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Some Aspects of Nutrient Analysis of Seed, Pulp and Oil of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)

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Abstract

Proximate, mineral and selected physicochemical characteristics of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed, pulp and seed- oil were determined using standard analytical methods. The proximate composition (%) of the seed and pulp were as follows; moisture (3.8 ± 0.2 and 11.2 ± 0.2), protein (19.5 ± 0.5 and 3.5 ± 0.1), fat (13.4 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1), ash (3.1± 0.1 and 4.5 ± 0.5), crude fibre (15.6 ± 0.5 and 6.1 ± 0.1) and carbohydrate (44.6 and 74.3). Baobab seed, pulp and seed-oil are good source of macro and micro nutrients with potassium (K) being the most predominant element with magnessiun (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) also present in appreciable quantities. The physicochemical properties also revealed slightly acidic P H for the pulp (5.6 ± 0.2) and oil (6.1 ± 0.1) while the seed was alkaline (8.2 ± 0.1). From the soluble solid content, the pulp contains more sugar than the seed while the titrable acidity of the oil with 3.51 ± 0.10 is higher than 0.65 ± 0.04 of the pulp. The saponification, iodine and acid values of the oil were 218.41 ± 0.20mgKOH/g, 92.10 ± 1.50mgI 2/100g and 6.52 ± 0.02 mgKOH/g respectively while the refractive index and specific gravity were 1.498 ± 0.002 and 0.928 ± 0.001. The results presented here established the edibility of the pulp, seed and oil as well as a pointer to its industrial usage. Keywords: Proximate, mineral, physicochemical, saponification, pulp, oil, seed, edible.
IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT)
ISSN: 2319-2402, ISBN: 2319-2399. Volume 1, Issue 4 (Sep-Oct. 2012), PP 32-35
www.iosrjournals.org
www.iosrjournals.org 32 | Page
Some Aspects of Nutrient Analysis of Seed, Pulp and Oil of
Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)
G.O. Oyeleke1, M.A. Salam2 and R.O Adetoro3
1,2 Science Laboratory Technology Department, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.
3 Chemistry Department, Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun, Nigeria.
Abstract: Proximate, mineral and selected physicochemical characteristics of baobab (Adansonia digitata)
seed, pulp and seed- oil were determined using standard analytical methods. The proximate composition (%) of
the seed and pulp were as follows; moisture (3.8 ± 0.2 and 11.2 ± 0.2), protein (19.5 ± 0.5 and 3.5 ± 0.1), fat
(13.4 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1), ash (3.1± 0.1 and 4.5 ± 0.5), crude fibre (15.6 ± 0.5 and 6.1 ± 0.1) and carbohydrate
(44.6 and 74.3). Baobab seed, pulp and seed-oil are good source of macro and micro nutrients with potassium
(K) being the most predominant element with magnessiun (Mg), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) also present
in appreciable quantities. The physicochemical properties also revealed slightly acidic PH for the pulp (5.6 ±
0.2) and oil (6.1 ± 0.1) while the seed was alkaline (8.2 ± 0.1). From the soluble solid content, the pulp contains
more sugar than the seed while the titrable acidity of the oil with 3.51 ± 0.10 is higher than 0.65 ± 0.04 of the
pulp. The saponification, iodine and acid values of the oil were 218.41 ± 0.20mgKOH/g, 92.10 ± 1.50mgI2/100g
and 6.52 ± 0.02 mgKOH/g respectively while the refractive index and specific gravity were 1.498 ± 0.002 and
0.928 ± 0.001. The results presented here established the edibility of the pulp, seed and oil as well as a pointer
to its industrial usage.
Keywords: Proximate, mineral, physicochemical, saponification, pulp, oil, seed, edible.
I. Introduction
Seed, pulp and seed-oil are important components of plants that could be explored to meet up with the
food demand of the world’s increasing population.
Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata) is a member of the Bombacaceae family which consists of around 20 genera
and 180 species. It is a deciduous tree that was originally located in Africa but can still be found in large
quantities in America, India, Malaysia [1] and hosts of other countries. It is tolerant to high temperature and
long spans of drought. It is also known as “monkey bread tree”. The baobab fruit which is harvested by
collecting from the trees or the ground consists of large seeds embedded in dry acidic pulp and shell [2]. Baobab
pulp is used in juice production while the seed and the seed oil are used in soup preparation as flavouring agents.
