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How does orthographic learning happen?

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... As we do so, we capture orthographic knowledge broadly, including both lexical and sublexical tasks, and we address ongoing concerns with this construct as a whole (e.g., Nation & Castles, 2017). Traditional measures of lexical orthographic knowledge have been argued to rely heavily on word reading, with the possibility that lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading tasks capture a single construct (Castles & Nation, 2006). Indeed, confirmatory factor analyses suggest overlap between lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading accuracy (e.g., Hagiliassis, Pratt, & Johnston, 2006); overlap with word reading efficiency has not yet been tested. ...
... This is in line with Ehri (2005) and Perfetti's (2007) views that lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading are distinct constructs. We also tested a three-factor model reflecting Castles and Nation (2006) argument that lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading are the same construct. These two models were compared to a parsimonious one-factor model given the potential relatedness among our constructs. ...
... It further reinforces the need to investigate which skills facilitate lexical access in particular, skills which might be similar or different to those for word reading efficiency. Second, our finding that sublexical orthographic knowledge emerges as its own construct confirms prior conceptual views (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006) and empirical evidence (Conrad et al., 2013). Finally, lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading efficiency loaded onto one factor, converging with earlier factor analyses (e.g., Hagiliassis et al., 2006) and reviews (Castles & Nation, 2006). ...
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Skilled reading requires fast and accurate access to previously encountered words stored in memory. Yet, little research addresses skills that support such lexical access. Based on theoretical predictions, one skill that may support lexical access is orthographic knowledge. Thus, our goal was to investigate the relation between lexical access and orthographic knowledge. We addressed this research question in a sample of 104 English-speaking fourth grade children. We assessed lexical access with an experimenter-created measure of timed word recognition; word reading efficiency with the TOWRE Sight Word Efficiency subtest; and lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge with real and nonword orthographic choice tasks, respectively. We controlled for other reading related skills, including nonverbal ability and phonological awareness. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that lexical access and word reading efficiency are separate constructs. A subsequent linear regression revealed a concurrent relation between sublexical orthographic knowledge and lexical access beyond controls. Results highlight a unique place for lexical access in reading development theory and help us better understand the specific skills required to read quickly and accurately.
... Lexical representation consists of knowledge about accurate pronunciation (phonology), meaning (semantics), and spelling (orthography) of a given word (Perfetti, 2007). On the other hand, sublexical measure of orthographic processing may be more appropriate to examine general orthographic knowledge, such as letter patterns and spelling regularities (Castles & Nation, 2006;Conrad et al., 2012). ...
... Due to the concern that lexical orthographic processing and word reading tasks involve similar processes (see Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006), we controlled for word reading in the language in which orthographic processing was measured in the regressions. For example, when examining within-language relations between French lexical orthographic processing and French spelling, French word reading was entered before French lexical orthographic processing. ...
... For instance, when investigating English spelling, RAN and vocabulary in English were included in the analysis. In the withinlanguage analyses, word reading in the language of the orthographic processing measure was entered in the third step to control for the possible component of orthographic processing that is related to reading in that language (e.g., Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). The within-language measure of orthographic processing was entered in the final step. ...
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This study investigates the within- and cross-language relations between orthographic processing and spelling for children learning to read in languages that share the same Roman script: namely, English and French. We examined these relations in a group of 152 children attending grade 1 in a French immersion program. Measures of English and French lexical orthographic processing (e.g., dream-dreem; jaune-jeaune) as well as English and French spelling were administered. Control measures included nonverbal ability, English phonological awareness, as well as rapid automatised naming, vocabulary, and word reading in English and French. We found a within-language relation between orthographic processing and spelling in each of English and French. Cross-language transfer from French orthographic processing to English spelling was also observed; there were no relations in the other direction. Our results suggest that orthographic processing is important for spelling development among bilingual children learning English and French.
... Erfolgreiches Lesen-und Schreibenlernen basiert auf kognitiven, linguistischen und sozialen Graphemen und den Lauten der gesprochenen Sprache aufzubauen (Castles & Nation, 2006 (Ellis, 1994). ...
... Therapiekonzepten. Daher sind sie wichtige Hilfsmittel für Lehrpersonen, in der Logopädie und der schulischen Heilpädagogik (Pollo, Treiman & Kessler, 2008;Varnhagen et al., 1997 (Treiman & Bourassa, 2000;Varnhagen et al., 1997 System von Korrespondenzen zwischen den Graphemen der geschriebenen Sprache und den Phonemen der gesprochenen Sprache aufzubauen (Castles & Nation, 2006;Ehri, 2000). ...
... Repräsentationen von Wörtern im mentalen Lexikon, welche sowohl für das Lesen als auch für das korrekte Rechtschreiben von enormer Bedeutung sind (Apel, 2009;Braten, Lie, Andreassen & Olaussen, 1999;Castles & Nation, 2006;Ehri, 2000;Share 2008a (Ehri, 2000;Treiman & Bourassa, 2000;Varnhagen et al., 1997). ...
... Evidence of correlations between children's orthographic knowledge and their word reading at a single point in time have often been interpreted as suggesting that orthographic knowledge drives growth in word reading (e.g., Olson et al., 1994; for reviews, see Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). Similar speculations have been made about such associations with orthographic learning (e.g., Bowey & Miller, 2007). ...
... We first evaluated empirically the separability of the aspects of orthographic processing from word reading itself (Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). Prior evidence of separable contributions of lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge to word reading (e.g., Conrad et al., 2013) point to this possibility, but do not test it directly. ...
... In addition, children completed measures of lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge, word-reading accuracy, word-reading efficiency, and irregular word reading. We first conducted CFA to evaluate the separability of orthographic learning and knowledge from word-reading itself (Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). We then went on to model longitudinal relations between our identified orthographic factors and word reading. ...
Article
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Theories of reading development generally agree that, in addition to phonological decoding, some kind of orthographic processing skill underlies the ability to learn to read words. However, there is a lack of clarity as to which aspect(s) of orthographic processing are key in reading development. We test here whether this is orthographic knowledge and/or orthographic learning. Whereas orthographic knowledge has been argued to reflect a child’s existing store of orthographic representations, orthographic learning is concerned with the ability to form these representations. In a longitudinal study of second- and third-grade students, we evaluate the relations between these two aspects of orthographic processing and word-reading outcomes. The results of our analyses show that variance captured by orthographic knowledge overlaps with that of word reading, to the point that they form a single latent word-reading factor. In contrast, orthographic learning is distinctive from this factor. Further, structural equation modeling demonstrates that early orthographic learning was related to gains in word reading skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of word-reading development.
... Orthographic processing skills refer to a broad and multi-dimensional concept whose definition and measurement have been matter of debate the last decade (Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006;Hagiliassis, Pratt, & Johnston, 2006). It is now considered to encompass two main sub-components: word-specific orthographic knowledge, hereafter termed lexical orthographic skills, and sensitivity to orthographic regularities of a writing system, hereafter referred to as sub-lexical orthographic skills. ...
... The extent to which orthographic processing skills relate to reading acquisition is also not well understood and has been matter of debate (Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). Preliminary research demonstrated that orthographic processing skills were a significant predictor of reading skills, over and above several cognitive variables such as nonverbal reasoning, and other linguistic variables such as vocabulary, phonological processing or print exposure (Barker, Torgesen, & Wagner, 1992;Conners et al., 2011;Conrad et al., 2013;Cunningham et al., 2001;Cunningham & Stanovich, 1993;Deacon et al., 2012). ...
... Some concerns were however raised about the homophone choice task (e.g. rain vs rane), which was said to measure reading itself (leading to a circularity issue, Castles & Nation, 2006), or the product of reading achievement instead of its predictor. Deacon et al. (2012; see also Conrad & Deacon, 2016) showed indeed that reading skills measured in young age predicted growth of orthographic skills at an older age while the reverse causality direction was not significant. ...
Article
Background: Whether lexical and sub-lexical orthographic skills relate to each other and to reading was investigated in French 3rd and 5th graders. Methods: Two homophone choice tasks were constructed (1) by manipulating the frequency of words sub-lexical features (choose the correct spelling in boat - bacht vs yacht - yoat) and (2) by matching items on their sub-lexical properties (beach - beech). More, two orthographic choice tasks measured (1) sensitivity to legal versus illegal sub-lexical patterns (rouve - rouvve) and (2) distributional probabilities (doat - dacht). Regular, irregular and pseudoword reading were assessed. Results/Conclusions: On the one hand, performances were higher for words with more frequent sub-lexical features, in favour of an impact of both lexical and sub-lexical skills in the homophone choice task. This effect was however significant in the grade 3 group only, revealing stronger reliance on sub-lexical orthographic knowledge during lexical retrieval in the younger group only. On the other hand, performances on orthographic choice tasks improved with grade and revealed to be higher for the task involving all-or-none patterns compared with that involving distributional probabilities. Regarding the relationships between this set of measures, the data revealed that the purer measure of lexical orthographic skills significantly correlated with sub-lexical skills and irregular word reading; yet none of the measures that involved sub-lexical orthographic skills correlated with reading.
... Although there seems to be a growing consensus on the two-level view of orthographic knowledge, there are differences in how orthographic knowledge has been operationally defined and measured across the years (see Apel, 2011). For example, some researchers have defined and measured orthographic knowledge solely at the lexical level (e.g., Barker, Torgesen & Wagner, 1992;Cunningham & Stanovich, 1990;Deacon et al., 2012;Frith, 1985;Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1986;Stanovich & West, 1989) whereas others have done so at the sublexical level (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006;Kim, Apel, & Al Otaiba, 2013;Perfetti, 1984;Vellutino, Scanlon, & Tanzman, 1994). The lack of using a consistent, two-level definition of orthographic knowledge and measurement of both of its levels makes discussion of findings from different investigations challenging. ...
... Far more researchers have not included the alphabetic principle as part of their definition and measurement of sublexical orthographic knowledge (Apel, 2011). In fact, many have labeled the alphabetic principle, and specifically letter-sound knowledge, as a skill outside of the orthographic knowledge domain (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006;Cunningham et al., 2001;Deacon et al., 2012). For example, Cunningham et al. labeled letter-sound correspondence as a phonological processing skill. ...
... Statements that phonological recoding is solely a phonological skill frequently occur during discussions of the self-teaching hypothesis (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006;Cunningham et al., 2001;Share, 1995). A major tenet of the self-teaching hypothesis is that "orthographic learning" (i.e., the development of word-specific mental representations or lexical orthographic knowledge) is dependent on phonological recoding. ...
Article
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Orthographic knowledge is the understanding of how spoken language is represented in print. However, the terms used to describe the two levels of orthographic knowledge, lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge, have been variably defined and inconsistently measured, potentially contributing to discrepancies in research findings. Dissimilarities in how orthographic knowledge has been operationally defined and measured and the associated differences in tasks used to assess that construct are discussed. As part of that discussion, we relate how some measures assess either implicit or more explicit levels of orthographic knowledge. Using current theories and the existing research, we next provide an argument for how initial development of sublexical orthographic knowledge occurs before lexical orthographic knowledge. Suggestions are provided for what researchers might do in the future to help move the field toward a better understanding of orthographic knowledge. Strategies for assessing orthographic knowledge in literacy research are offered.
... Beyond these early phases of development, spelling patterns are progressively refined and consolidated in memory through a process that has been termed orthographic learning (Castles & Nation, 2006). ...
... However, the tasks used to assess orthographic knowledge have been criticized for evaluating the ability to access existing orthographic representations, thereby tracking the outcome of reading acquisition rather than the process that underpins orthographic learning (Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006;Deacon, Benere, & Castles, 2012). To clarify whether orthographic knowledge is causally related to orthographic learning, Burt called for training studies that assess the skills and processes involved in the effective learning of unfamiliar letter strings. ...
