Hedbávný P., Sklenaříková J., Hupka D., Kalichová M.: BALANCING HANDSTAND ON THE… Vol. 5 Issue 3: 69 - 80
Science of Gymnastics Journal 69 Science of Gymnastics Journal
BALANCING IN HANDSTAND ON THE FLOOR
Petr Hedbávný, Jana Sklenaříková, Dušan Hupka, Miriam Kalichová
Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech
The contribution is a review study dealing with a handstand as one of the basic movement
structures in artistic gymnastics. Balancing in this inverse position is a complex process based
on physiological and physical principles. From physiological point of view the important results
are from research dealing with function of vestibular apparatus, visual system, proprioception,
central nervous system and motor units and their participation in balance maintaining. Another
important question is a relationship between the strength of particular muscle groups and a
level of balancing ability. Based on stabilometric measurements and 3D kinematic analysis of
correcting movements equalizing the perturbations during a handstand we can distinguish
several strategies of maintaining balance. Other important factors influencing the holding time
in handstand position in gymnastics, mainly in tool disciplines, are a visual control and position
Keywords: gymnastics, balance, physiology, biomechanics.
Historically, artistic gymnastics in its
basis derives from acrobatics for which
positions and movements headfirst are
typical. Handstand is one of the basic
elements in both man and woman acrobatic
gymnastics. Handstand in its static form is
the initial and final position of many
movement structures and in its dynamic
form is either the basis of motion or its
component. For this reason the movement
structure is drilled with a great attention
from the very beginning of a gymnastic life.
As the exercise technique was developing,
the handstand technique and balancing
strategies in this position were changing as
well. The handstand technique plays an
important role as an initial and final position
of some of the gymnastics elements mainly
in artistic gymnastic of men, where the
stabilized handstand determines a referees’
recognition/ non-recognition of a movement
structure. This is typical for acrobatics, rings
and parallel bars. The stabilized handstand
is not only important for balance beam, it is
far more important for uneven bars in
female gymnastics. Dynamic movement
structures (circles, giant circles with
twisting) performed without penalization
must end in a handstand without follow-up
persistence. Here the technical perfection of
a handstand is important since the final
position of one movement structure
becomes an initial position of another one.
The correct balancing strategy is an
important part of methodology; therefore we
focused on an in-depth analysis of this issue.
We can have a look at the principle of
balancing from biological and physical
points of view (Hudson, 1996). Both
systems work in cooperation to create
conditions for balance. Whether we talk
about either static or dynamic balance,
Hedbávný P., Sklenaříková J., Hupka D., Kalichová M.: BALANCING HANDSTAND ON THE… Vol. 5 Issue 3: 69 - 80
Science of Gymnastics Journal 70 Science of Gymnastics Journal
“owing to perturbations unsteadiness effects
and bifurcations occur in a system resulting
in the system becoming discontinuous,
diffused. Balance at its basis, a
characteristic of a quality of a system, is
simultaneously a process of the system”
(Brtníková & Baláž, 2007).
While it may be claimed that there is no
absolute balance, every position or
movement is a permanent process of
balance creation by means of correcting
movements. That is why we do not consider
these movements disturbing. However, the
tendency is to minimalize these correcting
movements. By means of these movements
we are able to eliminate the range and
transfer of disturbing movements to
different body parts, particularly the centre
of gravity. Therefore a quick reaction to the
stimulus informing brain about balance
disruption is necessary.
Physiological principle of balancing
From physiological point of view,
balancing consists of a number of phases:
The first phase is a detection of a specific
situation via sensory systems. When
maintaining an upright position, a man uses
a combination of information from
vestibular apparatus, visual and
proprioceptive information (Fransson,
Kristinsdottir & Hafström, 2004, Vuillerme,
Pinsault & Vaillant, 2005).
The function of vestibular apparatus
may be limited by an uncommon head
position, e.g. head bending backwards, or
during handstand or fast head movements
(Strešková, 2003, Asseman & Gahéry,
2005). The function of vestibular apparatus
may be improved by physical exercise.
Simultaneously, there is a direct relation
between the functional status of vestibular
apparatus and a quality of formation of
some movement routines (Strešková, 2003).
Visual system provides very important
information about where the body is located
with respect to the environment in which it
moves; eventually it provides information
about the speed of the movement (Nasher,
1997, Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2007).
