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Abstract

Cow is equated to mother in the Indian tradition and her urine panacea of all diseases. Cow urine is a divine medicine and is used for treatment of diabetes, blood pressure, asthma, psoriasis, eczema, heart attack, blockage in arteries, fits, cancer, AIDS, piles, prostrate, arthritis, migraine, thyroid, ulcer, acidity, constipation, gynaecological problems it is also used as bio-enhancer, increase the nitrogen content of the soil, for better rearing of honey bees, hasten the pubertal age of the heifers exposed to bull's urine and as pesticide and larvicide for the fodder crops. Cow urine contains all substances, which are naturally present in the human body. Thus, consumption of cow urine maintains the balance of these substances and this helps cure incurable diseases. It is natural, eco-friendly with no residual effects, economical and easily available, hence can be harnessed as potential therapeutic agent.

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... So it can be the most effective natural antiseptic and disinfectant as compared to the synthetic chemicals which are currently been used for the same purposes by the people. (2) Bhadauria et al (3) explained that GA is not a toxic substance as it contains 2.5% urea, 95% water and 2.5% a mixture of hormones, salts, minerals and enzymes. ...
... This urine therapy could have a great scope for curing wide range of diseases which are dreadful because it is In vitro analysis of the effect of Go Ark on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes economically viable, eco-friendly and easily available naturally in abundance. (2). ...
... This was diluted with double volume (5ml) of PBS (1X). 2.5 milliliter of HiSep TM lymphocyte separation medium (LSM) 1077 (Hi media) was transferred aseptically into a centrifuge tube. ...
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Cow is worshiped in India as “Gomata” since ancient time. Its values have been signified in Vedas, Puranas & Ayurveda. Its urine/Go Ark is used in rituals & medicines traditionally in India. The Significance of Cow Urine has been studied by many workers. Now it is available in the market as distillate. Hence this study was designed to assess the potential of Fresh Go Ark (FGA) and Distillate Go Ark (DGA) on Human Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in Vitro using MTT Assay. It was found that FGA & DGA both had the potential to enhance the cell viability of Human PBL. FGA showed greater potential towards the enhancement of cell viability on Human PBL than that of DGA. However the difference between the impacts of FGA & DGA was not found to be significant when tested through Two way ANOVA.
... The presence of different constituents in cow urine makes it useful for several therapeutic purposes. For instance, Allantoin in cow urine makes it a good substrate in aiding wound healing [88]. The presence of copper and gold hydroxide in cow urine makes it function as antipoison, thus, it is used in the elimination of toxic effects of residues from medicines [89]. ...
... The high nitrogen concentration makes it useful in stimulating the kidney. In fact, cow urine taken orally has been reported to boost immune system, improve memory, relieve tension and lower the level of cholesterol in the body [88,89]. Human urine has also been used for the treatment of allergic diseases and autoimmune, by the collection of the patient's urine and processing it to obtain the peptide fraction of the urine. ...
... Further research is needed to minimize the side effects associated with the use of urine therapy. Some of the side effects that has been reported are fever, soreness of the shoulder, fatigue, pain, itch and diarrhea [88]. Finally, optimization process is required for the urine to be used for the applications described in this review. ...
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Large volume of urine is continuously released into the environment by both humans and animals, and impacts negatively on the environment and ultimately on humans and animals’ health. In this review, the negative impacts associated with the release of urine to the environment is highlighted. Instead of releasing urine into the environment, it has been used for several important applications. Various ways through which these waste discharge have been positively utilized such as in the synthesis of chemicals, evolution of hydrogen, power generation, source of raw materials, fertilizer application, diagnosis and treatment of diseases are comprehensively examined. Particularly, the use of urine in the synthesis of nanomaterials is emphasized. Since stabilization of urine is necessary for its application, several methods of treating and stabilizing urine are discussed. In addition, various analytical techniques used in the detection of substances present in the urine are presented. The aim of the present review is to explore different ways by which urine has been utilized so as to trigger more research findings on the other novel means of utilizing urine.
... Cow urine therapy is used to treat weight loss, reversal of certain cardiac and renal diseases, indigestion, stomach ache, thyroid, asthma, psoriasis, eczema, diarrhoea, piles, prostrate, arthritis, migraine, constipation, edema, jaundice, anaemia, gynaecological problems, hemorrhoids and skin diseases including vitiligo. Cow urine distillate is an effective antibacterial agent against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and also against some drug-resistant bacteria [19,21,22,24] . Cow urine distillate (Hindi: Gau Mutra Ark) is useful for many diseases. ...
... As bioenhancer, it increase the nitrogen content of the soil, for better rearing of honey bees, hasten the pubertal age of the heifers exposed to bull's urine and as pesticide and larvicide for the fodder crops. [19] Cow urine contains all substances, which are naturally present in the human body. Thus, consumption of cow urine maintains the balance of these substances and this helps cure incurable diseases. ...
... Thus, consumption of cow urine maintains the balance of these substances and this helps cure incurable diseases. It is natural, eco-friendly with no residual effects, economical and easily available, hence can be harnessed as potential therapeutic agent [19] . Gau mutra (cow urine) therapy provides an especially rich and provocative research topic. ...
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Gomutra (Cow urine) is an important part of Indian tradition. From the ancient period cow's urine has been used as a medicine. Cow (Bos indicus) urine/Gomutra has been elaborately explained in Ayurveda and described in "Sushruta Samhita", "Ashtanga Sangraha" and other Ayurvedic texts as an effective medicinal substance/secretion of animal origin with innumerable therapeutic properties. It has various important medicinal and therapeutic values. Cow urine is one of the five contents of Panchagavya which obtain from cow (Urine, milk, ghee, curd and dung). The treatment done by using Panchgavya products of cow called, Cowpathy (Panchgavya chikitsa). Several diseases like cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, AIDS, GI disturbances etc. are increasing day by day. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in higher amount is also responsible for increase in antibiotic resistant infectious diseases like Tuberculosis. Gomutra (Cow urine) is scientifically proven to act as Bioenhancer. Various actions and researches on cow urine are summarized in this article. However, more studies experimental as well as clinical trials can throw better light on it.
... Many potent constituents which are almost needed to our body physiology were identified by the biochemical analysis of urine like sodium, sulfur, nitrogen, minerals, vitamins A, B, C, D, E, manganese, silicon, iron, chlorine, enzymes, magnesium, succinic, citric, phosphate, calcium salt, carbolic acid, creatinine, lactose, hormones etc, so having deficiency of these can be recovered by using cow urine [13,20,25]. The various fraction of cow urine via different solvents extraction signifies antioxidant and antimicrobial potency; it might be due to the above mentioned compositions [26][27][28]. ...
... Cow urine also promotes phagocytic activity to defense against bacterial infections, the synthesis of interleukine 1 and 2 [29,30], IgA, IgG, IgM, T-lymphocytes thus promotes immunity [31]. Cow urine generally regarded as safe because 95% is water, 2.5% urea and remaining other 2.5% is mixture of above mentioned minerals, hormones and salts [13,32]. ...
... The urine has its diverse use to treat various diseases as well as to maintain normal life and as fertilizer, pesticide etc. The dung is used as fertilizer, as fumigating agents to avoid mosquito, insects and other harmful organism and as an energy source to cook food etc [13]. Other various traditional use of cow urine is verified by scientific study as listed in ...
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In world both cow urine and meat consuming people are enough. It is mostly directed by religious boundaries like Hindu don't eat cow meat and prefer cow urine, milk, curd, dunk, and ghee but Muslim and Christian can also eat cow meat with higher priority. Cow is regarded as mother in eastern culture. The urine of Cow is panacea of all disease so; it is a divine agent to treat migraine, asthma, psoriasis, diabetes, hypertension, eczema, heart attack, acidity, ulcer, constipation, menstrual problem, piles, cancer, arthritis, thyroid , prostate, burns, and many more. Also used as bio enhancer, to fix nitrogen level of soil, pesticide, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antifungal, larvicidal for fodder corps etc. The cow urine contains most of the needed micro elements for human, thus using it helps to balance needed trace minerals and other agents to make healthy and cure incurable diseases. Behind this it's ecofriendly without any bad effect it's very useful to human, animals, soil and the environment where we exist. Behind this various use and benefits of cow milk, dunk, curd, and ghee are reported. On the other hand many use as well as bad effect of consuming cow meat is also reported like mad cow disease, allergies, etc. This review will discuss about merit and demerit of consuming cow and its related products.
... Among them carbolic acid, urea, creatinine, manganese and aurum hydroxide possess antimicrobial and germicidal effects, while vitamins uric acid, phenol, and potassium shows the antioxidants and anti-inflammatory activity. Substances present in cow urine have immunostimulant, antimicrobial and antiageing activities [21][22][23]. ...
... The biochemical investigation revealed that the presence of potent antimicrobial agents such as creatinine, calcium, phenols, aurum hydroxide carbolic acid, manganese, and creatinine, etc [16,17,22,28]. Phenol compounds are phytoconstituents and contain many hydroxyl groups. ...
... According to ancient records, cow urine has been supplied to many diseases like kidney, cardiac and edema [31]. Experiment on cow urine exhibit protective effect against genotoxic agents, this antioxidant and the protective effect is due to the presence of volatile fatty acid, uric acid, vitamin A, B, C, D and E presence in cow urine [8,22]. Hydroxyl groups presence in phenolic compounds accountable for free radical scavenging activity [30]. ...