Article
Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text. The present training study was conducted to assess experimentally whether this relation between prior orthographic knowledge and orthographic learning while reading is causal by assessing whether instruction designed to increase sublexical orthographic knowledge would facilitate orthographic learning during independent reading. A group of Danish-speaking third graders (n = 21) was taught conditional spelling patterns conforming to the opaque Danish writing system, with emphasis on how to map the spellings onto their pronunciations. A matched control group (n = 21) received no treatment. Both groups were exposed to 12 novel words containing trained spelling patterns in an orthographic learning task. Posttests revealed a moderate transfer effect from training to orthographic learning, measured as the students' ability to identify target word spellings in an orthographic choice task, and a strong transfer effect when measured as their ability to reproduce target word spellings in a spelling task. However, no advantage of explicit training over reading only could be detected when orthographic learning was measured as target word naming. The findings support the view that larger sound spelling units are used to form connections between spellings and pronunciations of words. Additionally, the findings support the view that preexisting orthographic knowledge is causally related to the degree and quality of orthographic learning during independent reading.
... Furthermore, while most previous studies have emphasised the impact of phonological decoding on orthographic learning (e.g. Bowey & Muller, 2005;Castles & Nation, 2006;Share, 1999), we here examine whether the visual attention capacity, as measured through tasks of visual attention span (VA span), has a role on the orthographic learning of novel words. ...
... This central role is supported by experimental findings showing that accurate decoding is a powerful predictor of incidental orthographic learning (Ricketts et al., 2011) and that orthographic learning is lower in conditions of concurrent articulation (de Jong et al., 2009;Kyte & Johnson, 2009;Share, 1999). However, despite the well-documented role of phonological decoding in orthographic knowledge acquisition, there is also evidence that decoding does not guarantee orthographic learning when successful and does not systematically prevent orthography acquisition when unsuccessful (Castles & Nation, 2006, 2008Nation et al., 2007;Tucker et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Eye movement monitoring was used to explore the time course of orthographic learning in adult skilled readers while they read novel words presented in isolation one, three or five times. Offline measures of spelling-to-dictation and orthographic decision were used to measure orthographic memorisation. Further, the participants' visual attention span was estimated. Results showed better memorisation of new words' orthography with additional exposures. An exposure-by-exposure in-depth analysis of eye movements revealed an early sharper decrease for the number of fixations and most measures of processing time. Participants with a higher visual attention span showed better performance in orthographic decision and processing times. The overall findings suggest that orthographic learning occurs from the first exposure and that top-down effects from the newly acquired orthographic knowledge would facilitate processing from the second exposure. Further, time needed for bottom-up information extraction appears to be modulated by visual attention span.
... In a broad sense, orthographic awareness refers to the understanding of the print conventions or knowledge of word spelling (Conrad et al., 2013). Castles and Nation (2006) defined orthographic awareness as the sensitivity to orthographic regularities/rules in the script, which constrains the arrangement of the ordering of the internal structures. Studies in alphabetic languages have indicated that orthographic awareness at early stages is a strong predictor of subsequent reading acquisition (Badian, 2001;Boets et al., 2008). ...
... Plenty of studies have examined the relationship between orthographic skills (the ability to form, store and access word representations) and reading ability in English (e.g., Cassar and Treiman, 1997;Burt, 2006;Castles and Nation, 2006). The role of orthographic skill in predicting word reading has been highlighted, given the inconsistency of graphemephoneme correspondences of English orthography (Treiman et al., 1995). ...
Article
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The present study examined developmental changes, over a 6-year period, in the relationship between character reading ability and orthographic awareness in Chinese from the first year of kindergarten to the third year of primary school in two separate samples: the kindergarten sample of 96 children was assessed three times in the first, second, and third years of kindergarten (K1, K2, K3) with 12-month intervals. The primary school sample of 204 children was assessed four times in the first and second semesters of grade 1 (P1-S1; P1-S2), first semester of grade 2 (P2-S1) and grade 3 (P3-S1), with the first three waves at 6-month intervals and the final wave at 12-month interval. Cross-lagged path analysis showed three developmental stages of the relationship between Chinese character reading and orthographic awareness. At stage 1, reading ability in K1 and K2 predicted subsequent orthographic awareness in K2 and K3. At stage 2, there was a bidirectional relationship between character reading and orthographic awareness from P1-S1 to P1-S2. At stage 3, orthographic awareness at P1-S2 and P2-S1 predicted subsequent character reading ability at P2-S1 and P3-S1, but the prediction from reading to orthographic awareness vanished at this stage. The results depict a full developmental picture of the changed relationship between Chinese character reading and orthographic awareness over time. Beginning readers demonstrated impressive abilities in discovering or extracting orthographic regularities with increased reading ability.
... This direct mapping is represented in ventral pathway brain regions (Taylor et al., 2013), which become increasingly tuned to printed words as readers develop greater skill (Dehaene-Lambertz, Monzalvo, & Dehaene, 2018) certainly into the period of adolescence (Ben-Shachar, Dougherty, Deutsch, & Wandell, 2011). Much less is known about the acquisition of direct links between spelling and meaning, but it is thought that this process of "orthographic learning" arises through an accumulation of experience with printed text (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation, 2017), as a child uses their spelling-sound knowledge as a self-teaching device (Share, 1995). The selfteaching theory proposes that successful, repeated decoding of an unfamiliar word into a spoken language representation provides a mechanism through which to establish the orthographic lexical representations necessary for rapid word recognition (Share, 1995). ...
... Most of the research on the acquisition of the direct pathway linking spellings to meanings has focused on itemlevel effects-the journey of a particular word to one that can be recognised rapidly (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation, 2017). Indeed, theoretical work in this area suggests that at any point in time, there will be some words that a child can recognise rapidly in an item-based manner, while recognition of other words will require an analytic decoding process . ...
Article
Skilled reading reflects an accumulation of experience with written language. Written language is typically viewed as an expression of spoken language, and this perspective has motivated approaches to understanding reading and reading acquisition. However, in this article, I develop the proposal that written language has diverged from spoken language in important ways that maximise the transmission of meaningful information, and that this divergence has been central to the development of rapid, skilled reading. I use English as an example to show that weaknesses in the relationship between spelling and sound can give rise to strong regularities between spelling and meaning that are critical for the rapid analysis of printed words. I conclude by arguing that the nature of the reading system is a reflection of the writing system and that a deep understanding of reading can be obtained only through a deep understanding of written language.
... As children progress toward becoming skilled readers, their heavy reliance on alphabetic decoding gradually decreases (Doctor & Coltheart, 1980;Harm & Seidenberg, 2004;Zoccolotti et al., 2005). That is, children make the transition from being "novices," reading words primarily via alphabetic decoding, to "experts," recognizing familiar written words rapidly and automatically, mapping their spellings directly to their meanings without recourse to decoding, a process we have referred to as orthographic learning (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation & Castles, 2017). It is important to note that phonological processes still exert an influence on reading at this point, but they do so in a less overt way. ...
... More generally, it has been influential in focusing attention squarely on learning and on the importance of understanding how learning takes place if reading development is to be understood. Key to this is the insight that the process of acquiring direct mappings between printed words and their meanings proceeds in an item-based fashion: At any particular point in time, a child may be reading some words slowly and with great effort while recognizing and understanding other words rapidly and efficiently, with less reliance on alphabetic decoding (Castles & Nation, 2006;Share, 1995). Indeed, this is even true for adult skilled readers, who must apply their orthographic learning processes to the numerous novel printed words they will encounter throughout their lifetimes (think Google, blog, and selfie). ...
Article
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There is intense public interest in questions surrounding how children learn to read and how they can best be taught. Research in psychological science has provided answers to many of these questions but, somewhat surprisingly, this research has been slow to make inroads into educational policy and practice. Instead, the field has been plagued by decades of “reading wars.” Even now, there remains a wide gap between the state of research knowledge about learning to read and the state of public understanding. The aim of this article is to fill this gap. We present a comprehensive tutorial review of the science of learning to read, spanning from children’s earliest alphabetic skills through to the fluent word recognition and skilled text comprehension characteristic of expert readers. We explain why phonics instruction is so central to learning in a writing system such as English. But we also move beyond phonics, reviewing research on what else children need to learn to become expert readers and considering how this might be translated into effective classroom practice. We call for an end to the reading wars and recommend an agenda for instruction and research in reading acquisition that is balanced, developmentally informed, and based on a deep understanding of how language and writing systems work.
... Emergent literacy skills of preliterate children are developmental precursors of conventional reading and writing, such as orthographic awareness. In a broad sense, orthographic awareness refers to the understanding of the print conventions or knowledge of word spelling (Conrad, Harris, & Williams, 2013); Castles and Nation (2006) defined orthographic awareness as the sensitivity to orthographic regularities/rules in the script, which constrains the arrangement of the ordering of the internal structures. Studies in alphabetic languages have indicated that orthographic awareness at early stages is a strong predictor of subsequent reading acquisition (Badian, 2001;Boets, Wouters, Van Wieringen, De Smedt & Ghesquie`re, 2008). ...
... The association between orthographic awareness and reading in alphabetic language and Chinese Plenty of studies have examined the relationship between orthographic skills (the ability to form, store and access word representations) and reading ability in English (e.g., Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006;Cassar & Treiman, 1997). The role of orthographic skill in predicting word reading has been highlighted, given the inconsistency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences of English orthography (Treiman, Mullennix, Bijeljac-Babic, & Richmond-Welty, 1995). ...
Article
Word count: 228 The present study examined developmental changes, over a six-year period, in the relationship between character reading ability and orthographic awareness in Chinese from the first year of kindergarten to the third year of primary school in two separate samples: the kindergarten sample of 96 children was assessed three times in the first, second and third years of kindergarten (K1, K2, K3) with 12-month intervals. The primary school sample of 204 children was assessed four times in the first and second semesters of grade 1 (P1-S1; P1-S2), first semester of grade 2 (P2-S1) and grade 3 (P3-S1), with the first three waves at 6-month intervals and the final wave at 12-month interval. Cross-lagged path analysis showed three developmental stages of the relationship between Chinese character reading and orthographic awareness. At stage 1, reading ability in K1 and K2 predicted subsequent orthographic awareness in K2 and K3. At stage 2, there was a bidirectional relationship between character reading and orthographic awareness from P1-S1 to P1-S2. At stage 3, orthographic awareness at P1-S2 and P2-S1 predicted subsequent character reading ability at P2-S1 and P3-S1, but the prediction from reading to orthographic awareness vanished at this stage. The results depict a full developmental picture of the changed relationship between Chinese character reading and orthographic awareness over time. Beginning readers demonstrated impressive abilities in discovering or extracting orthographic regularities with increased reading ability. Contribution to the field • The present study examined developmental changes, over a six-year period, in the relationship between character reading ability and orthographic awareness in Chinese from the first year of kindergarten to the third year of primary school (i.e., K1, K2, K3, P1, P2, P3) in two separate samples of kindergarteners and primary school graders. • Cross-lagged path analysis showed three developmental stages of the relationship between Chinese character reading and orthographic awareness, which are novel findings in the field. • At stage 1, reading ability in K1 and K2 predicted subsequent orthographic awareness in K2 and K3. • At stage 2, there was a bidirectional relationship between character reading and orthographic awareness in P1. • At stage 3, orthographic awareness at P1 and P2 predicted subsequent character reading ability at P2 and P3, but the prediction from reading to orthographic awareness vanished at this stage.
... The origin and the nature of orthographic learning are of crucial importance but remain poorly understood (see reviews in Castles & Nation, 2006Nation & Castles, in press;Share, 2008b). Exposure to print is associated with enhanced word INCIDENTAL ORTHOGRAPHIC LEARNING 4 recognition performance (Chateau & Jared, 2000), suggesting a crucial role of reading experience in reading efficiency. ...
