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Glycemic response of some boiled legumes commonly eaten in nigeria

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Abstract

Glycemic indices (GI) of six commonly consumed legume varieties in Nigeria were investigated. The beans and groundnut were boiled in water until soft. Thereafter, the taste of different bean samples was enhanced with red palm oil and pepper to form cooked beans. A processed legume sample equivalent to 50 g available carbohydrate was fed to 35 healthy volunteers after a 10-12 hour overnight fast. Glucose (50 g in 300 mL) water was fed to control subjects. Glycemic response after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min was calculated. The results revealed the lowest GI for African yam bean (17±6) and highest GI for white cowpea (41±10). Pigeon pea (cream and brown variety) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) had a value of 24±3, 24±10 and 24±12, respectively. Cowpea (brown and white/black varieties) had a value of 29±9 and 30±11, respectively. The legumes elicit low postprandial rise of blood glucose.
Key words: legumes, cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata),
pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), African yam
beans (Stenostylis stenocarpa), groundnut
(Arachis hypogaea), boiling, glycemic
index, glycemic load, postprandial blood
glucose, diet for diabetics
SUMMARY
Glycemic indices (GI) of six commonly consumed
legume varieties in Nigeria were investigated. The
beans and groundnut were boiled in water until soft.
Thereafter, the taste of different bean samples was
enhanced with red palm oil and pepper to form cooked
beans. A processed legume sample equivalent to 50 g
available carbohydrate was fed to 35 healthy
volunteers after a 10-12 hour overnight fast. Glucose
(50 g in 300 mL) water was fed to control subjects.
Glycemic response after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min
was calculated. The results revealed the lowest GI for
African yam bean (17±6) and highest GI for white
cowpea (41±10). Pigeon pea (cream and brown
variety) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) had a
value of 24±3, 24±10 and 24±12, respectively.
Cowpea (brown and white/black varieties) had a value
of 29±9 and 30±11, respectively. The legumes elicit
low postprandial rise of blood glucose.
INTRODUCTION
Low postprandial glucose concentration and diets
with a low glycemic index are associated with a
reduced risk for the development of diabetes mellitus,
obesity and cardiovascular disease (1-3). Foods that
raise blood sugar slowly and steadily giving
continuous energy are low glycemic index foods,
while high glycemic index foods induce a sharp rise in
blood glucose, which declines within a short time (4).
Glycemic index (GI) is a quantitative assessment of
foods based on the postprandial blood glucose
response (5). It is usually determined by measuring the
effect of 50 g available carbohydrate of a test food on
blood glucose when compared with that of a control
food, usually glucose or white bread (6). GI of 0-55
has been categorized as low, 56-70 as medium, and
>70 as high (7). The concept of GI has been developed
to supplement information available on the chemical
composition of foods given in food tables. The
FAO/WHO has endorsed the inclusion of this concept
to guide food choices (8).
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Diabetologia Croatica 39-4, 2010
1University of Benin, College of Medicine, School of Basic
Medical Science, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Benin
City, Edo State, Nigeria
2Benson Idahosa University, Department of Biochemistry,
Faculty of Science, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
3University of Benin, Faculty of Life Science, Department of
Medical Biochemistry, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
Original Research Article
Received: March 26, 2010
Accepted: September 16, 2010
GLYCEMIC RESPONSE OF SOME BOILED LEGUMES
COMMONLY EATEN IN NIGERIA
Henrietta Oboh1, Anthony Osagie2, Adeyinka Omotosho3
Corresponding author: Henrietta Oboh, PhD, University of Benin, College
of Medicine, School of Basic Medical Science, Department of Medical
Biochemistry, Benin City, Nigeria
E-mail: hettyoboh2002@yahoo.com
Grain legumes, especially cowpeas, are widely
consumed in Nigeria (9). Different processing
methods (boiling, steaming, frying, soaking,
dehulling, grinding) are often combined to produce
different products that are eaten as a snack or main
meal (10).
However, some prominent underutilized grain
legumes, i.e. African yam bean (Sphenostylis
stenocarpa), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima beans
(Phaseolus lunatus) and Bambara groundnuts, are
readily available in Nigeria (11). Their proximate
contents, minerals and antinutritional factors have
been reported (12,13). They serve as a cheap source of
protein and other nutrients. Generally, Nigerian
diabetics consume legumes because of their low GI. It
is desirable in the management of diabetes as legumes
may reduce postprandial blood glucose levels (14).
