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Glimpses on cosmetic applications using marine red algae

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Abstract

Natural cosmetic has become hunger in the current collage girls and working women to have everlasting young appearance without damaging or side effects to the health. In this paper we go in search of cosmetic products through marine environment that is through algae especially red algae. The red algae had many compounds in it which could be used for research studies. It also had many compounds which have to be exploited for further studies. Many red algae with many therapeutic properties which have to be discovered yet can be also used in making cosmetics products. Its major application lies in producing the anti-wrinkling and skin whitener products. Numerous red algae species with many therapeutic properties have been discussed in this paper. Hence this review paper gives the idea of making the whole red algae as the cosmetic product that satisfies all the requirements of current young women’ s beauty needs. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. All rihgts reserved.
Rajasulochana P* et al. International Journal Of Pharmacy & Technology
IJPT| Sep-2015 | Vol. 7 | Issue No.2 | 9235-9242 Page 9235
ISSN: 0975-766X
CODEN: IJPTFI
Available Online through Research Article
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GLIMPSES ON COSMETIC APPLICATIONS USING MARINE RED ALGAE
Rajasulochana P1, Preethy V2
1Associate Professor, Department of Genetic Engineering, Bharath University, Selaiyur, Chennai,
2MTech student, Department of Genetic Engineering Bharath University, Selaiyur, Chennai.
Email: preethy.vijaykumar@gmail.com
Received on 10-09-2015 Accepted on 30-09-2015
Abstract
Natural cosmetic has become hunger in the current collage girls and working women to have everlasting young
appearance without damaging or side effects to the health. In this paper we go in search of cosmetic products through
marine environment that is through algae especially red algae. The red algae had many compounds in it which could
be used for research studies. It also had many compounds which have to be exploited for further studies. Many red
algae with many therapeutic properties which have to be discovered yet can be also used in making cosmetics
products. Its major application lies in producing the anti-wrinkling and skin whitener products. Numerous red algae
species with many therapeutic properties have been discussed in this paper. Hence this review paper gives the idea of
making the whole red algae as the cosmetic product that satisfies all the requirements of current young women’ s
beauty needs.
Introduction
Today most of the women has desire to be young and healthy for many years. Even at the age of 40 they prefer to
look like 30. Hence they go in search for cosmetics and other products both natural and synthetics products for
healthy and young appearance. But most of them prefer for natural cosmetics because of their less side effects and
multiple benefits. Hence the natural source for cosmetics in earth is available as plants, trees, marine sources and
micro organisms. The Algae (commonly referred to as Seaweed) is an everyday miracle. Seaweed has been used
extensively in cosmetic applications not only for their nutrient and anti-oxidant properties, but because is one of the
few, natural solutions to that 21st century malady: obesity. It is no wonder seaweed has been part of the traditional
diet of all coastal cultures, including the people of Japan, Korea, China, Iceland, Denmark, Wales, Scotland, Hawaii,
and the South Pacific Islands, and all the people who had trading contacts with the coastal cultures. The natural
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cosmetic industry has for years been leveraging algae in products focused on skin-care. Algae must deal with the
damaging impacts of exposure to solar radiation and other environmental hazards, and have developed special sun
blocks and other agents to protect and heal themselves. Companies are now developing these compounds into
products that offer humans the same benefits.
In this paper we go in search of cosmetic products through marine environment that is through algae especially red
algae. It is the largest and oldest eukaryotic algae of about 5000 to 6000 species. They range from simple one celled
organism to complex multicelled plants like organism. They lack flagella which makes it distinguish form other
algae. They play major role as primary producers and maintenance of coral reefs. They belong to Periphyton and
Epiphytismis is the most common among them. They are called coralline algae because they build reefs. Sub classes
of red algae are Florideophyceae and Bangiophyceae. Bactrachospermum, Chondrus, Corallina, Gelidum and
Polusiphonia are major species of Florideophyceae. Porphyra, Bangia and cyanidium are major species of
Bangiophyceae.
