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Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coffee plants has been a featured practice in coffee cultivation. The objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of five consecutive years, influence of different irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L.. The treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when the soil water tension reached values close to 20 and 60 kPa; and a control that was not irrigated. The treatments were distributed randomly in five planting densities: 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1. A split-plot in randomized block design was used with four replications. Irrigation promoted better growth of coffee plants and increased yield that varied in function of the plant density per area. For densities from 10,000 to 20,000 plants ha-1, regardless of the used irrigation management, mean yield increases were over 49.6% compared to the non-irrigated crop. © Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved.
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Drip irrigation in coee crop under dierent planting densities:
Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil
Gleice A. de Assis1, Myriane S. Scalco2, Rubens J. Guimarães3,
Alberto Colombo4, Anderson W. Dominghetti5 & Nagla M. S. de Matos6
1 UFU. Monte Carmelo, MG. E-mail: (Autora correspondente)
2 UFLA. Lavras, MG. E-mail: msscalco@deg.u
3 UFLA. Lavras, MG. E-mail: rubensjg@dag.u
4 UFLA. Lavras, MG. E-mail: Brasil, acolombo@deg.u
5 UFLA. Lavras, MG. E-mail:
6 UFLA. Lavras, MG. E-mail:
Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coee plants has been a featured
practice in coee cultivation. e objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of ve consecutive
years, inuence of dierent irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of
Coea arabica L.. e treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when
the soil water tension reached values close to 20 and 60 kPa; and a control that was not irrigated. e treatments
were distributed randomly in ve planting densities: 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1. A split-plot
in randomized block design was used with four replications. Irrigation promoted better growth of coee plants
and increased yield that varied in function of the plant density per area. For densities from 10,000 to 20,000
plants ha-1, regardless of the used irrigation management, mean yield increases were over 49.6% compared to
the non-irrigated crop.
Irrigação por gotejamento em cafeeiros sob diferentes densidades
de plantio: Crescimento e produtividade no Sudeste do Brasil
Associada ao adensamento da lavoura, a irrigação tem sido prática de destaque na cafeicultura. Objetivou-se, neste
trabalho, avaliar a inuência de diferentes regimes de irrigação e densidades de plantio sobre o crescimento vegetativo
e a produtividade média de cafeeiros Coea arabica L, ao longo de cinco anos. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro
regimes de irrigação: balanço hídrico climatológico; irrigações com base nas tensões de 20 e 60 kPa, além de uma
testemunha não irrigada, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco densidades de plantio 2.500; 3.333;
5.000; 10.000 e 20.000 plantas ha-1. O delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas
subdivididas foi utilizado com quatro repetições; vericou-se que a irrigação promove maior crescimento das plantas
de cafeeiro e aumenta a produtividade, que varia em função da densidade de plantas por área. Obtiveram-se, para
as densidades de 10.000 e 20.000 plantas ha-1, independente do manejo da irrigação utilizado, aumentos médios de
produtividade acima de 49,6% em relação ao cultivo não irrigado.
Key words:
irrigated coee cropping
Coea arabica L.
plant spacing
cafeicultura irrigada
Coea arabica L.
espaçamento de plantio
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental
Campina Grande, PB, UAEA/UFCG –
Protocolo 304.13 – 29/09/2013 • Aprovado em 13/06/2014
ISSN 1807-1929
v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014
Coee irrigation is a promising technique that may provide
both yield increase and expansion of coee plantations in areas
considered unsuitable due to the occurrence of water shortage
(Silva et al., 2008). e main advantage of drip irrigation is its
capability of applying small amounts of water with a high degree
of uniformity, making this method potentially more ecient
than others irrigation methods. For coee producers, a further
advantage attributed to the irrigation method is the possibility
of implementing fertigation, a practice which may result in
substantial fertilizer savings (Guimarães et al., 2010).
Serra et al. (2013) found in a coee growing area in southern
Minas Gerais that the increase in the number of plants from
14,000 to 15,125 plants ha-1 and the reduction of irrigation
water applied by the adoption of higher value of soil water
tension (20 to 100 kPa) can provide increments of the order of
27% in productivity (equivalent of 21.5 60 kg bags of processed
coee). Brazil’s irrigated coee area occupies 10% of its total
planted area and provides 22% of the total amount of coee bean
produced in Brazil (Saturnino, 2007). Irrigation has increased
productivity in regions where water shortage periods coincide
with the frutication stage (Silva et al., 2008). In the southern
region of the state of Minas Gerais, a 119% increase in yield
1117Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
was obtained in the rst ve harvests of the coee cultivar Rubi
MG-1192 by applying irrigation water levels corresponding to
60% of the evaporation from the Class A Pan (Epan) compared
to the non-irrigated coee trees (Gomes et al., 2007).
Another technique that has been used in coee plantations
in order to increase yield is higher density of planting. Several
studies (Paulo et al., 2005; Braccini et al., 2005; Pereira et al.,
2007) have shown that increased population density results
in lower coee bean production per plant. Paulo et al. (2005)
observed a reduction of 93.5 g of processed coee per plant
(equivalent to 45%) with increasing number of plants from
2,500 to 5,000 plants ha-1. However, because coee bean weight
remains fairly constant (Carr, 2001), greater yields per unit area
are achieved due to the increase in the number of plants per
area. Reduced spacing also alters plant growth, because the self-
shading alters the balance of growth regulators that stimulate
tip meristem development, such as auxins, gibberellins, and
cytokinin (Taiz & Zeiger, 2004). Under reduced spacing
conditions, plants produce thinner stems and smaller canopy
diameters when compared to plants grown on a wider spacing
(Martinez et al., 2007). Consequently, planting density may also
aect water relations of coee crop (Carr, 2001).
In Brazil and abroad there are few studies associating
irrigation management criteria and coffee crop planting
densities. us the objective of the present study was to assess,
over a period of ve consecutive years, the inuence of dierent
irrigation management regimes and planting densities on Coea
arabica L. cv Rubi MG-1192 growth and coee bean yield.
M  M
is experiment was carried out in an experimental area of
the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil (21o 14’
S, 45o 00’ W, and 910 m above sea level) from January 2001 to
August 2007. According to the Koppen classication, the local
climate is the Cwa type. Annual means for temperature, rainfall,
and relative air humidity are, respectively, 19.4 oC, 1,529.7
mm, and 76.2% (Figure 1). e soil at the experimental area is
classied as Rhodic Hapludox.
Planting of Coea arabica L. cv Rubi MG-1192 seedlings
was set up in January 2001. Coee seedlings were obtained
from seeds and grown in polyethylene bags. In order to produce
them, the substrate consisted of sieved soil and well decomposed
manure in 7:3 volume/volume. Liming and fertilization were
carried out according to soil and leaf analysis (Table 1), based
on the recommendations for use of correctives and fertilizers
in Minas Gerais, Brazil (Guimarães et al., 1999). Liming was
performed three months before planting the crop, using
1.5 t ha-1 of dolomitic limestone. e fertilization was applied
annually, and splitted in the period from October to January.
e amounts of fertilizer applied were increased by 30%, as
recommended by Santinato & Fernandes (2002) in the case
of irrigated coee plantations. Monoammonium phosphate
was spread under the canopy area of the plants. A mixture of
potassium nitrate and urea was applied in fertigation.