The availability of different underutilized varieties of
legumes in the southwest agricultural zone of Nigeria,
especially in the Esan speaking areas of Edo State,
Nigeria, makes the choice of these local legumes
useful for the control of postprandial rise of blood
glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the GI
of some legumes commonly eaten in Nigeria and
compare their effects on glycemic values in healthy
persons.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; white, brown and
white/black varieties), Pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan;
brown and cream varieties), African yam beans
(Sternocarpa stenostylis) and groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea) were obtained from New Benin market in
Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. They were sorted by
picking out the broken and weevil infested seeds.
Whole seeds were used for preparation of
experimental diets.
Preparation and production of processed
samples
Boiled beans
Whole seeds (1 kg) were rinsed in tap water and
cooked by boiling in 7 L of distilled water for two
hours until tender. Seed tenderness was determined by
the method of Njoku et al. (15). Ten g of salt and 50
mL of hot palm oil was added to cooking legumes.
Proximate analysis of processed cowpeas
The processed beans were analyzed for moisture
content, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber by the
AOAC method (16). Carbohydrate was determined by
difference.
Experimental design
The subjects were students recruited from various
faculties of the University of Benin. The study
protocol was carefully explained to all of them before
they signed a written informed consent.
Thirty five volunteers (aged 21-30 years) were
offered a single meal each of one of the three test
foods. Another ten subjects were administered 50 g
glucose in 300 mL distilled water. The serving size
was determined by the quantity that will give 50 g
carbohydrate when eaten. Blood samples were
collected before feeding (0 min) and at 30, 60,120 and
180 min after the test meal intake.
Determination of blood glucose
Capillary blood samples (8-10 drops) were collected
by fingerprick and gentle pressure of the index finger,
at 8.00-9.00 a.m. after >12-h overnight fast. Blood
glucose was determined by use of One Touch Basic
Lifescan Blood Glucose Monitoring System, Johnson
& Johnson Company, Ca, USA. The one-touch
glucometer measures the amount of glucose in whole
blood on the glucose test strip. Analyses were done in
duplicate.
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H. Oboh, A. Osagie, A. Omotosho / GLYCEMIC RESPONSE OF SOME BOILED LEGUMES COMMONLY EATEN IN NIGERIA
GI calculation
Blood glucose curves were constructed from blood
glucose values for each individual at 0-180 min for the
control and test foods of each group. The incremental
areas under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC)
for a 50 g carbohydrate portion of each test food and
control food (glucose) was calculated by the
trapezoidal rule (17). The GI values were calculated by
the method of Jenkins et al. (18). Values were
expressed as mean and standard error.
Statistical analysis
Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the
means. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. SPSS
version 16 was used as a statistical software. A Pvalue
of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
RESULTS
The proximate composition of processed legumes is
presented in Table 1. The cowpeas, pigeon pea and
African yam bean had moisture of about 50%, and
groundnut of 40%. The carbohydrate content in
legumes was generally in the range of 43%-57%.
Crude protein was highest in pigeon pea (brown
variety) and lowest in groundnut. However, groundnut
had the highest lipid content (38%), while in other
legumes it ranged from 15.50% in cowpea (brown
variety) to 18.80% in pigeon pea (cream variety).
Crude fiber was highest in pigeon pea brown variety,
while groundnut had the lowest content (10%). Ash
ranged from 3% in groundnut to 4.5% in cowpea.
The available carbohydrate in 100 g of processed
food and serving sizes of the legumes containing 50 g
available carbohydrate portions are presented in
Table2. There were no significant differences in 100 g
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H. Oboh, A. Osagie, A. Omotosho / GLYCEMIC RESPONSE OF SOME BOILED LEGUMES COMMONLY EATEN IN NIGERIA
Table 1. Proximate analysis of processed legume samples in dry weight percent
Sample (g) Lipid Ash Fiber Crude protein Carbohydrate Moisture
Cowpea (white variety) 17.50±0.00 4.0±0.02 1.5±0.01 20.30±0.05 56.70±1.15 51.10±0.02
Cowpea (white and black variety) 18.15±0.05 4.5±0.02 1.5±0.01 19.95±0.05 55.90±0.10 50.80±0.06
Cowpea (brown variety) 15.50±0.02 4.5±0.01 1.5±0.01 20.66±0.01 57.84±0.76 50.45±0.03
Pigeon pea (cream variety) 18.85±0.02 4.0±0.10 4.5±0.01 21.35±0.11 51.30±0.45 50.65±0.01
Pigeon pea (brown variety) 15.85±0.01 4.5±0.01 5.0±0.01 21.53±0.02 53.12±0.67 50.60±0.30
African yam bean 17.45±0.04 3.5±0.02 3.0±0.02 21.00±0.05 55.05±2.10 50.85±0.30
Groundnut 38.50±0.10 3.0±0.01 4.0±0.01 10.68±0.02 43.82±0.83 40.70±0.03
Values are means ± standard errors of means (SEM) of four (4) determinations.
Values are means ± standard errors of means of five individuals per group; means with different superscript are significantly different at (P0.05).
Sample
Available carbohydrate in 100 g of
processed food (g) Serving size of processed food (g)
Cowpea (white variety) 27.73a180b
Cowpea (white and black variety) 27.50a182b
Cowpea (brown variety) 28.66a175b
Pigeon pea (cream variety) 25.32a198c
Pigeon pea (brown variety) 26.33a190b
African yam bean 27.06a185b
Groundnut 26.99a192b
Table 2. Available carbohydrate in 100 g of processed food and serving sizes used on glycemic index
determination
of different processed legumes. The serving sizes of
the legumes containing 50 g available carbohydrate
portions were not significantly different. Pigeon pea
(cream variety) gave a significantly higher value.
The GI of the processed legumes is shown in Table 3.
The GI ranged from 17 to 41. African yam bean gave
the significantly lowest GI value of 17, while cowpea
(white variety) gave the highest value of 41. The
cowpea (white and black variety and brown variety)
gave a value of 30 and 29, respectively, while pigeon
pea (cream and brown variety) and groundnut yielded
a value of 24. However, the values were not
significantly different.
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H. Oboh, A. Osagie, A. Omotosho / GLYCEMIC RESPONSE OF SOME BOILED LEGUMES COMMONLY EATEN IN NIGERIA
Values are means ± standard errors of means of five individuals per group; means with
different superscript are significantly different at (P0.05).
Sample GI
Cowpea (white variety) 41a±10
Cowpea (white and black variety) 30a±11
Cowpea (brown variety) 29a±9
Pigeon pea (cream variety) 24a±3
Pigeon pea (brown variety) 24a±10
African yam bean 17b±6
Groundnut 24a±12
Table 3. Glycemic indices (GI) of different legumes
Figure 1. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Vigna
unguiculata (white variety) which contains 50g
carbohydrate and the control curve of the group that
consumed 50g of glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Figure 2. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Vigna
unguiculata (white and black variety) which contains
50g carbohydrate and the control curve of the group
that consumed 50g of glucose drink
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Cowp ea (Wh ite Vari ety)
Gluc ose ( 50g)
Figure 3. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Vigna
unguiculata (brown variety) which contains 50g
carbohydrate and the control curve of the group that
consumed 50g of glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Cowpea (Bro wn Variety)
Gluc ose ( 50g)
Cowp ea (Wh ite & Blac k Variety )
Figure 4. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Cajanus cajan
(cream variety) which contains 50g carbohydrate and
the control curve of the group that consumed 50g of
glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Cajanus Cajan (Cream Variety)
Gl uco se (50g )
DISCUSSION
Legumes are commonly boiled in water until tender.
Thereafter, they are mixed with spices and red palm oil
to form cooked beans. Pigeon pea and African yam
bean are relatively underutilized in Nigeria but are
mainly consumed in the villages because of their hard-
to-cook defects, which require the use of scarce energy
resources for cooking (19). Legumes produce
relatively low glycemic responses in both healthy
individuals and in diabetics (20,21). The components
present in legumes, particularly the soluble dietary
fiber (22), and the nature of the starch (23) can
influence the rate by which glucose is released from
starch and consequently absorbed from the small
intestine. This makes it suitable for use in controlling
postprandial rise of blood glucose levels.