This paper concentrates mainly on red algae because it has protein plugs (pit connections) in cell walls between cells
along with protein polysaccharides (some algae). It also produces mucilages which are polymers of D-Xylose, D-
Glucose, D-Glucuronic acid and Galactose inside their Golgi apparatus. A few Rhodophyta are heterotrophic, and
these organisms are generally obligate parasites (parasites that must live off a host) of other algae. Carbon and
nitrogen metabolism in red algae is similar to that in other algae. Pigments of red algae includes Chlorophyll and two
classes of accessory pigments Phycobilins (B Phycoerythrin 1 and II, R Phycoerythin I, II and III and Carotenoids.
Some parasitic forms of red algae lack photosynthetic pigments. All these are located in chloroplast. Red algae do not
decay and have a better preserved fossil record than many other algae. Fossils of red algae have been found in rocks
500 million years old. It produces unusual carbohyderates such as Digeneaside during osmotic stress. Polysaccharide
Floridean starch is a unique form of food storage which is formed in cytoplasm.
Hence these red algae had many compounds in it which could be used for research studies. It also had many
compounds which have to be exploited for further studies. Many red algae with many therapeutic properties which
have to be discovered yet can be also used in making cosmetics products. Hence this paper concerns about how the
compounds in red algae with cosmetic property can be useful in making a beauty product.
Anti Wrinkling Activity of Algae
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Today most of the women’s problem is wrinkling that to at the early 30’s. Hence they require natural anti wrinkling
agent. Hence red algae can be solution to their problem. Initially wrinkling is caused by oxidative stress. This stress
produces reactive oxygen species which phosphorylates transcription activator protein 1.This protein is responsible
for up regulation of Matrix Metallo Proteinases (MMP). These proteins help in degradation of skin collagen.
Damaging the collagen causes skin ageing. The major cause for production of MMP 2 and MMP 9 which commonly
called Gelatinases is UV which is from sun causes early wrinkling when compared to normal ageing process. Hence
from above information it is clear that MMPS are major contributors of wrinkling hence naturally researchers go in
search for MMP’s inhibitors. It has been found that Phlorotannins as potential anti photo ageing agent which is
available in marine environment. Hence marine derived Pholotannins can be useful in cosmetic therapy which is
present in the red algae. Naturally Phenolic compounds has capacity to inhibit MMPs which clearly suggest the role
of phenlic compounds from marine algae as potential MMP inhibitors.
Since a marine alga is the source of phenolic compounds we can use these red algae as anti wrinkling cosmetic
product. Before that we need to analyse the phenolic compounds present in the marine red algae. Algae is also similar
to plants that produce essential compounds as secondary metabolites which is diverse group of chemical compounds
consisting of hydroxyl (OH) directly bounded to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. The high amount of Phenolic
content is present in red algae species called Gracilaria and Corallina elongate. Vindalenolone, a typical tropical red
algae phenolic compound present in Vidalia species. Already species with high phenolic and polyphenolic content
were experimentally found. One such example is red algae samples from Jeju Island in which their phenolic content
were experimented using aqueous extract. Some of polyphenols present in red algae are Gallic acid, Protocatechnic,
Catechin, Vanillic acid, Epicatechin, Syringic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Gentisic acid, Caffeic acid, Commanic acid,
Fenulic acid, Rutin, Quercetain and Phloroglucinol. The high polyphenolic content is present in red algae (Laurencia
undulate). Corallina pilulifera (CMP) have revealed that it has ability to prevent UV induced oxidative stress and also
expressions of MMP-2 and MMP- 9 in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. Asparagopsis armata, a red algae that
grows in the Atlantic Ocean. It improves elastin skin tissues, reduces fine lines and wrinkles and also acts as powerful
antioxidents.
Skin Whitener
Everybody loves to look fairer especially women usually desire to have white skin tone. But chemicals used in
cosmetics have harmful effects even though they cause whiting in few days. Hence natural whitener becomes thirst
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for young modern women now a day. Red alga satisfies their need by having Tyrosine Inhibitors. Usually skin hypo
pigmentation occurs through this enzyme since it catalyses rate limiting step in pigmentation. Hence researchers are
trying to use these tyrosine inhibitors in clinical trials. Hence red algae can serve as source of tyrosine inhibitors
which has to be discovered as potential tyrosine inhibitor compound still research is going on for finding our potential
tyrosine inhibitors. Hence this could pave way for new research work carry out in red algae in search for natural
Tyrosine Inhibitor compounds.