... Fluent reading requires efficient word recognition, that is, automatic recognition of the letter strings that make up known words (Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). From this point of view, word recognition operates largely on the basis of orthographic knowledge (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation & Castles, in press). That is, learning to read fluently amounts to acquiring accurate and stable orthographic patterns (Martin-Chang, Ouellette, & Madden, 2014) plus developing a set of efficient processes to deploy this knowledge over word sequences (cf. ...
Article
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Orthographic learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge about specific spelling patterns forming words and about general biases and constraints on letter sequences. It is thought to occur by strengthening simultaneously activated visual and phonological representations during reading. Here we demonstrate that a visual perceptual learning procedure that leaves no time for articulation can result in orthographic learning evidenced in improved reading and spelling performance. We employed task-irrelevant perceptual learning (TIPL), in which the stimuli to be learned are paired with an easy task target. Assorted line drawings and difficult-to-spell words were presented in red color among sequences of other black-colored words and images presented in rapid succession, constituting a fast-TIPL procedure with color detection being the explicit task. In five experiments, Greek children in Grades 4–5 showed increased recognition of words and images that had appeared in red, both during and after the training procedure, regardless of within-training testing, and also when targets appeared in blue instead of red. Significant transfer to reading and spelling emerged only after increased training intensity. In a sixth experiment, children in Grades 2–3 showed generalization to words not presented during training that carried the same derivational affixes as in the training set. We suggest that reinforcement signals related to detection of the target stimuli contribute to the strengthening of orthography-phonology connections beyond earlier levels of visually-based orthographic representation learning. These results highlight the potential of perceptual learning procedures for the reinforcement of higher-level orthographic representations.
... Orthographic knowledge is the knowledge of print conventions (Castles & Nation, 2006), which is composed of at least two facets: general and word-specific (or lexical) orthographic knowledge (Conrad et al., 2013;Hagiliassis et al., 2006). The former refers to sublexical regularities of how letters are generally combined (e.g., double letters occur less frequently in word-initial positions than wordmedially), whereas the latter refers to letter combinations in order to form specific words (e.g., the verb used to describe meeting someone is spelt with -ee-, whereas the word that stands for a type of food is spelt with -ea-; Apel, 2011;Conrad & Deacon, 2016;Conrad et al., 2013). ...
... Both phase and item-based models of reading development assume that the optimal way of reading is sight-word reading (Castles & Nation, 2006;Coltheart et al., 1993;Ehri, 1995Ehri, , 1997Frith, 1985;Share, 1995;Vellutino et al., 1994). In sight-word reading, participants already have an orthographic representation of the words to be read, and this representation is activated by the perceived word form. ...
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While reading is among the most important and well-researched topics of developmental psychology, sublexical regularities and how these regularities relate to reading skills have attracted less interest so far. This study tested general orthographic knowledge (GOK) using an indirect reaction time (RT)-based task, in which participants had to detect letters appearing within frequent and infrequent letter clusters. The aim of the method was to minimise the roles of phonological activation and metalinguistic decision. Three different age-groups of German-speaking individuals were tested: first graders ( N = 60), third graders ( N = 68), and adults ( N = 44). Orthographic regularity affected RTs in all three groups, with significantly lower RTs for frequent than for infrequent clusters. The indirect measure of GOK did not show an association with reading measures in first graders and adults, but in the case of third graders it explained variance over and above age and phonological skills. This study provides evidence for phonology-independent GOK, at least in third graders.
... A recent study has assessed the role of graphotactic knowledge for spelling in a more ecologically valid setting (Zhang & Treiman, in press). Spelling ability has previously been linked to orthographic learning: orthographic learning refers to the knowledge of a written word form, which is important for fluent reading (Castles & Nation, 2006;Shahar-Yames & Share, 2008). Zhang and Treiman (in press) asked preschool children with no knowledge of letters' phonology to perform a delayed copying task: the children were visually presented with nonwords which either contained common letter bigrams (e.g., CHED), or illegal bigrams (e.g., EHDC). ...
... In summary, the first proposed causal pathway could lead from statistical learning to graphotactic knowledge to spelling ability; spelling ability should lead to more efficient orthographic learning, which, in turn, is important for fluent reading (Castles & Nation, 2006;Shahar-Yames & Share, 2008). The existing studies provide important building blocks: they unequivocally show that children and adults become aware of graphotactic patterns already after a small amount of exposure. ...
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Many theories have been put forward that propose that developmental dyslexia is caused by low-level neural, cognitive or perceptual deficits. For example, statistical learning is a cognitive mechanism which allows the learner to detect a probabilistic pattern in a stream of stimuli, and to generalise the knowledge of this pattern to similar stimuli. The link between statistical learning and reading ability is indirect, with intermediate skills, such as knowledge of frequently co-occurring letters, likely being causally dependent on statistical learning skills and, in turn, causing individual variation in reading ability. We discuss theoretical issues regarding what a link between statistical learning and reading ability actually means, and review the evidence for such a deficit. We then describe and simulate the “Noisy Chain Hypothesis”, where each intermediary link between a proposed cause and the end-state of reading ability reduces the correlation coefficient between the low-level deficit and the end-state outcome of reading. We draw the following conclusions: (1) Empirically, there is evidence for a correlation between statistical learning ability and reading ability, but there is no evidence to suggest that this relationship is causal, (2) theoretically, focusing on a complete causal chain between a distal cause and developmental dyslexia, rather than the two end points of the distal cause and reading ability only, is necessary for understanding the underlying processes, (3) statistically, the indirect nature of the link between statistical learning and reading ability means that the magnitude of the correlation is diluted by other influencing variables, yielding most studies to date underpowered, and (4) practically, it is unclear what can be gained from invoking the concept of statistical learning in teaching children to read.
... A recent study has assessed the role of graphotactic knowledge for spelling in a more ecologically valid setting [37]. Spelling ability has previously been linked to orthographic learning: orthographic learning refers to the knowledge of a written word form, which is important for fluent reading [57,58]. Zhang and Treiman [37] asked preschool children with no knowledge of letters' phonology to perform a delayed copying task: the children were visually presented with nonwords which either contained common letter bigrams (e.g., CHED) or illegal bigrams (e.g., EHDC). ...
... In summary, the first proposed causal pathway could lead from statistical learning to graphotactic knowledge to spelling ability; spelling ability should lead to more efficient orthographic learning, which, in turn, is important for fluent reading [57,58]. The existing studies provide important building blocks: they unequivocally show that children and adults become aware of graphotactic patterns already after a small amount of exposure. ...
Article
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Many theories have been put forward that propose that developmental dyslexia is caused by low-level neural, cognitive, or perceptual deficits. For example, statistical learning is a cognitive mechanism that allows the learner to detect a probabilistic pattern in a stream of stimuli and to generalise the knowledge of this pattern to similar stimuli. The link between statistical learning and reading ability is indirect, with intermediate skills, such as knowledge of frequently co-occurring letters, likely being causally dependent on statistical learning skills and, in turn, causing individual variation in reading ability. We discuss theoretical issues regarding what a link between statistical learning and reading ability actually means and review the evidence for such a deficit. We then describe and simulate the “noisy chain hypothesis”, where each intermediary link between a proposed cause and the end-state of reading ability reduces the correlation coefficient between the low-level deficit and the end-state outcome of reading. We draw the following conclusions: (1) Empirically, there is evidence for a correlation between statistical learning ability and reading ability, but there is no evidence to suggest that this relationship is causal, (2) theoretically, focussing on a complete causal chain between a distal cause and developmental dyslexia, rather than the two endpoints of the distal cause and reading ability only, is necessary for understanding the underlying processes, (3) statistically, the indirect nature of the link between statistical learning and reading ability means that the magnitude of the correlation is diluted by other influencing variables, yielding most studies to date underpowered, and (4) practically, it is unclear what can be gained from invoking the concept of statistical learning in teaching children to read.
... The variance in orthographic learning unexplained by the ability to phonologically decode the stimulus correctly has sometimes been accounted for under the general rubric of "orthographic processing skills" (Berninger, 1994(Berninger, , 1995. Although it has been difficult to pin down precisely what is meant by this term (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation et al., 2007), two facets of orthographic knowledge have often been distinguished. One is lexical and word-specific. ...
... The model illustrated in Fig. 1 suggests that acquiring a phonologically-mediated pathway to reading comprehension is not sufficient to be a skilled reader. One also needs to learn to recognize individual words rapidly, a process sometimes called orthographic learning (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006). 1 How might readers learn the direct mapping from spelling to meaning? There has been comparatively little research on this question, and cognitive theories are underspecified (see Nation, 2009Nation, , 2017. ...
Article
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Morphology is a major organising principle of English and other alphabetic languages, but has been largely neglected in theories of reading acquisition. In this article, I develop the view that learning to appreciate morphological relationships may be a vital part of acquiring a direct mapping between printed words and their meanings, represented in the ventral brain pathway of the reading network. I show that morphology provides an important degree of regularity across this mapping in English, and suggest that this regularity is directly associated with irregularity in the mapping between spelling and sound. I further show that while children in primary school display explicit knowledge of morphological relationships, there is scant evidence they show the rapid morphological analysis of printed words that skilled readers exhibit. These findings suggest that the acquisition of long-term morphological knowledge may be associated with the ongoing development of reading expertise. Implications for reading instruction are discussed.
... In order to read fluently, one needs to be able to recognise written words rapidly and automatically (Perfetti, 1992). The self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) suggests that orthographic learning, the transition from laborious alphabetic decoding to fluent whole word recognition (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation & Castles, 2017), depends on converting print to speech sounds, or phonological decoding. This hypothesis has been tested and supported in many alphabetic languages (e.g., English: Cunningham, 2006;Dutch: de Jong, Bitter, van Setten, & Marinus, 2009;Hebrew: Share, 2004). ...
Article
According to the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995), phonological decoding is fundamental to acquiring orthographic representations of novel written words. However, phonological decoding is not straightforward in non-alphabetic scripts such as Chinese, where words are presented as characters. Here, we present the first study investigating the role of phonological decoding in orthographic learning in Chinese. We examined two possible types of phonological decoding: the use of phonetic radicals, an internal phonological aid, andthe use of Zhuyin, an external phonological coding system. Seventy-three Grade 2 children were taught the pronunciations and meanings of twelve novel compound characters over four days. They were then exposed to the written characters in short stories, and were assessed on their reading accuracy and on their subsequent orthographic learning via orthographic choice and spelling tasks. The novel characters were assigned three different types of pronunciation in relation to its phonetic radical - (1) a pronunciation that is identical to the phonetic radical in isolation; (2) a common alternative pronunciation associated with the phonetic radical when it appears in other characters; and (3) a pronunciation that is unrelated to the phonetic radical. The presence of Zhuyin was also manipulated. The children read the novel characters more accurately when phonological cues from the phonetic radicals were available and in the presence of Zhuyin. However, only the phonetic radicals facilitated orthographic learning. The findings provide the first empirical evidence of orthographic learning via self-teaching in Chinese, and reveal how phonological decoding functions to support learning in non-alphabetic writing systems.
... At this stage, it includes a phonically based large-print reading series, a foundation level series of readers with linked activity books, as well as manuals developed to enable the use of these materials by parents, teachers and therapists. Being phonically based, the materials can not only be used for developing reading fluency but can also be used for analysis, learning and testing of spelling and sequential spelling, linked to indications from the literature [147][148][149][150] that spelling practice has been found to result in superior orthographic learning relative to print exposure through reading alone. ...
... See for evidence for letter-specific processing in a visual short-term memory paradigm (change detection). 12. See Castles and Nation (2006) for a wider coverage of orthographic processing and learning to read from a developmental perspective. 13. ...