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Background: Cow urine has been widely used as therapeutic or additive agents in different parts of Nepal, mainly to treat infections, cuts, burns, etc. Cow urine has been considered as sacred and holy water and used in many rituals and worshipping purposes. Apart from therapeutic and rituals ceremony cow urines are also used in purification and disinfecting the houses. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of cow urine from different altitudes across Nepal. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of cow urines was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radicals. The antibacterial activity of cow urines was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive). Results: The urine sample from Muktinath (Subalpine region) showed the highest 44.8±0.21% inhibition against DPPH free radicals. The urine samples from Jajarkot and Marpha (Temperate zone) showed 39.70±0.43% and 37.30±0.15% inhibition against DPPH free radicals respectively. The urine samples from Palpa and Shyangja (Subtropical region) showed 30.00±0.24 and 34.4±0.01 percent inhibition of DPPH radicals. The samples from Butwal and Dhangadhi (Tropical region) showed the least percentage inhibition of 23.9±0.08 and 21.12±0.1 respectively. Amongst the entire sample, the subalpine region of cow urine (Muktinath 3710m) made known the highest inhibition zone such as 10.56±0.05mm against S. aureus and 7.46±0.15 against E.coli. Conclusion: Our study has concluded that cow urines have the antibacterial and antioxidant activities and vary in potency according to altitudinal and climatic differences. Hence cow urine from the subalpine zone has better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than that of lower altitudinal climatic zones.
... Hence, wound healing can be alliviated by both antioxidant as well as antibacterial effects. Many researches showed that several inorganic and organic compounds such as sodium, nitrogen, urea, sulphur, Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, minerals, manganese, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, citric, succinic, calcium salts, phosphate, lactose, carbolic acid, aurum hydroxides, H-11 beta-indole acetic acid, anti-neoplastic, phenolic compounds, creatinine, enzymes and hormones such as epithelial growth factor and growth hormones presence in cow urine are useful in the prevention of oxidative stress and several chronic disorders [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Tradiditionally Cow urine has been also used along with sacred plants such as Neem and Tulsi. ...
... The biochemical investigation revealed that the presence of potent antimicrobial agents such as creatinine, calcium, phenols, aurum hydroxide carbolic acid, manganese, and creatinine etc [16,17,22,28]. Phenol compounds are phytoconstituents and contain many hydroxyl groups. ...
... According to ancient records, cow urine has been supplied to many diseases like kidney, cardiac and edema [33]. Experiment on cow urine exhibit protective effect against genotoxic agents, this antioxidant and the protective effect is due to the presence of volatile fatty acid, uric acid, vitamin A, B, C, D and E presence in cow urine [8,22]. Hydroxyl groups presence in phenolic compounds accountable for free radical scavenging activity [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cow urine has been extensively used as healing or additive agents in different parts of Nepal, mainly to treat infections, cuts, burns, etc. Cow urine has been considered as revered and holy water and used in many rituals and worshipping purposes. Along with therapeutic and rituals ceremony cow urine is also used in cleansing and disinfecting the houses. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of cow urine from different geographical region of Nepal. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of cow urines was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radicals. The antibacterial activity of cow urines was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive). Results: The urine sample from Muktinath (Subalpine region) showed the highest 44.8±0.21% inhibition against DPPH free radicals. The urine samples from Jajarkot and Marpha (Temperate zone) showed 39.70±0.43% and 37.30±0.15% inhibition against DPPH free radicals respectively. The urine samples from Palpa and Shyangja (Subtropical region) showed 30.00±0.24 and 34.4±0.01 percent inhibition of DPPH radicals. The samples from Butwal and Dhangadhi (Tropical region) showed the least percentage inhibition of 23.9±0.08 and 21.12±0.1 respectively. Amongst the entire sample, the subalpine region of cow urine (Muktinath 3710m) made known the highest inhibition zone such as 10.56±0.05mm against S. aureus and 7.46±0.15 against E. coli. Conclusion: Our study has concluded that cow urines have the antibacterial and antioxidant activities and vary in potency according to altitudinal and climatic differences. Hence cow urine from the subalpine zone has better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than that of lower altitudinal climatic zones.
... Cow urine also has antitoxic activity against the cadmium chloride toxicity and it can be used as a bioenhancer of zinc (Khan and Srivastava, 2005). The bioenhancing ability is by facilitating absorption of drugs across the cell membrane (Tatiraju et al., 2013;Mohanty et al., 2014). Cow urine distillate formulation has been granted US Patents (6,410,059 B1, 2002 andNo. ...
... Studies over interaction of antimicrobial agents with different bioenhancers have been done both, in vitro (Cai et al., 2007;Moghaddam et al., 2009;Ahmed et al., 2010), and in vivo such as in poultry Patel et al., 2011), goats (Dama et al., 2008) and rabbits (Janakiraman and Manavalan, 2008;Okonta et al., 2008;Pavithra et al., 2009;Nduka et al., 2013). Several authors report cow urine distillate as a bioenhancer (Dhama et al., 2005;U.S. Patent No. US 7,235,262 B2, 2007;Jarald et al., 2008;Ahuja et al., 2012;Shekhar et al., 2012;Jhanwar and Gupta, 2014;Mohanty et al., 2014;Randhawa and Sharma, 2015;Sai et al., 2015;Dhakal et al., 2016;Shrinidhi et al., 2016). ...
... To treat anemia, CU is mixed with either mixture of cow milk, triphala, or mixture of milk, lohabhasma. [12] In Mandsaur, it prescribes in worm infestations, to improve immunity and to prevent aging effect. [13] The use of GU and fermented CU is practiced as a traditional pest management system and crop production in India and Ethiopia. ...
... Diseases that are proven to be cured by CU are cough, dysmenorrhea, diabetes, blood pressure, asthma, eczema, heart disorders, blockage in arteries, cancer, migraine, thyroid, constipation, gynecological disorders, respiratory disorders, and endocrine disorders. [12] The GU "Ajamutra" is referred with great importance from ancient period of time as well as it also has a great significance in Ayurvedic treaties. Ajamutra is said to be beneficial for all channels and alleviates in all the three Dosha. ...
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In spite of the progresses in science and technology, India is well-known for its traditional system of medicine. Traditional use of medicine is practiced since the era of vedic. The Indian traditional system of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani has a very rich history of their effectiveness. As India is a rich repository of herbal and medicinal plants, these traditional systems of medicine use herbal plants and minerals as the vital source for drugs. Along with the use of herbal plants, the Indian traditional system of medicine, especially Ayurvedic system, uses animal urine as a source of drug. In Ayurveda, the properties of the urine of eight different animals along with the human urine and also its uses are described. Basically, cow's urine (CU) is used mainly for the treatment of various diseases in Ayurveda. Apart from CU, urine of the other animals such as goat, sheep, buffalo, elephant, horse, camel, and donkey were also used as remedies for the treatment of different diseases. An attempt has been made in this article to bring forth the traditional and therapeutic use of cow and goat urine (GU) and also highlights its efficacy. This article will provide brief information on cow and GU and their application in traditional practice of medicine which may help people working in this area.
... The cow urine not only used against ailments of diseases as therapeutic agents but also have several other uses as in agriculture and sericulture sectors. So, this article attempts to bring forth the diversified use of cow urine which was mostly used in ancient Indian system of medicine [3] . ...
... One litre of this extract diluted in 100 litres water is used as insecticide. Cow urine can be also used for treatment of stones, liver problems, arthritis, renal disorders, gas, obesity, cardiac problems and so on (Mohanty et al. 2014) [4] . It may also serve as support of anti-cancer treatment because of its ability to bind free radicals. ...
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Livestock is a demand driven commodity which has a good nexus as an unavoidable asset for the whole animal world. Sometimes it seems to become a liability when not managed properly. One of the best cited prospect for the above reason is liberation of waste from livestock and their proper utilization so as to prevent the dissemination of especially Green House gases more particularly CH4. There may many ways for the disposal and utilization of manure be adopted in both rural and urban areas. Composting is an aerobic degradation of organic compounds. Vermi-composting may be adopted as it includes inclusion of earthworm for the above same purpose. Panchgavya, a medicinal usable product is also explored as an alternate feasible item from the cow.
... From ancient time cow is being a divine animal not only in religious sense but in easterly culture they treat it as mother because it is nourishing a whole family through its good diet by providing milk and related products like ghee, butter and curd like a mother 18 Traditional practices of cow urine as medication alone or with certain synergistic drugs has been described in Table 3 6, 23 . ...
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Go-mutra therapy provides an especially rich and provocative research topic. The ancient scriptures of ayurveda consider cow urine to be the elixir of life. Cow urine is one of the five contents of Panchagavya which obtain from cow (urine, milk, ghee, curd and dung). Cow based treatment is called as Panchagavya Chikitsa (Cowpathy). Cow urine is a divine medicine and is used for treatment of diabetes, blood pressure, asthma, psoriasis, eczema, heart attack, blockage in arteries, fits, cancer, AIDS, piles, prostrate, arthritis, migraine, thyroid, ulcer, acidity, constipation, gynaecological problems, It also increase the nitrogen content of the soil, for better rearing of honey bees, hasten the pubertal age of the heifers exposed to bull’s urine and as pesticide and larvicide for the fodder crops. Cow urine contains all substances, which are naturally present in the human body. Thus, consumption of cow urine maintains the balance of these substances and this helps cure incurable diseases like cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders better benefits in case of antibiotic resistance infectious diseases. Cow urine is excellent bioenhancer and recently Cow urine distillate has been granted U.S. patents. Further researches is required to prove its qualities and benefits.Various actions and researches on cow urine are summarized in this article.It is the most effective natural remedy and the safest method of treatment on nature based. Keywords: Gomutra, Panchgavya, CUC, Vermicompost, Immunostimulant.
... In the Ayurveda, the medicinal plants enhanced with distillate cow urine has varied biochemical activities such as central nervous system activity, anti-tumor activity, immunomodulatory activity, hepatoprotective effect, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity, etc [6]. Plectranthus amboinicus, (PA) plant extracts have been studied previously for the biological properties together with antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antiobesity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant, cardiovascular activity, antiulcer activity and also it acts as a food additive. ...