It is known that skin whitening is in practice around the globe with Asia as its largest market. Tyrosinase inhibitors
(Figure 1) are found to be the most common approach to achieve skin hypo-pigmentation, as this enzyme catalyzes
the rate-limiting step of pigmentation.
Figure 1: Structures of tyrosinase inhibitors from marine sources.
(Vinay and Kim, 2013)
There are also other components that possess unique application in cosmetics one such is Sulphated Polysaccharides
which is usually incorporated into cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations since they not only exhibit excellent
bioactive capacity but also been proved to be safe and acceptable for use in humans. it has many useful properties like
anti- ageing, moisturizing especially Sulphated Polysaccharide of Porphyridium cruentum is widely being used in
cosmetics as anti-inflammatory, lubricant, emollient, protective and anti-ageing both to preserve the beauty and
vitality of the healthy and young skins.
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Galactan from Red Algae can be used to repair cell damage, protect DNA and help prevent premature ageing. In
relation with all these structural features, sulfated galactans from seaweeds are classified in three classes:
agarocolloides, carrageenans and complex galactans. Sulphated galatans were determined from Laurencia species (L.
papillosa, L.cruciata, L.pedicularioides, L.majuscula) from Indian waters.The red algae Gelidium crinale (Turner)
Gaillon (Gelidiaceae), encountered along the Southeast and Northeast Brazilian sea coast, and Gracilariopsis persica
from the Persian Gulf (Iran) contains a sulfated galactan.
Carrageenans , an indigestible polysaccharide are mostly extracted from edible red algae. They are widely used in
the food and other industries as thinkening and stabilizing agents. carrageenan can be used to instantly lift and
tighten skin. Red algae (Rhodophyta) Carrageenan is made from Gigartina stellata, Chondrus crispus and Eucheuma.
The red algae Kappaphycus and Betaphycus are now the most important sources of carrageenan, a commonly used
ingredient in food, particuarly yoghurts, chocolate milk and repared puddings. Lebanesecoast “Pterocladia has
sulfated galactans and watersoluble polysaccharides of the phycocolloids family (carrageenans). Polysaccharides
present in several seaweeds (Kappaphycus alvarezii, Calliblepharis jubata, and Chondrus crispusGigartinales,
Rhodophyta; Gelidium corneum and Pterocladiella capillaceaGelidiales, Rhodophyta; Laurencia obtusa
Ceramiales, Rhodophyta; Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Saccorhiza polyschides, Sargassum vulgare, and
Padina pavonicaPhaeophyceae, Ochrophyta) are analyzed by spectroscopic techniques.
For years vitamins have been recognized as extremely valuable ingredients in all kinds of cosmetics. Vitamins offer
various benefits to the skin as suppression of pigmentation & bruising, stimulation of collagen synthesis, refinement
of the skin surface, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant effect is particularly appreciated
since free radicals generated by UV light or pollutants are effectively neutralized and no longer able to damage skin
cells. Vitamins can therefore significantly improve the performance of cosmetic and personal care products. The most
widely used vitamins in cosmetics are vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and provitamin B5. Red algae are the source
of vitamins particularly vitamin A and C. Japanese name for edible red algae is genus porphyra an nori.
Palmaria,porphyra has large quantities of provitamins A and significant quantities of vitamin B1, B2 and B12.
Lithothamnium calcareum:
Red seaweed. Rich in minerals, it restores skin tone, cleanses and detoxifies
Corallina officinalis:
Red seaweed which grows along the shore. Strengthens elastin and provides strong antioxidant benefits.
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Dulse (Palmaria palmate):
Red seaweed that is high in lipids, minerals and vitamins, which can be absorbed through the skin.
Porphyridium cruentum can be used as active ingredients in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations in order to
maintain good health and appropriate skin appearance.
Antioxidant activity has been reported in numerous genera of marine algae, including Ahnfeltiopsis, Gracilaria,
Halymenia, Laurencia, Padina, Polysiphonia, Natural antioxidants from algae are known to play an important role
against various diseases and aging processes.