The quality if visual system, mainly visual
acuity and stereoscopic vision, in other
words the depth of vision may influence the
quality of performance of a balancing
element. The influence of a visual control
over the balance was investigated by more
authors who generally came to the same
conclusion, and it is that when the visual
control is limited, the correcting movements
are of greater extent. Vuillereme at al.
(Vuillerme, Teasdale & Nougier, 2001,
Vuillerme et al., 2001) broadly explored the
role of visual stimuli in postural control of
ballet-dancers and female gymnasts. He
concluded that repeating of specific
movements during a training improved
postural regulations. A close relationship
was discovered between the level of a sport
training and postural abilities and a fact that
limitation of visual control considerably
disrupted postural performance.
Proprioception is based on a function of
mechanoreceptors in skin, muscles and
connective tissue and provides information
about relative configuration and position of
body segments, thus proprioception is
essential for coordinated functioning of
muscles (Nasher, 1997, Latash, 1998,
Goldstein 1999, Zemková & Hamar, 2005,
Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2007,
Míková, 2007). Proprioception may as well
influence the velocity and type, i.e. strategy
of muscle response on balance disturbing
perturbations. The function of
proprioceptors may be improved by
training. However, certain stimuli, e.g. joint
injury, could result in incorrect movement
perception of corresponding body segments
(Barrett, Cobb & Bentley, 1991, Ashton-
Miller, Woijtys, Huston & Fry-Welch,
2001). The experimental works of Lephart
et al. (Lephart, Giraldo, Borsa & Fu, 1996)
prove that artistic gymnasts have better
proprioceptive perception. He investigated
proprioceptive perception in knee joint in
women gymnasts. He came to same results
as Ramsay and Riddoch (2001) when he
found out that gymnasts have better
proprioceptive sensibility of a knee joint
than untrained individuals. Results of both
these studies imply that sportsmen who
Hedbávný P., Sklenaříková J., Hupka D., Kalichová M.: BALANCING HANDSTAND ON THE… Vol. 5 Issue 3: 69 - 80
Science of Gymnastics Journal 71 Science of Gymnastics Journal
during the training process put the accent on
precise movement control show
proprioceptive perception of a higher level
on both upper and lower extremities.
Various authors have different opinions
on how much the different components –
vestibular, visual and proprioceptive –
contribute to balancing. Astrand et al.
(Astrand, Rodahl, Dahl & Stromme, 2003)
and Vařeka (2002), based on an experiment,
came to a conclusion that proprioceptive
organs play the most important role in
maintaining a stable position. Mysliveček
and Trojan (2004) and others think that the
most important component is vestibular
system. Sometimes, a certain sense conflict
may appear when an important part is the
ability to choose which information
acquired by visual, somatosensoric and
vestibular systems are reliable and which
are not (Shumway-Cook & Horak, 1986).
The received information is then
analyzed by central nervous system, where
cerebellum and its functional circuits play
an unsubstitutable role. From CNS (central
nervous system) the information is taken via
efferent pathways to muscle groups as
stimuli to their activation. There, a
contractive muscle force is generated which
results, based on leverage of joints, in
movement or stabilization of certain muscle
segments, in terms of balancing we call
these correcting movements.
In their works several authors have
already dealt with question of the third
phase of balancing process. They were
investing a relationship between balancing
ability and amount of muscle strength of a
corresponding muscle group into which an
impulse from CNS is delivered in order to
maintain the balance position of body. Most
previous studies focused on analysis of
influence of muscle strength on static and
dynamic balance in people with a significant
increase in muscle flaccidity (Carter, Khan
& Mallimson, 2002, Lord, Murray,
Chapman, Munro & Tiedemann, 2002).
Several studies have shown that
strength training improve balance (Pintsaar,
Brynhildsen & Tropp, 1996, Blackburn,
Guskiewicz, Petscgauer & Prentice, 2000,
Hideyuki, Taketzo, Satoshi, Miho &
Ukitoshi, 2000, Heitkamp, Horstmann,
Mayer & Weller, 2001, Carter, Khan &
Mallimson, 2002, Binda, Culham &
Brouwer, 2003, Kalapotharikos,
Michalopoulou, Tokmakidis, Godolias,
Strimpakos, & Karteroliotis, 2004,
McCurdy & Langford, 2006). Balckburn et
al. (Blackburn, Guskiewicz, Petscgauer &
Prentice, 2000) state that an activated
muscle with its strength helps
neuromuscular control in the way that
during contraction it increases the
sensitivity of proprioceptors detecting the
muscle extension and owing to this the
duration of electromechanical reflex of
muscle contraction decreases. Other studies
found out that, reversely, the balance
training improves strength (Heitkamp,
Horstmann, Mayer & Weller, 2001,
Heitkamp, Mayer, Fleck & Horstmann,
2002). In contrast to these results, Wolfson
et al. (Wolfson, Whipple, Judge, Amerman,
Derby & King, 1993) and Verfaille et al.
(Verfaillie, Nichols, Turkel & Hovell, 1997)
did not find any changes in balancing skills
after strength training. These contradictory
results may be caused by different
measuring methods. Insufficient relation
between strength and balance may be due to
differences among the muscle groups which
are involved in strength and balance tests.
From different point of view Zemková
(2004) dealt with a relationship between
development of strength and balance. The
authors state that owing to proprioceptive
stimulation the neuromuscular system
slightly fatigues which impairs balance of
body position right after the strain. During
longitudinal observation Zemková (2004)
found out that strength training using the
proprioceptive stimulation (combination of
vibrations with active strength stimuli)
resulted in reinforcement of balancing skills.
Postural control is thus a very
complicated process with several phases.
Postural control, whether in dynamic or
static conditions, is dependent on body
being able to react to sensory, inner and
outer perturbations. During a balancing
process it is important to observe the time
Science of Gymnastics Journal 72 Science of Gymnastics Journal
characteristics of individual phases. When
passing through individual phases there
always is a certain time delay depending on
structural and functional status of the system
(Vařeka, 2002). Regarding the timing,
postural control and motor reactions may
proceed in two ways, depending on what
kind of movement activity is done. The first
option is anticipating postural corrections
which are performed c. 80 – 500 ms before
the acquired movement is initiated. These
preliminary processes serve to creation of
postural correction just before balance is
disrupted by perturbations. The second
option is a reverse action. As a reaction to
inner perturbations, deviations in body
posture occur, which are detected. As a
response to these a reaction occurs, motor
reaction, which regulate muscle strength in
order to compensate the outer perturbations
and keep the body in a steady position.
These reflex reactions occur firstly in short-
term responses 30 – 50 ms after the
deviation to which they react. Then there are
medium-term reactions approximately 100
ms after the deviation occurs, and finally
long-term reactions, deliberate regulating
actions, which occur up to 1 s after
deviation (Nasher, 1997).
Physical principle of balancing
When analyzing the balance positions it
is necessary to take into consideration that
human body is not a compact matter but a
set of connected items from which every
deviation results in change of position of
centre of gravity (Zemková & Hamar,
2005). In many works, mainly those
focusing on mechanics (e.g. Adrian &
Cooper, 1995, Hamill & Knutzen, 1995) the
authors state that static balance is equal to a
stable position. But as Kreighbaum and
Barthles (1990) note, there is no absolute
balance in human activity because human
body constantly passes through certain
changes in position. Every position or
movement is a continuous process of
recreating a balanced position using
correcting movements. The processes taking
place inside the human body, i.e.
respiration, activity of blood circulation,
deflect body from a given position. If we
then, with a certain simplification, consider
the resting positions as static, we may, from
point of view of action of force, characterize
them as following: Body lies in a static
equilibrium if the forces acting on the body
cancel out and body persists in rest. From
biomechanical point of view, the body lies
in equilibrium if it complies with two
The resultant of all forces acting on the
body is equal to zero:
The resulting torque (with respect to
any axis) acting on the body is equal to
In a stationary body position the
postural control is perceived as an ability of
body to resist the force of gravitation and to
keep the centre of gravity above a small
base of support (Nasher, 1997). Hudson
(1996) states that balance is disturbed more
by horizontal forces than forces acting in
vertical plane. A factor of balancing
stability thus depends on ability of body to
resist the horizontal changes of positions.