Article
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Background / Aim: The distillate Cow urine (cow ark) enhanced with medicinal plants, a vital role in the treatment of many diseases. It has been aimed to in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of distillated cow urine with Plectranthus amboinicus against cervical cell line. Materials and method: The cow urine was photoactivated (cow ark) and extracted with Plectranthus amboinicus. The antioxidant activity of cow ark with Plectranthus amboinicus (CPA) using DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay. The growth of cell viability and cytotoxicity were observed by using MTT assay. Results: From these results, the CPA has good antioxidant potentials to reduce the oxidative stress. The growth of the cancer line viability has been decreased with the concentration of in 100 mg/ ml showed 67.26 % treated with CPA. The cytotoxicity of cancer line inhibition of 74.139 % against the CPA treated. In this method, the CPA showed the IC50 value of 56.23 against cervical cancer cell line. Conclusion: It is concluded that the cow ark Plectranthus amboinicus has tremendous potential for cervical cancer disease.
... The antimicrobial activity of cow urine against some microorganisms has been investigated in some previous studies [18,1]. Cow urine is known possesses antimicrobial activity due to the presence of certain volatile and nonvolatile components [7,11]. ...
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Cow urine occupies a holy place in Indian rituals and Ayurveda due to its effective application against various diseases since Vedic period. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Badri cow urine. The antibacterial potential was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated following different methods. The total phenolic contents, free radical and superoxide radical scavenging activity were assessed by FC, DPPH and NBT methods. Cow urine inhibited the growth of all selected bacterial pathogens with different potency; however, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and E. coli were the most susceptible bacterial strains to cow urine even at low concentration. Total phenolic content of cow urine was 5.09 mg GAE/g. The DPPH and NBT assays showed dose-dependent scavenging activity of cow urine. Due to presence of both antibacterial and antioxidant properties cow urine may be used as a therapeutic agent.
... The biochemical estimation of cow urine has shown that it contains sodium, nitrogen, sulphur, Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, minerals, manganese, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, citric, succinic, calcium salts, phosphate, lactose, carbolic acid, enzymes, creatinine and hormones, 95% part of original gomutra is water (Jeena et al., 2014). The total N in the cow urine ranges from 6.8 to 21.6 g litre −1 . ...
Article
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In ancient Ayurveda Gomutra (cow urine) has been greatly mentioned for its pharmacological importance. It is also an important component of the mixture called Panchagavya. Modern science has also proved its medicinal properties and role against antibiotic resistant bacteria. In India, there is demand of more than 5000 litres of distilled cow urine per day.As the cow urine distillate is mainly consumed as medicine to cure different ailments its quality and authenticity always remain questionable. A study was carried out to compare the urine’s physico chemical parameters of indigenous and exotic cow breed, in house prepared cow urine distillate and market available products
... However, well-managed cow urine can be used to fulfill various human needs. The cow urine contains all substances which are naturally available within the human body (Mohanty et al., 2014). Fermented cow urine contains a higher level of chloride and nitrite than fresh cow urine (Miah et al., 2017). ...
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This study aims to recognize the potential of immature coconut water and cow urine that have been fermented naturally on the growth of palm oil seedlings in the pre-nursery. This study used an experimental method with a factorial randomized block design with two repetitions. The first factor was the concentration of immature coconut water which consisted of 4 levels, namely 0 ml (K0), 10 ml (K1), 20 ml (K2), and 40 ml (K3). The second factor was cow urine with the levels of 0.0 (U0), 10 ml (U1), 20 ml (U2), and 40 ml (U3). The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the application of immature coconut water and naturally fermented cow urine significantly affected the growth (seedling height, leaf length, stem diameter, primary root length, fresh weight, dry weight) of oil palm seedlings at the pre-nursery stage, except for the growth in number of leaves and number of primary root. The combined application of 40 ml of coconut water and 20 ml of cow urine (K3U2) significantly increased the highest growth (seedlings height, leaf length, stem diameter, and fresh weight) of oil palm seedlings at the pre-nursery.
... Urine was used in a quarter of the shelters for processing into traditional medicine or as a biopesticide for crops. In traditional Indian medicine, cow urine is claimed to cure many chronic human health disorders [89][90][91][92][93]. It has also been used as a bio-enhancer, increasing the nitrogen content of the soil, and as a bio-pesticide through its larvicidal action on fodder crops [94,95]. ...
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Gaushala management is a specialized profession requiring particular skills relating to the management of cow shelters or gaushalas, which are traditional and ancient Indian institutions that shelter old, unproductive and abandoned cows, The 1800 registered cow shelters in India have managers who are important stakeholders in the management of cows in these unique institutions. It is important to survey the routine management of these shelters and attitudes of the managers towards cow welfare to identify the constraints and welfare issues. We visited 54 shelters in six states of India for a face-to-face structured interview of the managers. Quantitative data collection included questions on demographics, routine management operations, protocols followed in the shelters and attitudes of the managers towards cow welfare. All shelters except one were managed by males, half of them were in the age range of 45–65 years, were university graduates or post-graduates, with 5–15 years shelter management experience, and with the majority having lived in rural areas for most of their lives. Each shelter housed a median of 232 cattle were housed, out of which 13 were lactating cows. The majority of managers vaccinated their animals against endemic diseases like foot and mouth disease, haemorrhagic septicaemia and black quarter (gangraena emphysematosa) and administered endo-and ectoparasiticidal treatments, however, hardly any screened the cattle for brucellosis and tuberculosis. Only 17% of the shelters had in house veterinarians and most cows died of old age, with an annual mortality rate of 14%. The majority of the shelters allowed the cows to reproduce. Access to pasture was available in only 41% of the shelters, while most allowed some access to yards. Most (57%) had limited biosecurity measures, but 82% of the shelters disposed of the carcasses by deep burial on their own premises or through the municipality, with 18% disposing of them in open spaces or nearby creeks. About one half of the shelters maintained records of the protocols followed routinely. Charitable societies ran half of the shelters, mostly through public donations, with accounts audited regularly. Most managers thought that shelter cows’ welfare was important and that they should attempt to improve it. They were less in agreement that their knowledge of animal welfare was adequate. Local support, more moral than financial, was recognized more than government support. Managers perceived cow welfare as important from a religious perspective, citing the mother god and caring for abandoned animals as frequent themes in their definition of cow welfare. Caring for animals, mother and goddess were key elements in managers’ perception of animal welfare. The recommendations arising from this survey include that the shelter managers should be involved in the decision-making process for the welfare of cows in shelters, which is vital for the sustainability of these unique institutions. Welfare could be improved by strict compliance with biosecurity measures and disease surveillance protocols, avoidance of unrestricted reproduction in cows and separation of males and females.
... It was also shown that it has anti-bacterial properties [1]. Some medicinal properties of Cow Urine include reduction of weight, treating kidney problems, treating indigestion and edema [2]. The practitioners of Buddhist culture in Myanmar still use Cow Urine as a traditional medicine [3]. ...
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The cow is considered a divine animal in the Hindu culture. The milk, cow dung, urine of the cow is used for various purposes. The benefits of cow urine have been depicted in ancient Hindu texts, Vedas. The present study aimed at using cow urine as a plant growth enhancer and antimicrobial agent. The plants chosen for this study were Zea mays (maize), Triticum aestivum (wheat),Cymbopogon citratum (grass), Ocimum basilicum (tukmaria) and Trigonella foenum graecum (methi). The plants were grown for 30 days using different cow urine concentrations i.e 0%(control), 5%, 15%, 25%. The various parameters such as plant height, shoot, and root length, number of leaves, the mass of the root etc were observed. The antibacterial test using different cow urine concentrations i.e 0%(control), 5%, 15%, 25% was conducted on Escherichia coli using disc diffusion method. The fungus was screened and isolated from raw coconut and was grown on YPD media to obtain the mother culture. Using Slide culture technique, the fungi were identified as Aspergillus. The media was poisoned using different cow urine concentrations i.e 0%(control), 5%, 15%, 25% and the fungi culture was inoculated. GCMS analysis was conducted to identify the compounds present in the cow urine. Among the concentrations, 5% cow urine concentration showed maximum growth when compared to other concentrations whereas 25% concentration showed more antibacterial and antifungal activity when compared to others. In GCMS Analysis, 16 compounds have been identified, in which, 6 compounds were antifungal, 3 compounds were antibacterial, and 2 compounds as plant growth enhancers. This study concludes that cow urine can be used as a plant growth enhancer and it possesses antimicrobial characteristics.
... However the difference between 600 and 900 l ha -1 not significant. The results are in agreement with the findings of Mohanty et al. 2014. Increasing levels of urine application from 0 to 900 l ha -1 favorably improved the stover yield that could be attributed to the better plant growth at higher levels of urine application (Saunders, 1987). ...
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An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2013, under irrigated condition, at Varanasi to study the effect of fertility levels and cow urine application on growth and yield of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson]. Application of 100 % fertility level and 900 liter cow urine significantly increased the dry matter accumulation, physiological growth and yield attributes as well as yield of mustard in comparison to 50 % RDF and control respectively. Application of 100 % RDF produced12.1 and 31.2 % higher seed yield than 75 % and 50 %RDF respectively. As regards the urine application, the increasing levels of urine application up to 900 l cow urine ha -1 enhanced the yield attributes as well as seed and stover yield. The investigation clearly indicated that under irrigated ecosystem of Varanasi no reduction in the recommended fertilizer dose to mustard is possible. Increasing levels of cow urine application up to900 l ha -1 as basal dose markedly improved growth parameters, yield attributes as well as seed and stover yield of mustard. Fertilizer application at 120 Kg N + 60 Kg P 2O5 + 60 KgK2O +40 Kg S ha-1 and 900 l cow urine ha-1 produced maximum seed as well as stover yield and proved most remunerative.
... Especially in distilled form, go-mutra ark-cow urine extract-is recognized for treatment of kidney disorders and diabetes mellitus (Somvanshi 2006). It is also considered beneficial against several other conditions, not least cancer, which we will discuss further in the next section (Mohanty et al. 2014). ...