A split-plot randomized block design with 20 treatments was
used. Four replications of four irrigation regimes were randomly
distributed along each one of ve main blocks. Each main block
was set up in a dierent planting density: (D1) 2,500 plants ha-1
(4.0 m between rows and 1.0 m in the row), (D2) 3,333 plants ha-1
(3.0 m between rows and 1.0 m in the row), (D3) 5,000 plants ha-1
(2.0 m between rows and 1.0 m in the row), (D4) 10,000 plants
ha-1 (2.0 m between rows and 0.5 m in the row), and (D5) 20,000
plants ha-1 (1.0 m between rows and 0.5 m in the row). ese
planting densities were submitted to four irrigation regimes: (i)
irrigation every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday with amounts
of water applied determined by a climatologic water balance;
(ii) irrigation when the soil water tension reached values close
to 20 kPa at the depth of 0.25 m; (iii) irrigation when the soil
water tension reached values close to 60 kPa at 0.25 m depth;
and (iv) a control that was not irrigated.
Each block was composed by the same number of coee
plants uniformily distributed along the same number of planting
rows. Each one of these plots was composed by 10 consecutive
plants along a continuous plant row segment. e rst and the
Figure 1. Meteorological data (maximum, mean and
minimum temperatures (Tmax, Tmean and Tmin),
wind speed (U), relative humidity (RH), solar radiation
(Rs) and rainfall (r) recorded from 2001 to 2007 in the
experimental area
Attribute Layer (cm)
0-20 20-40 40-60
Potential hydrogen (pH) 5,8 5,2 4,9
Phosphorus (mg dm-3) 41,0 33,0 5,0
Potassium (mg dm-3) 62,0 42,0 33,0
Calcium (cmmlcdm-3) 4,9 2,3 1,5
Magnesium (cmolcdm-3) 2,1 1,1 0,7
Aluminum (cmolcdm-3) 0,0 0,3 0,6
H + Al (cmolcdm-3) 4,0 6,3 6,3
Sulfate (mg dm-3) 97,3 161,8 201,0
Boron (mg dm-3) 0,4 0,4 0,3
Zinc (mg dm-3) 1,3 0,7 0,3
Cobre (mg dm-3) 2,7 2,0 2,2
Manganese (mg dm-3) 2,2 1,5 1,0
Ferro (mg dm-3) 36,9 35,3 20,8
Cation exchange capacity Effectivet (cmolcdm-3) 7,2 3,8 2,9
Cation exchange capacity potential (cmolcdm-3) 11,2 9,8 8,6
Aluminum saturation (%) 0,0 7,9 20,8
Base saturation (%) 64,2 35,5 26,6
Organic matter (dag kg-1) 3,5 2,7 2,2
Table 1. Chemical analysis of the soil at the beginning
of differentiation of treatments
1118 Gleice A. de Assis et al.
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
last plant of each segment were not considered for measurement
On all blocks, four dierent lateral lines were laid out along
each irrigated row of coee plant. Two laterals were laid out on
each side of the rows. Along the length corresponding to each
experimental plot, that was composed by a continuous planting
row segment containing 10 coee plants, dripper/emitter were
only installed on one of these four lateral lines, the one that was
managed according to the plots irrigation regime. On these
lateral line segments, on-line pressure compensating dripper/
emitters, with a 3.78 L h-1 discharge, were uniformly installed
spaced at 0.4 m. Within each block, each group of lateral lines
submitted to the same irrigation regime was independently
e water used to meet the required quality of the drip
system presented the following characteristics: 0.11 dS m-1
electrical conductivity, 6.5 pH and concentrations of 4.3, 14.4
and 3.336 cmolc L-1 HCO3, Ca and Mg, respectively. e salinity
of this water was considered low by the orne and Peterson
classication (Class C1) and could be used for irrigation in most
crops and most soils, with little probability of causing salinity.
On the plots receiving irrigation based on the soil water
potential value (20 or 60 kPa), soil moisture content inside the
wetted soil volume was indirectly monitored with tensiometers
and an electronic tensiometer with hypodermic needle.
Tensiometers were installed along the central part of the wetted
volume of soil below the line sources, as determined by the
position of the irrigation lateral lines that were laid out on the
same alignment determined by planting rows, at depths of
0.10, 0.25, 0.40, and 0.60 m. Irrigation was applied whenever
the soil water tension reading at the 0.25 m depth approached
the treatment pre-defined value (20 or 60 kPa). Applied
irrigation water amounts were computed based on the water
volume required to bring the soil moisture content of the entire
plot wetted soil volume to the eld capacity value. On these
treatments, the wetted soil volume was computed as a 0.6 m
wide rectangular block having the same plots length and a depth
equal to the coee crop eective root depth. During the rst
three years aer planting, eective root depth was assumed to
uniformly increase from 0.25 m up to a maximum value of 0.6 m.
On the plots receiving irrigation every Monday, Wednesday,
and Friday, irrigation water amounts applied were computed by
a soil water balance in which daily values of evapotranspiration
of coee crop were estimated by the product of daily reference
evapotranspiration and crop coecient values. Daily reference
evapotranspiration values were computed according to
the Penman Monteith method, as described in the FAO 56
Bulletin (Allen et al., 1998). Meteorological data required for
reference evapotranspiration computation (daily values of
mean temperatures (oC), maximum and minimum relative
humidity (%), solar radiation (W m-2), and wind speed (m s-1) at
a 2 m height) were monitored by an automatic metereological
station (µmetos®) installed in the experimental area. Daily
precipitation (mm) values were also monitored by the same
µmetos ® metereological station. Crop coecient (Kc) values
were selected according to Santinato & Fernandes (2002).
e following characteristics were assessed every three
months to evaluate the eect of dierent irrigation regimes
and planting densities on the vegetative growth of coee plants:
plant height (cm), using a graduated ruler and the number of
primary plagiotropic branches of coee plants.
e mean processed coee yield (bags ha-1) was also assessed
in ve harvests during 2003-2007.
In order to assess coee yield, fruits were harvested during
June and July when the fraction of green fruit achieved a value
lower than 15%. At this stage, all fruits of the eight plants of each
treatment were stripped and collected. e mass of a 10 L sample
of fruit of each treatment was determined and recorded. ese
samples were air dried until reached moisture content around
12%. At this point, experimentally determined conversion
factors of fresh fruit mass to dry fruit mass were calculated for
each treatment. Further, these samples were processed and total
mass of green coee per plant was computed and converted to
the corresponding value of green coee yield expressed as 60
kg bags ha-1.