As we have already stated, keeping
body in a static position is a continuous
process of recreating balance by correcting
movements. Therefore these movements are
not considered disturbing. However, the
tendency is to minimalize their extent. By
means of these movements it is possible to
eliminate extent and transfer of real
disturbing movements to other body
segments, mainly to centre of gravity. At
locomotion system we may look as a system
of inverse pendulum with more or less
levels of freedom of movement depending
on fixation of individual joints by isomeric
contraction. Some authors have described
Science of Gymnastics Journal 73 Science of Gymnastics Journal
the system of regulation of postural balance
in an upright position as a three-level
hierarchic system which begins at ankles,
moves up to knees and finally to hips
(Nashner & McCollum, 1985), whereas the
knees are used to correct the big deviations.
Two possible strategies, two possible
responds of locomotion system by which
perturbations may be corrected in an upright
position were in detailed described by
Horak and Nashner (1986). When a body
bends forward, either “ankles strategy” may
be used during which ankle extensors are
activated, knee flexors and hips extensors,
or “hips strategy” with activation of knee
extensors hip flexors. These two strategies
differ in direction of rotary movement in hip
joints. “Ankles strategy” is preferable for
smaller perturbations, whereas “hips
strategy” may be used for extensive or fast
perturbations or when the area of support is
small and only minimal rotations are
possible in ankles (Horak & Nahner, 1986).
Míková (2007) summarizes and
arranges the possible balancing strategies in
an upright position (Fig. 1). Whether we
talk about deviations in frontal or saggital
plane, possibilities are ankle strategy, hip
strategy and step strategy which extends the
two previously mentioned strategies and
authors mentioned above. During this
strategy, in order to keep the position of
centre of gravity above the base of support,
movement of one lower extremity in
opposite direction is used before the trunk is
deviated owing to perturbations. By this
movement part of body weight is moved to
the opposite side as the weight of trunk and
the centre of gravity, which is situated at
mass body centre, remains above the area of
Figure 1. Balancing strategies (Míková, 2007):
a) ankles strategy, b) hips strategy, c) step
Characteristics of handstand
From the more demanding positions,
handstand balancing is the one which is
analyzed the most (Gauthier, Marin, Leroy
& Thouvarecq, 2009, Kerwin & Trewartha,
2001, Mochizuki, Oishi, Hara, Yoshihashi
& Takasu, 1997, Sobera, 2007). Handstand
is a basic movement structure in the system
of activities in artistic gymnastics. It is a
static unstable balance position. From
mechanical point of view, its specificity is
determined by the height of centre of
gravity, size of support area and the overall
difficulty of the balance position in which
we maintain stability. Last but not least, the
atypical position of body (headfirst)
contributes to it as well. The optimal actions
of locomotion system also depend on
characteristics of environment with whom it
interacts. In artistic gymnastics, the balance
positions are often made difficult by
equipment (handstand on parallel bars,
beam) whose mechanical properties and
stability influences the difficultness of
balancing (Croft, Zernicke, & Tscharner,
2008). The difficultness may be also
increased by the fact that during these
conditions already small deviation causes
the centre of gravity not being over the base
Balance is held by a chain of muscle
actions which contribute to joint
movements, manage different body
configurations and control the movement of
the centre of gravity (Hayes, 1988). “In
order to hold balance, individual body
segments have to be strengthened by means
Science of Gymnastics Journal 74 Science of Gymnastics Journal
of isometric contraction of active muscle
groups which fixate the spinal connections,
hip and knee joints. The final position of
handstand is characteristic by a flat angle
between “longitudinal” body axes – arms –
trunk – legs, straight head position (eyes
following the hand finger tips). In order to
increase the size of the area of support,
fingers are slightly outstretched and placed
in the area of support in the sportsman’s
shoulder width.” (Zítko & Chrudimský,
2006). The technically correct performance
involves sufficient strength of arms which
carry the whole sportsman’s weight,
shoulder girdle and space orientation.
Balancing strategies in a handstand
There are several ways of conducting a
thorough analysis of processes contributing
to balancing in a handstand position. Most
often we choose the analysis of COP (centre
of preasure) movement with a combination
of a visual control, peripheral vision, and
variants of head positions. In their
researches authors start from the mechanism
of balancing in an upright position. The
body configuration in a handstand is similar
to one in an upright position, which means
that transfers occur between upper and
lower extremities (Clement & Rezette,
1985). For handstand position, following
differences with respect to an upright
position are characteristic: The area of
support is smaller, whereas the distance
between the base and the centre of gravity is
bigger due to a support of extended arms,
which increases the instability (Slobounov
& Newell, 1996). Handstand position
requires an extraordinary muscle activity of
upper extremities which substitute for the
antigravitational task of lower extremities.