Article
I will describe how orthographic processing acts as a central interface between visual and linguistic processing during reading, and as such can be considered to be the "mid-level vision" of reading research. In order to make this case, I first summarise the evidence in favour of letter-based word recognition before examining work investigating how orthographic similarities among words influence single word reading. I describe how evidence gradually accumulated against traditional measures of orthographic similarity and the associated theories of orthographic processing, forcing a reconsideration of how letter position information is represented by skilled readers. Then I present the theoretical framework that was developed to explain these findings, with a focus on the distinction between location-specific and location-invariant orthographic representations. Finally, I describe work extending this theoretical framework in two main directions. First, to the realm of reading development, with the aim to specify the key changes in the processing of letters and letter strings that accompany successful learning to read. Second, to the realm of sentence reading, in order to specify how orthographic information can be processed across several words in parallel, and how skilled readers keep track of which letters belong to which words.
... In deep orthographies such as English, the quality of orthographic representations can be measured by spelling precision (Martin-Chang, Ouellette, & Madden, 2014;Ouellette, Martin-Chang, & Rossi, 2017;Perfetti & Hart, 2001). Orthographic representations are established on a word-by-word basis (Castles & Nation, 2006;Perfetti, 2007;Share, 2004). This implies that even good spellers will have some orthographic representations that are underspecified, whereas poor spellers will also have some high-quality orthographic representations (cf. ...
Article
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Variations in the accuracy and stability of a word’s spelling can be used to gauge the quality of its underlying orthographic representation. The Lexical Quality Hypothesis (LQH) contends that words with higher quality cognitive representations should be accessed more efficiently than those with lower quality representations. If this is the case, deviations in spelling accuracy and stability should be reflected in differences in reading times. Here, 90 teenage participants read 30 words; reading times were recorded. After a 2-week delay, the students spelled these same words 3 times each to gain a measure of orthographic quality. In line with the LQH, faster reading speeds were observed for words with higher spelling accuracy and stability, even for words that were not always spelled perfectly. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first empirical support for the notion that orthographic quality exists along a continuum, both within and across individuals.
... Duncan shows that phonics instruction increased explicit syllable and rime awareness as well as phonological awareness (Duncan et al., 2013 ). The effectiveness of teaching through patterns has been widely studied, including their effect on both reading and spelling (Ehri, 1987; Cunningham, 2006; Castles and Nation, 2006; Pacton et al., 2001; Anderson and others, 1977). Children are very sensitive to the orthographic regularities of their writing system from an early age (Ouellette and Senechal, 2008; Pacton et al., 2001) and produce spellings that conform to the orthographic conventions of their writing system. ...
Conference Paper
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It is known that children have difficul- ties with correct spelling of orthographic regularities in German (’liebe’, ’kennen’). By looking at instruction material in first grade, this work is a first step of an ongoing study to understand how children’s spelling in German is affected by their method of instruction. A major influence on spelling and reading acquisition is the input chil- dren receive during the initial phase. It is therefore important to analyse the read- ing material and understand how these re- late to research-based knowledge of acqui- sition. We show that there is a substantial difference between popular primers (first grade material to teach reading) on how they present material to first graders. It can also be seen that none of the modern primers seem to emphasize item presen- tation with regularities that help students learn to generalize to new words. These findings are important because the differ- ences have a potential major effect on read- ing and orthography acquisition that remain mostly unknown and unstudied.
... knowing that 'knight' is written with 'kn-') as well as at the whole word level (e.g. knowing the complete spelling of the word 'knight'), and not in the sense of getting knowledge about general aspects of the writing system such as sequential dependencies, structural redundancies, sensitivity to bigram frequencies, etc. (Castles & Nation, 2006;Geudens & Sandra, 2002;Vellutino, Scanlon, & Tanzman, 1994 Implicit sequence learning has been widely investigated in dyslexic individuals but these studies yielded mixed results. The studies in this dissertation (chapter 2, 3, 4) were set up to investigate an implicit sequence learning deficit as an underlying cognitive cause of dyslexia. ...
... Orthographic knowledge, including orthographic awareness, stroke order, and radical knowledge, is crucial to successful retrieval of the written form of the character. According to Castles and Nation (2006), orthographic awareness refers to the sensitivity to orthographic regularities in the script; it constrains the arrangement of internal structures. The Chinese orthography could be conceptualized as a hierarchical system including strokes, stroke patterns or radicals, and single characters. ...
Article
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We sought to test a componential model of Chinese written spelling, including the role of orthographic working memory (OWM), among Hong Kong kindergartners. One hundred seventeen kindergartners were recruited. OWM was measured using a visual orthographic judgment and a delayed copying task. Orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual–motor skills were assessed via a set of cognitive–linguistic measures. Model comparison yielded the best fitting measurement model, which consisted of four factors, namely, OWM, orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual–motor skills. A structural equation model indicated that 79% of the variance in Chinese spelling could be explained by these four factors. OWM was the strongest correlate of Chinese written spelling. These results highlight the fact that OWM is a predominant and distinctive correlate of Chinese written spelling acquisition.
... Given our interest in testing theoretical predictions on the acquisition of strong word-specific representations (e.g., Perfetti, 2007), we used a lexical orthographic choice task (e.g., Chung, et al., 2017;Conrad et al., 2013;Deacon, 2012;Deacon et al., 2009Deacon et al., , 2012Deacon et al., , 2013aDeacon et al., , 2013bPasquarella et al., 2014). There have been some concerns of circularity in measurement because performance on lexical orthographic knowledge tasks involves at least some word reading skill (e.g., Burt, 2006;Castles & Nation, 2006). Our findings that orthographic knowledge is the outcome, rather than the predictor, of word reading and word spelling suggests that these are not one and the same. ...
Article
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Orthographic knowledge is predicted to be central in the process of children’s reading development. We examined both the temporal order between orthographic knowledge and each of word reading and word spelling—effectively, which predicts which by including autoregressive controls— and cross-linguistic transfer between English and French for our emerging bilingual participants. Seven-three children (36 males) were followed from Grades 1 to 3 in a French immersion program in which instruction was entirely in French. We conducted cross-lagged panel models of orthographic knowledge, word reading, and spelling that included controls of phonological awareness, non-verbal ability. In terms of temporal order, word reading (at grade 1) and word spelling (at grade 2) predicted gains in each of English and French orthographic knowledge. In contrast, early orthographic knowledge did not predict gains in word reading or word spelling in either language. In terms of transfer, from their earliest point of measurement, English word reading and spelling consistently predicted later French orthographic knowledge; French word reading and spelling contributed to English orthographic knowledge only from Grade 2. These findings illustrate a dynamic picture of the relations between orthographic knowledge and word reading and spelling both within and across languages, informing current models of each reading with both monolinguals and bilinguals.
... How "decoding" is defined and measured needs to reflect the appropriate developmental time-point, and also familiarity with the words being read. Learning is likely to proceed in an item-based fashion, so that at any point in time a person may be reading some words slowly and only with great effort, while other words are read rapidly and efficiently with less reliance on phonological decoding (Castles & Nation, 2006;Share, 1995). ...
Article
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Reading comprehension is a complex task which depends on a range of cognitive and linguistic processes. According to the Simple View of Reading, this complexity can be captured as the product of two sets of skills: decoding and linguistic comprehension. The Simple View explains variance in reading comprehension and provides a good framework to guide the classification of reading disorders. This paper discusses how weaknesses in either or both of components of the Simple View are implicated in children’s reading comprehension difficulties. It concludes with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the Simple View as a theoretical and practical framework to guide our understanding of reading comprehension and its development.
... Selon cette théorie, l'enfant applique spontanément ses connaissances quant aux relations graphème-phonème pour décoder un mot écrit qu'il rencontre pour la première fois et tout décodage réussi du mot offre l'opportunité de mémoriser sa forme orthographique. Après seulement quelques expositions répétées au même mot, la forme orthographique correspondante en mémoire est suffisamment stabilisée pour que le mot soit reconnu d'emblée et lu rapidement (Castles & Nation, 2006 ;Cunningham, Perry, Stanovich & Share, 2002 ;Share, 2004). Cette théorie est aujourd'hui très largement acceptée. ...
... ) and the presence of word reading skills is inevitably reflected in most orthographic knowledge tasks (Castles & Nation, 2006). Therefore, the accumulated word reading stimulates the development of orthographic knowledge by extracting the probabilistic patterns occurring in an orthography and sharpening the sensitivity to orthographic structures (Lin et al., 2019). ...
Article
Research Findings: This study investigated the bidirectional relations among paired associate learning (PAL), language-specific skills and Chinese word reading in kindergarten children from second year (K2) to third year (K3). We tested 204 children on four mapping conditions of PAL (i.e., visual-verbal, verbal-verbal, visual-visual, and verbal-visual), phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge , executive functioning skills of working memory and inhibition, visual-motor integration, and Chinese word reading. Results of cross-lagged panel analysis showed that Chinese word reading uniquely predicted subsequent development of PAL and the language-specific skills of phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge, but not vice versa. Furthermore, the bidirectional associations between PAL and orthographic knowledge were not found in this study. The covariates of inhibition and visual-motor integration were also found to play crucial roles in the development of PAL. Practice or Policy: Together, these findings suggest that the process of learning to read modifies and refines the development of PAL and language-specific skills in beginning readers.
... Visual-orthographic skill, which is associated with character reading, is likely related to word reading as well in Chinese-speaking children. Visual-orthographic skill refers to the sensitivity to orthographic regularities in print (Castles & Nation, 2006). In Chinese, this skill involves knowledge of character structures and the position regularities of radicals or stroke patterns (Ho et al., 2003a). ...
Article
Two correlational studies from the same data set demonstrated the distinctiveness of character and word reading for Chinese reading development among 337 Hong Kong Chinese children in grades 1-3. Study 1 examined the cognitive-linguistic correlates of single-character reading and two-character word reading. Rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and visual-orthographic skill independently explained variance in both character and word reading beyond age, grade, nonverbal IQ and vocabulary knowledge. Importantly, rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness additionally explained variance in word reading even after statistically controlling for character reading; there were no such unique correlates for character reading beyond word reading. Study 2 investigated the roles of character and word reading in reading comprehension. Both were individually significantly associated with reading comprehension even when a multifaceted measure of language comprehension was statistically controlled. Moreover, character reading and language comprehension significantly explained variance in reading comprehension through word reading; word reading and language comprehension uniquely contributed to reading comprehension in the model. Results suggest that character and word reading likely reflect slightly different processes in Chinese literacy: Theoretically, these results underscore the importance of models of reading that integrate unique features of Chinese. Practically, these results suggest that character and word reading may depend on different cognitive-linguistic processes which can be cultivated when teaching them, separately or together.
... While phonological awareness is generally recognized to contribute to both reading and writing (Caravolas et al., 2001), the contribution of orthographic knowledge is less understood (Castles & Nation, 2006). Several studies showed that orthographic knowledge contributed unique variance to reading ability, also when phonological awareness was concurrently considered. ...
Article
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This study analyses the longitudinal relationship between early inhibitory control skills and subsequent emergent literacy. At Time 1, a sample of 50 typically monolingual Italian toddlers aged 28 to 36 months in their last year of day-care was assessed on expressive vocabulary and two inhibitory control measures, tapping specifically response inhibition and interference suppression. At Time 2, during the preschool years, children aged 49 to 72 months were re-assessed on a battery of emergent literacy tasks including three phonological awareness tasks and an orthographic knowledge task. The results of the hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that interference suppression evaluated at Time 1 is a key process in the acquisition and construction of both phonological awareness and early orthographic knowledge, even when children’s early expressive vocabulary was included in the analyses. Unlike previous studies, the present study included very young children, thus allowing us to explore the developmental antecedents of two important precursors of reading and writing abilities.