Nutritional analysis of baobab fruit pulp has shown that it is an excellent source of pectin, calcium,
vitamin C and iron. Its vitamin C content has been compared with oranges and found that it is about three times
higher (46mg/100 compared to 150-499mg/100g) [3] while Wilkinson, [4] also showed that the vitamin C levels
ranged from 74- 163mg/100g and all parts of the baobab tree are reported to have medicinal properties.
Research attention towards increasing the usefulness of plant protein source for food use includes
peanut [5], fluted pumpkin [6], cashew nut [7] and yam beans [8].
The knowledge of nutrition value of local dishes, soup ingredients and local foodstuffs is necessary in order to
encourage the increase cultivation and consumption [9].
This research work focused on the nutrient and physicochemical compositions of the pulp, seed and
seed -oil of baobab in order to expand the scope of knowledge on its full utilization.
II. Materials and Methods
2.1 Materials
2.2 Collection and Preparation of Samples
The baobab fruits used for this work were collected from a co research fellow from Osun State
Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria.
The pulp was separated from the seed manually. The pulp obtained was kept for further analysis while
the seeds were sun dried for two weeks, ground, passed through a 2mm sieve and stored in air tight bags ready
for further analysis.
Some Aspects of Nutrient Analysis of Seed, Pulp and Oil of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)
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2.3 Methods
2.3.1 Proximate and Elemental Compositions
The moisture, protein, crude fibre, ash, fat and total carbohydrate (determined by difference) contents
of the pulp and seed of baobab as well as the mineral contents were determined by the methods of A.O.A.C,
[10].
2.3.2 Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pulp, Seed and Oil
Titrable acidity and total soluble solids (Brix) of the pulp and seed were determined according to the
methods described by Onimawo, [11]. The PH of the samples were done using Philips Harris PH meter.
The acid value, saponification and the iodine values were done by methods outlined by AOAC, [10].
The specific gravity (25oC) and refractive index (at 26oC) were determined by using universal hydrometer and
Abbe refractometer
III. Results and Discussion
3.1 Results Table 1: Proximate Composition of baobab Pulp and Seed (%)
Parameter Seed + S.D Pulp + S.D
Moisture 3.8 + 0.2 11.2 + 0.2
Ash 3.1 + 0.1 4.5 + 0.1
Fat 13.4 + 0.5 0.4 + 0.1
Crude fibre 15.6 + 0.5 6.1 + 0.1
Crude protein 19.5 + 0.5 3.5 + 0.1
Carbohydrate 44.6 + 0.2 74.3 + 0.1
All results are average of duplicate determinations + standard deviation (S.D.).
Table 2: Mineral Composition of baobab Pulp, Seed and Seed-oil (mg/100g)
Parameter Pulp+ S.D Seed + S.D Oil + S.D
Na 35.10 + 0.50 40.72 + 0.20 25.15 + 0.10
K 1410.35 + 0.25 875.15 + 0.05 506.20 + 0.15
Mg 69.12 + 0.02 315.17 + 0.05 116.10 + 0.20
Ca 78.18 + 0.15 521.10 + 0.25 70.50 + 0.20
P 105.20 + 0.10 125.50 + 0.50 87.75 + 0.05
Fe 5.85 + 0.20 10.12 + 0.10 3.50 + 0.10
All results are average of duplicate determinations + standard deviation (S.D.).
Table 3: Selected Physicochemical Properties of baobab Pulp, Seed and Oil
Parameter Pulp+ S.D Seed + S.D Oil + S.D
PH 5.60 + 0.20 8.15 + 0.10 6.12 + 0.50
Soluble solid (brix) 15.0 + 0.1 1.5 + 0.4 ND
Titrable acidity (%) 0.68 + 0.04 3.51 + 0.10 ND
Refractive index (26oC) ND ND 1.498 + 0.002
Specific gravity (25oC) ND ND 0.928 + 0.001
Saponification value* ND ND 218.41 + 0.20
Acid value* ND ND 6.52 + 0.02
Iodine value** ND ND 92.10 + 1.50
All results are average of duplicate determinations + standard deviation (S.D.).
* (mgKOH/g), ** (mgI2/100g) and ND (not determined).
3.2 Discussion
The proximate composition of the seed and pulp is shown in Table 1. The moisture content was 3.8 +
0.2% in the seed while the pulp was found to have 11.2 + 0.2% moisture content. The moisture content of the
Some Aspects of Nutrient Analysis of Seed, Pulp and Oil of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)
www.iosrjournals.org 34 | Page
seed is low compared to 5.8 + 0.04% in groundnut [9] and 4.6% for Citrullus lanatus seed [12] respectively. The
moisture content of the pulp is lower than 81+ 0.72% reported for Anonna muricata [11].
