Chapter

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Linn. Maton) Seeds in Health

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Abstract

This chapter presents a report on cardamom seeds and their health benefits. As a spice, cardamom is used for culinary purposes in curry, coffee, cakes, and bread and for flavoring sweet dishes and drinks. The seeds and the essential oil are used as a flavoring component in a variety of foods. Medicinally, cardamom has been used locally in India and some other Asian countries to treat depression, some heart disorders, dysentery, and diarrhea. It has also been used to counter vomiting and nausea. The seed, which is where the essential oils are mainly found, has potential applications as an antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant, and is also reported to act as an efficient skin permeation enhancer for certain drugs. The essential oils from the seeds of Elettaria cardamomum have been reported to show good skin permeation activity for certain drugs. The oils from Elettaria cardamomum seeds exhibited in vitro anticarcinogenic activity by inhibiting the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. The extracts from Elettaria cardamomum exhibited antimicrobial activity against oral microbes. Elettaria cardamomum seed extract is one of the ingredients of the polyherbal formulation used for treating the dementia of Alzheimer's disease. The extract is also used in herbal combinations to treat anxiety, tension, and insomnia. The seed extract finds applications in some of the herbal-based cosmetic formulations, which include skin-whitening, anti-dandruff, hair-shine, and hair-growth preparations. Due to the extensive appliance of cardamom, its production needs to be increased by adopting modern technology. It is believed by some that its overuse could cause impotence. On the other hand, a daily dose is said to maintain general health and improve eyesight.

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Book
This reference book is based on the history, cultivation, processing, breeding, protection, phytochemistry, and pharmacological importance of cardamom. Cardamom is scientifically known as Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton and is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. It's a shade-loving plant that grows well at an altitude between 600 and 1400 metres above sea level, with annual rainfall ranging from 1300–4000 mm and temperatures ranging from 10 to 35°C. Cardamom is highly cross-pollinated and depends on honeybees for pollination. Cardamom is classified into three types based on the nature of the panicles, namely, Malabar (prostrate panicle), Mysore (erect panicle) and Vazhukka (semi-erect panicle), a natural hybrid between Mysore and Malabar varieties. In India, currently, six research institutions, namely, Cardamom Research Station (CRS), Pampadumpara (Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala), ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), Kozhikode, Kerala; Cardamom Research Centre, Appangala, Karnataka; Indian Cardamom Research Institute (ICRI), Myladumpara, Kerala and its Regional Research Station, Sakleshpur, Karnataka and Regional Research Station, Mudigere (University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences) are engaged in research for the improvement of cardamom farming. These research institutions have begun doing routine surveys to exploit desirable genes using a variety of traditional and modern crop improvement techniques. Also, these research centres/institutes are holding enormous genetic wealth of different accessions. Recently, many researchers have used various biotechnological approaches to conduct studies on micropropagation, assess the diversity in germplasm collections, and elucidate the biotic and abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in cardamom. Fungal, bacterial and viral diseases pose severe threats to the successful cultivation of this crop. Major pests of cardamom include thrips, shoot and capsule borer, root grub, and whiteflies. Injudicious pesticide applications to manage pests and diseases rises the residue levels in the cured product, limiting its export value. Bio-pesticides control pest in an eco-friendly manner and are considered as the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. It includes the effective utilization of microbials (bacteria, fungi, virus, and nematodes), macrobials (predators, parasitoids, and parasites), botanicals, organic amendments, semiochemicals, endophytes, and reduced risk pesticides in managing pest and diseases. Cardamom is grown in the throughout tropical mountains mainly for its capsules and its essential oil. Cardamom capsules/seeds accumulate essential oil and other bioactive metabolites, which contribute to their distinctive aroma and are used in the functional food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. More than 100 secondary metabolites have been identified from cardamom essential oil. The essential oil of cardamom capsules possesses predominantly monoterpene constituents, such as 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, α-terpineol, linalool, linalyl acetate and nerolidol and the ester constituent α-terpinyl acetate all of which have therapeutic benefits including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and gastroprotective activities. Cardamom capsules contain substantial concentration of flavonoids like catechin, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin. Lutein is said to be the most abundant carotenoid in small cardamom. According to recent investigations, cardamom phenolic constituents’ flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and anthocyanins are being used to treat cardiovascular, pulmonary, kidney, and lung disorders. Cardamom capsules are a nutraceutical and functional food that can protect humans from several chronic diseases when taken daily. Cardamom oil is a new potential natural source for food, aroma, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Since the 4th century BC, Indian Ayurvedic physicians, as well as Greek and Roman doctors, have used small cardamom capsules to treat bronchitis, asthma, and constipation, as well as colds, coughs, diuretics, carminatives, teeth and gum infections, urinary and kidney disorders, congestion of the lungs, pulmonary tuberculosis, irritation of the eyelids, cataract, nausea, and diarrhoea. Cardamom was used to treat constipation, stomach aches, bladder infections, and dysentery in children in traditional Chinese medicine. Cardamom is also used in Ayurvedic medicine to cure food sickness. Cardamom oils are being employed in the production of plant-based hand lotions and soaps. Digestive problems can be treated with powdered cardamom capsules mixed with pulverised cloves, ginger, and caraway. In addition, using cardamom capsules helps to relieve inflammation and headaches. This reference book entitled “Cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton]: Production, Breeding, Management, Phytochemistry and Health Benefits” is comprises of twelve chapters contributed by different authors and provide complete information about this wonderful herb. Its occurrence, history, cultivation, post-harvest processing, botany, crop improvement, biotechnology, protection, ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities are well described with supporting references. The book contains latest information pertaining to cardamom and its cultivation. The information provided in this book will be very useful for students, academicians, researchers, and scientists, as well as others interested/involved nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
... Therefore, the use of cardamom in breastfeeding women should be discouraged. Also, there are studies that cardamom seeds oil can interfere with medications, such as liver inflammatory and gallstones drugs (67,68). ...