... Although the self-teaching theory ascribes a central role to phonological decoding in orthographic 34 knowledge acquisition (Cunningham, 2006;de Jong et al., 2009;Kyte & Johnson, 2009; Nation et al., 35 2007;Share, 1999), there is evidence that orthographic learning is not fully explained by decoding ability 36 (Castles & Nation, 2006. In particular, factors that relate to visual word processing, like "ortho-37 graphic processing" and "print exposure" have been identified as contributing to the development of 38 3 orthographic knowledge, beyond phonological skills (Cunningham et al., 2001; see Castles and Nation, 39 2006 for a review). ...
Article
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How is orthographic knowledge acquired? In line with the self-teaching hypothesis, most computational models assume that phonological recoding has a pivotal role in orthographic learning. However, these models make simplifying assumptions on the mechanisms involved in visuo-orthographic processing. Against evidence from eye movement data during orthographic learning, they assume that orthographic information on novel words is immediately available and accurately encoded after a single exposure. In this paper, we describe BRAID-Learn, a new computational model of orthographic learning. BRAID-Learn is a probabilistic and hierarchical model that incorporates the mechanisms of visual acuity, lateral interference, and visual attention involved in word recognition. Orthographic learning in the model rests on three main mechanisms: first, visual attention moves over the input string to optimize the gain of information on letter identity at each fixation; second, top-down lexical influence is modulated as a function of stimulus familiarity; third, after exploration, perceived information is used to create a new orthographic representation or stabilize a better-specified representation of the input word. BRAID-Learn was challenged on its capacity to simulate the eye movement patterns reported in humans during incidental orthographic learning. In line with the behavioral data, the model predicts a larger decline with exposures in number of fixations and processing time for novel words than for known words. For novel words, most changes occur between the first and second exposure, that is to say, after creation in memory of a new orthographic representation. Beyond phonological recoding, our results suggest that visuo-attentional exploration is an intrinsic portion of orthographic learning seldom taken into consideration by models or theoretical accounts.
... Orthographic learning refers to the gradual acquisition of written word representations (Castles & Nation, 2006;Nation & Castles, 2017), and oral vocabulary is generally viewed as providing assistance with this process. Mechanistic accounts typically focus on how spoken word knowledge might assist children to make mappings between orthographic forms and their pronunciations. ...
Article
Literate children can generate expectations about the spellings of newly learned words that they have not yet seen in print. These initial spelling expectations, or orthographic skeletons, have previously been observed at the first orthographic exposure to known spoken words. Here, we asked what happens to the orthographic skeleton over repeated visual exposures. Children in Grade 4 (N = 38) were taught the pronunciations and meanings of one set of 16 novel words, whereas another set were untrained. Spellings of half the items were predictable from their phonology (e.g., nesh), whereas the other half were less predictable (e.g., koyb). Trained and untrained items were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences, and eye movements were monitored as children silently read all items over three exposures. A larger effect of spelling predictability for orally trained items compared with untrained items was observed at the first and second orthographic exposures, consistent with the notion that oral vocabulary knowledge had facilitated the formation of spelling expectations. By the third orthographic exposure, this interaction was no longer significant, suggesting that visual experience had begun to update children’s spelling expectations. Delayed follow-up testing revealed that when visual exposure was equated, oral training provided a strong persisting benefit to children’s written word recognition. Findings suggest that visual exposure can alter children’s developing orthographic representations and that this process can be captured dynamically as children read novel words over repeated visual exposures.
... Les difficultés de mémorisation de l'orthographe française chez les élèves comme chez les adultes, sont fréquentes. Cependant, la connaissance des mécanismes cognitifs qui sous-tendent cette mémorisation est encore trop lacunaire (voir Castles & Nation, 2006) pour permettre d'analyser les difficultés persistantes de certaines personnes en orthographe lexicale et de leur apporter une aide appropriée. L'étude présentée a pour objectif d'améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes cognitifs qui sous-tendent l'apprentissage de l'orthographe lexicale par la lecture. ...
... Yet, the modulation in the pattern of letter detection in pseudowords with a real stem as opposed to a real suffix suggests that stems and suffixes might play a different role in orthographic coding, in particular regarding visual attention distribution strategies across letter strings. Since visual attention distribution strategies might be particularly relevant for developing word-specific knowledge from basic letter-sound mappings (Castles & Nation, 2006), we could consider that the morphologically rich nature of certain orthographies might boost the transition from partial to full alphabetic reading through the adaptation of visual attention deployment. ...
Article
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The goal of the paper was to investigate whether morphological units – stems and suffixes – influence orthographic processing by modulating visual attention demands to the task. Orthographic processing was measured with a visual one-back task requiring letters to be detected within pseudowords not including stems/suffixes, or containing real stems or real suffixes. Fourth grade children (between 9.5 and 10.5 years old) who read in a transparent orthography of a morphologically rich and agglutinative language (Basque) were tested. The results showed that the presence of morphemes in the strings did not improve letter detection performance though it slightly modulated the distribution of visual attention, showing a bias toward the processing of central letters in the presence of a stem. We suggest that the presence of highly regular and recurrent structures prioritizes stem identification, which when achieved, reduces visual attention deployment across the remaining letters.
... From a theoretical perspective, familiarity with the oral form of a word furnishes top-down support during the process of phonological decoding during reading. If the decoded phonological form does not match the phonology of any word in the lexicon, the partially decoded form can be modified until a phonologically similar word has been identified (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006;Perfetti, 1992;Share, 1995). This mechanism provides one explanation for the association between spoken vocabulary and reading skills. ...
Article
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It is well known that information from spoken language is integrated into reading processes, but the nature of these links and how they are acquired is less well understood. Recent evidence has suggested that predictions about the written form of newly learned spoken words are already generated prior to print exposure. We extend this work to morphologically complex words and ask whether the information that is available in spoken words goes beyond the mappings between phonology and orthography. Adults were taught the oral form of a set of novel morphologically complex words (e.g., "neshing", "neshed", "neshes"), with a 2nd set serving as untrained items. Following oral training, participants saw the printed form of the novel word stems for the first time (e.g., nesh), embedded in sentences, and their eye movements were monitored. Half of the stems were allocated a predictable and half an unpredictable spelling. Reading times were shorter for orally trained than untrained stems and for stems with predictable rather than unpredictable spellings. Crucially, there was an interaction between spelling predictability and training. This suggests that orthographic expectations of embedded stems are formed during spoken word learning. Reading aloud and spelling tests complemented the eye movement data, and findings are discussed in the context of theories of reading acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Recent studies have found that word reading predicts progress in lexical orthographic processing among school-aged English-speaking (Deacon et al., 2012) and French immersion children . The finding from lexical orthographic processing to word reading in the current research and the finding of an opposite direction in past studies provide support for measurement concerns raised by Castles and Nation (2006) and Vellutino et al. (1994). Castles and Nation and Vellutino and colleagues have argued that the lexical orthographic choice task (e.g., dream-dreem) is a measure of word reading because it assesses access to well-specified word representations, as does word reading. ...
Thesis
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... Therefore, the results of the current study should be beneficial to clarify how L2 orthography develops without the impact of L1 orthography. Currently, when comparing with phonological decoding, our knowledge about orthographic development remains rather limited (Castles and Nation, 2006;Ziegler et al., 2014). Thus, this study will cast important light on this issue. ...
Article
The present study examined the orthographic processing of English visual word recognition in adult Chinese-speaking English learners under the framework of the multiple-route model of reading development. Two groups of adult learners with high and low English proficiency finished a forward-masked lexical decision task. The results showed a complicated scenario on transposed-letter effects, implying that the late unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals with low English proficiency still needed to adopt a letter-to-letter reading strategy, and that the L2 users with high English proficiency also had not properly developed the fine-grained orthographic route even they had a long experience of English learning in the foreign language learning settings in China. Overall, it is suggested that late unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals generally follow a path similar to that of native readers in acquiring English visual word recognition skills developed from the letter-to-letter reading strategy to the parallel orthographic processing strategies. However, since L2 users usually have no or limited spoken vocabulary of English before accessing printed words and inadequate supervision in developing L2 word reading skills, their development would be much slower than that of English native speakers.
... Developing decoding skills (i.e., word reading and pseudo-word reading) requires multiple processes and skills such as phonological awareness, orthographic symbol knowledge (knowledge of names and sounds of alphabet letters), orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, and rapid automatized naming (Apel et al. 2012; Barker et al. 1992; Burgess and Lonigan 1998;Carlisle 2004;Carlisle and Katz 2006;Kim and Quinn 2013). Decoding skills also encompass both alphabetic decoding and accessing stored knowledge of orthography, the written forms of words (Castles and Nation 2010;Goswami and Bryant 1990). Linguistic comprehension, according to the SVR, is a broad construct that includes "parsing, bridging, and discourse building" (Hoover and Gough 1990, p. 128), and "the ability to take lexical information . . . ...
Article
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The current study aimed at investigating the performance of bilingual children with English as an additional language (EAL) on language and literacy measures compared to monolinguals across the first four years of primary school in the U.K. Moreover, it addressed whether bilinguals and monolinguals’ performance on reading comprehension was consistent with the Simple View of Reading. An additional area of interest was to examine the extent to which use of and exposure to both heritage and majority language affected the development of the children’s reading comprehension in both of their spoken languages. A total of forty bilingual and forty monolingual children were assessed in oral language skills and decoding in Year 1 and Year 3 in primary school. After one school year, they were assessed in oral language skills, decoding, and reading comprehension in Year 2 and Year 4. The results showed that the bilinguals performed better than the monolinguals in decoding in all years, suggesting that exposure to a first language with transparent orthography (Greek) may benefit the development of word reading skills. However, the bilinguals scored lower in oral language skills and reading comprehension than their monolingual peers. This finding underlined the significant role of oral language skills in the development of bilinguals’ reading comprehension. Both oral language skills and decoding contributed to reading comprehension in bilinguals but the effects of oral language skills on reading comprehension were stronger than the effects of decoding. Finally, we found that language use of the minority language outside the home could significantly predict reading comprehension in the minority language, underlining the importance of language exposure through complementary schools and other activities outside the home to the maintenance and development of the heritage language.
Article
Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear predictions of bidirectional relations between lexical orthographic knowledge and word reading skill. We test these predictions in a longitudinal study of 112 English-speaking children in Grades 2 and 3. At two time points, we assessed lexical orthographic knowledge and three aspects of word reading skill: word reading accuracy, word reading efficiency, and phonological decoding. Consistent with theoretical predictions, we found that earlier word reading accuracy, word reading efficiency, and phonological decoding predicted gains in lexical orthographic knowledge. Contrary to theoretical predictions, lexical orthographic knowledge did not predict gains in any of our measured word reading skills.
Article
Despite substantial evidence that spacing study opportunities over time improves the retention of learned verbal material compared with study trials that occur consecutively, the influence of temporal spacing on children’s learning of written words has not been investigated. This experiment examined whether temporal spacing influenced Grade 3 and 4 children’s (N = 37; mean age = 8 years 7 months) learning of novel written words during independent reading compared with massing. Children read 16 sentences containing a novel word under either a spaced (sentences appeared once in each of four blocks) or massed conditions (four consecutive trials). After a delay, orthographic learning was assessed using recognition (orthographic choice) and recall (spelling to dictation) measures. Words experienced in the spaced condition were better recognized than those in the massed condition, but there was no effect on recall. These findings suggest that temporal spacing influences the acquisition of new written word forms, extending the potential utility of the spacing principle to reading acquisition.