The protein content of the seed was found to be 19.5+ 0.5%. This value is lower than 38.61+ 0.07% and 23.4%
reported for groundnut and C. lanatus seeds [9,12] while the 3.5 + 0.1% protein for the pulp was found to be in
line with 3.2 + 0.1% reported for it by Magdi, [2].
The values of 13.4 + 0.1% fat, 3.1 + 0.1% ash and 15.6 + 0.5% crude fibre were in line with that of
baobab seed. These values were however lower than 31.30% fat but higher than 2.02% ash and 2.12% crude
fibre for fluted pumpkin [6].
The values for fat, ash and crude fibre contents of the pulp with 0.4+ 0.1%, 4.5 + 0.5% and 6.1%
respectively showed some levels of closeness to those of baobab pulp [2]. The values were lower than 1.29 +
0.01% fat, 14.12 + 0.02% ash and higher than 1.88+ 0.01% crude fibre reported for unripe pulp of Carica
papaya [13].
The carbohydrate contents of 44.6+ 0.2% in the seed and 74.3+ 0.1 % in the pulp showed that baobab seed and
pulp can be categorized as carbohydrate rich food. The carbohydrate content of the seed is comparable to 47%
reported for A. muricata [11] and higher than 1.81 + 0.02% for groundnut [9].
Table 2 showed the mineral composition of baobab pulp, seed and oil extract. Generally, all the three
parts revealed a fair deal of being a cheap source of nutritive elements with potassium being the predominant
element. The seed contain higher amount of all the mineral elements relative to the pulp and seed oil except in
potassium where the pulp has the highest concentration.
The seed oil followed those of the seed closely in mineral element composition. Minerals are important
in the diet because they serve as cofactors for many physiologic and metabolic functions and in their absence,
clinical deficiencies may occur [6]. Na/K and Ca/P ratios are also of medical importance especially in blood
clotting and in reducing high blood pressure.
Table 3 showed some physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of baobab.The PH of 5.60+
0.20 for the pulp indicates that it is acidic and the value is higher than that of 4.56 reported for A. muricata [11].
The PH of 6.12 of the oil is an indication of slightly acidic condition. The soluble sugar (brix) of 15.0 + 0.1 and
1.5+ 0.4 for pulp and seed showed that the pulp contained more sugar compared to the seed and therefore the
pulp will be useful for wine production. The titrable acidity of the pulp and the seed of baobab were found to be
0.68 + 0.04% and 3.51 + 0.10% respectively.
The refractive index (at 26oC) and specific gravity (at 25oC) were found to be 1.498 + 0.002 and 0.928+ 0.001
respectively. The values were similar to that reported by Magdi [2] for baobab and also within the range found
for vegetable oils. The refractive index of 1.498+ 0.02 does not fall within the range of 1.475- 1.485 for drying
oils.
Saponification value of 218.41+0.02 mgKOH/g for the oil was higher than 137mgKOH/g reported for
cashew nut oil [7] but lower than 232.81mgKOH/g for palm kernel oil [14]. The high saponification value
suggests that the oil may be suitable for soap making. The iodine value of 92.10+1.50mgI2/100g for the oil
showed that it contain low degree of unsaturation and can therefore be classified as non-drying edible oil
because 80-100g/100g iodine has been suggested for most edible oils [15].
The high saponification and low iodine values is a pointer to the stability of the oil [2]. The acid value
of 6.52+0.02mgKOH/g was found to be higher than 4.279mgKOH/g reported for soyabean by Akanni et al, [16]
and lower than 10.7mgKOH/g for cashew nut seed [7].
V. Conclusion
The results of this research showed that baobab pulp, seed and oil are of high economic value in terms
of protein, fat and energy contents. They are also good and cheap source of macro and micro elements. The
physicochemical properties of the oil indicated that it is non-drying and edible. Industrially, the oil may be
useful in small, medium and large scale for soap, cosmetic and candle making.
VI. Recommendation
Further work should be carried out on the amino and fatty acids characteristics of the pulp, seed and oil
of baobab to expand its nutritional potentials.
Some Aspects of Nutrient Analysis of Seed, Pulp and Oil of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.)
www.iosrjournals.org 35 | Page
References
[1] M. Sidibie and J.T. Williams, Baobab: Adansonia digitata. International Centre for Underutilized Crops, 2002, Southampton, U.K.
[2] A.O. Magdi, Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Fruit and Seed Protein Solubility. Plant Food for
Human Nutrition 59, 2004, 29-33.
[3] S. Manfredini, S. Vertuani, E. Braccoli and V. Buzzoni, Antioxidant Capacity of Adansonia digitata Fruit, Pulp and Leaves. Acta
Phytotherapeutical 2, 2002, 2-7.
[4] Wilkinson,J.A. Baobab Dried Fruit Pulp.Novel Food Applications, 2006,
http://www.acnfp.gov.uk/assess//
[5] E.H. Ahmed and C.T. Young, Composition, Nutrition and Flavour of Peanut. American Peanut Research and Education Society,
Yoakum, Texas. 1982, Pp. 655-687.
[6] C. Agatemor, Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) Seed: A Nutritional Assessments. EJEAFche. Vol.6, 2007, 1787-
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[7] T.F. Akinhanmi, V.N. Atasie and P.O. Akintokun, Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Cashewnut
(Anarcardium occidentalis) Oil and Cashewnut Shell Liquid. J. Agric., Food & Environ. Sci. Vol. 2 Issue 1, 2008, 1-12.
[8] D.O. Edem, C.I. Amugo and O.U. Eka, Chemical Composition of Yam beans (Sphenostylis sternocarpa). Tropical Science 59,
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[11] I.A. Onimawo, Proximate Composition and Selected Physicochemical Properties of the Seed, Pulp and Oil of Sour Sop (Anonna
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[12] G.C. Ojieh, O.M. Oluba, Y.R. Ogunlowo, K.E. Adebisi, G.O. Eidangbe and R.T. Orole, Compositional Studies of Citrullus lanatus
(Egusi melon) Seed. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness Vol.6 No1, 2008.
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... African baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is a massive, perennial, and deciduous tree which can live for up to 1000 years with a large trunk and can achieve a height up to 25 m and a diameter of up to 10 m. 1 Baobab belongs to Malvaceae family which consists of about 20 genera and 180 species. 2, 3 The tree is native to the arid and semiarid parts of Africa as well as in western Madagascar. 4 It has been introduced to America, India, Malaysia and hosts of non-tropical regions of the world. 5 The baobab seeds are rarely eaten as food on contrary to fruits and leaves; in most cases the seeds are a waste after using the pulp. ...
... The baobab seed was found to contain appreciable amount of oil (21.23 ± 0.15 %, expressed on a dry weight basis), hence, it is considered as one of the major additional sources of oil. This result is close to the results obtained by Birnin-Yauri and Garba (22.5 %) 6 , and Babiker (23%) 10 , while it's higher than the results obtained by Oyeleke et al. 3 and Osman 8 (13.4 % and 12.2 % respectively) but less than results reported by Addy et al. 17 and Abubakar et al. 9 (29.7 % and 32 % respectively). In general the oil content of baobab kernel varies due to differences in species and environmental factors. ...
... The proximate analysis of baobab seed, as shown in Table 1, revealed that baobab seeds are a good source of fat, protein and crude fiber, and contains low level of carbohydrates. 3 . The Atwater specific factor system 23 was used to calculate the Metabolizable Energy (ME) using the Atwater conversion factors: protein 17 kJ g -1 (4 kcal g -1 ), fat 37 kJ g -1 (9 kcal g -1 ), and carbohydrate (Available -by difference) 17 kJ/g (4 kcal g -1 ) and was found to be 374.19 ...
... African baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is a massive, perennial, and deciduous tree which can live for up to 1000 years with a large trunk and can achieve a height up to 25 m and a diameter of up to 10 m. 1 Baobab belongs to Malvaceae family which consists of about 20 genera and 180 species. 2, 3 The tree is native to the arid and semiarid parts of Africa as well as in western Madagascar. 4 It has been introduced to America, India, Malaysia and hosts of non-tropical regions of the world. 5 The baobab seeds are rarely eaten as food on contrary to fruits and leaves; in most cases the seeds are a waste after using the pulp. ...
... The baobab seed was found to contain appreciable amount of oil (21.23 ± 0.15 %, expressed on a dry weight basis), hence, it is considered as one of the major additional sources of oil. This result is close to the results obtained by Birnin-Yauri and Garba (22.5 %) 6 , and Babiker (23%) 10 , while it's higher than the results obtained by Oyeleke et al. 3 and Osman 8 (13.4 % and 12.2 % respectively) but less than results reported by Addy et al. 17 and Abubakar et al. 9 (29.7 % and 32 % respectively). In general the oil content of baobab kernel varies due to differences in species and environmental factors. ...