All variables that describe the plant growth of the coee crop
were analysed according to the scheme adopted of split plots
(Steel et al., 1997). For the mean coee yield in ve harvests
and plant growth, regression analysis were carried out for the
quantitative factor (planting density) and the Scott-Knott test at
the level of 0,05 signicance for the qualitative factor (irrigation
R  D
Analysis of the average irrigation water depth (mm) applied
between harvests to irrigated coee under dierent regimes
for each planting density from 2001 to 2007 (Table 2) showed
that irrigation requirements were highest when irrigation was
managed by the climatologic water balance that is, in a xed
schedule and consequently with more frequent applications
compared to the other regimes adopted. Under this condition,
the soil moisture was continuously at a tension closer to eld
capacity (10 kPa). Lower water depths were applied in the
irrigation at tensions close to 20 kPa (0.25 m depth) than those
applied by the climatologic water balance and higher than
Irrigation depth -mm
Planting density (plants ha-1)
2,500 3,333 5,000 10,000 20,000
Climatologic Water Balance 390.7 481.7 645.7 797.6 867.6
20 kPa 157.3 220.1 357.4 411.7 737.1
60 kPa 97.4 122.3 164.2 235.7 453.4
Rainfall (mm): 2001/02: 1,681.6 mm; 2002/03: 1,361.9 mm; 2003/04: 1,460.5 mm; 2004/05: 1,527.8 mm; 2005/06: 1,486.7 mm; 2006/07: 1,419.4 mm
Table 2. Mean irrigation water depth (mm) applied between harvests to irrigated coffee crop under different regimes
at each planting density from 2001 to 2007
1119Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
those applied with irrigation at tension close to 60 kPa. In both
regimes regarding the soil water state, the irrigation schedule
was variable and irrigation was less frequent compared to the
climatologic water balance. A greater water demand (greater
values for applied irrigation water levels) was also observed
in the most reduced spacing (20,000 plants ha-1) compared to
the non-reduced spacing (2,500 plants ha-1) that conrmed
the relationship between increase in the plant population and
greater water uptake per area unit reported by Kiara & Stolzi
(1986) (Table 2).
Time course of plant height and number of primary
plagiotropic branches observed at dierent planting densities and
irrigation regimes are shown, respectively, in Figure 2A and B.
For all planting densities and irrigation regimes, time course
of plant height was adequately tted to a quadratic model (Figure
2A and Table 3). A quadratic model was adopted because, as
indicated by experimental data, height growth rate of coee
plant is higher during the rst years aer planting and tends
to decrease over time. Plant height time course was aected by
both planting density and irrigation.
In all assessed periods, height values of irrigated plants
were greater than those of non-irrigated plants. Irrigated coee
plants were able to achieve growth rates larger than that of non-
irrigated plants, conrming the fact that restriction in soil water
availability negatively aects the metabolic processes for plant
growth (Carvalho et al., 2006). However, dierences in height
Figure 2. Height of coffee plant (A) and number of plagiotropic branches (B) in function of the assessment periods
in each irrigation regime and planting density
Irrigation regime Planting density (plants ha-1) Equations R2
Non irrigated
02,500 y =–2.3285 × 10-5 x2+ 1.2616 ×10-1 x + 13.445 0.9804
03,333 y =–2.4293 ×10-5 x2+ 1.3485 ×10-1 x + 9.4454 0.9806
05,000 y =–3.0277 ×10-5 x2+ 1.4743 ×10-1 x + 11.922 0.9816
10,000 y =–1.7835 ×10-5 x2+ 1.3575 ×10-1 x + 6.5126 0.9810
20,000 y =–2.9809 ×10-5 x2+ 1.7221 ×10-1 x + 1.8532 0.9891
SWT-20 kPa
02,500 y =–3.4188 ×10-5 x2+ 1.4946 ×10-1 x + 26.687 0.9740
03,333 y =–3.9512 ×10-5 x2+ 1.6328 ×10-1 x + 18.765 0.9569
05,000 y =–3.9868 ×10-5 x2+ 1.6042 ×10-1 x + 21.867 0.9712
10,000 y =–3.7041 × 10-5 x2+ 1.7512 × 10-1 x + 18.455 0.9594
20,000 y =–4.2019 ×10-5 x2+ 2.0082 ×10-1 x + 13.180 0.9844
SWT-60 kPa
02,500 y =–3.3198 ×10-5 x2+ 1.4853 ×10-1 x + 20.586 0.9710
03,333 y =–4.0303 ×10-5 x2+ 1.6181 ×10-1 x + 20.781 0.9809
05,000 y =–4.1432 ×10-5 x2+ 1.6998 ×10-1 x + 17.778 0.9827
10,000 y =–4.0744 ×10-5 x2+ 1.9090 ×10-1 x + 14.122 0.9854
20,000 y =–3.9411 ×10-5 x2+ 1.9418 ×10-1 x + 14.623 0.9764
02,500 y =–3.5666 ×10-5 x2+ 1.5727 × 10-1 x + 21.772 0.9865
03,333 y =–4.2471 ×10-5 x2+ 1.6909 ×10-1 x + 21.816 0.9162
05,000 y =–4.3556 ×10-5 x2+ 1.7489 ×10-1 x + 18.269 0.9581
10,000 y =–4.5839 ×10-5 x2+ 2.0014 ×10-1 x + 12.528 0.9741
20,000 y =–3.9881 ×10-5 x2+ 1.9972 ×10-1 x + 15.458 0.9845
Table 3. Height (cm) of coffee plant in function of the assessment periods in each irrigation regime and planting density
D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 refer to, respectively, 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1; SWT - Soil water tension; CWB - Climatologic water balance.
D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 refer to, respectively, 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1; SWT - Soil water tension; CWB - Climatologic water balance.
1120 Gleice A. de Assis et al.
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
among irrigated and non-irrigated plants decreased over time,
because each cultivar has its own characteristics height around
which growth tends to stabilize (Carvalho et al., 2006). In the last
assessment, 1980 days aer planting, the mean height of irrigated
plants at the 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1 were,
respectively, 9.8, 3.1, 2.4, 10.6 and 9,9% taller (equivalent to 16.9,
5.5, 4.5, 21.8 and 22.4 cm) than the non-irrigated plants growing
at the same planting density. Irrigated coee plants with height
greater than non-irrigated plants were also observed by Moreira
et al. (2004) who reported a 10.3% increase (corresponding to
15.4 cm) in the height of irrigated plants.
At the last assessment, 1980 days aer planting, the mean
height of plants growing at the 20,000 plants ha-1 density was,
respectively, 31.5, 28.9, 26,5 and 9.6% greater than the mean
height of plants growing under the density of 2,500; 3,333; 5,000
and 10,000 plants ha-1 (Figure 2A). Changes on the balance of
growth regulators that stimulate tip meristem development, such
as auxins, gibberellins, and cytocinins (Taiz & Zeiger, 2004),
induced by an increase on the degree of self-shading may explain
why plants growing under high planting density achieved the
highest height values. Similar results were described by Paulo
et al. (2005), who reported grater growth rate of the orthotropic
branch induced by reduced planting spacing.
Under the same planting density, straight lines tted to the
number of plagiotropic branches were similar for the dierent
irrigation regimes (Figure 2B and Table 4).