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Models of irregular word reading that take into account both child- and word-level predictors have not been evaluated in typically developing children and children with reading difficulty (RD). The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in irregular word reading ability among 5th grade children (N = 170), oversampled for children with RD, using item-response crossed random-effects models. We distinguish between 2 subtypes of children with word reading RD, those with early emerging and late-emerging RD, and 2 types of irregular words, “exception” and “strange.” Predictors representing child-level and word-level characteristics, along with selected interactions between child- and word-characteristics, were used to predict item-level variance. Individual differences in irregular word reading were predicted at the child level by nonword decoding, orthographic coding, and vocabulary; at the word level by word frequency and a spelling-to-pronunciation transparency rating; and by the Reader group × Imageability and Reader group × Irregular word type interactions. Results are interpreted within a model of irregular word reading in which lexical characteristics specific to both child and word influence accuracy.
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Skilled adult readers identify the first letter in a string of random consonants better than letters at any other position, and this advantage for the initial position is not seen with strings of symbols or familiar shapes. Here we examined the developmental trajectory of this first-letter advantage by testing children in Grades 1 to 5 of primary education in a target-in-string identification paradigm. Strings of five letters or five simple shapes were briefly presented, and children were asked to identify a target letter/shape at one of the five possible positions. Children responded by choosing between the target and an alternative that was a neighboring letter/shape (e.g., TPFMR—M vs. F at position 4). The serial position function linking accuracy to position-in-string was found to be affected by reading ability differently for letter stimuli compared with shape stimuli, and this was found to be almost entirely driven by differences in performance in identifying targets at the first position in strings. Here, accuracy increased more rapidly for letter stimuli than for shape stimuli as reading ability increased. This developmental pattern, plus the fact that letter strings were composed of random consonants and the task minimized the involvement of verbal recoding, allows us to exclude an explanation of the first-letter advantage in terms of serial reading strategies or phonological decoding. The findings suggest that the first-letter advantage is a function of, and a marker for, increasingly efficient orthographic processing.
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This article aims at understanding how children's orthographic performance is improved in two classes of Preparatory Course (CP) exposed to contrasting teaching methods of reading-writing. The study took place in two primary schools, located in Grenoble-France region. Longitudinal orthographic assessments were performed in two classes (A and B) to analyze orthographic knowledge throughout the school year. The written outputs of the children were analyzed in order to determine the orthographic level, the types of words used, the nature of the procedures and the effect of the words frequency. The results showed that children in class B, exposed to a balanced teaching of several didactic and pedagogical strategies encompassing the meaning and the code, respected more the orthographic constraints in the tests. The performance gap between the two classes widened over the course of the school year. In both classes, erroneous spellings decreased throughout the year, while approximate spelling and orthographic increased. Errors of omission and substitution were most pronounced at the beginning and at the end of the year. The analysis of the word frequency factor indicates that the pupils from class B wrote more orthographically the very frequent words. For students in class A the effect of word frequency was not observed. These results provide a basis for discussion on the question of the development of orthographic learning in different teaching contexts.
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Paired-associate learning is a dynamic measure of the ability to form new links between two items. This study aimed to investigate whether paired-associate learning ability is associated with success in orthographic learning, and if so, whether it accounts for unique variance beyond phonological decoding ability and orthographic knowledge. A group of 63 children ages 8–10 completed an orthographic learning task and three types of paired-associate learning task: visual–visual, visual–verbal, and verbal–verbal. The results showed that both visual–verbal and verbal–verbal (but not visual–visual) paired-associate learning ability were associated with success in learning the spellings of novel words. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses showed that visual–verbal paired-associate learning predicted orthographic learning even after phonological decoding skill and existing orthographic knowledge had been accounted for. We propose that paired-associate learning ability may be one of the underlying mechanisms of orthographic learning, facilitating the connection between the phonology and orthographic representation of a word.
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Some written languages (the so-called “deep orthographies” such as English) have often unpredictable links to word sounds, making some written words difficult to associate with their spoken forms (i.e., to decode), thereby impeding comprehension. To read these languages efficiently for comprehension, readers require visual cues such as predictable spelling patterns (orthotactic conventions). Sensitivity to English orthotactic conventions (e.g., which letters are sometimes doubled, where configurations such as wh can typically be found in a word) was assessed in a cross-sectional sample of children (N = 271, ages 5–11 years) in kindergarten through Grade 5 using a word-likeness task. Orthotactic sensitivity was strongly correlated with silent word-reading fluency, an important reading skill used frequently in daily life to obtain information, and was modestly correlated with lexical spelling recognition. Among fluent decoders of predictable letter–sound relations, orthotactic sensitivity began to emerge prior to formal reading instruction and developed rapidly from kindergarten to Grade 2. About two thirds of dysfluent decoders (a proxy for dyslexia) demonstrated above-chance orthotactic sensitivity; however, their performance lagged behind that of fluent decoders through Grade 5. Orthotactic acquisition, possible reasons for impairment, and classroom implications are discussed.
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The orthographic choice (OC) task—requiring individuals to choose the correct spelling between a word and a pseudohomophone foil (e.g., goat vs. gote)—has been used as an outcome measure of orthographic learning and as a predictor of individual differences in word reading development. Some consider the OC task a measure of orthographic knowledge (e.g., Conrad, Harris, & Williams (Reading and Writing, 26(8), 1223–1239, 2013)), whereas others have suggested that the task measures a reader’s familiarity with the word’s orthographic representation and thus measures word reading skill (e.g., Castles & Nation, 2006). We examined this assertion by testing OC task performance of individuals ages 8 to 18 (J = 296) and their ability to read the OC target words (I = 80) in isolation using crossed random effects item-response models. Results reveal that response on the OC task is not fully determined by the ability of an individual to read the target word in isolation. Specifically, the probability of choosing the correct orthographic form when the word was pronounced incorrectly was .79; whereas it was .90 when the word was pronounced correctly. Measures of receptive spelling and phonemic awareness (person-characteristics) and word frequency and orthographic neighborhood size (item-characteristics) accounted for significant variance in orthographic choice after controlling for target item reading and other reading-related abilities. We interpret the results to suggest that the OC task taps both item-specific orthographic knowledge and more general orthographic knowledge.
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The purpose of this study was to examine word learning efficiency in at-risk first grade students (N = 93) participating in a yearlong study evaluating a multicomponent intervention targeting word reading and decoding skills. As part of each intervention lesson, students participated in a 1 to 3-min sight word reading activity in which high-frequency words were read from a list until mastered, at which point the word dropped off the list. This study explored factors predicting the number of exposures required for item reading mastery (N = 145 words). Specifically, we explored how the number of word exposures required to reach mastery varied as a function of linguistic features of the words and cognitive characteristics of the students. Using item-level crossed-random effects models, we found students required an average of 5.65 exposures for mastery, with word features representing word length, vocabulary grade, and imageability being significant predictors of learning efficiency. We also found a significant interaction between pretest word reading skill and imageability of a word, with this semantic feature being especially important for the poorest readers. Results indicate that in the absence of typical word recognition skills, poor readers tend to rely on other sources of information to learn words, which tend to be related to the semantic features of words.
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Studies of relationships between orthographic knowledge (OK), rapid automatised naming (RAN) and reading have yielded mixed results due to inconsistency in measures used, the definition of OK and group characteristics. We comprehensively examined OK (MGR; mental graphemic representations and GOK; generic orthographic knowledge, accuracy/efficiency); alpha/non-alphanumeric RAN (ANRAN/NANRAN) and word reading (accuracy/efficiency) with control for nonverbal reasoning and phonological awareness. In 169 Grade 6 children, ANRAN uniquely influenced MGR (accuracy/efficiency), with NANRAN influencing only GOK efficiency. ANRAN/NANRAN influenced word reading efficiency directly/indirectly through MGR efficiency. We observed similar direct/indirect effects on word reading accuracy from ANRAN and MGR accuracy but only indirect influence from NANRAN through MGR accuracy. Further analyses indicated that RAN and OK relate reciprocally when influencing word reading. Our inference that both RAN and OK types, especially ANRAN and MGR, influence word reading by interactively and differentially accessing the same neural substrata as reading, should inform future research and intervention.
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Second through 6th graders were presented with nonword primes (orthographic, pseudohomophone, and control) and target words displayed for durations (30 and 60 ms) that were brief enough to prevent complete processing. Word reading skills were assessed by 3 word and nonword naming tasks. Good readers exhibited more orthographic priming than poor readers at both durations and more pseudohomophone priming at the short duration only. This suggests that good readers activate letter and phonemic information more efficiently than poor readers. Good readers also exhibited an equal amount of priming at both durations, whereas poor readers showed greater priming at the longer duration. This suggests that activation was not under strategic control. Finally, priming was reliable for both high- and low-frequency targets. This suggests that readers activate consistent information regardless of target word characteristics. Thus, quick, automatic, and general activation of orthographic and phonological information in skilled readers results from the precision and redundancy of their lexical representations.
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Children's (Grades 1 to 5) implicit learning of French orthographic regularities were investigated through nonword judgment (Experiments 1 and 2) and completion (Experiments 3a and 3b) tasks. Children were increasingly sensitive to (a) the frequency of double consonants (Experiments 1, 2 and 3a), (b) the fact that vowels can never be doubled (Experiment 2) and (c) the legal position of double consonants (Experiments 2 and 3b). The later effect transferred to never doubled consonants, although with a decrement in performance. Moreover, this decrement persisted without any trend towards fading even after the massive amounts of experience provided by years of practice. This result runs against the idea that transfer to novel material is indicative of abstract rule-based knowledge, and suggests instead the action of mechanisms sensitive to the statistical properties of the material. A connectionist model is proposed as an instantiation of such mechanisms.
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Six different measures of orthographic processing (three different letter string choice tasks, two orthographic choice tasks, and a homophone choice task) were administered to thirty-nine children who had also been administered the word recognition subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test and a comprehensive battery of tasks assessing phonological processing skill (four measures of phonological sensitivity, nonword repetition, and pseudoword reading). The six orthographic tasks displayed moderate convergence – forming one reasonably coherent factor. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that a composite measure of orthographic processing skill predicted variance in word recognition after variance accounted for by the phonological processing measures had been partialed out. A measure of print exposure predicted variance in orthographic processing after the variance in phonological processing had been partialed out.
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We propose that one important role for connectionist research in language acquisition is analysing what linguistic information is present in the child' s input. Recent connectionist and statistical work analysing the properties of real language corpora suggest that a priori objections against the utility of distributional information for the child are misguided. We illustrate our argument with examples of connectionist and statistical corpus-based research on phonology, segmentation, morphology, word classes, phrase structure, and lexical semantics. We discuss how this research relates to other empirical and theoretical approaches to the study of language acquisition.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This study assessed the construct validity of a recently introduced measure of children's exposure to print, the Title Recognition Test (TRT). In samples of 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade children, the TRT demonstrated significant correlations with spelling, vocabulary, verbal fluency, word knowledge, and general information. Most important, it accounted for variance in these criterion variables when differences in both general ability and phonological coding ability were controlled. Although correlational, the latter result suggests that print exposure is an independent contributor to the development of verbal abilities. Studies of the cognitive consequences of differing amounts of print exposure could be facilitated by the use of this easily administered indicator. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a study of 3rd- and 4th-grade children it was established that orthographic processing ability can account for variance in word recognition skill after the variance due to phonological processing has been partialed out. This independent orthographic variance was related to performance on a new measure of individual differences in exposure to print, the Title Recognition Test, that has a very brief administration time. Additionally, some of the orthographic processing variance linked to word recognition ability was not shared with either phonological processing measures or with print exposure. The results of the study were supportive of the idea that there are individual differences in word recognition ability caused by variation in orthographic processing abilities that are in part determined by print exposure differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A FRAMEWORK for conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emphasis on the effects of reading on cognitive development and on "bootstrapping" relationships involving reading. Of key importance are the concepts of reciprocal relationships-situations where the causal connection between reading ability and the efficiency of a cognitive process is bidirectional-and organism-environment correlation-the fact that differentially advantaged organisms are exposed to nonrandom distributions of environmental quality. Hypotheses are advanced to explain how these mechanisms operate to create rich-getricher and poor-get-poorer patterns of reading achievement. The framework is used to explicate some persisting problems in the literature on reading disability and to conceptualize remediation efforts in reading.