The results show that the processed legumes have
low GI. White cowpeas had the maximum GI of 41
and African yam bean minimum GI of 17. This result
obtained for cowpea varieties is in agreement with that
reported for some other cowpea varieties (24). The
results obtained by proximate analysis (Table 1)
showed that the legumes contained 1.5%-5.0% of
fiber. The fibers could be responsible for decreasing
postprandial glucose by increasing viscosity of the
digestate and reduce gastric emptying time. Other
factors like the raffinose oligosaccharide components
(25), which are not digested in the gastrointestinal
tract, and the structure of starch and fiber present in the
seeds after processing could be responsible for the low
GI. The interactions of other constituents in the grain
legume can bind starch and affect blood glucose
levels.
Low glycemic index diets are important in the
management of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia
because they have a high satiety effect and therefore
can reduce the likelihood of excessive consumption of
calories (26). This leads to a reduction of the
likelihood to become obese and type 2 diabetic (27).
129
Diabetologia Croatica 39-4, 2010
H. Oboh, A. Osagie, A. Omotosho / GLYCEMIC RESPONSE OF SOME BOILED LEGUMES COMMONLY EATEN IN NIGERIA
Figure 5. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Cajanus cajan
(brown variety) which contains 50g carbohydrate and
the control curve of the group that consumed 50g of
glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Cajanus Cajan (Bro wn Variety)
Gl uco se (50g )
Figure 6. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Stenostylis
stenocarpa (African Yam Bean) which contains 50g
carbohydrate and the control curve of the group that
consumed 50g of glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Senostylis Stenocarpa (African Yem Bean)
Gluc ose ( 50g)
Figure 7. The mean blood glucose curve of the group
(5 individuals) after consumption of Arachis
hypogaea (groundnut) which contains 50g
carbohydrate and the control curve of the group that
consumed 50g of glucose drink
Time (min)
Blood Glucose (mg/dL)
Arach is Hy po gaea (G roundnut)
Gluc ose ( 50g)
This present study shows that the boiling of beans as
is often done in Nigeria leads to a low GI product.
Although the GI values obtained were low, further
characterization of legume starch and dietary fiber
would give an insight into the factors responsible for
these low GI values obtained. Asimilar study would be
necessary in diabetics. This would provide insights
into the GI and response of different processed
legumes in diabetic persons.
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... In total, the meta-analysis involved fifty-seven articles, as exhibited in Figure 1. According to the Cochrane Collaboration tool, eleven trials [6,24,29,32,33,37,38,42,48,51,54] were categorized as being at a low risk of bias, while forty-four were categorized as unclear [17,[19][20][21][22][23]25,27,28,30,31,[34][35][36][39][40][41][43][44][45][46][47]49,50,52,53,[55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62], and two were categorized as being at a high risk of bias [18,26]. Details about the risk of bias are supplied in Figures 2 and 3. ...
... Fifty-seven studies, involving 936 participants, were published from 2002 to 2019. Twenty-six studies [9][10][11][12]17,18,20,21,26,31,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47]49,[54][55][56][57][59][60][61][62] used an in vitro experiment, while thirty-two studies involved in vivo experiments. Only one study used both in vitro and in vivo data experiments [11]. ...
... Among fifty-seven included studies, forty-eight were selected for discussion of the relationship between chemical properties and GI value . The remaining studies were used for the selection of low-GI carbohydrate-based foods [55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]. All studies reported changes in glycemic index, four studies [7,[17][18][19] reported changes in amylose content to GI, ten studies [9][10][11][12][13][20][21][22][23][24] reported changes in resistant starch (RS) content to GI, fifteen studies reported a change in dietary fibre content to GI, fifteen studies reported a change in fat content to GI, fifteen studies reported a change in protein content to GI, twelve studies reported a change in phenol content to GI, ten studies reported a change in flavonoid content to GI, five studies reported a change in cereal type to GI, six studies reported a change in tuber type to GI, two studies reported a change in fruit type to GI, and four studies reported a change in legume type to GI. Detailed characteristics of eligible studies are presented in Tables 2 and 3. Thiranusornkij et al. 2019 [12] Odenigbo et al. 2012 [24] Ek et al. 2013 [45] Hidayat et al. 2017 [46] Singh et al. 2011 [47] Kumar et al. 2019 [10] Srikaeo and Sangkhiaw 2014 [11] Darandakumbura et al. 2013 [14] Ayerdi et al. 2005 [13] Oboh and Ogbebor 2010 [48] Vahini et al. ...