At the last assessment, held 1980 days aer planting, the
mean number of plagiotropic branches of irrigated plants
at 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 plants ha-1 were,
respectively, 14.3, 8.5, 2.4, 3.1, and 18.2% greater than the
mean number of plagiotropic branches of non-irrigated plants
growing at the same planting density (equivalent to 16, 10,
3, 4, and 17 plagiotropic branches). Signicant increases in
the number of plagiotropic branches of coee plant irrigated
with water depths corresponding to 50 and 100% of the eld
capacity were also observed by Rodrigues et al. (2010) showing
the potential of using irrigation to improve coee plant growth.
At the end of the assessment period, an increase in number
of plagiotropic branches was observed up to the 10,000 plants ha-1
density. At the 20,000 plants ha-1 density an expressive decrease
was observed on the number of plagiotropic branches in relation
to the others planting densities (2,500, 3,333, 5,000 and 10,000
plants ha-1). In the last assessment there were on average 120,
123, 126, 130, and 102 plagiotropic branches per plant at,
respectively, 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 plants ha-1.
This behavior may be explained because up to the 10,000
plants ha-1 density, the plantation closed less intensely and there
was no signicant branch loss induced by self-shading.
Considering the typical coee biennial yield pattern, the
statistical analysis of green coee yield data shown in Table 5
was performed based only on the ve years mean yield value
of each treatment.
It is important to point out that when the mean yield of ve
successive harvests is considered, the inuence from both years
of high and years of low yield are accounted for.
e coee biennial yield pattern, with a year of high followed
by a year of low yield, is clearly depicted on the values shown in
Figure 3. It may also be noticed that the biennial cycle crop can
occur either in non-irrigated or irrigated coee plant systems,
and in the latter, the fall in yield from one year to another may
be greater. Silva et al. (2008) reported similar results, and they
attributed the sharp variation of irrigated coee yield over the
years to the fact that irrigation promoted a greater increase
in yield in the high years. is biennial characteristic can be
explained physiologically by the fact that in a year of great yield,
plants ha-1
Equations R2
Non irrigated
02,500 y = 5.1908 × 10-2 x+ 9.33240 0.9603
03,333 y = 5.6890 × 10-2 x + 5.03610 0.9715
05,000 y = 6.0388 × 10-2 x + 5.01090 0.9613
10,000 y = 6.3093 × 10-2 x + 3.10760 0.9708
20,000 y= 3.6058 × 10-2 x + 2.22010 0.8107
02,500 y = 5.8658 × 10-2 x + 11.1880 0.9615
03,333 y = 5.6267 × 10-2 x + 13.2580 0.9063
05,000 y = 5.3998 × 10-2 x + 14.4140 0.8767
10,000 y = 5.7163 ×10-2 x + 14.3960 0.9017
20,000 y = 3.7595 ×10-2 x + 30.4300 0.6684
02,500 y = 5.7701 × 10-2 x + 13.0410 0.9684
03,333 y = 5.8217 × 10-2 x + 11.7270 0.9745
05,000 y = 6.0823 × 10-2 x + 10.4110 0.9672
10,000 y = 6.3002 × 10-2 x + 12.0050 0.9264
20,000 y = 4.4024 × 10-2 x + 26.9980 0.7803
02,500 y = 5.7564 × 10-2 x + 14.8880 0.9540
03,333 y = 6.0808 ×10-2 x + 12.1830 0.9531
05,000 y = 5.9598 × 10-2 x + 12.5490 0.9546
10,000 y = 5.9313 × 10-2 x + 15.7120 0.9318
20,000 y = 4.1465 × 10-2 x + 29.2720 0.7307
Table 4. Number of plagiotropic branches in function
of the assessment periods in each irrigation regime
and planting density
1 1 bay 60 kg.
Means followed by the same lowercase letter on the line and uppercase letter in the column do not differ significantly by the Scott-Knott test at the level of 0,05 significance.
Planting densities
(plants ha-1)
Yield1- bags ha-1
Irrigation regimes
Non irrigated 60 kPa 20 kPa Climatologic water balance
02.500 29.9 aB 42.0 aC 41.5 aB 44.2 aC
03.333 38.1 aB 43.9 aC 47.4 aB 45.9 aC
05.000 58.7 aA 60.0 aB 50.2 aB 66.8 aB
10.000 57.4 bA 88.6 aA 80.6 aA 88.6 aA
20.000 55.5 bA 88.7 aA 82.1 aA 89.9 aA
Table 5. Mean yield of ve harvests (2003-2007) in bags ha-1 of processed coffee in function of the irrigation regimes
and planting densities
SWT - Soil water tension; CWB - Climatologic water balance.
1121Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
much of the coee plant photoassimilate reserve is drained for
frutication, promoting an imbalance in the leaf/fruit ratio
and thus competition between the reproductive and vegetative
growth (Matiello et al., 2010). Consequently, branch growth is
damaged and the following harvest is reduced.
According to values shown in Table 5, at the 2,500, 3,333, and
5,000 plants ha-1 densities, there were no signicant dierences
among mean yield of irrigated and non-irrigated coee crop.
is behavior may be result of the accentuated biennial eect
that occurred on these planting densities, as shown in Figure
3. Previous studies (Scalco et al., 2011) carried out in the same
experimental area reported that, during high yield years, single
plant coee bean production in conventional planting system
(wider spacing) was signicantly greater than the one observed
at reduced spacing. ese studies also demonstrated that, at
wider planting spacing, irrigation enhances dierences among
single plant green coee induced by dierences in planting
densities, bringing as a consequence greater variability in yield
from one harvest to another. erefore, at the 2,500, 3,333,
and 5,000 plants ha-1, the benecial eect of the irrigation was
masked by the greater eect of the biennial pattern. At these
densities, irrigation may have induced a greater exhaustion
of photoassimilates of the plants during higher yield years
damaging yield in the following year.
For the 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1 densities (Table
5), there were no significant differences among irrigation
treatments (20 kPa, 60 kPa, and CWB) on mean green coee
yield in the ve harvests. At the 10,000 plants ha-1 density, the
mean yield of irrigated coee, regardless of the irrigation regime
used, was 49.7% greater than that obtained in non-irrigated
plants (corresponding to an increase of 28.5 bags (60 kg) of
green coee ha-1). At the 20,000 plants ha-1 population, this
increase was 56.6% (equivalent to 31.4 bags (60 kg) of processed
coee ha-1).
At the 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1 densities, changes in
values of irrigation water depth applied per harvest, associated to
changes in considered irrigation treatment (Table 1), did not alter
the corresponding ve year mean value of coee yield (Table 5).
is result indicted that using the lower irrigation water depths
applied corresponding to the irrigation regime when the soil water
tension reached values close to 60 kPa, was sucient to meet
the water requirements of coee crop. At the 10,000 plants ha-1
density and irrigation based on the 60 kPa tension, the savings
in application were 73.2% (equivalent to 573.1 mm per year)
compared to that applied by the climatologic water balance. At the
20,000 plants ha-1 density, this reduction was 50.5% corresponding
to 427.1 mm per year (Table 4). Correct irrigation management
can reect in water, energy and labor savings that weigh very
heavily in coee production costs (Silva et al., 2013).