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Although much has been learned about the nature and etiology of impairments in sublexical translation skills, less is known about the difficulties of children who are poor at recognising words as whole orthographic units. In the research described here, an attempt was made to look closely at the process these poor readers go through when trying to acquire new lexical information. Groups of poor readers were required to learn the pronunciations of a set of “irregular” nonsense words over a series of training sessions. There was an imperfect correspondence between the orthographic and phonological forms of these items, so grapheme-phoneme conversion rules could not be used (e. g., macht was pronounced “mot”). The results indicated that this learning task distinguishes between poor readers with a specific lexical deficit and those with a different type of reading difficulty. Ways in which this kind of task might usefully be employed in future research in this area are discussed.
Article
A framework for conceptualizing the development of individual differences in reading ability is presented that synthesizes a great deal of the research literature. The framework places special emphasis on the effects of reading on cognitive development and on “bootstrapping” relationships involving reading. Of key importance are the concepts of reciprocal relationships—situations where the causal connection between reading ability and the efficiency of a cognitive process is bidirectional-and organism-environment correlation—the fact that differentially advantaged organisms are exposed to nonrandom distributions of environmental quality. Hypotheses are advanced to explain how these mechanisms operate to create rich-get-richer and poor-get-poorer patterns of reading achievement. The framework is used to explicate some persisting problems in the literature on reading disability and to conceptualize remediation efforts in reading.
Chapter
Unlike phonological coding, orthographic coding as a psychological construct is not well understood and has not been well defined. Currently, the most often used tasks to measure orthographic coding include orthographic choice (“which is a real word?”—rain, rune), homophone choice (“which is a number?”—ate, eight), spelling recognition (time, tient, tihm, teirn) and, more recently, spelling from dictation. In the present chapter, we express our reservations about using these measures because, in our opinion, they evaluate word identification and/or spelling ability rather than orthographic coding as a basic cognitive process that underlies word identification and spelling ability. We present research findings from our laboratory and review research done elsewhere to support our reservations. We also point out the risk of using only reading level match designs in evaluating orthographic coding effects. Using our data, we show that matching samples based on one reading variable creates a mismatch on another, and that interpretations of the findings based on exclusive employment of this type of design are inevitably problematic. We also discuss research that shows that matching poor and normal readers on tests that depend heavily on word specific knowledge, in particular tests of word identification and/or spelling ability, will tend to equate these groups on orthographic coding tasks that also depend heavily on word specific knowledge, while matching them on tests that depend heavily on pseudoword decoding ability will tend to equate them on orthographic coding tasks that also depend heavily on general orthographic knowledge.
Chapter
Visual processes in reading have been studied for over a century by experimental psychologists and neuropsychologists (Venezky, 1993). However, advances in psycholinguistics over the past two decades led to a relative focus on the linguistic aspects of reading, particularly the phonological processes involved, and a relative neglect of the visual processes. Recently interest in the visual processes involved in reading and writing the orthography of the language has reappeared (Willows, Kruk, & Corcos, 1993), but the lack of consensus on how to define orthographic processes and measure them has impeded progress.
Article
Three bodies of research that have developed in relative isolation center on each of three kinds of phonological processing: phonological awareness, awareness of the sound structure of language; phonological recoding in lexical access, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to get from the written word to its lexical referent; and phonetic recoding in working memory, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to maintain them efficiently in working memory. In this review we integrate these bodies of research and address the interdependent issues of the nature of phonological abilities and their causal roles in the acquisition of reading skills. Phonological ability seems to be general across tasks that purport to measure the three kinds of phonological processing, and this generality apparently is independent of general cognitive ability. However, the generality of phonological ability is not complete, and there is an empirical basis for distinguishing phonological awareness and phonetic recoding in working memory. Our review supports a causal role for phonological awareness in learning to read, and suggests the possibility of similar causal roles for phonological recoding in lexical access and phonetic recoding in working memory. Most researchers have neglected the probable causal role of learning to read in the development of phonological skills. It is no longer enough to ask whether phonological skills play a causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. The question now is which aspects of phonological processing (e.g., awareness, recoding in lexical access, recoding in working memory) are causally related to which aspects of reading (e.g., word recognition, word analysis, sentence comprehension), at which point in their codevelopment, and what are the directions of these causal relations?
Chapter
When children learn to read, their success is determined by a number of factors. Some determinants of success are found in the environment, including the intensity, duration, and quality of the reading instruction provided, and the nature of the oral and written language the child must attempt to master. Other determinants of success are found within the child. Examples include maturational readiness (the majority of 6-year-olds can learn to read whereas few 2-year-olds can), fluency in oral language, and an interest in reading (for summaries of the reading literature, see Adams, 1990; Crowder & Wagner, 1991; Rayner & Pollatsek, 1989). During the past decade, a great deal of progress has been made in our understanding of beginning reading in general, and in the areas of phonological and orthographic knowledge and processing in particular.
Book
This book sets out to integrate recent exciting research on the precursors of reading and early reading strategies adopted by children in the classroom. It aims to develop a theory about why early phonological skills are crucial in learning to read, and shows how phonological knowledge about rhymes and other units of sound helps children learn about letter sequences when beginning to be taught to read. The authors begin by contrasting theories which suggest that children's phonological awareness is a result of the experience of learning to read and those that suggest that phonological awareness precedes, and is a causal determinant of, reading. The authors argue for a version of the second kind of theory and show that children are aware of speech units, called onset and rime, before they learn to read and spell. An important part of the argument is that children make analogies and inferences about these letter sequences in order to read and write new words.
Article
The processing of a written word can be facilitated by the brief prior presentation of an orthographically similar stimulus. However, for adults, this masked form-priming effect does not occur if the target looks like many other words (i.e. if it has many neighbours). The usual interpretation of this result is that the adult word recognition system is tuned to the differing discrimination demands of words: If a word looks like many others, a more precise recognition procedure is required than if it is orthographically distinctive. This theory has developmental implications: Children should show more form priming for high neighbourhood words than adults and should show a gradual reduction in priming as their written vocabularies become larger. Masked form priming was examined in three groups of developing readers, from grades 2, 4 and 6, and a group of adults. In a lexical decision task, the children showed significantly greater priming overall than the adults for high N words. However, the predicted gradual attenuation across age was not found. Supplementary analyses suggested that the adaptation to lexical density may not occur until a somewhat more advanced stage of reading than we had first expected.
Article
The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether developmental dyslexics and their affected parents evinced similar patterns of deficits in word recognition skills. Forty dyslexic children and both their biological parents were administered a battery of experimental measures of phonological and orthographic processing. Deficits in component skills were defined in terms of deviations from the performance of normal readers matched on reading achievement level. Four distinct patterns of deficits were found among both the dyslexics and their parents: a subgroup with a specific deficit in processing phonological codes; a subgroup with a specific deficit in processing orthographic codes; a subgroup with deficits in processing both phonological and orthographic codes; and a subgroup of individuals who did not significantly differ from normal readers at the same reading level in either processing domain. Although limited evidence for familial subgroup concordance was obtained in both the phonological and combined phonological subgroups, no concordance was observed among families classified into the orthographic or reading-achievement equivalent subgroups. It was concluded that all affected family members shared a propensity for a phonological deficit, and that some family members share a fundamental problem in processing orthographic information as well.
Article
Teacher logs for 600 reading group sessions from grades 1, 3, and 5 were analyzed in an effort to identify whether the amount and mode of assigned contextual reading differed systematically between reading groups. Analyses indicated that groups designated as good readers read more total words and more words silently than groups designated as poor readers (p < .01). There were, however, no significant differences in the number of words read orally by the two groups, which indicated that the greater amounts of silent reading done by good reader groups account primarily for differences in amount of contextual reading noted. These data reinforce and extend the findings of other research on differences in content coverage and the pacing of students through reading materials.
Article
The unique contribution of orthographic processing skills to individual differences on five types of reading measures was examined using a sample of 87 third-grade children. The reading measures included nonword reading, untimed isolated word identification, timed word identification, oral reading rate for text, and silent reading rate for text. The role of orthographic skills in each of these measures was examined in a series of hierarchical regression analyses in which measures of orthographic skills were entered after age, IQ, and phonological ability measures. Orthographic skills contributed significantly to each type of reading, but their role in reading of text was stronger than for isolated words. A second series of analyses showed that, while differences in print exposure can explain part of the meaningful variation in orthographic skills, significant variation still remains after print exposure is partialed out of the regressions. /// [French] On a examiné la contribution spécifique des savoir-faire orthographiques sur les différences individuelles dans cinq types de mesure de la lecture avec un échantillon de quatre vingt sept enfants de 3° année. Les mesures de lecture comportaient la lecture de non mots, l'identification en temps libre de mots isolés, l'identification de mots en temps limité, la vitesse de lecture orale d'un texte, et la vitesse de lecture silencieuse d'un texte. On a examiné le rôle que jouent les savoir-faire orthographiques sur chacune de ces mesures dans une série d'analyses de régression hiérarchiques dans lesquelles les mesures de savoir-faire orthographique ont été entrées après l'àge, le QI, et des mesurs de compétence phonologique. Les savoir-faire orthographiques ont contribué de manière significative à chaque type de lecture, mais leur rôle dans la lecture de texte est plus fort que pour des mots isolés. Une seconde série d'analyses a montré que, quoique les différences dans le temps d'exposition puissent expliquer une partie des variations significatives des savoir-faire orthographiques, il demeure une variation significative même quand le temps d'exposition est un partie exclu des régressions. /// [Spanish] La contribución única de las habilidades de procesamiento ortográfico a las diferencias individuales en cinco tipos de medidas de lectura fue examinada usando una muestra de 87 niños de tercer grado. Las medidas de lectura incluyeron lectura de pseudopalabras, identificatión de palabras aisladas sin medir tiempo, identificación de palabras midiendo tiempo, velocidad de lectura oral de texto y velocidad de lectura en silencio de texto. El rol de las habilidades ortográficas en cada una de estas medidas fue examinado en una serie de análisis de regresión jerárquicos en los que las medidas de habilidades ortográficas fueron consideradas según edad, CI y medidas de habilidad fonológica. Las habilidades ortográficas contribuyeron significativamente a cada tipo de lectura, pero su rol en la lectura de texto fue más fuerte que para palabras aisladas. Una segunda serie de análisis mostró que, si bien las diferencias en exposición a la escritura pueden explicar parte de la variación significativa en habilidades ortográficas, aún se observa variación significativa cuando la exposición a la escritura es eliminada de las regresiones. /// [German] In einer Stichprobe mit 87 Drittklässlern wurde der singuläre Beitrag orthographischer verarbeitungsprozesse an indivuellen Unterschieden in fünf Typen von Leseaufgaben gemessen. Die Kriterien betrafen das Lesen oberhalb der Wortebene zeitbemessene Wortidentifikation, unbemessenes Erkennen isolierter Wörter, die Vorlesegeschwindigkeit und das Tempo beim stillen Lesen eines Textes. Die Rolle orthographischer Fähigkeiten bei all diesen Kriterien wurde in einer Reihe von hierarchisch gestaffelten Regressionasanalysen untersucht, bei denen Kriterien von Rechschreibfähigkeiten nach Alter, IQ und phonologischen Fähigkeiten berücksichtigt wurden. Rechtschreibfähigkeiten trugen signifikant zu jedem Lesetyp bei, ihre Rolle beim Textlesen war jedoch wichtiger als die beim Erkennen einzelner Wörter. Eine zweite Reihe von Analysen zeigte, wie Unterschiede im Druckbild einen Teil der bedeutungsvollen Unterschiede der Rechtschreibfähigkeiten erklären können, dabei aber signifikante Unterschiede bleben, wenn das Druckbild aus den Regressionsanalysen herausgenommen wird.