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This chapter examines current cow care practices in India, providing an overview of issues that concern persons—in particular persons who identify more or less as Hindus—who are directly or indirectly engaged with cow care. By the expression “cow care” is meant, minimally, intentional arrangements for bovines to be protected for the duration of their natural lives. What makes this practice different, or similar, to practices of agribusiness dairy farming or ranching? What are the special challenges of Hindu cow care, what are its rewards, and what claims do cow carers make about the benefits of cows maintained for their entire natural lives? Some specific cow care projects show a cross section of mainly Vaishnava Hindu practice, especially in northern and western India.
... As per studies of Ledgard et al. (1982) cow urine is rich in nutrients especially nitrogen and has significant effect on chemical composition of plants. In addition to nitrogen it comprises sodium, sulphur, vitamin (A, B, C, D, E), minerals, manganese, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, citric, succinic, calcium salts, phosphate, lactose, carbolic acid, enzymes, creatinine, and hormones (Mohanty et al. 2014). The condensed form of cow urine has insecticidal, antibacterial as well as antifungal properties (Murugan et al. 2012;Prashith et al. 2014). ...
Article
Natural products namely; cow urine, Darekastra, fermented buttermilk, Jeevamrit, Panchgavya, Tamarlassi, vermiwash, and biopesticide formulations; Eupatorium 5EC, Melia 5EC and Neem baan 0.15EC were evaluated for toxic, ovicidal activity, repellence, feeding, and oviposition deterrence using leaf dip method of bioassay against Tetranychus urticae Koch. The LC50 for natural products ranged from 1.09% to 15.15%, minimum and maximum corresponding to fermented buttermilk and Panchgavya, respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.00007% to 0.03% for biopesticide formulations, maximum for Melia 5EC and minimum for Neem baan 0.15EC. At recommended field dose, toxicity varied from 18.5% to 90.0% and the ovicidal activity ranged from 5.61% to 54.48%, maximum being for Neem baan 0.15EC. All natural products exhibited moderate level of repellence and oviposition deterrence but Neem baan 0.15EC was ranked highest for both the properties. Feeding deterrence was at low levels for the natural products while Neem baan 0.15EC exhibited 100% of feeding deterrence. An exception was observed for leaf treatment with Panchgavya which acted as an oviposition inducer for the red spider mites. Based on arbitrary rank score, fermented buttermilk, Tamarlassi, and Neem baan 0.15EC possessed high toxic properties to spider mites.
... Earlier Chauhan and Dhama, (2010) described use of cow urine distillate for antimicrobial activities. Diversified uses of cow urine distillates as antimicrobial and disinfectant have also been reported by Mohanty et al., (2014). Use of cow urine in purification and detoxification processes was also been reported by Gulhane et al., (2017). ...
Article
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The present study was planned to assess antimicrobial properties of cow urine distillate. A total of six cow urine distillates comprising of five commercially available and one prepared in the laboratory were used in present study. All these six cow urine distillates were coded as C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and P. The phenol coefficient of all six cow urine distillates was evaluated against S. aureus and E. coli. The phenol coefficients of C4 and C5 against S. aureus and E. coli were 0.04 ± 0.00 and 0.03 ± 0.00 respectively. Agar well diffusion technique was utilized for the in-vitro antimicrobial property of the cow urine distillate against S. aureus and E. coli. The C4 distillate showed maximum zone of inhibition (18 ± 0.45mm) against S. aureus and (15.21 ± 0.82 mm) against E. coli. The zones of inhibition of C5 distillate against S. aureus and E. coli were 10.51 ± 0.44 mm and 15.21 ± 1.27 mm respectively. The distillates C3, C4 and C5 were assessed for efficacy of them for their antimicrobial activity in three randomly selected poultry slaughter shops on platform used for poultry slaughter. The observations were made by calculating TVC, S. aureus and E. coli counts before and after treatment of cow urine distillates. It was interesting to note that all three distillate (C3, C4 and C5) showed highly significant (p< 0.01) lower TVC counts post treatment. Comparison of mean S. aureus counts of C3, C4 and C5 groups before and after treatment showed that C4 and C5 distillates highly significant (p<0.01) lower the S. aureus counts. However, the effect of C3 on S. aureus counts was not seen. The C3 and C4 cow urine distillates exhibited highly significant (p<0.01) reduction in E. coli counts whereas, C5 distillate significantly (p<0.05) reduced the E. coli counts.
... Previous study indicates that sodium bicarbonate moist combined with heat treatment and water wash removed 76.48% of the phorbol esters [15] . Distillate of cow urine also acts as anti-cancerous agent and bio pesticide which in turn may also nullify the hidden toxic principle of croton seeds [16] . ...
Article
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Modern analytical equipment's offers a tremendous advantage among validation of drugs from herbal origin. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one such instrumental method that can be utilized for quantitative and qualitative identification of biologically active phytocomponents present in various herbs and its extracts. Croton tiglium (CT) seeds are widely used in the traditional system of Indian medicine like Siddha, Ayurveda and Chinese medicine as a Purgative. Seeds of CT possess certain toxic principles which have to be detoxified and purified before inclusion of the same for therapeutic ailments. Siddha system of medicine has unique method of purification without compromising the biologically active components present in the drugs. To evaluate the chemical changes being which occur due to the detoxification process to elucidate the changes which would help us to understand the difference and the scientific rationale involved in such traditional practice. Hence the main aim of the present investigation is to carry out the detailed phytochemical and sophisticated instrumental analysis of the croton seeds with HPLC and GC-MS incorporating all the stages of purification procedures as listed in the Vedic literature. The results of the study has revealed that there was a significant reduction of Phorbol, a toxic organic compound from 5.18 to 3.86% and also the saturated fatty acids like, Arachidic acid, Behenic acid, Stearic acid and Palmitic acid whereas all the un saturated fatty acids like Oleic acid, Linoleic acid seems unaltered. In conclusion the present research finding would be highly beneficial for the researchers to understand the compositional verification that happens in the process of purification and its impact on biological activity.
... The elaborated results of docking and pharmacokinetic analysis display the strong association of CU with gene targets CYP2D6, UGT1A3, CYP3A4, ABCB1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. Typically, their gene products metabolize the drugs and facilitate their excretion for the human body.Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes that oxidize steroids, xenobiotics, and drugs, and play a role in its clearance [Mohanty et al.,2014;Pratanwanich et al.,2014;Seden et al.,2010]. Activation or inhibition of CYP1A1, CYP2D6 CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 isoforms usually activate or prevents the detoxification of numerous xenobiotics. ...
... Plausible mechanism of action. The literature survey reveals that the liquid metabolic waste of Bos taurus indicus (A-2) contains urea, creatinine, aurum hydroxide, carbolic acid, phenol, calcium, and magnesium 6,12,17 . After photoactivation, a few biogenic volatile inorganics and organic compounds like CO 2 , NH 3 , CH 4, methanol, propanol, acetone, and some secondary nitrogenous products are also formed. ...
Article
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In this study, a novel synthetic method for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles using Bos taurus (A-2) urine as a reducing agent was developed. In addition to this ZnO nanorods were produced hydrothermally and a nanocomposite is formed through a solid-state reaction. The synthesized materials were characterized through modern characterization techniques such as XRD, FE-SEM with EDS, DLS, zeta potential, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopic analysis, and TGA with DSC. The free radical destructive activity was determined using two different methods viz. ABTS and DPPH. The potential for BSA denaturation in vitro, which is measured in comparison to heat-induced denaturation of egg albumin and results in anti-inflammatory effects of nanomaterial was studied. All synthesized nanomaterials have excellent antibacterial properties, particularly against Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. The composite exhibits excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in comparison to pure nanomaterials. This reveals that these nanomaterials are advantageous in medicine and drug administration.
... Indian ayurvedic books such as Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita quoted traditional use of cow urine as a medicine to treat many disorders. Therapeutic values 17,18,19 of cow urine including anti- hepatotoxic 20, 21 , anti-diabetic 22,23,24 , anti-bacterial [25][26][27][28][29][30] , immuno-modulatory 31, 32 , wound healing 33 , neuro-protective 34 , geno-protective 35 activities have been reported. Even though, there are 41 indigenous cow breeds in India (National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal, India) the therapeutic potential of cow urine from Indian breeds are very limited. ...
Article
Aim of the study: The study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of raw (ARCU) and distilled (ADCU) urine from an adult indigenous cow breed, Malnad gidda. Materials and Methods: Different radical scavenging models assessed antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. The first group received saline and served as control. The second group received the standard drug Indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w.), third (ARCU, 3 mL/kg b.w.), fourth (ARCU, 6 mL/kg b.w.), fifth (ADCU, 3 mL/kg b.w.) and sixth (ADCU, 6 mL/kg b.w.) groups served as treatment groups and received the urine samples.1 h later, paw edema was induced by injecting 0.1 mL of carrageenan (1% w/v) in saline solution into the sub-plantar region of the left hind paw of the rats. The paw volume was measured before the injection (basal volume) and after the injection of carrageenan at hourly intervals using Plethysmometer. Results: The ARCU and ADCU treated groups showed significant (P˂0.001) decrease in edema with a maximum inhibition of 81.07%; 72.09% (6 mL/kg b.w.) and 79.53%; 64.47% (3 mL/kg b.w.) at 5 h compared to control. ARCU and ADCU showed potent antioxidant effect on the inhibition of DPPH (IC 50 : 33.11 and 204.64 µL/mL), superoxide anion (IC 50 : 19.36 and 371.53 µL/mL), nitric oxide (IC 50 : 72.44 and 114.81 µL/mL) and hydroxyl free radical (IC 50 : 53.80 and 75.64 µL/mL). Also, ARCU and ADCU exhibited potent reducing ability (IC 50 : 8.70 and 8.89 µL/mL). Conclusion: Cow urine (ARCU; ADCU) of an indigenous breed, Malnad gidda exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
... This has also been shown to have antibacterial properties (Anuradha et al., 2011). Cow Urine has several health properties like treating edema and indigestion, weight reduction, treating kidney issues, etc. (Ipsita et al., 2014) Cow urine is now a popular medicine practicing Buddhist community in Myanmar (Suresh et al., 2006). Cow urine is proportionate and thus has a major impact in the treatment of diseases. ...
