We wanted an experiment arriving at a necessarily false
finding. We settled for age based on self-reported birth-
day as that would seem impossible to move around even
through measurement error.
The Wharton school has a behavioral lab where people are
paid for participating. They usually complete several stud-
ies in a single session and get paid a flat fee plus additional
revenue some experiments within the session may include.
More specific demographics are included in the data
Given the light nature of the study we did not monitor
incomplete submissions, so do not know if people started
and did not complete, but this seldom if ever happens in
In both experiments people listened to one of three music
files. The song “Kalimba” by Mr. Scrub which comes free
with the Windows 7 operating system, the song “Hot
Potato” by the Australian band The Wiggles, and “When I
am 64” by the Beatles. Copyright restrictions do not make
it possible to post those songs here.
The questions were posted on Qualtrics (an online sur-
vey provider), after participants listened to the song with
headphones they proceeded to answer all questions.
None, given the setting.
The study followed the ethical standards by the American
Psychological Association. The study was approved by the
Institutional Review Board of the Wharton School. There
are no personal identifiers in the data beyond age and par-
ents’ age, insufficient to identify people.
(3) Dataset description
• Post Data - False Positive Psychology.xlsx
Raw data file
Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology:
Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis
Joseph P. Simmons,1 Leif D. Nelson,2 Uri Simonsohn1
1 The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
2 Haas Marketing Group, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Simmons, J P, Nelson, L D and Simonsohn, U 2014 Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology:
Journal of Open Psychology Data,
2(1): e1, DOI:
Keywords: False-Positive psychology; methodology; motivated reasoning; publication bias; disclosure; p-hacking
in data collection, analysis, and reporting of results. Data are useful for educational purposes.
Simmons et al
Format names and versions
Both in .txt with a .txt codebook, and a self-contained
Excel Workbook file (xlsx).
Paid staff at the lab.
13 January 2014
(4) Reuse potential
Data from this highly-cited paper are especially useful
for educational purposes (teaching of statistics) as well
as for future research concerned with various statistical
1. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U.
(2011). False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed
Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows
Presenting Anything as Significant. Psychologi-
cal Science, 22(11), 1359-1366. DOI: http://dx.doi.
How to cite this article: Simmons, J P, Nelson, L D and Simonsohn, U 2014 Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology:
Journal of Open Psychology
2(1): e1, DOI:
Published: 21 February 2014
Journal of Open Psychology Data
by Ubiquity Press OPEN ACCESS
Peer review comments: