
combination of organic and inorganic
manures. From our study we observed that
among the treatments T5 (Poultry manure
@ 4 t ha-1 + 50% of recommended NPK)
produced the highest grain yield (4.79 t ha-
1) of rice which was statistically identical to
T10 (100% of recommended NPK) and T9
(Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10)
which resulted grain yield of 4.57 t ha-1 and
4.51 t ha-1, respectively. From Figure 1 it
was observed a clear difference in yield by
different fertilizer/manure application over
control. The treatment T5, T10 and T9
produced 153.44%, 141.80% and 138.62%
more grain yield compared to control
treatments (1.89 t ha-1). The little extent of
grain yield was produced by control
treatment which might be due to some
residual effect of soil nutrients. Single
application of vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1
produced the better grain yield (2.78 t ha-1)
compared to others organic manures which
were followed by grain yield (2.43 t ha-1)
produced by poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1
(Table 5). The increase in yield with these
treatments was attributed to panicles per
hill, grains per panicle and seed weight
which were highest with T5. The residual
effect was attributed to panicles hill-1 and
seeds panicle-1. These results were
corroborated with the findings of
Channabasavanna and Biradar (2001).
Grain yield is a function number of panicle
bearing tillers per hill and grains per
panicle besides grain weight. The results
suggest that poultry manures offered better
nutritional quality and favorable balance of
nutrients when supplemented with NPK
which provided the maximum yield.
Rakshit et al. (2008) also observed similar
findings. Uddin et al. (2002) reported that
if poultry manure can be added @ 4 t ha-1
the use of NPK can be reduced and S, Zn
and B fertilizers may not be needed.
In this study straw yield as well as
biological yield was highest with the
treatment T10 (100% of the recommended
NPK) which was identical with yield
produced by T5 and T9. The treatment T10
provided maximum requirement of primary
essential elements which were needed for
plant’s vegetative growth and hence the
highest straw yield was obtained.
Biological yield is the sum of grain yield
(economic yield) and straw yield and thus
it was also followed the trend like straw
yield. These results were supported by
Channabasavanna and Biradar (2001).
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Harvest indices were also
significantly varied with different
treatments (Table 5). In this study T5
produced the highest harvest index
(41.43%) which was followed by T9, T10
and T7. It might be due to better grain
yield with corresponding biological yield.
The plots having cowdung @ 12 t ha-1
gave the lowest harvest index. The higher
harvest indices with the treatments were
due to more economic yield caused by
more availability of nutrients.
Table 5. Yield and harvest index of wetland rice cv. BRRI dhan40 as affected by
different organic manures.
Treatments
Grain yield
(t ha-1)
Straw yield
(t ha-1)
Biological yield
(t ha-1) Harvest index (%)
T1 1.89 d 3.61 f 5.50 f 34.36 cd
T2 2.32 cd 4.72 e 7.04 ef 32.95 d
T3 3.41 b 5.91 cd 9.32 cd 36.59 bc
T4 2.43 cd 4.91 e 7.34 e 33.11 d
T5 4.79 a 6.77 ab 11.56 ab 41.43 a
T6 2.50 c 5.12 de 7.62 e 32.81 d
T7 3.91 b 6.11 bc 10.02 bc 39.02 ab
T8 2.78 c 5.05 e 7.83 de 35.50 cd
T9 4.51 a 6.72 abc 11.23 ab 40.16 a
T10 4.57 a 7.01 a 11.58 a 39.46 ab
LSD0.05 0.56 0.84 1.67 2.59
CV (%) 7.34 8.12 10.11 6.01
T1= Control; T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1; T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1; T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10
(50% NPK); T6= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1; T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK); T8= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1; T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK) and T10= N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK)
Figure 1. Increases in grain yield of BRRI dhan40 with various manure treatments over control.
T1= Control; T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1; T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK); T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1; T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK); T6=
Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1; T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK); T8= Vermicompost @ 8
t ha-1; T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK) and T10= N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK).
54
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10
Treatments
% increase over contro l
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Economic comparison
By economic analysis it was
observed that the maximum cost of manures
was involved in case of T9 (Vermicompost
@ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10). The treatment T5
(Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10)
needed the second highest cost (Table 6)
which was almost two-third of T9. Due to
the differences of cost of
manures/fertilizers among the treatments,
the total cost of production was varied in
this experiment. The treatment T9
involved the maximum cost of production
whereas the lowest cost of production
was involved in T1 which does not
include any fertilizer/manures. The gross
return from rice cultivation was found to
be the maximum with the treatment T5
which was slightly higher than T10 and T9
(Table 6). Net profit was highest from the
treatment T5 which was even more than
T10 (100% of the recommended fertilizers
NPK). The lowest net profit was obtained
from T1 (control) due to its lowest
production of grain and straw. The
economic analysis also showed that the
application of T5 maximized the profit
and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was the
height (1.75) in the treatment which was
almost similar to T10 (Table 6). The
lowest BCR (1.07) was obtained from
control treatment (T1). This is due to the
lowest yield of grain and straw.
Table 6. Cost of production and economic returns from BRRI dhan40 as affected by
different organic manures.