Article
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In Hindu culture, the cow is treated as a divine animal. Cow's urine, cow dung and Milk are utilized for different purposes. Cow's urine has been utilized as an enhancer of plant growth and an antifungal agent for the current study. The plant selected for this study Gossypium hirsutum L.(cotton).The plant was grown utilizing various concentrations of cow urine, such as 0% (control), 1:10, 1:5, 1:1 for 90 days. Various parameters for example leaf area, shoot length, plant height, root length, as well as biomass of the plant have been monitored. The antifungal activity has been studied by utilizing different concentrations of cow urine against (Alternaria macrospora) using agar diffusion method. Among all the concentrations, the 1:1 concentration showed maximum plant growth compared to other two concentrations. On the other hand, 1:5, 1:10 concentrations showed more antifungal activity. The conclusion of this study found that cow urine can be utilized as a growth enhancer of plant and has antifungal properties.A
... It is predicted that the hydrolytic cow urine with amino acids as well as urinary peptides enhances the bactericidal activity owing to cell surface hydrophobicity (Badadani et al., 2007;Randhawa and Sharma, 2015). In Uttarakhand of India, cow urine is used to save honey bees from the attack of bacterial diseases during their rearing (Mohanty et al., 2014). This treatment has also facilitated the rapid recovery of infected combs along with the growth promotion of brood and enhanced the efficiency of the worker bees. ...
Article
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Cow urine is one of the important components of ancient ethnic medicine in the Indian subcontinent. Native cow urine is highly valuable owing to its diet consisting of wild plant species. The composition of urine depends on the cow breed as well as its diet. In Ayurveda, cow urine is used in three forms (raw, sterile and photo-activated urine). All these urine types are endowed with a variety of biochemical components with potent bioactivities. Among the urine of two cow breeds tested (Kasargod Dwarf and Deoni), all types of urine of Deoni possess a higher quantity of total phenolics and tannins, while flavonoid content was higher in Kasargod Dwarf. The ferrous ion-chelation capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity were higher in all urine samples of Deoni, while the total antioxidant activity was higher in Kasargod Dwarf. Photo-activated urine samples showed the highest antibacterial as well as antifungal activity with minimum inhibition concentration. This study contributes toward the validation of cow urine as a potential source of bioactive compounds and opens up new ways for its applications in human medicine. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Biochemical profile, Bioactivity, Cow breed, Photo-activation, Traditional medicine
... Cow urine or "Gaumutra" is a non-toxic liquid waste discharged from the cow. Cow urine or its distillate is known to have several health benefits to improve the quality of life and prolong survival rates in patients with severe diseases [42]. When the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, and other scientists in India demonstrated antineoplastic, anti-fungal, antibiotic, and bio-enhancing effects of cow urine distillate, the modern world started to believe in the medicinal properties of cow urine [35,43]. ...
Article
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Panchgavya represents milk, urine, dung, ghee, and curd, derived from cow and serves irreplaceable medicinal importance in Ayurveda and traditional Indian clinical practices. In Ayurveda, Panchgavya treatment is termed as ‘Cowpathy’. In India, the cow is worshipped as a god called ‘Gaumata,’ indicating its nourishing nature like a mother. Ayurveda recommends Panchagavya to treat diseases of multiple systems, including severe conditions, with almost no side-effects. It can help build a healthy population, alternative sources of energy, complete nutritional requirements, eradicate poverty, pollution-free environment, organic farming, etc. Panchgavya can also give back to mother nature by promoting soil fertility, earthworm production, protecting crops from bacterial and fungal infections, etc. Scientific efforts shall be taken to build evidence for the clinical application of Cowpathy. The present review aims to summarize the health and medicinal benefits of Panchgavya.
... In previous studies, the cow urine has been proven for strong antibacterial activity [34,35]. The presence of various bioactive compounds in PCU exhibited potent antibacterial activity [36,37]. The Ag NPs synthesized using cow urine, have been found to be bactericidal nature [38]. ...
Article
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The pregnant cow urine (PCU) is an active source of antimicrobial agents that is used for fabricating chitosan-coated Ag/AgCl nanoparticles (NPs) in the present study. These PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs were physicochemically characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against selected respiratory tract infection (RTI) pathogens. The absorption band around 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrum indicated the presence of Ag NPs. The spherical shape of NPs was observed using TEM. Also, the crystalline structure was confirmed using the XRD pattern. The PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs showed strong antimicrobial activity against all tested RTI pathogens. In addition, FESEM analysis showed morphological changes in RTI bacterial pathogens. Thereby, PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs may be used as an antimicrobial material to treat RTIs in near future at clinical level.
... In Hinduism, peoples use panchagavya (urine, ghee, milk, curd, and dung), which is obtained from cows and is advantageous in diverse ways as a food supplement, spiritual uses, and medicines due to its importance in mythological, spiritual, and medicinal aspects [1]. As per this reference, the cutting-edge science investigated cow urine and found out that it is capable of curing joint pain, blood pressure, diabetes, cardiac disease, cancer, thyroid, asthma, psoriasis, skin inflammation, headache, ulcer, gynecological issues, etc. [2]. Moreover, cow urine has good medicinal potential for the discipline of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-anthelmintic, anticancer, biosensors against play an important role in biotechnology. ...
Article
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Nowadays, green syntheses have received crucial attention as a reliable, developing and eco-benevolent protocol for synthesizing a broad range of nanomaterials (NMs) including metal/metal oxides NMs, bio-inspired materials and hybrid/composite NMs. As such, biogenic synthesis is regarded as a significant tool to mitigate the destructive impacts associated with the conventional approaches of synthesis for NMs generally utilized in industry and laboratory. In this review, we summed up the general protocols and mechanisms of green synthesis routes, especially for silver (Ag), silver oxide (Ag2O), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), copper ferrite (CuFe2O4), palladium (Pd), aceprophyline, cellulose and graphene nanomaterials/nanoparticles using cow urine. Importantly, we explored the main role of biological constituents which is existed in cow urine. These essential biomolecules act as reducing/stabilizing agents in solvent systems. The stability, phase formation and surface morphology of NMs using characterization techniques are also discussed. Finally, we covered the eclectic applications of such synthesized NMs in terms of anti-asthma, antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antioxidant, anticancer activity, catalytic activity and removal of pollutants dyes.
... Plausible mechanism of action. The literature survey reveals that the liquid metabolic waste of Bos taurus indicus (A-2) contains urea, creatinine, aurum hydroxide, carbolic acid, phenol, calcium, and magnesium 6,12,17 . After photoactivation, a few biogenic volatile inorganics and organic compounds like CO 2 , NH 3 , CH 4, methanol, propanol, acetone, and some secondary nitrogenous products are also formed. ...
Preprint
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Biomimetic nanotechnology is a fast-growing technology with far-reaching implications in a variety of therapeutic applications. The goal of this research is to develop green, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective strategies for producing cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles from Bos Taurus Indicus (A-2) urine and zinc oxide nanorods from the hydrothermal process. A solid-state reaction process is used to make nanocomposite materials. The synthesized nanomaterials and composites were characterized using advanced characterization techniques such as XRD, FE-SEM with EDS, DLS, Zeta potential, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopic analysis, and TGA with DSC analysis. The anti-bacterial, Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthesized nanomaterials and composites were investigated. This implies that they might be beneficial in medicine and drug administration.
... This suggests that cow dung is high in organic materials and rich in nutrients because it contains about 3 percent nitrogen, 2 percent phosphorus, and 1 percent potassium (3-2-1 NPK). Cow urine contains 95% water, 2.5% urea, and the remaining 2.5% is a mixture of minerals, salts, hormones, and enzymes [33]. In India, cow dung has been used tremendously in agriculture as manure, bio-fertiliser, biopesticides, pestrepellent, and as a source of energy [34]. ...
... The biochemical estimation of cow urine has shown that it contains sodium, nitrogen, sulphur, besides many minerals, acids, and enzymes. The cow urine and plant origin products have proved to be eco-friendly, residue free, bio-degradable, cost-effective and are known to impart resistance in plants against insect pests and diseases (Geetanjaly and Tiwari 2013;Mohanty et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Phytophagous pest mites, especially the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, causes significant yield losses in brinjal raised under protected conditions. Presently, the emphasis is on development of eco-friendly pest management approaches as an alternative to chemicals. The efficacy of different bio-rationals and natural products was investigated against T. urticae infesting brinjal in nethouse conditions in 2019. The natural products were prepared indigenously and applied twice, at weekly intervals. Application of pepper extract at 30 ml/l followed by neemastra and brahmastra at 50 ml/l caused the highest percent reduction in mite population (>76 and up to 90%, respectively). PAU neem extract at 12 ml/l was highly effective in reducing the mite population by 74.61% as compared to Pongamia extract and Dherek extract both . The anthocorid bug, Blaptostethus pallescens, at 10 nymphs/plant and the chrysopid, Chryosperla zastrowi sillemi, at 3 third instars/plant reduced mite population by 82–84%, respectively, after two releases at weekly intervals, while the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus, reduced the mite population by up to 87% at a 1:40 predator to prey ratio. All predators were equally effective in reducing the mite population. Results indicated that these natural products and biorationals can be incorporated in integrated mite management programmes in brinjal under protected conditions.