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Green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an outspread spice native to Asia, which is well appreciated for its sensory characteristics, delicate aroma, and unique taste. Currently, the main cardamom extracts are essential oils (EOs), and regarding current market tendencies, this market is in high growth. For this reason, technologies such as the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) have been applied to reach higher yields and better quality of EO. Then, this study explores the impact of DIC as a pretreatment before hydrodistillation (HD) on the EO yield and their antioxidant activity. Obtained results showed that the coupling of DIC-HD increased the yield of essential oil and also had a positive impact on their antioxidant capacity. The EO yield of DIC-HD (140 �C and 30 s) was 4.43% vs. 2.52% for control; the AOX of DIC-HD (165 �C and 30 s) was 86% inhibition vs. 57.02% for control, and the TEAC of DIC-HD (140 �C and 30 s) was 1.44 uMTE/g EO vs. 13.66 uMTE/g EO.
... The previous study has shown the use of E. cardamomum seeds in a poly-herbal formulation for the treatment of AD. An Ayurveda formulation containing cardamom showed CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice (Sengottuvelu, 2011). A previous study has also shown anticholinesterase activity of few monoterpenes such as α-pinene, terpineol, linalool, ß-myrcene, nerol and geraniol (Zarrad, Laarif, Ben, Chaieb, & Mediouni, 2017). ...
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Article
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Purpose The purpose of this review is to address the consumer’s preferences that have varied greatly in the past decade appraising the use of flavor and aroma compounds in the development of functional foods rather than consuming artificial additives. A growing interest in natural flavoring agents and preservatives have made the researchers to explore the other bio-functional properties of natural flavors beyond their ability to give a remarkable flavor to the food. Design/methodology/approach In this review, five major flavoring agents used significantly in food industries have been discussed for their bioactive profile and promising health benefits. Vanilla, coffee, cardamom, saffron and cinnamon, despite being appreciated as natural flavors, have got impressive health benefits due to functional ingredients, which are being used for the development of nutraceuticals. Findings Flavoring and coloring compounds of these products have shown positive results in the prevention of several diseases including carcinoma and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Such effects are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds, which possesses free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory antiviral and antimicrobial properties. These properties not only show a preventive mechanism against diseases but also makes the food product shelf-stable by imparting antimicrobial effects. Originality/value This paper highlights the opportunities to increase the use of such natural flavoring agents over synthetic aroma compounds to develop novel functional foods. Phenols, carotenoids and flavonoids are the major health-promoting components of these highly valued aroma ingredients.
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Chapter
Elettaria cardamomum, known as the small cardamom, belongs to the Zingiberaceae family and grows in rainforest. Its seeds contain a volatile oil that is used for culinary purposes but which also has pharmacological properties. However, knowledge of its antimicrobial potential against oral biofilm remains scarce. The present book chapter proposes to demonstrate the effect of an Elettaria cardamomum ethanolic extract (ECE) against oral biofilm bacteria through an in vitro study. The ECE's composition (e.g., moisture, proteins, fat) was also evaluated. Antibacterial activity of the ECE for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei was investigated as part of an ex vivo experiment. Salivary samples of children were collected, homogenized (saliva pool), and spread (20 μL) on cellulose membranes over brain heart infusion agar for biofilm formation (5% CO2, 37°C). After 48 h, the cellulose membranes were treated for 1 min with the following (n = 4), respectively: 0.12% chlorhexidine, ECE (7.34 mg/mL), ECE × 2 (15.45 mg/ mL), and deionized water. Microorganisms were quantified after treatment and analyzed by analysis of variance/Tukey's test (α = 5%). The ECE presented moisture = 13.04 ± 0.48 g/100 g, proteins = 9.62 ± 0.54 g/100 g, and fat = 2.74 ± 0.40/100 g. The ECE thus presents antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms and reduces the microbial viability levels of a biofilm formed from a pediatric saliva pool. As such, this chapter aims to present a review and discussion about the oral antibiofilm effect of cardamom.