In the considered period, the rainfall values between harvests
ranged from 1,361.9 to 1,681.6 mm (Table 2) that in principle
can be considered as sucient to meet the water requirements
of the coee crop in the southern region of Minas Gerais state,
Brazil. Consequently, this factor should not be considered
alone, because in addition to quantity, the distribution of the
rainfall over the year is also an important factor to consider,
highlighting the importance of irrigation in this situation. Due
to the climatic changes and the frequent occurrence of drought
in months considered rainy (Pellegrino et al., 2007) irrigation
associated to planting in reduced spacing may alleviate the
climatic vulnerability of the plant so that its development and
production are not damaged.
e benets of irrigation of coee crop in the southern region
of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have been reported in many studies
(Carvalho et al., 2006; Guimarães et al., 2010; Serra et al., 2013;
Silva et al., 2008). In a study of ve harvests of coee crop, Gomes
et al. (2007) assessed the eect of various irrigation amounts,
computed as fractions of a Class A pan evaporation (Epan), on
yield of the Rubi MG-1192 coee cultivar. ey reported that
plants irrigated by a center pivot presented a mean yield 63.7%
higher (15.3 bags ha-1) than non-irrigated plants. e same
authors did not observe signicant dierences in coee yield due
Figure 3. Yield of ve harvests (2003-2007) in bags ha-1 of processed coffee irrigated (A) and non-irrigated (B) in
function of the planting densities
D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 refer to, respectively, 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1.
60 kg bags ha-1
60 kg bags ha-1
1122 Gleice A. de Assis et al.
R. Bras. Eng. Agríc. Ambiental, v.18, n.11, p.1116–1123, 2014.
to irrigation water depth (60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% Epan). A
similar result was also found in the present study, that is, on the
average of the ve harvests assessed, the lower irrigation water
depth used was sucient to meet the water needs of the coee
crop without damaging its productive potential.
For both irrigated and non-irrigated plants, mean coee
yield (bags ha-1) as function of planting density tted a quadratic
model (Figure 4).
e quadratic model is able to reproduce the accentuated
yield reduction observed at the 20,000 plants ha-1. As mentioned
before, when analysing time evolution of plagiotropic branches,
at the 20,000 plants ha-1, coee crop gradually lost the productive
branches on the lower and mid third. e loss of branches
occurs because self-shading of the plantation induces smaller
production of photoassimilates in the shaded area of the leaf
canopy that culminates in their death (Rena & Maestri, 1987).
At this planting density, shading became limiting for production
as it may also have inhibited owering, because light is an
important factor in bud induction for this process. e smaller
number of plagiotropic branches on the plants in the 20,000
ha-1 population (Figure 2B) allied to the greater height (Figure
2A) as consequence of self-shading is shown in a process of
etiolating, and only the internodes growth of plants conducted
at this density.
According to the tted equations, maximum correspond
to coordinates 13,445 plants ha-1 versus 65.7 bags ha-1 (non-
irrigated) and 15,261 plants ha-1 versus 94.4 bags ha-1 (irrigated).
A similar response to irrigation was reported by Braccini et al.
(2005) maximum yield of non-irrigated coee crop, cv Iapar 59
with a population around 15,000 plants ha-1.
1. Regardless of the planting density, irrigation promoted
higher growth of coee plant.
2. e eect of irrigation on the increase in coee yield
(processed bags) varied in function of the plant density per area.
3. For densities of 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1, regardless
of the regime used to manage irrigation (20 kPa, 60 kPa and
climatologic water balance) mean yield increases can be
obtained of over 49.6% compared to non-irrigated cultivation.
Figure 4. Mean yield of ve harvests (2003-2007) in bags ha-1 of processed coffee irrigated (A) and non-irrigated (B)
in function of the planting densities
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for nancial support.
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... This might be due to appropriate plant densities being regulated efficiently the available water under coffee trees. Similarly, the study of Assis et al. [48] reported the influence of different irrigation management regimes and coffee planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L. in Brasil ( Figure 5). The authors observed that applying irrigation water to the coffee farms varied as a function of plant densities on the increment of yield per given unit area, even though the growth performance was recorded from the irrigated coffee farm regardless of the density. ...
... The authors observed that applying irrigation water to the coffee farms varied as a function of plant densities on the increment of yield per given unit area, even though the growth performance was recorded from the irrigated coffee farm regardless of the density. D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 refer to 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha -1 , respectively Source: Assis et al. [48]. ...
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Abstract: Coffee is one of the most important beverage crops, ranked the second most traded commodity next to oil globally, and grown for its health values, economic and socio-political benefits for several countries including Ethiopia. The arabica type is a highly produced coffee in different countries and dominates 70% of the world coffee trade for its quality requirements. It was first originated and is still there naturally under the shadow of the forest canopy in Ethiopia and best adapted to the higher elevations for the best quality. Nowadays, the crop has been grown naturally in the forest, in semi-forest, in the small home garden areas and plantation systems, in the country. But both the small home garden and plantation systems need human interference to produce quality coffee for domestic consumption and global market purposes. The former production system is traditionally practiced by small holder producers while the plantation was recently introduced and it is a kind of production system in a specific area by providing the agronomic requirement and others based on the plant growth stages throughout the crop ontogeny. As a result, the first and fundamental practice in the plantation system is the coffee field establishment (coffee seedling preparation on nursey, the plantation site selection and preparation and field transplant of the seedlings) at selected production areas. Also, soon after the coffee field establishment, the field management activities like shade regulation for the newly planted coffee seedlings and coffee trees permanently (coffee is the shade-loving plant), nutrients (organic sources) and water/irrigation/ application are practiced, especially around water deficit areas depends on the crop growth stages, environmental conditions and plant densities, and the weed, major diseases and insect pest occurrences to produce quality bean. Hence, most of the practices in the field establishment and field management activities have a positive contribution on the coffee production sector to be competent in the business and to fetch the foreign currencies for the country. But the Ethiopian coffee farm management systems and the agronomic practices are still traditional (90-95%) and need improvement. Thus, this paper was aimed to review the coffee field establishment and field management activities practiced in the center of arabica coffee origin, Ethiopia.
... Due to the high water consumption on irrigated farms, optimization of farming practices is needed. In Brazil, the irrigated area was 10% of the total coffee plantation area in 2007 and provided 22% of the yield (de Assis et al. 2014). In a study by de Assis et al. (de Assis et al. 2014), irrigation increased the mean yield of coffee by almost 50% compared with non-irrigated cultivation (plant density10,000 or 20,000 plants per hectare). ...
... In Brazil, the irrigated area was 10% of the total coffee plantation area in 2007 and provided 22% of the yield (de Assis et al. 2014). In a study by de Assis et al. (de Assis et al. 2014), irrigation increased the mean yield of coffee by almost 50% compared with non-irrigated cultivation (plant density10,000 or 20,000 plants per hectare). However, Eriyagama et al. (Eriyagama et al. 2014) concluded that the coffee-producing countries Brazil, Nicaragua, Colombia and Honduras have higher water consumption (if irrigated) and slightly lower yields than they potentially could by implementing better farming practices. ...