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The chemical properties that serve as major determinants for the glycemic index (GI) of starchy food and recommended low-GI, carbohydrate-based foods have remained enigmatic. This present work performed a systematic assessment of linkages between chemical properties of foods and GI, and selected low-GI starchy foods. The data were sourced from literature published in various scientific journals. In total, 57 relevant studies and 936 data points were integrated into a database. Both in vitro and in vivo studies on GI values were included. The database was subsequently subjected to a meta-analysis. Meta-analysis from in vitro studies revealed that the two significant factors responsible for the GI of starchy foods were resistant starch and phenolic content (respectively, standardized mean difference (SMD): −2.52, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): −3.29 to −1.75, p (p-value) < 0.001; SMD: −0.72, 95%CI: −1.26 to −0.17, p = 0.005), while the lowest-GI crop type was legumes. Subgroup analysis restricted to the crop species with significant low GI found two crops, i.e., sorghum (SMD: −0.69, 95%CI: −2.33 to 0.96, p < 0.001) and red kidney bean (SMD: −0.39, 95%CI: −2.37 to 1.59, p = 0.001). Meta-analysis from in vivo studies revealed that the two significant factors responsible for the GI of starchy foods were flavonoid and phenolic content (respectively, SMD: −0.67, 95%CI: −0.87 to −0.47, p < 0.001; SMD: −0.63, 95%CI: −1.15 to −0.11, p = 0.009), while the lowest-GI crop type was fruit (banana). In conclusion, resistant starch and phenolic content may have a desirable impact on the GI of starchy food, while sorghum and red kidney bean are found to have low GI.
... In short, carbohydrates that decompose rapidly during digestion have a high glycemic index due to the fact that blood glucose response is fast and high, while those that break down slowly have a low glycemic index (Okonkwo et al., 2013). Many starchy staple foods produced traditionally possess low glycemic indices and they include cracked wheat or barley, parboiled rice, dried peas, beans, pasta and lentils (Oboh et al., 2010). Michael et al. (2018) investigated the antidiabetic activity of seed milk extract in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. ...
... The good news is that diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical exercise, medication, regular screening and treatment for complication (Sarwar et al., 2010). Oboh et al. (2010) worked on the glycemic response of some boiled legumes commonly eaten in Nigeria and reported that AYB had the lowest GI (17). The GI of AYB is very low when compared with cow pea (41), pigeon pea (24), and groundnut nut (24) (Oboh et al., 2010). ...
... Oboh et al. (2010) worked on the glycemic response of some boiled legumes commonly eaten in Nigeria and reported that AYB had the lowest GI (17). The GI of AYB is very low when compared with cow pea (41), pigeon pea (24), and groundnut nut (24) (Oboh et al., 2010). Legumes produce relatively low glycemic responses in both healthy individuals and diabetic clients (Gbenga-Fabusiwa et al., 2018a. ...
... Low GI foods, such as legumes was found to provide slower, more consistent source of glucose to the bloodstream, thereby stimulating less insulin release and promote metabolisms of lipids, carbohydrate and proteins [15,16]. Legumes like beans and their products have been reported to have low GI [17,18], and was recommended as one of the major component of daily dietary therapy for persons with diabetes [19]. ...
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... Although the IAUGC values for the bean meals and glucose challenge test differs from some previous research works, [16][17][18] they are consistent with those of Rasmussen et al. [19] The difference in the IAUGC values in this study compared to other studies is not clear, but it may have something to do with the method of calculating the area under curve. The most common method of calculating IAUGC is the trapezoidal rule. ...
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This study has shown the Glycaemic responses such as maximum increase in plasma glucose, peak plasma glucose and two hours post prandial to bean meals and their impact on glycaemic control in people with non communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
... Although the IAUGC values for the bean meals and glucose challenge test differs from some previous research works, [16][17][18] they are consistent with those of Rasmussen et al. [19] The difference in the IAUGC values in this study compared to other studies is not clear, but it may have something to do with the method of calculating the area under curve. The most common method of calculating IAUGC is the trapezoidal rule. ...
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