... An effective nutritional regime and use of herbal galactogogues act synergistically to enhance milk yield which would prompt a good augmentation in the productivity of the dairy herd. Herbal galactogogues act through interactions with dopamine receptors by exerting an influence through adreno-hypothalamo-hypophyseal gonadal axis resulting in enhanced prolactin concentration and thereby augmenting milk production (Gbadamosi and Okolosi 2013;Mohanty et al. 2014). Thus, these galactogenic plants (booster for lactation) constitute an alternative to improve milk production and cope with climate change's effects on milk yield. ...
Article
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In West Africa, dairy production plays a vital role in the economy and the wellbeing of the population. Currently, dairy production has become vulnerable due to climate variability. The main objective of this study is to investigate dairy farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies towards climate variability and change in West Africa. Individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 900 dairy farmers. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to assess dairy farmers’ perception of climate change. Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering on principal component analysis were used to access the adaptation strategies of dairy farmers. The results revealed that dairy farmers perceived a decrease in the length of the rainy season and the annual rainfall but an increase in the length of the dry season and the annual temperature that affect their activities. Dairy farmers that fed the cattle mainly with natural pastures, crop residues, and agroindustrial by-products in Benin, Burkina Faso, and Niger, used as climate change adaptation strategies, transhumance in the wetland. They also used animal manure to improve fodder quality and plants to improve milk production and milk conservation. They sold milk or produced local cheese with the remaining unsold milk. Dairy farmers that mainly invested in fodder production and conservation in the climate zones of Mali, sold milk produced to dairies and cheese production units; used plants to improve milk production, pasteurization for milk conservation, and veterinary service for animal care. This study provided relevant information for West African policymakers in designing appropriate policies and programs to assist dairy farmers to improve milk production under climate variability and change.
... Like the substrate, biofertilization is considered essential for the growth of organic plantlets. It is possible to use by-products of cattle rearing, such as cow urine, which is described as a disinfectant (Mohanty et al., 2014) with phytosanitary value, as it increases the resistance of plantlets to pests and diseases (BRASIL, 2018). Cow urine is rich in mineral elements, providing nutrients and other beneficial substances to plants at low cost to the farmers (Oliveira et al., 2010), and the efficiency of its use as biofertilizer influencing crops productivity has been proved (NÁPOLES et al., 2017;FREIRE et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The use of organic waste as components of substrate to produce fruit plantlets provides alternative materials, easily available and low cost. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of substrate and biofertilization with cow urine on the growth of cupuaçu plants (Theobroma grandiflorum) in an organic production system. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 12 replications including four types of substrates (base mixture; base mixture + coconut fiber; base mixture + cocoa shell and base mixture + sand) with or without biofertilizer application totalizing 96 experimental units. Substrate and biofertilizer influenced the gas exchange and growth of T. grandiflorum plants. The interaction between these two factors significantly affected the dry matter, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and content of P, K and Mn in the leaves. Each factor, substrate and of cow urine application, independently, influenced the chlorophyll index, the leaf area, diameter, and height of the cupuaçu plants and the contents of N, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu in the leaves. The base mixture substrate (composed by soil and organic compost) and fertilization with 1% of cow urine can be indicated to T. grandiflorum plantlets organic production.
... The results showed that the protein leakages of bacteria and fungi are correlated to the concentration of cow ark with Acalypa indica. The Bos indicus, cow urine act as a bioenhancer and antibiotics against various disease [21][22][23]. The present study investigated that the antioxidant activity of Cow ark with Plectranthus Amboinicus (68.72) has the high oxidative potential when compared with Ascorbic acid. ...
Article
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The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the cow ark with Plectranthus Amboinicus extract on multidrug resistant bacteria and fungi caused by human pathogens. The present study investigated to antibacterial activity of cow ark with Plectranthus Amboinicus (CAM) extract was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against microbial strains. CAM was more susceptible for influential the antimicrobial activity Protein leakage assay and Time Kill assay. The CAM inhibited the growth of bacteria and fungi with high-levels of antibiotic-resistance, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans. The CAM has antioxidant potentials to reduce the oxidative stress by using DPPH radical Scavenging Assay. The results showed that the protein leakages of bacteria and fungi are correlated to the concentration of CAM. Time-kill kinetics profiles of CAM showed highly significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Our results proposed that the CAM bioactive compounds, which may be useful against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Fungi
... Previous study indicates that sodium bicarbonate moist combined with heat treatment and water wash removed 76.48% of the phorbol esters [15] . Distillate of cow urine also acts as anti-cancerous agent and bio pesticide which in turn may also nullify the hidden toxic principle of croton seeds [16] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Modern analytical equipment's offers a tremendous advantage among validation of drugs from herbal origin. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one such instrumental method that can be utilized for quantitative and qualitative identification of biologically active phytocomponents present in various herbs and its extracts. Croton tiglium (CT) seeds are widely used in the traditional system of Indian medicine like Siddha, Ayurveda and Chinese medicine as a Purgative. Seeds of CT possess certain toxic principles which have to be detoxified and purified before inclusion of the same for therapeutic ailments. Siddha system of medicine has unique method of purification without compromising the biologically active components present in the drugs. To evaluate the chemical changes being which occur due to the detoxification process to elucidate the changes which would help us to understand the difference and the scientific rationale involved in such traditional practice. Hence the main aim of the present investigation is to carry out the detailed phytochemical and sophisticated instrumental analysis of the croton seeds with HPLC and GC-MS incorporating all the stages of purification procedures as listed in the Vedic literature. The results of the study has revealed that there was a significant reduction of Phorbol, a toxic organic compound from 5.18 to 3.86% and also the saturated fatty acids like, Arachidic acid, Behenic acid, Stearic acid and Palmitic acid whereas all the un saturated fatty acids like Oleic acid, Linoleic acid seems unaltered. In conclusion the present research finding would be highly beneficial for the researchers to understand the compositional verification that happens in the process of purification and its impact on biological activity.
... For example, cow urine has been used externally as a lotion and in ointments to treat ailments such as psoriasis and eczema. It has also been claimed that it is useful in the preparation of oral medications and beverages to treat heart conditions and even cancer (10). ...
Article
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After India’s first confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 appeared in late January 2020, misinformation surrounding the outbreak and “cures” for the virus spread across the nation through various platforms. Across the globe, social media applications like WhatsApp and Facebook have played a vital role in the advancement of misinformation; however, in India, the dissemination of inaccurate information has been particularly exacerbated by public figures advancing their conservative ideologies and bringing the “sacred” cow to centre stage. Several influential religious and political leaders were witnessed vehemently supporting their long-held narratives that cow excreta is a “proven” precautionary remedy against most diseases, including coronavirus. Hence, to debunk such claims, the authors, in this essay, first analyse media used to circulate unfounded information concerning coronavirus across the world, followed by citing India-specific events where customary beliefs of Hindus have now taken the form of practices which can worsen the spread, as such practices lack significant scientific backing. Finally, we discuss the impact of such misinformation on human rights, and how states and social media companies can combat the infodemic.
... Also, people use cow urine as medicine in India, Nepal, Myanmar, and Nigeria. 8 But this behavior has tremendously increased in India after the entrance of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many people are consuming cow dung and urine under branded "cow dung therapy" for COVID cure. ...
... In processes other than the pH value of the biomass, the process temperature must always be controlled, the bioreactor, which is a fermentation tool, must have a construction that makes it easy to control the reaction temperature. Reaction Therefore, the construction of the bioreactor must be able to regulate the amount of heat produced by the reaction which is intended: (1) to increase the biomass temperature (QT), (2) to evaporate water from biomass (QU), and (3) to dispose of it into the environment (QL). ...
Article
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The content of cow urine has nutrients as much as N = 1.00%, P = 0.50%, K = 1.50%, water as much as 95% and this material has the potential to be fermented into bio-urine. The aim of this research is to analyze the dynamics of heat in the fermentation process of cow urine in a laboratory scale bioreactor. Experiment with a two-factor factorial design, the first factor was the fermentation system (aerobic and anaerobic), the second factor was the added nitrifying bacteria, namely 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% of the volume of fermented cow urine. The parameters observed on biomass were: biomass temperature, environmental temperature, air humidity, pH, EC and TDS, content of C and content of N. The temperature of the cow urine fermentation reaction in the bioreactor was 27.7-36.2 o C. The total heat of the fermentation reaction of cow urine is 2.8-7.1k.Joules/liter-urine. Heat insulator in the form of 2 cm thick cork is able to inhibit heat loss to the environment by 18.9%. Bio-urine which is fermented aerobically in a heat insulated bioreactor has a quality that meets POC standards from the Decree of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia No: 261/KPTS/SR.310/M/4/2019. Bio-urine has C/N 11.8, TDS 13899 ppm, EC 54868 μS/cm.
... In previous studies, the cow urine has been proven for strong antibacterial activity [34,35]. The presence of various bioactive compounds in PCU exhibited potent antibacterial activity [36,37]. The Ag NPs synthesized using cow urine, have been found to be bactericidal nature [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pregnant cow urine (PCU) is an active source of antimicrobial agents that is used for fabricating chitosan coated Ag/AgCl nanoparticles (NPs) in the present study. These PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs were physicochemically characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against selected respiratory tract infection (RTI) pathogens. The absorption band around 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrum indicated the presence of Ag NPs. The spherical shape of NPs was observed using TEM. Also, the crystalline structure was confirmed using the XRD pattern. The PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs showed strong antimicrobial activity against all tested RTI pathogens. In addition, FESEM analysis showed morphological changes in RTI bacterial pathogens. Thereby, PCU@C-Ag/AgCl NPs may be used as an antimicrobial material to treat RTIs in near future at clinical level.