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PurposeCoffee is one of the most widely grown cash crops globally, but there are few scientific articles on its carbon footprint and water scarcity impacts. The aim of this study was to assess the carbon footprint and water scarcity impacts throughout the life cycle of the coffee chain (cradle-to-grave) and to identify the most important sources of the impacts (hotspots).Methods The system included all the key stages of the supply chain from land use change and coffee cultivation to roasting and household consumption. Primary data was collected from eight coffee cultivation farms in Brazil, Nicaragua, Colombia and Honduras and coffee roastery and packaging manufacturers in Finland. The AWARE method was applied in a water scarcity impact assessment.Results and discussionThe carbon footprint varied from 0.27 to 0.70 kg CO2 eq/l coffee. The share of the coffee cultivation stage varied from 32 to 78% and the consumption stage from 19 to 49%. The use of fertilizers was the most important process contributing to the carbon footprint. Furthermore, deforestation-related emissions notably increased the carbon footprint of coffee from Nicaragua. Compared with the previous literature, our results indicate a relatively larger share of climate impacts in the cultivation stage and less during consumption.The water scarcity impact was relatively low for non-irrigated systems in Central America, 0.02 m3 eq/l coffee. On Brazilian farms, irrigation is a major contributor to the water scarcity impact, varying from 0.15 to 0.27 m3 eq/l coffee.Conclusions Improving the management practices in cultivation and fertilization is key for lower GHG emissions. Irrigation optimization is the most important mitigation strategy to reduce water scarcity impact. However, actions to reduce these two impacts should be executed side by side to avoid shifting burdens between the two.
... The plant height was measured from the base of the stem to the plant apex using graduated ruler. The diameter of the main stem was measured at full fruit bearing stage, 5 cm above the ground using Vernier Caliper (Assis et al., 2014;Tefera et al., 2016). The length of bearing primary branches was measured from the point of attachment to the main stem to the apex using graduated ruler as an average value of four longest bearing primaries per plant. ...
... Andrade et al., 2014;Baliza et al., 2014; De Assis et al., 2015;De Assis et al., 2014;De Oliveira et al., 2015; Mukeshambala et al., 2014;Pereira et al., 2014; Scalco et al., 2014; Souza et al., 2014;Theodoro, Guimarães & Mendes, 2014;Villela et al., 2015). El segundo autor, Adriana S. Franca, del Departamento ciencias biológicas y agricultura e ingeniería de la Universidad Federal Minas Gerais, cuenta con 38 publicaciones. ...
... Based on the experiments, they found that irrigation needs were higher when irrigation was conducted by the climatological water balance, as it had a fixed schedule with more frequent applications in relation to the other adopted regimes. The mean irrigation area was 867.6 mm considering 20,000 plants ha − 1 (Assis et al., 2014). ...
In Brazil, water management in agriculture is an extremely important issue in terms of water security, as well as in other regions of the world. Thus, the study presents a method to measure the potential water demand in the agricultural sector in two pairs (Pair 1 and Pair 2) of hydrographic sub-basins (SB) inserted in the Piracicaba River basin, located in southeastern Brazil. The methods adopted consisted of: using orbital sensor data to identify the types of temporary and permanent crops in the studied areas; preparing the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to classify temporary crops, in four levels, which represent their development stages; collecting the irrigation need for each permanent and temporary crop through the “Technical Coefficients for Irrigated Agriculture” platform under the control of the National Water Agency; and, calculating the daily Potential Water Demand in the agricultural sector. The potential water demand showed differences between the pairs of the hydrographic sub-basins, due to the extension and the type of the predominant cultures. It is noteworthy that the Córrego dos Coqueiros hydrographic sub-basin is an area where the water supply may be compromised, due to the use of water resources in several sectors, in addition to agriculture. The need for crop irrigation, obtained through the National Water Agency platform associated with the geoprocessing of satellite images, made it possible to measure the daily potential water demand on the hydrographic sub-basin scale, which can assist in the assessment of the hydrographic region and the formulation of measures aimed at the sustainable use of water resources.
... At farm scale, these strategies typically include irrigation, water-saving technologies, conservation of soil water through mulching, shade management (e.g. shading systems with tree species, agroforestry, etc.), and diversification of farm activities (DaMatta, 2004a;Dias et al., 2007;Silva et al., 2008;Worku and Astatkie, 2010;Haggar and Schepp, 2012;Jassogne et al., 2013;Assis et al., 2014;Bisang et al., 2016;Boreux et al., 2016). Mulching is a practice consisting of spreading a layer of materials (i.e. ...
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An improved understanding of the benefits and uptake of drought mitigation strategies under a changing climate is critical to ensure effective strategies are developed. Here, using 10 years (2008–2017) of farm data from 558 farmers distributed across the major robusta coffee-producing provinces in Vietnam, we analysed coffee farmers’ perceptions on drought and its impacts; we then quantified the impacts of drought on yield and farm profit, and finally, assessed the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. While drought reduced robusta coffee yield by 6.5% on average across all provinces, the impacts on gross margins were noticeable, with an average 22% decline from levels achieved in average-rainfall-condition years. Yield reductions from drought were consistent with farmers’ perceptions, being on average − 9.6%. With irrigation being typical in coffee farming in Vietnam, the majority of surveyed farmers (58%) adopted mulching in drought years and had a 10.2% increase in economic benefits compared to their counterparts who did not. Furthermore, the chances of adopting mulching as an adaptation strategy decreased generally for every one unit increase in perceived drought impact or when shifting from surface water to groundwater in drought years. Although coffee farming remained profitable in drought years, our findings have potential relevance for the design of policies to address drought risks and encourage more resilient adaptation strategies for Vietnam and other coffee-producing countries experiencing similar climatic conditions.
... The state of Minas Gerais has extensive coffee production areas where different irrigation systems were used and planned to guarantee production even in regions with high-risk climate. [27][28][29] In addition, in more favorable scenarios, these different irrigation systems have helped coffee farmers to achieve greater development 30,31 of coffee crop and high production. ...
The coffee crop spectral behavior identification throughout its cycle can contribute to its development monitoring under pest incidence. We aim to identify coffee development through time signatures of enhanced vegetation index (EVI), as well as to evaluate the use of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models to identify coffee trees spectrum-time patterns under different irrigation management and design future scenarios. Three coffee fields were selected under different irrigation systems, whose EVI data of 8 years were obtained from the moderate resolution image spectroradiometer sensor. Each coffee crop model was subjected to residual autocorrelation test and classified according to information criteria, while its accuracy was assessed by means of prediction error measures and agreement index. The estimated and observed EVI values were similar, even for the predicted year. However, in agricultural years during which coffee diseases occurred, the crops showed vegetative vigor below the expected.We concluded that SARIMA models enabled the establishment of a reliable spectral signature expected for coffee crop, which could help with crop management defining, regardless of the irrigation system adopted. Based on the evaluation of divergence between expected and observed spectral signatures, early signs of coffee underdevelopment were detected, which could reduce economic loss risks on its commercial chain.