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The ginger family (Zingiberaceae) includes plants that are known worldwide to have a distinctive smell and taste, which are often used as spices in the kitchen, but also in various industries (pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetic) due to their proven biological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AA) of essential oils (EOs) of four characteristic ginger species: Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton (cardamom), Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric), Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (ginger), and Alpinia Officinarum Hance (galangal). Furthermore, the total phenolic content (TPC) and AA of crude extracts obtained after using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and different extraction solvents (80% ethanol, 80% methanol and water) were evaluated. A total of 87 different chemical components were determined by GC-MS/MS in the EOs obtained after hydrodistillation, 14 of which were identified in varying amounts in all EOs. The major compounds found in cardamom, turmeric, ginger, and galangal were α-terpinyl acetate (40.70%), β-turmerone (25.77%), α-zingiberene (22.69%) and 1,8-cineol (42.71%), respectively. In general, 80% ethanol was found to be the most effective extracting solvent for the bioactivities of the investigated species from the Zingiberaceae family. Among the crude extracts, ethanolic extract of galangal showed the highest TPC value (63.01 ± 1.06 mg GA g −1 DW), while the lowest TPC content was found in cardamom water extract (1.04 ± 0.29 mg GA g −1 DW). The AA evaluated by two different assays (ferric-reducing antioxidant power-FRAP and the scavenging activity of the cationic ABTS radical) proved that galangal rhizome is the plant with the highest antioxidant potential. In addition, no statistical difference was found between the AA of turmeric and ginger extracts, while cardamom rhizome was again inferior. In contrast to the crude extracts, the EOs resulted in significantly lower ABTS and FRAP values, with turmeric EO showing the highest AA.
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This study aimed to investigate the inactivation effect of 150 KeV low-energy X-ray on Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes that were inoculated in dry cardamom. The D10 value for E. coli O157:H7 was 71.43 Gy and the tR values for S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus were 53.57, 87.74, and 114.64 Gy, respectively. The irradiation did not significantly affect the amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in cardamom; however, the content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased by approximate 20%. No 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), dimethyl disulfide and 3-methyl-thiophene were detected in the irradiated dry cardamom. These findings indicated that 150 KeV low-energy X-ray could be applied to effectively inactivate pathogens in dry cardamom. Industrial relevance It was shown that low-energy X-ray irradiation up to 350 Gy did not generate 2-ACBs, dimethyl disulfide and 3-methyl-thiophene in dry cardamom, which are among the major concerns with the application of food irradiation. The outcomes of this research highlight the potential of low-energy X-ray for the preservation of low moisture foods.
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The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways.
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Inhibitory effects of eugenol, a compound present in many spices such as cloves, cardamom etc. and the extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum and Spilanthes calva which are traditionally used in India during the preparation of chewable tobacco, on tobacco-induced mutagenesis were evaluated using Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Eugenol significantly inhibited (P < 0.001) tobacco-induced mutagenicity at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg/plate. Anacyclus pyrethrum extract (1 mg/plate) produced 74.33% inhibition while the extract of Spilanthes calva at 2 mg/plate inhibited tobacco-induced mutagenesis by 86.4%. Eugenol and the plant extracts also inhibited the nitrosation of methylurea in a dose-dependent manner.
Article
The in vitro and in vivo effect of pretreatment by cardamom oil, a crude drug extract, in ethanol/water vehicles on the transdermal delivery of indomethacin was investigated. The cyclic monoterpene components in cardamom oil were also determined and quantified in this study. The permeation of indomethacin was significantly enhanced after pretreatment of cardamom oil both in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The result of various pre-treatment periods showed that the indomethacin flux decreased as the length of the pretreatment increased. Both natural cardamom oil and a cyclic monoterpene mixture composed of the components of the oil showed similar enhancement on indomethacin permeation, indicating cyclic monoterpenes are the predominant components altering the barrier property of stratum corneum. The results also showed that three minor components in cardamom oil (alpha-pinene, 6.5%; beta-pinene, 4.8%; alpha-terpineol, 0.4%) had a synergistic effect with 1,8-cineole (59.3%) and d-limonene (29.0%) to enhance the permeation of indomethacin.