Cost of production (Tk)
Treatments
Variable cost
(except manures)
Cost of
manures
Total cost
Gross
return
(Tk)
Net profit
(Tk)
BCR
T1 27,000.00 0.00 27,000.00 29,348.00 2,348.00 1.07
T2 27,000.00 6,800.00 33,800.00 36,256.00 2,456.00 1.09
T3 27,000.00 13,300.00 40,300.00 52,468.00 12,168.00 1.30
T4 27,000.00 8,000.00 35,000.00 37,948.00 2,948.00 1.08
T5 27,000.00 14,500.00 41,500.00 72,476.00 30,976.00 1.75
T6 27,000.00 6,000.00 33,000.00 39,096.00 6,096.00 1.18
T7 27,000.00 12,500.00 39,500.00 59,628.00 20,128.00 1.51
T8 27,000.00 12,000.00 39,000.00 42,960.00 3,960.00 1.10
T9 27,000.00 22,500.00 49,500.00 68,516.00 19,016.00 1.38
T10 27,000.00 13,000.00 40,000.00 69,588.00 29,588.00 1.74
T1= Control; T2= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1; T3= Green manure @ 15 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50%
NPK); T4= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1; T5= Poultry manure @ 4 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK);
T6= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1; T7= Cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK); T8=
Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1; T9= Vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 + N40P6K36S10 (50% NPK) and T10=
N80P12K72S10 (100% NPK).
Price for Urea, TSP, MP, Gypsum, Cowdung, Poultry manures and Vermicompost are Tk. 20.00,
Tk. 35.00, Tk. 40.00, Tk. 30.00, Tk. 0.50, Tk. 2.00, Tk. 1.50 per kg, respectively.
Price for Rice grain and straw are Tk. 14.00 and Tk. 0.80 per kg, respectively.
1 US doller = Tk. 69.50.
Conclusion
From the above discussion it is
clear that organic manures have a
significant influence on the productivity
of wetland rice. Organic manure can be a
better supplement of inorganic fertilizer
to produce better growth and yield or
rice. All the treatments showed
significant influence on growth and
productivity of rice. Form the present
study it was observed that Poultry
manures combined with 50% of the
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recommended NPK fertilizers gave the best
results compared to other combination.
Organic manure alone could not give the
better yield. However, among the manures
vermicompost @ 8 t ha-1 itself produced
the better grain yield compared to others
organic manures. From the economic
point of view farmers can use the
combination of poultry manures and
reduced rate of inorganic fertilizers to
uplift the yield of rice as well as to
maintain and improve soil health.
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... Rice productivity have increased since the green revolution (Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010) and applied a system that uses large amounts of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides (Khan et al., 2007). Constantly and exaggerated inorganic fertilizer application in every planting season have reduced soil productivity within a certain span of time (Ikemura and Shukla, 2009;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010;Sanati et al., 2011). ...
... Rice productivity have increased since the green revolution (Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010) and applied a system that uses large amounts of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides (Khan et al., 2007). Constantly and exaggerated inorganic fertilizer application in every planting season have reduced soil productivity within a certain span of time (Ikemura and Shukla, 2009;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010;Sanati et al., 2011). Growing awareness about the negative impact of the use of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and other agricultural inputs to the environment, health, food and human health, have prompted farmers to develop organic farming (Ikemura and Shukla, 2009). ...
... The high yielding varieties, intensive farming, and inorganic fertilizers take the lead in providing food for these large populations. Our soil is degrading to an alarming level as a result of the excessive and improper use of complex organic substances in stabilized, humus-like chemical fertilizers in the soil, which is also contributing to ecosystem imbalance and environmental pollution (Satyanarayana et al., 2002;Mahajan et al., 2008;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010). As a result of the stimulation of a downturn in soil properties (physical and chemical), as well as in soil microbial growth (Mahajan et al., 2008). ...
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Integrated nutrient management is vital for the development and growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but they are rarely used nowadays due to the widespread use of inorganic fertilizers. So, the current research was executed to determine the effect of organic amendments on different growth parameters of BRRI dhan55. A field investigation was managed at the Plant Pathology field lab, Sylhet Agricultural University, from November 2018 to April 2019. Different combinations of organic amendments (T1= Recommended Fertilizer Dose, RFD which includes TSP 100g 10 m-2 , MoP 100g 10 m-2 , Gypsum 50g 10 m-2 , Zinc 15g 10 m-2 , T2= RFD with vermicompost 2kg 10 m-2 , T3= RFD with vermicompost 4 kg 10 m-2 , T4= RFD with cowdung 2 kg 10 m-2 , T5= RFD with cowdung 4 kg 10 m-2 , and T6= RFD with Biochar 4 kg 10 m-2) were used in a RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replications. The existing results showed that RFD with biochar treatments showed better performance in terms of the initial weight of grain (50.70 g), clean grain weight (48.55 g), and number of non-effective grains per panicle (27.67) and tiller per hill (12.07). T2 (RFD with vermicompost 2 kg 10 m-2) treatments demonstrated better results in parameters such as weight of grain from a single panicle (4.04 g), single panicle grain weight (3.90 g), panicle length (24.77 cm), and grain per panicle (153.00). Biomass (34.56 g) and above-ground length parameters (90.00 cm) performed better with the T4 treatment (RFD with 2 kg 10 m-2 of cowdung). T 6 treatments were showed the highest grain yield (10.71 t ha-1) followed by T3 treatments. Therefore, the present results recommended that organic amendments could be a better supplement than inorganic amendments for the growth performance of BRRI dhan55.
... The high yielding varieties, intensive farming, and inorganic fertilizers take the lead in providing food for these large populations. Our soil is degrading to an alarming level as a result of the excessive and improper use of complex organic substances in stabilized, humus-like chemical fertilizers in the soil, which is also contributing to ecosystem imbalance and environmental pollution (Satyanarayana et al., 2002;Mahajan et al., 2008;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010). As a result of the stimulation of a downturn in soil properties (physical and chemical), as well as in soil microbial growth (Mahajan et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated nutrient management is vital for the development and growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but they are rarely used nowadays due to the widespread use of inorganic fertilizers. So, the current research was executed to determine the effect of organic amendments on different growth parameters of BRRI dhan55. A field investigation was managed at the Plant Pathology field lab, Sylhet Agricultural University, from November 2018 to April 2019. Different combinations of organic amendments (T1= Recommended Fertilizer Dose, RFD which includes TSP 100g 10 m-2 , MoP 100g 10 m-2 , Gypsum 50g 10 m-2 , Zinc 15g 10 m-2 , T2= RFD with vermicompost 2kg 10 m-2 , T3= RFD with vermicompost 4 kg 10 m-2 , T4= RFD with cowdung 2 kg 10 m-2 , T5= RFD with cowdung 4 kg 10 m-2 , and T6= RFD with Biochar 4 kg 10 m-2) were used in a RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replications. The existing results showed that RFD with biochar treatments showed better performance in terms of the initial weight of grain (50.70 g), clean grain weight (48.55 g), and number of non-effective grains per panicle (27.67) and tiller per hill (12.07). T2 (RFD with vermicompost 2 kg 10 m-2) treatments demonstrated better results in parameters such as weight of grain from a single panicle (4.04 g), single panicle grain weight (3.90 g), panicle length (24.77 cm), and grain per panicle (153.00). Biomass (34.56 g) and above-ground length parameters (90.00 cm) performed better with the T4 treatment (RFD with 2 kg 10 m-2 of cowdung). T 6 treatments were showed the highest grain yield (10.71 t ha-1) followed by T3 treatments. Therefore, the present results recommended that organic amendments could be a better supplement than inorganic amendments for the growth performance of BRRI dhan55.
... A study by Haitao et al. (2017a) showed that adding vermicompost and additional inorganic fertilizer to the soil considerably boosted plant growth and marketable yields. Mirza et al. (2010) and , reported similar findings where with organic amendments, the leaf might absorb enough nutrients and enhance good root development. Fig. 1 (d) shows the chlorophyll content for different treatments which were difference significantly among them in the upward trend was T1 (15.3 µmol/m 2 ) < T3 (30.53 ...
... This treatment was comparable to the same treatment through inorganic alone and also equivalent to other treatments sequentially. This kind of results might be presumably due to the efficiencies of each and every treatment and treatment combinations except control in the release of nutrients at all the critical stages, contributing the formation of panicle evenly at later stages of crop growth and finds support from Fahad et al. (2016) [2] (Hasanuzzaman et al., 2010) [4] . The results are in confirmity with the results of Jayakumar et al. (2014) and Wijitkosum and Kallayasiri (2015) [7,18] . ...
... They can improve the physical properties of the soil [14]; [15]. Organic matter is a safe source of plant nutrients with no detrimental effects on plants and soil [16]. The organic management system results in increased soil organic matter and N levels due to the incorporation of animal manure and compost [17]. ...
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Red chili is one of the commodity crops grown in Indonesia. One of the factors that affect the production of red chili plants is fertilization. The application of organic fertilizer affects the yield and growth of red chili plants. This study aims to determine the response of the growth and development of red chili plants to the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers combined with biochar. This study was carried out at the Experimental Garden of the Local Waste Processing Site in Kusamba Village, Klungkung Regency, and the Laboratory of the Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture Warmadewa University from March to November 2021. Soil and fertilizer testing were carried out at the Soil Science Laboratory, Udayana University. The study used an experimental method, the experimental design used was a one-factor randomized block design with 4 replications/block. The parameters observed were plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, number of fruit per plant, fruit weight per plant, and fruit weight harvested per hectare. Based on the data obtained, the type of fertilizer treatment had a very significant effect on all observed variables except for plant height at 21 DAP per plant, the number of leaves at 21 DAP per plant, and the number of leaves at 28 DAP per plant had a significant effect on the treatment given. The application of NPK fertilizer gave the best results on all parameters except for the stem diameter parameter. On the stem diameter parameter, the application of asri nature fertilizers gives the best result. Control treatment (without fertilizer) gave the lowest yield in all observations.
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