A. devoniensis extracts found to contain mycosporine-like amino-acids were also shown to have antioxidant activity
Ceramium rubrum, the red alga well-known as an agar source, can be used to obtain chlorophyll a, this green
pigment being a useful therapeutic agent that can also be used in the cosmetic industry (as a deodorant).
Gigartina is a type of Red Marine Algae (RMA) that has been found effective for skin ailments such as psoriasis,
eczema, and herpes.
Okinawa Red Algae is a pillar of TATCHA’s signature HADASEI-3™ Bioactive Complex. Renowned for its
remarkable moisture-retaining properties, it is prized in the Japanese diet and skincare treatments alike. Okinawa Red
Algae is found as an active ingredient for skin health. It is a rich source of natural polysaccharides with a proven
ability to enhance skin’s barrier function, replenish the skin’s natural water reservoir, and increase its moisture-
retention capabilities.
Conclusion
Hence, in cosmetics, algae act as thickening agents, water-binding agents, and antioxidants. Other forms of algae,
such as Irish moss, contain proteins, vitamin A, sugar, starch, vitamin B1, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium,
copper and calcium. These are all beneficial for skin, either as emollients or antioxidants. Pieces of seaweed obtained
by the grinding and crushing of dried seaweed are also incorporated in products such as face mask, soap bars and
shampoos. Other products available containing algae are capillary treatments, capillary creams, eye cream containing
omega 3, corporal massage cream, red seaweed shampoo, dietary supplement wit 100% red seaweed.
Possible Applications: Anti-cellulite, Skin care, sun protection and hair care, Tooth paste, Shaving cream, Lotions
and creams, Antibacterial cream. The claims that algae can stop or eliminate wrinkling, heal skin, or provide other
elaborate benefits are unsubstantiated. Red marine algae ointment can also be used as a soothing and effective
treatment for diaper rash. This ointment contains the antibacterial boost of red marine algae as well as the soothing
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benefits of emu oil, Shea butter and aloe extract. If used at least once daily, this ointment will treat diaper rash while
preventing it from recurring.
Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Bioactive
substances derived from marine algae have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite, and these properties
can be applied to the development of cosmeceuticals. Still now extracts of red algae are often found as ingredients in
face, hand, body creams or lotions, but the use of algae as such as the complete products, is still limited.
References
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Corresponding Author:
Rajasulochana P*,
Email: preethy.vijaykumar@gmail.com
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Marine red algae of genus Laurencia are becoming the most important resources to produce unique natural metabolites with wide bioactivities. However, reports related to Laurencia undulata, an edible species used as folk herb, are rarely found to date. In this research, 5-hydroxymethyl- 2-furfural (5-HMF) was isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) from Laurencia undulata as well as other marine algae. The following characteristics of 5-HMF were systematically evaluated: its antioxidant activities, such as typical free-radicals scavenging in vitro by electron spin resonance spectrometry (ESR) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging; membrane protein oxidation; oxidative enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibition; as well as expressions of antioxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the gene level, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The results demonstrated that 5-HMF could be developed as a novel marine natural antioxidant or potential precursor for practical applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical fields.
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The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable importance in recent decades. Applications range from simple biomass production for food and feed to valuable products for ecological applications. For most of these applications, the market is still developing and the biotechnological use of microalgae will extend into new areas. Considering the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and recent developments in genetic engineering, this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications. With the development of sophisticated culture and screening techniques, microalgal biotechnology can already meet the high demands of both the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Mairh sulfated galatans of marine red algae Laurencia spp.(rhodomalaceae,rhodophyta) from west coast of India. Marine Algae and marine environmental discipline,central salt and marine chemical research institute
  • A K Siddantha
  • M Shanmugam
  • K Hmody
  • R Ramavath
Siddantha A.K, Goswami A.M, M.shanmugam,K.HMody,R.K Ramavath and O.P Mairh sulfated galatans of marine red algae Laurencia spp.(rhodomalaceae,rhodophyta) from west coast of India. Marine Algae and marine environmental discipline,central salt and marine chemical research institute,Gujarat, india.
  • P Rajasulochana
Rajasulochana P* et al. International Journal Of Pharmacy & Technology IJPT| Sep-2015 | Vol. 7 | Issue No.2 | 9235-9242 Page 9242