Article
'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice.
Article
This study was designed to investigate the influence of volatile oil pretreated skin on in vitro permeation from films containing ionized and dodecylamine ion-paired diclofenac sodium (DS). The involvement of skin cholesterol was investigated to determine its possible role in enhancing the permeation of ion-paired DS. Cardamom oil produced the maximum (10 x) in vitro permeation enhancement for ion-paired DS. The carrageenan induced rat paw oedema reduction (up to 12 hr) by cardamom oil was comparable to that of diclofenac injection (s c). Leaching of cholesterol from excised skin in addition to increased partition coefficient following volatile oil skin pretreatment appears to be responsible for in vitro permeation enhancement of DS. Whereas, a mild barrier perturbation effect due to altered cholesterol levels following pretreatment with volatile oils appears to increase the permeation of ion-paired DS across viable skin, thereby producing significant reduction of carrageenan induced paw oedema.
Article
Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying naturally occurring chemopreventive compounds capable of inhibiting, retarding, or reversing the multi-step carcinogenesis. The primary aim of the present study was to identify the effects of a commonly consumed spice, viz., cardamom against azoxymethane (AOM) induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Swiss Albino mice. The secondary aim, was to explore the ability of cardamom to modulate the status of proliferation and apoptosis, and to understand its role in altering cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Male Swiss albino mice were injected with AOM (dose: 5mg/Kg body weight) or saline (Group 1) weekly once for two weeks. The AOM-injected mice were randomly assigned to two groups (Groups 2 and 3). While all the groups were on standard lab chow, Group 3 received oral doses of 0.5% cardamom, in aqueous suspension, daily for 8 weeks. Following treatment, significant reduction in the incidences of aberrant crypt foci (p<0.05) was observed. This reduction in ACF was accompanied by suppression of cell proliferation (mean Brdu LI in carcinogen control =13.91+/-3.31, and 0.5% cardamom =2.723+/-0.830) and induction of apoptosis (mean AI in carcinogen control=1.547+/-0.42 and 0.5% cardamom = 6.61+/-0.55). Moreover, reduction of both COX-2 and iNOS expression was also observed. These results suggest that aqueous suspensions of cardamom have protective effects on experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis. Cardamom as a whole and its active components require further attention if the use of this spice is to be recommended for cancer prevention.
Article
Cardamom, the fruits of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Heel khurd" is used in Unani system of medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract (TM), essential oil (EO), petroleum ether soluble (PS) and insoluble (PI) fractions of methanolic extract, were studied in rats at doses of 100-500, 12.5-50, 12.5-150 and 450 mg/kg, respectively for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorous ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus and gastric acid output were recorded. All fractions (TM, EO, PS, PI) significantly inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol and aspirin but not those induced by pylorus ligation. TM proved to be active reducing lesions by about 70% in the EtOH-induced ulcer model at 500 mg/kg. The PS fraction reduced the lesions by 50% at 50 and 100mg/kg (no dose response was observed) with similar effect than the PI fraction at 450 mg/kg. In the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer, the best gastroprotective effect was found in the PS fraction, which inhibited lesions by nearly 100% at 12.5mg/kg. In our experimental conditions, the PS extract at doses >or=12.5mg/kg proved to be more active than ranitidine at 50mg/kg.
Article
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is traditionally used in various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neuronal disorders. To rationalize cardamom use in constipation, colic, diarrhea, hypertension and as diuretic. Cardamom crude extract (Ec.Cr) was studied using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Ec.Cr caused atropine-sensitive stimulatory effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum at 3-10mg/ml. In rabbit jejunum preparations, Ec.Cr relaxed spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions as well as shifted Ca++ curves to right, like verapamil. Ec.Cr (3-100mg/kg) induced fall in the arterial blood pressure (BP) of anaesthetized rats, partially blocked in atropinized animals. In endothelium-intact rat aorta, Ec.Cr relaxed phenylephrine (1 microM)-induced contractions, partially antagonized by atropine and also inhibited K+ (80 mM) contractions. In guinea-pig atria, Ec.Cr exhibited a cardio-depressant effect. Ec.Cr (1-10mg/kg) produced diuresis in rats, accompanied by a saluretic effect. It enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. Bio-assay directed fractionation revealed the separation of spasmogenic and spasmolytic components in the aqueous and organic fractions respectively. These results indicate that cardamom exhibits gut excitatory and inhibitory effects mediated through cholinergic and Ca++ antagonist mechanisms respectively and lowers BP via combination of both pathways. The diuretic and sedative effects may offer added value in its use in hypertension and epilepsy.