Although the muscle activity of upper
extremities is more precise, they succumb to
More authors have already dealt with
strategies of balancing in a handstand
position; their opinions are not uniform,
though. Nashner and McCollum (1985) state
that the configuration of a handstand
position is different from the one in an
upright position because instead of three
there are four joints (wrists, elbows,
shoulders and hips) involved and this
requires a specific postural coordination.
Also Asseman et al. (Asserman, Caron &
Crémieux, 2004) are of the same opinion
when he states that balancing in a handstand
position is more complex as it requires the
presence of four joints instead of three of
Sobera (2007) analyzed the process of
balancing in a handstand position and in a
tip toe position, which comprise the basic
elements in artistic and rhythmic
gymnastics. The research group consisted of
10 gymnasts whose handstand position was
analyzed, and 5 female modern gymnasts
who were in a tip toe position. The
sportsmen stood on a platform KISTLER
for a period of 10 s and 20 s. COP trajectory
was recorded. The measurements showed
that in a handstand the deviations occurred
mainly in the sagittal plane, which differed
from the tip toe position where the frontal
movement of COP is more important for the
stability. Also Slobounov and Newell
(1996) confirm bigger deviations in a
sagittal plane in comparison to an upright
position. Considering the strategies of
balancing in a handstand position Sobera
(2007) found out the most significant
corrections in the wrist joints: “The control
of balance in a handstand position is
realized in a similar way to an upright
position, i.e. via moving COP towards the
fingers or the wrist joints in the sagittal
plane or to right or left in the frontal plane.
Holding balance in a handstand position
requires maximal balancing in the wrist
joints. Control of balance in this unnatural
position is done mainly via increasing the
pressure of fingers on the ground as a result
of movement of the centre of gravity
towards the fingers or the increase of
pressure under the wrist joints during the
movement of the centre of gravity towards
Yedon and Trewrthe (2003) confirm
the most considerable activity in wrists,
where the perturbations in a sagittal plane
Science of Gymnastics Journal 75 Science of Gymnastics Journal
corrected by wrist flexors and extensors
with synergistically cooperating shoulder
joints and hips contribute to maintaining the
fixed body configuration. Rotations in wrist
together with rotations in shoulders and hips
generally work in the same direction as the
direction of rotation in wrist.
These results are identical to the results
of Kerwin and Trewarth (2001) who found
out that rotations in wrists, shoulders and
hips significantly correlate with the shift of
the centre of gravity, and the rotation in
wrist was dominant. The results of a work
by Gautier et al. (Gauthier, Thouvarecq &
Chollet, 2007) in which they analyzed the
strategy of balancing in a handstand position
in gymnasts show considerable movement
in shoulders (5.56°) and wrists (12.39°),
elbows almost did not move (1.21°), but
reached a maximal deviations, and hips
hardly moved (0.88°).
A different technique involving a
flexion in an elbow joint described
Slobounov and Newell (1996). According to
Yedon and Trewarh (2003) the flexion is
probably used just after the failure of
balancing using the “wrist strategy”. Gautier
et al. (Gauthier, Thouvarecq & Chollet,
2007) explain that flexion in elbow joints
enable gymnasts to lessen the centre of
gravity in case of extreme misbalance, as do
knees in an upright position. The result is a
bigger tolerance of fluctuations and possible
rebalancing. The configuration in a
handstand position is therefore similar to the
one in an upright position with the wrist
functions being similar to the ankle
functions, elbows are similar to knees and
shoulders are analogous to hips.
Visual control in a handstand position
Postural balance is controlled by a
system of sensors including vestibular,
proprioceptive and visual systems.
Understanding the function of visual
perception during postural regulation
contributes to a better understanding of how
a man moves in environment. Perception is
the prime condition for a postural
regulation. It enables us to record and
control a direction of our movement
(Stoffregen, 1985, Warren & Hannon, 1988,
Li & Warren, 2000, 2002). Visual control
may also compensate a lack of postural
control resulting from muscle fatigue
(Vuillerme et al., 2001).