... Beberapa teknologi konservasi lahan diantaranya tidak melakukan pembajakan tanah dan menerapkan penanaman lorong (Iijima et al. 2003), konservasi lahan (Robertson et al. 2000), penggunaan Tabel 3. Berbagai penelitian dampak variabilitas iklim pada sistem produksi kopi (Pohlan et al. 2008;Santos et al. 2016). Teknologi konservasi air antara lain teknologi panen air (Irianto 2000;Hamdani dan Talaohu 2016), irigasi dan drainase (Shimber et al. 2013;Scalco et al. 2014;Perdoná dan Soratto 2015). ...
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p> Abstrak . Rendahnya produktivitas kopi merupakan salah satu permasalahan utama dalam sistem produksi kopi Indonesia. Hal ini diantaranya disebabkan tidak adanya perawatan kopi yang optimal dengan memperhatikan fase fenologi kopi, serta dampak variabilitas dan perubahan iklim. Berbagai teknologi adaptasi kopi sudah banyak dihasilkan namun langkah adaptasi dengan memanfaatkan prakiraan iklim dalam bentuk penyesuian kegiatan budidaya dengan fase fenologi atau disebut sebagai kalender budidaya belum dikembangkan. Tulisan ini memaparkan tentang dampak variabilitas dan perubahan iklim pada tanaman kopi, teknologi adaptasi kopi yang sudah tersedia, perlunya pengembangan kalender budidaya kopi sebagai bentuk strategi adaptasi dan peningkatan produktivitas serta potensi dan tantangan pengembangan kalender budidaya kopi di Indonesia. Hasil review ini menunjukkan kalender budidaya kopi berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai strategi peningkatan produktivitas serta adaptasi terhadap variabilitas dan perubahan iklim. Abstract . Low productivity is one of the main challenges in Indonesia's coffee production system .It is low due to cultivation management; most of the coffee farmer does not manage their plantation base on the coffee phenology phase. Moreover climate variability and change also have important effect on coffee productivity. Various technologies on adaptation and measurement to climate change and variability have been identified. Unfortunately, the technology which use climate forecast through adjusting cultivation activity and coffee phenology called as cultivation calendar do not exist yet. This paper provides an overview on the impact of climate variability and change to coffee production, the existing adaptation strategy, and the importance of cultivation calendar as a strategy for adapting and increasing productivity, and the potential and challenges to develop cultivation calendar in Indonesia. This review reveals that coffee cultivation calendar is a potential strategy for increaseing productivity and adapting climate change and variability.</p
... The area with localized irrigation showed higher values than those of center pivot in 2017 ( Figure 2B), due to its demand in the Southeast region, mainly in coffee crops (Assis et al., 2014), which grew by 37% in the number of trees planted between 2006 and 2017, and citrus (Palaretti et al., 2011;Santos et al., 2016) (Figure 3B). In addition, the lower demand for water and inputs caused localized irrigation to expand to areas previously occupied by other irrigation systems (ABIMAQ, 2018). ...
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Water is an essential element to life and used in various human activities. However, because of the amount used in agriculture and the increase in irrigated area, the sustainable use of this resource has become a worldwide concern. In this study, data from the Censuses of Agriculture published by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) from 1960 to 2017 were evaluated in relation to the regions and irrigation methods, performing a detailed analysis between the data from the 2006 and 2017 Censuses. There was an increase in irrigated area in Brazil in all geographic regions, reaching 6.9 million hectares in 2017. Sprinkler irrigation methods are the most used, with 48% of the irrigated area, followed by localized irrigation (24.4%) and surface irrigation (22.3%). Drip irrigation is the most used system in establishments up to 50 ha (617,423 ha), followed by conventional sprinkler (514,893 ha), while the center pivot stands out in areas larger than 50 ha (1,362,828 ha). The Southeast region (38.6%) and the states of Rio Grande do Sul (20.4%), Minas Gerais (16.6%) and São Paulo (16.0%) stand out as the ones with the largest irrigated area in the country. The State of Minas Gerais showed the highest growth of irrigated area in the 2006-2017 period (116.1%), due to the expansion of areas irrigated with center pivot.
... Low and unreliable rainfall conditions, especially during critical growth stages, can make coffee production challenging in leading coffee-producing countries and impact negatively on the entire global coffee sector. To cope with such adverse patterns and assist with better plant growth conditions and satisfactory yield levels over years, coffee farmers rely on irrigation (D'haeze et al., 2005a;Assis et al., 2014;Amarasinghe et al., 2015;Perdoná and Soratto, 2015;Sakai et al., 2015;Boreux et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2016). Irrigation amounts in coffee vary depending on the annual rainfall distribution, the severity of the dry season, and soil type and depth (Carr, 2001). ...
Robusta coffee is critically important for the economy and farmers of Vietnam, but also requires substantial irrigation leading to dwindling water resources. Developing clear recommendations for improved irrigation water management, while maintaining or increasing yield is therefore a key knowledge need for the coffee industry. We analyse 10-cropping-year data (2008/2009–2017/2018) of 558 farms across four major coffee-producing provinces in Vietnam’s Central Highlands using CROPWAT and hierarchical Bayesian modelling to (1) identify irrigation requirements under different climatic conditions, and (2) investigate the potential for improved irrigation management strategies. In average rainfall years the majority of farmers in Dak Nong and Lam Dong supplied an equivalent of 455–909 L tree⁻¹ (assuming 1100 plants ha⁻¹) with corresponding average yields ranging from 2149 to 3177 kg ha⁻¹. In Dak Lak and Gia Lai the predominant range was equivalent to 1364–1818 L tree⁻¹ (corresponding average yields: 2190 to 3203 kg ha⁻¹). In dry years more water was supplied through irrigation at various levels depending on the province: varying between 1364–1818 L tree⁻¹ in Dak Lak and Gia Lai, and 909–1364 L tree⁻¹ in Dak Nong and Lam Dong. Our study also shows that irrigation water can be reduced by 273–536 L tree⁻¹ (300–590 m³ ha⁻¹) annually from the current levels in average rainfall years while still achieving average yield levels greater than 3000 kg ha⁻¹. In dry years reductions of 27–218 L tree⁻¹ (30–240 m³ ha⁻¹) are possible. With adequate management of the key crop practices affecting coffee yields, substantial water savings at the provincial scale could be achieved. Thus, our findings could serve as a basis for province-specific irrigation water management in robusta coffee farms that will not only reduce overall water use, but also potentially maintain satisfactory yield levels.
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This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was studied with two plants in the same hole, spaced of 2,0 m in the plant line. The experimental design was the randomized completely blocks with three replications, using the split-plot system. The plots were the densities and the split-plots were the cultivars. Results showed that, with increasing of the planting density, the plant height also increased, while the stem and plant basis diameters were reduced, however the planting density did not affect the height of the first branch. The increase of the planting density also increased the field productivity and reduced the production of individual plant. The cultivation of two plants at the same hole reduced the stem diameter and the plant yield. The cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 showed the higher plant height and the higher plant basis diameter while cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 showed the higher stem diameter. The field productivity and individual plant productivity were not different between those cultivars in the period studied (1997-2000).