Article
3 experiments show differences among children in relative reliance on spelling-sound rules versus word-specific associations in reading words. Ability to read nonsense words (e. g., lut) is correlated more highly with ability to read regular words (cut) than with ability to read exception words (put). Children also differ in their tendencies to make meaning-preserving errors as opposed to errors involving overgeneralization of spelling-sound rules to exception words. Children who rely more on rules are more slowed by reading 2 successive words with the same spelling pattern pronounced differently (maid, said). The tendency to rely on rules as opposed to word-specific associations is correlated with ability to read regular words. Individual differences appear to arise largely from differences in instruction, although there are also consistent sex differences (boys tend to rely more on rules). In experiment 3, performance on nonsense words is improved by instruction to think of analogous words. This finding, plus others, indicates that both analogies and smaller-unit rules are used to apply rules.
Article
Recently, there have been several reports of developmental analogues of the specific orthographic processing deficits observed in acquired surface dyslexics (Goulandris & Snow ling, 1991; Hanley, Hastie, & Kay, 1992). How ever, very little has been discovered about w hat basic cognitive deficits might be associated w ith this particular kind of reading disorder. This paper describes the case of MI, a 10-year-old boy w ith a high IQ and no known history of neurological impairment. He demonstrates extremely poor performance for his age and reading level on irregular word reading tasks, but performs normally on nonword and regular word tasks. His performance on a series of homophone selection tasks suggests an impairment at the orthographic input level. The results of various tests of associated cognitive abilities conducted on MI suggest that this impairment is not associated either with phonological awareness deficits or with the visual memory problems proposed by Goulandris and Snowling (1991).
Article
This paper presents the case of JAS, a developmental dyslexic who had largely resolved her reading problems as an undergraduate student. However, testing revealed that JAS had subtle reading deficits, having difficulty with low-frequency irregular words and with the comprehension of written homophones. In contrast, her phonological reading strategies were normal. JAS's reading deficit was accompanied by serious spelling problems; she showed a marked tendency to spell phonologically, although with reference to some word-specific knowledge.JAS's reading and spelling difficulties were accompanied by significant visual memory deficits although phonological processing was relatively good. It is argued that visual memory impairments have prevented JAS from establishing detailed orthographic representations in a lexical system. In the absence of these, the operation of the system for reading is faulty; for spelling, which requires die use of full orthographic cues, there are serious consequences.
Article
This research was designed to provide insight into the contribution of orthographic processes to skilled reading and spelling. Instead of defining orthographic knowledge in the manner dictated by dual-route frameworks, the research attempted to assess the quality and precision of skilled readers' lexical representational system. Measures of repetition and neighbour priming were derived from masked priming paradigms and used to predict reading comprehension and a number of measures of spelling performance in a sample of 62 skilled readers. Reading comprehension was predicted primarily by a measure of memory processing span. The best unique predictors of spelling were average lexical classification time, and measures of repetition priming. Skilled spellers showed enhanced repetition priming, particularly for nonword stimuli. The results are compatible with the restricted interactive model of reading skill, which assumes that skilled reading and spelling relies on a functionally autonomous lexical system defined by precise lexical representations that can be retrieved with minimal contextual support.
Article
The reading development of the individual members of a class of new entrants to primary school (aged 4 1/2–5 1/2 years) was studied over a period of a year. The teaching they received emphasised the formation of a “sight vocabulary”. Instruction in letter-sound associations was restricted to spelling and writing. The children appeared to “read without phonology”, that is without the application of letter-sound (grapheme-phoneme) associations. Words could be read only after they had been taught. Errors involved visual confusions and occasional semantic, visual-then-semantic, derivational, and functor substitution paralexias. Error responses were generally selected from the set of words the child had been taught and this set was represented in episodic memory. In many cases spatial distortions which were destructive of word shape were not effective in abolishing reading. The results are discussed in terms of the formation of a rudimentary word recognition system, termed a “logographic lexicon”.
Article
The experiments reported here investigated whether the phonological properties of visually presented words routinely influence the process of lexical access. Recent models of developing reading suggest that the potential for such phonological effects may vary as a function of reading experience. Four experiments were conducted, two with adults and two with fourth-grade children. A masked priming procedure was employed, in which the critical measurement was the facilitation observed in the recognition of a target word when it was preceded by a briefly masked exposure of a phonologically identical stimulus. The results indicated no priming of a target word from a phonologically identical prime for the adult subjects. This was the case even for primes and targets that had a high degree of orthographic overlap. The children also showed little evidence for masked phonological priming, although there was some indication that individual differences may exist, with some children using phonological information and others not. In general, our results provide little support for the claim that the phonological attributes of words are standardly used to achieve lexical access.
Article
Children with specific reading comprehension difficulties were compared with control children on tests of language skill. The two groups performed at a similar level on tests requiring predominantly phonological skills, but the poor comprehenders performed less well on tests tapping semantic ability. Although the two groups were matched for decoding ability (as assessed by nonword reading), the poor comprehenders were worse at reading words with irregular spelling patterns and low-frequency words. These results show that despite having adequate phonological decoding skills, poor comprehenders have problems reading words that are typically read with support from semantics. These findings are related to connectionist models of reading development in which phonological and semantic processes interact.
Article
Tested a model of early literacy acquisition regarding the interrelation of word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, and writing skills, using longitudinal data collected from 80 children who passed from 1st through 2nd grades. Incoming characteristics (i.e., ethnicity, IQ, oral language) and the rate at which each S progressed through his or her reading books were examined in relation to growth in phonemic awareness, spelling/sound knowledge, and lexical knowledge. The impact of these factors on development in word recognition and spelling was explored, along with the relation of word recognition and listening comprehension to reading comprehension, and the relation of spelling and ideation to story writing. It was hypothesized that poor reading achievement in minority students would be partially attributable to poorer phonemic awareness of school English due to dialect, 2nd language, and cultural differences. Results support the hypothesis, suggesting the strong importance of phonemic awareness in literacy acquisition. The relation between word recognition and spelling was strong due to reliance on similar sources of knowledge. The relation between reading comprehension and writing appeared less strong, suggesting that the generation of ideas involved in story production is not isomorphic to the processes involved in reading comprehension. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
10 normal and 10 disabled readers in Grades 5 and 6 were required to learn the meaning and pronunciation of unfamiliar words varying in word length and in letter–sound regularity and complexity. Results show that disabled readers were slower to name the unfamiliar words than normal readers, even after 3 sessions of practice. Naming accuracy and latency were found to be more strongly related to both regularity and complexity for disabled readers than for normal readers across 3 test sessions, suggesting that disabled readers were capable of using regular letter–sound correspondences to pronounce printed words but were hampered by weaker knowledge of these correspondences. Performance by both groups on a delayed naming task showed that the differences in naming speed were due to decoding rather than response-execution processes. The effects of word length on naming latency were more pronounced for disabled readers, suggesting that they relied on smaller subword components than normal readers when decoding the stimulus words. Disabled readers were slower at word naming than normal readers in all conditions, suggesting phonological coding and retrieval deficits. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
this chapter is concerned with the components of reading ability, defined in terms of both reading subskills and the cognitive abilities that underlie those subskills / discuss the relative importance of various cognitive abilities / present new evidence from research we have conducted documenting that given abilities carry different weights as determinants of reading development contend that facility in word identification is the central component of the reading process and that adequate facility in word identification is a prerequisite to adequate reading comprehension, along with adequate language comprehension / focuses on the visual and linguistic underpinnings of word identification, and places special emphasis on issues and problems involved in operationalizing phonological and orthographic coding raise the question of whether or not certain commonly used tests of phonological and orthographic coding are valid measures of these abilities / express concern over conceptualizations of word identification that are based on the assumption that phonological and orthographic coding are the only cognitive abilities that underlie word identification / present evidence to the contrary and discuss alternative approaches to operationalizing phonological and orthographic coding (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
how does the child mentally represent printed words at each point of reading development / how does the child access these representations during encounters with print / how do word representation and word access change with experience and instruction restricted-interactive model / acquiring functional lexical representations / acquiring an autonomous lexicon (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments were carried out to examine the development of knowledge about double letters. Children and adults chose items they thought looked most word-like from pairs of nonwords. First graders chose nonwords with final doublets (e.g., baff) and allowable doublets (e.g., yill) as more word-like than nonwords with initial doublets (e.g., bbaf) or unallowable doublets (e.g., yihh). Children in late kindergarten chose final-doublet nonwords (e.g., pess) more often than initial-doublet nonwords (e.g., ppes), but performed at chance when choosing between items such as jull and jukk . The same children in 1st grade chose jull more often than jukk even though their own spellings were semiphonetic and phonetic according to stage theories of spelling development. Only participants in the 6th grade and above knew the correspondence between a medial doublet and a preceding short vowel (e.g., tebbif). The results suggest that even young writers know about simple orthographic patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The ability to read is supported by the existence of codes that represent the orthographic, phonological, and semantic properties of words. This thesis addresses the issue of how orthographic codes are self-organised. This question is explored using a combination of theoretical and computational approaches, leading to the introduction of a new computational model of Visual word recognition. The thesis begins with a review and critique of existing models of visual word recognition, with particular reference to their inability to satisfy adaptive constraints. This analysis highlights the inability of current models to explain self-organisation processes or to operate in real-world input environments. Subsequent chapters review neural networks for pattern recognition, learning and working memory, focussing on the work of Grossberg and colleagues. Two specific networks-the masking field network and its extension, the SONNET network-exhibit adaptive properties that are lacking in current models of visual word recognition. The SOLAR (Self-Organising Lexical Acquisition and Recognition) model is a new neural network model of visual word recognition that embodies self-organisation and masking principles. The model differs from previous models in its capacity for stable self-organisation, its spatial coding scheme, its combination of serial and parallel processes, and its chunking mechanism. The model also introduces a novel mechanism to explain word frequency effects. Another distinctive feature of the model is its incorporation of a novel opponent processing mechanism for performing lexical decision. The SOLAR model explains a broad range of empirical data, including frequency effects, the lexical status effect, length effects, facilitatory and inhibitory effects of orthographic Similarity, the pseudohomophone effect, masked and unmasked repetition priming effects, the frequency attenuation effect, and left-to-right processing effects. Simulations have also demonstrated the model's ability to recognise complex stimuli (e.g., polysyllabic words) via a chunking mechanism that implements segmentation-through-recognition. This poses a critical challenge to alternative computational models, which are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. The SOLAR model also generates a number of novel empirical predictions. The final chapter discusses how the model might be extended to incorporate phonological codes, and the implications for explaining reading performance in skilled and dyslexic readers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
traces the development of sight word reading from a time when prereaders use strictly visual cues to a time when readers analyze spellings as symbols for the phonemic structure of words (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study sought evidence consistent with the hypothesis that phonological recoding of printed words is important during reading acquisition. Children at the end of their Kindergarten year were given a test of nonsense word reading (as a measure of phonological recoding skill) as well as tests of sight word reading and verbal intelligence. Two groups of 28 children were matched on sex, school attended, sight word reading, and verbal intelligence, but differed on phonological recoding skill. If phonological recoding was important in reading acquisition, the children with greater skill in this area should make greater gains in reading achievement over the following years. When reading achievement was tested at the end of Grades 1 and 2, these children were found to be significantly ahead.