The consequence of visual control
during balance regulation was investigated
by Gautier et al. (Gauthier, Thouvarecq &
Chollet, 2007). The aim of this study was to
deepen the knowledge about the postural
regulations in a handstand position. Authors
evaluated the influence of peripheral and
central vision on balance in a handstand
position in gymnasts. COP shift, angles
between body segments and gymnasts’
height was analyzed during this movement
task. The similarities appeared between the
ways of postural regulation in a handstand
position and in an upright position. In both
positions the COP oscillation increases
when eyes closed, which confirms the
influence of visual control on balance
(Clement & Rezette, 1985).
Lee and Lishman (1975) showed that
the closer the visual target, the smaller the
sagittal oscillations. In a handstand position
owing to a lowered head position the visual
surrounding is closer than in an upright
position. From this point of view it should
be easier to visually control the handstand
position rather than an upright position.
Clement et al. (1988) found out that the
viewpoint is placed app. 5 cm in front of the
wrist in the centre of the area between arms.
They continue that gymnasts unite this point
with an optimal vertical projection of the
centre of gravity.
Gautier et al. (Gauthier, Thouvarecq &
Chollet, 2007) analyzed the handstand
performance in ten gymnasts aged 18 – 25
years. The sportsmen performed the
handstand on a stabilometric platform
equipped with meters which recorded COP
changes in mm in sagittal (Y) and frontal
(X) plane. Simultaneously a video was
recorded from which the angles, dimensions
and angular velocity were evaluated. The
characteristics of handstand were compared
during following conditions: eyes open,
eyes closed, central darkness, peripheral
Science of Gymnastics Journal 76 Science of Gymnastics Journal
darkness. The results showed that in
gymnasts there are no significant
differences among these four conditions
regarding the COP shifts. The biggest
oscillations were recorded in a sagittal plane
– 42.6 mm, saying that the oscillations were
mainly towards the fingers.
Asseman and Gahéry (2005) analyzed
the influence of the head position on
balancing in gymnasts who were asked to
perform handstand with different head
positions and with eyes open and closed.
The professional gymnasts had no problem
with balance in a handstand position with
their eyes closed. However it was found out
that it was much more difficult for them to
balance when their neck was in flexion,
probably because of the change of
orientation of head together with vestibular
apparatus. It shows main influence of had
position on the postural regulation in
We support the notion that in a
handstand position the body is in an upside
down position and the equivalents of ankles
and hips in an upright position are wrists
and shoulders. The new trends in the
technique of performance deal with three
segmental strategies of balance correcting in
a handstand position. An effort is to achieve
a perfect body strengthening by isomeric
contraction of abdominal, gluteal and back
muscles, resulting in connection of
segments legs – trunk and correction is done
at a level wrist – shoulder.
As the gymnast’s aim is to minimalize
the correcting movements, we assume that
the “wrist strategy” will be used when the
whole body stays fixed in a vertical
position. On the other hand, when the area
of support is small, the “shoulder strategy”
may necessarily be used. If the oscillations
are so big that the gymnast’s shoulder girdle
is not strong enough to correct them with
help of wrist and shoulders, then hips and
As we mentioned above, the position of
head influences the stability on a handstand
position, the handstand technique itself and
it has its development. Formerly, when the
exercise difficulty was not the crucial
variable in artistic gymnastics competitions,
the flexion of head was not considered a
mistake, moreover it was the other way
round. Head was in most movements the
leading force. In recent periods, however, in
exercise techniques we moved towards the
head positioned as a continuation of neck.
This technique can be used by some
coaches. We agree with the opinion that
head should not be fixed in any extreme
position (bending forward, backward). For a
gymnast the visual contact with the ground
without extreme head bending is necessary.
Some authors focused only on 3D
analysis or a stabilometry, however in future
we want to focus on a complex analysis of
balancing strategy, i.e. 3D synchronization
of a kinematic analysis and a stabilometry
complemented with EMG. We want to find
a difference between the balancing
strategies in boys and girls, juniors and
seniors. We wonder if the the level of
strength abilities of arms and trunk muscles
and balance abilities of a gymnast
influences the quality of performance the
handstand and if it affects the choise of a
segmental strategy of balance correcting in
this static movement structure. We think
that a complex perspective may reveal the
little nuances applicable in a handstand drill
and may make the drill more effective.
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Science of Gymnastics Journal 77 Science of Gymnastics Journal
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