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The experiment was established in the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - Epamig Experiment Station, located in the city of Machado, south of the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the year of 1992, with the objective of evaluating the consequences of the reduction on planting spaces among rows and among plants, upon beans yield and plant phenology (Coffea arabica L.). The experimental design used was a 4x 3 factorial with split plot at four distances between planting rows (2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5 m) and three distances among plants in the row (0,5; 0,75 e 1,0 m), and two different pruning times (one precociously conducted just after the harvest, on july 2002, and the other latter on january 2003), making a total 24 treatments arranged in randomized blocks with three replicates. In july 2002 and january 2003 a drastic pruning was clone and conducing two sprouts per plant. Vegetative growth and beans yield were evaluated in august 2004. Coffee plant spacing did not affected growth of any of the vegetative components of sprouting, during the evaluated period. All the vegetative characteristics were positively affected by the early pruning procedure, as well as the beans yield of the first harvest after pruning, which also showed to be positively influenced by the adoption of a narrower spacing plant. The coffee plants which were submitted to late prunning, had lancer bean yield in july 2004 as those precociously prunned.
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O conhecimento e o manejo dos principais fatores relacionados à produção, dentre os quais a irrigação é de fundamental importância, razão por que se objetivou, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diversas lâminas de irrigação no crescimento vegetativo, desenvolvimento e produtividade de cafeeiros, desde a fase inicial de formação até a quinta safra. As lâminas de água aplicadas em função da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" (ECA), foram: 60% (T2); 80% (T3); 100% (T4); 120% (T5); e 140% (T6) da ECA, além de tratamento testemunha não irrigado (T1). Avaliaram-se, a cada mudança de estação, variáveis vegetativas e, após as colheitas, a produtividade das parcelas experimentais para as safras 00/01, 01/02, 02/03, 03/04 e 04/05; mesmo não havendo diferença estatística significativa na comparação de safras anuais para as irrigações se nota, ao se comparar a produção total acumulada das safras, diferença estatística entre a testemunha e os tratamentos irrigados, destacando-se a lâmina de 60% da ECA, com a qual a produção total acumulada foi de 225,6 sc e a média anual de 45,12 sc ha-1, acréscimo de 119% na produtividade do cafeeiro comparado-a ao tratamento não irrigado, que produziu, em média, 22,5 sc ha-1 ano-1.
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Uma das formas mais eficientes de aumentar a produtividade do cafeeiro nos primeiros anos da cultura é por meio de plantios mais adensados. Neste contexto, foi conduzido experimento na Fazenda Experimental de Iguatemi, pertencente à Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), com objetivo de avaliar a influência do aumento na densidade das plantas sobre as características agronômicas e de produção de frutos e grãos de café. As mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) da cultivar ‘Iapar 59’ foram plantadas em outubro de 1997, utilizando-se uma muda por cova nas densidades de 3.333, 5.000, 6.666, 10.000 e 20.000 plantas ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As características agronômicas avaliadas foram altura de planta, área média da folha, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa e número de ramos plagiotrópicos. Também foram avaliados o volume e a massa de café cereja, bem como a produção de café despolpado e beneficiado por área e por planta. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que populações próximas de 14.000 plantas ha-1 foram as que apresentaram os melhores resultados nas características de crescimento avaliadas. Contudo, a maior produção por planta foi alcançada com 10.000 plantas ha-1. A produção de grãos apresentou resposta linear crescente, no primeiro ano, e quadrática, no segundo ano, com o aumento na densidade de plantio. A maior produção por área foi obtida com a densidade de 20.000 plantas ha-1, no primeiro ano, e de aproximadamente 15.000 plantas ha-1 no segundo ano.
The aim of this study was to evaluate criteria for irrigation and planting densities best suited to coffee growing to maximize yield. The experiment was conducted in an area of the Department of Agriculture, Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and four replications. Planting was carried out using healthy coffee seedlings of the Ruby MG-1192 cultivar. It was observed that the use of irrigation provided for significant increases in processed coffee yield in high density planting from 10,000 to 20,000 plants ha-1. Irrigations based on tensions from 60 kPa to 100 kPa are sufficient to meet the water requirements of coffee in dense plantings, but the increase in the number of plants from 10,000 to 20,000 compromises the sustainability of the crop through the disproportionate increase in water consumption for irrigation, with small increases in yield. For the irrigation tension of 60 kPa, the relative increase in yield outweighs the other criteria for irrigation, with 13,750 plants ha-1 being the number of plants indicated.
Irrigated coffee production represents approximately 10% of the total area planted with coffee and 25% of Brazil's annual production of the crop. This study aimed at determining the effects of different doses and splittings of N and K 2O fertilization, applied via drip fertirrigation, on growth and leaf N and K concentrations in the first year of fertilization after planting. The cultivar Catiguá MG-3 was used in a 2.50 m × 0.6 m spacing. Treatments consisted of combinations of five doses of N and K 2O fertilizer ((i) 70%, (ii) 100%, (iii) 130%, (iv)160%, and (v) 190% of the recommended dose for non-irrigated coffee), two split applications ((i) four and (ii) twelve applications) and a non-irrigated control treatment that received 100% of the recommended dose in four applications during the rainy season. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications in split-plots. Plots were constituted by different splitting managements and split-plots by different doses. In each split-plot eight plants, from a total of ten, were sampled. Plant growth (plant height, stem and crown diameter) was higher in the treatments that received twelve fertilizer applications and did not vary according to the fertirrigation doses, but was lower in the non-irrigated control treatment. In fertirrigated coffee fields in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, N and K 2O doses should be reduced to 70% of the amount usually recommended for non-irrigated coffee, providing that twelve monthly applications are done.
This study had the objective to evaluate possible alterations induced by irrigation on a super dense coffee plantation (Coffea arabica L.), with 20 000 plants per hectare, based on values taken along seven consecutive cropping years of green coffee bean yield, bean volume per plant, dry cherry to green coffee bean ratio, and degree of maturation. The experiment was set up on January 2001 at an experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Lavras- MG, with two treatments: (i) drip irrigated plants, and (ii) non-irrigated plants. Whenever the soil water tension, at 0.25m depth reached a value near 60kPa, a drip irrigation system was used to apply the volume of water required to restore field capacity. The highest amount of water used (866mm) was observed during the first harvest year. Observations taken along seven consecutive cropping years indicated that: (i) cherry maturation of drip irrigated coffee plants was delayed in relation to the non-irrigated plants; (ii) the ratio dry cherry to green coffee bean is not affected by irrigation, but dry cherry volume production per irrigated plant was 42% higher than the one produced by non-irrigated plants; (iii) irrigation may provide coffee producers with a 44% increase in coffee bean yield. Besides typical coffee biennial fluctuations of yield, for the 20000 plants ha-1 density, for both irrigated and non-irrigated treatments, no significant observations in decrease in yield along the seven consecutive cropping years was seen.