Die ethnologischen Museen in Spanien: Zwischen Wirtschaftskrise und Neudefinition

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European politics and planning have recently been characterized by a shift to economic entrepreneurialism at sub-national scales, and the planned redevelopment of the city-region in pursuit of global competitiveness, which scholars have interpreted in light of political-economic “rescaling” or regionalization and the emergence of a “new regionalism.” Analyzing rescaling largely in terms of shifting economic and institutional structures, however, many accounts underestimate the complexity and enduring power of so-called ‘old’ regionalist politics of culture and identity as backdrop to urban redevelopment planning. In this paper we address how the urban planning process mediates between the seemingly dichotomous tendencies of regionalized entrepreneurialism and cultural regionalism. Using case studies of two Spanish autonomous regions and their major urban centers – the Basque Country or Euskadi (Bilbao) and the Comunitat Valenciana (Valncia) – we review the historical geography of planning in the European region in order to explore how cultural regionalism collides with economic rescaling and entrepreneurialism, in and through the planned landscape. We propose that such emerging and hybrid politics and planning be understood as a form of entrepreneurial regionalism, a culturally inflected form of economic competitiveness characteristic of but not unique to the Spanish region. This specific notion of entrepreneurial regionalism may illuminate how planners mediate global and local imperatives within political discourse and landscapes that materialize them, and allow us to better reconceptualize the relationship between economic globalization, state restructuring, and cultural politics in a new Europe of the Regions.
This paper studies the role of science museums in Spain and their contribution to the public communication of science and technology (PCST). In particular, it analyzes the social and political contexts in which science museums have developed in Spain over recent decades and evaluates how sociopolitical circumstances have conditioned both the content of the museums and the way in which the museum projects have been executed. An analysis of the institutional context in which these museums have been created in Spain suggests that there is an interrelation between scientific dissemination and the institutional and sociopolitical context in which it took place. The proliferation of museums and science centers has brought about greater dissemination of science in Spain, but their existence is not simply a response to the desire for scientific communication, as the museums are not merely places for the transmission of scientific knowledge, or places where science is consumed. They are also scenarios and symbols, institutions used to construct new discourses of an identity based on the idea of modernity, and are used politically to locate the local, regional and national in a globalized context.