Article
Nanotechnology is the most enabling technology that can be applied almost in all fields such as pharmaceutical, health care, food and feed, biomedical science and drug delivery. Synthesis of copper nanoparticle (CuNPs) with biological properties plays an important role in the development of scientifically valuable product. In this study, biosynthesis of Copper nanoparticles using Indian traditional medicine, Panchagavya is used which is eco-friendly, simple, cost effective and non-toxic. Copper sulphate (25 mM) solution was mixed with Panchagavya filtrate for the synthesis of Copper nanoparticles. The Nano metallic dispersion was characterized ultra violet spectrophotometer, Fourier transmission infrared ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Dynamic light scattering, Laser Raman, Scanning electron microscope, High resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray fluorescent microscope. In addition, we studied the antioxidant and also cytotoxicity activity. The characterization results revels that the copper nanoparticles are round shaped in the size 98 nm (nm) with −34.4mv stability. Further, the toxicity of biosynthesized Copper nanopartilces was tested to evaluate the cytotoxic effect that displayed LC 50 value of 95% confidence intervals.
Chapter
Cow worship in India has a long history dating back to the Vedic era, several thousand years ago. Cow being a domestic animal, its milk is as nourishing as one’s mother’s milk, and its utility in a primarily agricultural civilization like India made it a highly beneficial animal whose dung and urine played a key role in Indian medicine system as well as ancient India’s religious rituals. Ayurveda and Charaka Samhita are the examples of Indian writings having detailed description of immense medical, health and general wellbeing benefits of various products obtained from cow. Cow products such as milk, yoghurt, refined butter ghee and even cow dung were regarded as highly useful medicines in ancient India’s medicine system and till date continue to be utilized in Indian household as medicines of great value. Cow products are examined in modern science as well and have been discovered to be quite effective in the treatment and prevention of numerous ailments. Studies on deep microbial diversity of cow dung have been carried out using modern scientific equipment, and these studies provide a coherent insight into the microorganism’s synergistic potential. Compost (dung manure) is widely used in Indian agriculture, indicating its potential for increasing crop output. Considering many uses of cow dung, the scientific community is becoming increasingly interested in its scientific analysis and use, especially now that organic farming and indigenous medicines are garnering a lot of attention across the world.KeywordsCow dungPanchgavyaCow urineBiofertilizerAntibacterialAntifungal materials
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Gold nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Au ions using the liquid metabolic waste of Indian Gir cow (A-2) urine. Various bio-molecules present in cow urine are effectively used to reduce gold ions to gold nanoparticles in a single step. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized using advanced characterizations which ensures the formation of gold in nano form. We characterized the commercially available Ayurvedic medicine Swarna Bhasma which contains nano-gold synthesized according to ancient Indian literature. The synthesized bio-inspired AuNPs show potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Then the biological activity of these two samples was comparatively studied.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance In African traditional medicine, there are several plant species that are used in combination with either plant species or other non-plant derived combinations such as sugar and honey, salt and vinegar, milk, fat etc. This review examines the role of these combinations and postulates the scientific and therapeutic validation of such combinations. Aim of the study This study reviewed the ethnopharmacological literature, document the use of southern African plant combinations, find a scientific rationale for such combinations, and provide recommendations for future studies. Materials and methods Ethnobotanical books and online databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find ethnobotanical studies within the southern African context that focus on the combinations of plants with other plants or various additional ingredients. The scientific literature was examined to determine if evidence was available to substantiate such combinations. Results One hundred and eighty-seven medicinal plant (plant-to-plant) combinations that are used in the southern African traditional healing system were recorded. These plant combinations were used against infections of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and skin as well other non-infectious diseases such as reproductive and psychiatric disorders. Respiratory infections were the most documented infections to be treated using plant combinations. The plant that was documented to be most commonly used in combination with other plants was Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. While plant-plant combinations have drawn a marked interest, comparatively, plant-adjuvant (e.g. milk, sugar, honey, salt, vinegar, fats) combinations have attracted less research interest. Milk was reported as the most used additional ingredient in combination with medicinal plants. The combination of animal urine and dung with medicinal plants has been reported as a treatment for treat prostate infections, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and abdominal pains. Other ingredients such as clay and flour were also documented, and these are often mixed with medicinal plants to treat fever, stomach ailments, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and skin conditions. Although combination therapy has been frequently reported in ethnobotanical records, over 90% of the combinations reviewed still need to be scientifically validated. Conclusion Scientific reports on the antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects of these combinations may offer an understanding of traditional combination therapy. In addition, investigation into the mechanisms of action of these combinations are also recommended to supplement the findings. Nonetheless, the use of plant combinations is still an untapped research area in southern Africa and there is a need to validate the use of those documented combinations to obtain a better understanding of traditional medicinal plant use.
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Description: This volume of the Journal of Horticulture and Plant Research presents the latest outputs related to the investigation of impacting the variation of chilling requirements on the budburst, hormonal profile, and development of flower and vegetative buds in early and late varieties of apple trees; determination of the effect of plant growth regulators on inducing parthenocarpy in different pointed gourd accessions; analysis of the consequence of glycine betaine on two tomato genotypes under saline conditions by assessing their morphological and physiological attributes; identification of the effect of the cow urine on the plant growth and study her antimicrobial activity.
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The presence of the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus flavus along with other seed borne fungi associated with rice in indoor air of farmers’ house has been a major health concern. The problem further worsens when the Aspergillus flavus strain has the ability of producing aflatoxins (a group of mycotoxin) and sclerotia (a resistive structure). Diseases and allergic reactions like asthma, rhinitis, allergic broncho pulmonary mycoses, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis may be caused to inhabitants when aflatoxins, spores, vegetative cells and fungal metabolites are inhaled. Therefore, management of this fungus in indoor air of farmers’ house is very much essential. Farmers house in Odisha particularly in coastal regions are very much susceptible to fungal infection. Due to poor financial conditions management by sophisticated methods seems difficult. Hence, in the current study, efficiency of some herbal and traditional air purifiers like camphor, dasang jhuna, hawan samagri, cow dung-urine has been evaluated for the suppression of Aspergillus flavus. These materials are known to be used in various rituals and festivals by people in rural areas. All the traditional air purifiers have been found useful to inhibit the growth and proliferation of the fungus particularly cowdung-urine mixure proved to have fungicidal effect. Based on the strong belief and practice of Indian traditions and rituals along with scientific support from the current study and knowledge from literatures, these traditional materials may be very useful for the management and suppression of toxigenic and sclerotic Aspergillus flavus consequently suppressing indoor air problems in farmers’ house.
Conference Paper
The agricultural, livestock and food sectors are inter related with each other and play a vital role in paving way for income for most populations in developing and agrarian countries. At this context, the waste generated by these sectors are also enormous that demands an appropriate management system or methods to handle them.Food, agricultural and livestock waste which are also the contributors for global warming has the potential to get converted into green energy. This article reviews the global scenario of the waste consequences, management methods, and competent energy conversion techniques.
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Sesame, Sesamum indicum Linn. is a major oilseed crop of India, including Bundelkhand Zone of Madhya Pradesh. One of the major constraints in its production is damage caused by insect pests, particularly sucking which suck the cell sap from leaves, flower and pods. Efficacy of some indigenous neem products, insecticides and their admixtures against three sucking pests (jassid, mired bug and white fly) of sesame were tested at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Tikamgarh (Madhya Pradesh) during kharif 2004-2006. The results revealed that incidence of nymph and adult population of sucking pests, viz. jassid, Orosius albicinctus (Distant), mirid bug, Nesidiocoris tenuis (Rent.) and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was decreased significantly by natural and indigenous products, viz. Neem oil (NO), Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE), Neem leaf extract (NLE), Garlic bud + Red pepper extract (GB + RPE), Cow urine (CU) and Cow butter milk (CBM) as compared to untreated. However, insecticide Endosulfan was more effective than these products. The efficacy of all the above products were in the following order: Endosulfan > NSKE > NO > NLE > GB + RPE > CU > CBM. Grain yield was significantly higher in all the treatments as compared to untreated but was maximum with Endosulfan 0.07% (622 kg/ha) followed by NSKE-30 ml/l (605 kg/ha). Whereas, net profit and incremental cost benefit ratio (ICBR) was maximum with NSKE followed by NO in net profit and ICBR in NLE.
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There is enormous amount of literature in Ayurveda stating the importance of cow's urine for all purposes, including its importance in our daily life. This research targets on the antimicrobial activity of urine and its biochemical content that can be the key potential factor for its usage as a medicine. A detailed biochemical analysis of cow's urine was done to understand its antibacterial/antifungal properties along with lipase activity which could make it a potentially effective anti-cancer agent. Various micro-organismal plating techniques were applied using Nutrient and Potato Dextrose Agar as the medium for bacterial and fungal growth, to study the inhibitory activity of cow's urine on these organisms. Thin layer chromatography, Volumetric analysis, Spectrophotometric analysis and Tributyrin tests were conducted on cow's urine sample to analyze the lipase activity present within the urine content. Statistical comparisons, of the spectra obtained from the Spectrophotometric analysis of urine sample, were made with those already analyzed on various types of lipase activity detections from previous researches, and similarities were observed in both studies to ascertain the lipase factor potential within cow's urine sample. The tests proved that cow's urine was highly effective in inhibiting bacterial and fungal growth and also a potential natural source of lipase enzyme.
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Number of plants and animal derived materials were reported to have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The present study relates to such precious and holy animal derived material cow urine, which has these activities. Antioxidant activity was done using two in vitro models, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Superoxide scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the reference standard. The anti microbial activity of cow urine and its distillate was tested by agar well method using the microbes like Escherichia coli, Staphylococcos aureus, Staphylococcos epidermitis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The cow urine and its distillate tested for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities exhibited the mentioned activities and comparatively fresh cow urine was found to be better than its distillate. These results indicate that the cow urine has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which supports the claim of traditional practitioners.
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Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls) of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI). The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values.Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Oviposition substrates treated with cow urine in both laboratory and field conditions have shown that cow urine left to age from 1-7 days has an influence on oviposition behavioural response in mosquitoes. The analysis of microbial colonies for decaying urine should be investigated along with its associated by-products.
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The effects of bull urine on the percentage of heifers reaching puberty and on subsequent calving dates were examined with 52 crossbred beef heifers. Heifers were palpated for ovarian condition and classified as prepubertal or pubertal before (Palpation I) and after (Palpation II) eight weekly oronasal treatments with bull urine or water. A larger percentage of urine-treated than water-treated heifers reached puberty during the experimental period (67 vs 32%; P less than .05), supporting the hypothesis that bull urine contains a priming pheromone. Body weight of urine-treated heifers that did not reach puberty by Palpation II was lower than that of water-treated heifers that did not reach puberty (P less than .05), indicating that an association exists between body weight and the response to pheromonal cues in bull urine. There were no treatment differences in pregnancy rate after a 90-d breeding period, and no differences in pregnancy rate between heifers that had reached puberty before the breeding season started and heifers that had not reached puberty. Urine-treated heifers reaching puberty during the experiment calved earlier (P less than .05) in the calving season than did water-treated heifers of the same category. The distribution of these calvings was also different (P less than .01), resulting in a shorter calving season for urine-treated heifers. More heifers that had reached puberty by Palpation II calved in the first 20 d of the calving season that did heifers that had not reached puberty by Palpation II, regardless of treatment group (P = .02). There was a tendency for urine-treated heifers to calve earlier than water-treated heifers, with the exception of urine-treated heifers that had not reached puberty by Palpation II. These data support the hypothesis that there is a priming pheromone in bull urine that can hasten the onset of puberty in beef heifers.
Article
Urine caused a large increase in ryegrass yield, due entirely to its N component. The effect on yield lasted 2-3 harvests and was followed by a decrease in clover growth. The sulphur treatment (sodium sulphate) reduced the depressive effect of N on clover growth. Urine increased the N concentration of grass (particularly the nitrate fraction) and increased the potassium concentration of grass and clover. N fixation by clover was markedly decreased by urine, particularly during the winter. -from Authors
Article
Ten samples of urine from dairy cows, five from sheep and four from goats were analysed to assess the distribution of urinary nitrogen (N) among various chemical constituents in order to gain a better understanding of the reactions undergone by urinary N in soil. Total N in the cow urine ranged from 6.8 to 21.6 g N litre−1, of which an average of 69% was present as urea, 7.3% as allantoin, 5.8% as hippuric acid, 3.7% as creatinine, 2.5% as creatine, 1.3% as uric acid, 0.5% as xanthine plus hypoxanthine, 1.3% as free amino acid N and 2.8% as ammonia. In the sheep urine, total N ranged from 3.0 to 13.7 g litre−1 of which an average of 83 % was present as urea; creatine accounted for 5.3% of the N; hippuric acid and allantoin both accounted for 4.3%, while each of the other constituents amounted to less than 1% of the total N. The goat urine was similar to the sheep urine but with a lower ratio of creatine to creatinine and a somewhat higher proportion (2.0 %) of the total N as amino acid.
Article
Background: Active immunization with gonadotropin releasing hormone conjugate (GnRH-BSA) manipulates the fertility axis and thus alters the reproductive cyclicity, serum estradiol and progesterone levels. While the application of Kamdhenu ark increases the efficacy of GnRH-BSA.Objective: This experimental investigation is aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects on estrous cycle, serum estradiol and progesterone levels in female mice after Kamdhenu ark and GnRH-BSA immunization.Materials and Methods: Sixty sexually mature female mice were divided into three groups of twenty each. Group I served as control, while group II was immunized with GnRH-BSA conjugate (50µg/animal) for 120 days. However, group III was supplemented with Kamdhenu ark (100 ppm) orally along with GnRH-BSA conjugate immunizations and their vaginal estrous cyclicity, serum estradiol and progesterone levels were estimated after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of intervals. Results: GnRH-BSA immunized females showed regular estrous cycle initially but after 13th day animals started showing irregular and prolonged estrous cycle with a complete diestrus stage after 65th day onwards. In connection to this, GnRH-BSA + Kamdhenu ark supplemented animals also showed regular cyclicity initially but later they showed more interrupted cycle with complete diestrus stage after 55th day. Besides this, the serum estradiol and progesterone levels lowered significantly in all the experimental groups as compared to control animals. The more severe decrease in hormonal levels was noticed in later part of the experiment especially in the group supplemented with Kamdhenu ark along with GnRH-BSA immunizations. Conclusion: All these observations suggest that the GnRH-BSA conjugate has a deleterious effect on the reproductive hormones and estrous cycle of female mice; and Kamdhenu ark acts as a bioenhancer in immunization efficacy to modulate these effects.
Article
Evaluation of cow urine therapy on cancer patients in 8 days camp at Mandsaur district was carried out. The object of this survey was to evaluate efficacy of cow urine therapy on various cancer patients who were reported across from different state of India. Total 68 cancer patients reported during the survey from 8 April 2007 to 15 April 2007. A questionnaire was developed to assess the efficacy of cow urine therapy. During survey, out of 68 patients, 7.35% patients withdraw themselves from the treatment and 63 (92.64%) patients continued the therapy. There was a high proportion (30.87%) of throat cancer and the other prevalent cancer was breast cancer (14.70%) followed by cervix and uterine cancer (5.88%), buccal cavity cancer and sinus (4.41%) lung cancer, lymphoma and bone cancer (2.94%), both throat and buccal (5.88%) and other cancer (8.82%), respectively. The symptoms (pain, inflammation, burning sensation, difficulty in swallowing, irritation, etc.) of cancer patients were categorized into severe, moderate and mild categories, respectively. Intensive study of the data of cancer patients revealed that the degree of severe, moderate and mild symptoms were 82.16%, 15.8% and 1.58% on the first day and 7.9%, 55.3% and 36.34% on the eighth day, respectively. It was evaluated that patients who were receiving cow urine therapy since 2-3 months were most benefited. Hence, this traditional therapy may really a boon to cancer patients.
Article
The influence of substrate moisture (hydration) and grain size (texture) on oviposition was quantified in choice tests using Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains and gravid An. gambiae sensu lato from a natural population in Western Kenya. A strong, positive correlation was found between moisture content and the degree of egg-laying, which peaked at saturation with standing water. Soil moisture quantified as surface conductivity, was measured with an electronic leaf-wetness sensor slightly modified from a unit available commercially. Although An. gambiae females were sensitive to measurable differences in substrate moisture, they distributed eggs on both fully hydrated and less hydrated substrates. In contrast, An. gambiae females showed little response to substrate texture: they oviposited with equal frequency on all silica substrates of eight particle size classes, ranging from small pebbles (850 microm diameter) to very fine grains (< 38 microm diameter), when all were moist. Female An. gambiae laid more eggs on dark than white substrates against a light background, but did not discriminate between moist, pulverized black soapstone and moist black Kenyan soil taken from typical An. gambiae larval habitats. We conclude that hydration and visual contrast are critical ovipositional site qualities for An. gambiae, but substrate texture is not.
Gomutra -descriptive study
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Pathak ML, Kumar A. Gomutra -descriptive study. Sachitra Ayurveda 2003; 7: 81-84.
Cow praising and importance of Panchyagavya as medicine
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Pathak ML, Kumar A. Cow praising and importance of Panchyagavya as medicine. Sachitra Ayurveda 2003; 5: 56-59.
Cow urine: An elixir
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Singla S, Garg R. Cow urine: An elixir. Innov J Ayurved Sci 2013; 1(3): 31-35.
Cow Urine-A Magical Therapy. Vishwa Ayurveda Parishad
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Bhadauria H. Cow Urine-A Magical Therapy. Vishwa Ayurveda Parishad. Int J Cow Sci 2002; 1:32-6.
Study on Various Biochemical constituents in the urine of cow's buffalo and goat, thesis submitted to the C
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Kumar AA. Study on Various Biochemical constituents in the urine of cow's buffalo and goat, thesis submitted to the C.S.A. Univ Agr Techn, Kanpur (U.P.) 2001;p. 13.
Antimicrobial activity of different fractions of Cow Urine
  • G S Achliya
  • V S Meghre
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Achliya GS, Meghre VS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK. Antimicrobial activity of different fractions of Cow Urine. Indian J Nat Prod 2004; 20:14-6.
Immunomodulation with kamdhenu Ark in mice
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Chauhan RS, Singh BP, Singhal LK. Immunomodulation with kamdhenu Ark in mice. J Immunol. Immunopathol 2001; 71: 89-92.
Bhaisajyaratnavali of Govinda Dasji. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan
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  • K A Shastri
  • K Lochan
  • A K Choudhary
Misra BS, Shastri KA, Lochan K, Choudhary AK. Bhaisajyaratnavali of Govinda Dasji. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan; 2006; 2: 51-2.
Antioxidant potential of cow urine and its fractions: A comparative study
  • S P Wate
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Wate SP, Dhanjode DP, Duragkar NJ, Tajne MR. Antioxidant potential of cow urine and its fractions: A comparative study. Inter J Uni Pharm Life Sci 2011; 1(1):146-154.
Insecticidal efficacy of Cow urine distillate (Go-mutra ark
  • A C Bharath
  • Vinod Kumar
  • Shailendra Kumar
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • Prashith Kekuda
Bharath AC, Vinod Kumar HR, Shailendra Kumar MB, Rakesh Kumar MC, Prashith Kekuda TR. Insecticidal efficacy of Cow urine distillate (Go-mutra ark) Res Rev Biomed Biotech 2010; 1(1): 68-70.
Efficacy of Cow Urine against Bacterial Disease, European Foulbrood, in Honey Bee, Apis mellifera (L.) Colonies at Different Locations of Uttrakhand-An Eco-Friendly and Novel Approach
  • A Chand
  • R Tiwar
Chand A, Tiwar R. Efficacy of Cow Urine against Bacterial Disease, European Foulbrood, in Honey Bee, Apis mellifera (L.) Colonies at Different Locations of Uttrakhand-An Eco-Friendly and Novel Approach. Inter J Basic Appl Sci 2012; 1(3): 179-189.