... The proximate analysis of baobab seed, as shown in Table 1, revealed that baobab seeds are a good source of fat, protein and crude fiber, and contains low level of carbohydrates. 3 . The Atwater specific factor system 23 was used to calculate the Metabolizable Energy (ME) using the Atwater conversion factors: protein 17 kJ g -1 (4 kcal g -1 ), fat 37 kJ g -1 (9 kcal g -1 ), and carbohydrate (Available -by difference) 17 kJ/g (4 kcal g -1 ) and was found to be 374.19 ...
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Recently, the demand for seeds has increased as a source of oils. Adansonia digitata L (Malvaceae) seed oil has been utilized by some African communities as food, traditional medicine and cosmetic. This research was conducted to draw attention to the proximate composition, mineral elements content of baobab seeds and physicochemical properties of baobab seeds oil. Standard analytical methods were used to estimate the proximate and mineral element's content of Adansonia digitata L. seeds and the seeds oil was evaluated for its physicochemical characteristics. Baobab seeds were found to be a good source of energy (374.23 ± 1.55 kcal/100 g), protein (21.20 ± 0.56%), and crude fat (21.23 ± 0.15%). The other proximate composition of the seeds were as follows; moisture (6.35 ± 0.05%), ash (3.27 ± 0.06%), crude fiber (23.37 ± 0.25%) and carbohydrate (24.32 ± 0.25%). The major mineral elements present in the seed involved magnesium (86.92 1.24 mg/100g), potassium (36.36 0.22 mg/100g), sodium (22.56 0.12 mg/100g), calcium (6.10 0.15 mg/100g) and iron (2.45 ± 0.02 mg/100 g). The physicochemical properties of extracted seed oil had the following values: oil content 21.23 ± 0.15 %, density 0.95 ± 0.007 g cm-3 , kinematic viscosity 46.05 cSt, acid value 3.08 ± 0.25 mg KOH g-1 , saponification value 95.37 ± 0.86 mg KOH g-1 , peroxide value 6.60 ± 0.04 mEq kg-1 and iodine value 80.29 ± 0.07 mg g-1. Fatty acid profile of the oil revealed high unsaturated fatty acids contents (34.73% Elaidic acid and 28.95% 8, 11-Octadecadienoic acid), whereas palmitic was the major saturated acid (23.74%). Therefore our analytical results revealed that baobab seed is a good source of energy and nutrients for human nutrition.
... The A. digitata acid value of 2.21±0.01 was found to be low as compared to 6.52±0.02 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) but was closely in agreement with 2.75±0.14 reported by Abubakar et al. (2015) in a related study conducted in Nigeria. G. max had acid value of 4.05±0.024 ...
... was similar to 1.498±0.002 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) and 1.5±0.0 (Osman, 2004) for A. digitata oil studies conducted in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia. ...
... (Osman, 2004) but slightly lower than the value of 0.928±0.001 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) for studies conducted in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. The specific gravity values for the crude oils were within the recommended standard values of 0.9-1.16 for edible oils (FAO/WHO, 2009) and 0.919-0.925 ...
... The A. digitata acid value of 2.21±0.01 was found to be low as compared to 6.52±0.02 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) but was closely in agreement with 2.75±0.14 reported by Abubakar et al. (2015) in a related study conducted in Nigeria. G. max had acid value of 4.05±0.024 ...
... was similar to 1.498±0.002 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) and 1.5±0.0 (Osman, 2004) for A. digitata oil studies conducted in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia. ...
... (Osman, 2004) but slightly lower than the value of 0.928±0.001 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) for studies conducted in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. The specific gravity values for the crude oils were within the recommended standard values of 0.9-1.16 for edible oils (FAO/WHO, 2009) and 0.919-0.925 ...
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In this study, oil quality with respect to physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics extracted from nonconventional seed oil namely Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Parinari curatellifolia and Cajanus cajan and conventional seed oil namely soybean (Glycine max) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) was assessed and compared. Results showed that there were significant differences in various quality parameters such as saponification number, peroxide value, free fatty acids in oils extracted from non-conventional and conventional sources. Oil yield ranged from 4.71 to 46.05% with pigeon peas registering the lowest yield and P. curatelifolia registering the highest yield. The following range of values in quality parameters were obtained: values in saponification number ranged from 55.91mg KOH/g (C. cajan) to 220.54 mg KOH/g (groundnut): Peroxide value ranged from 2.79 meq O2/kg (M. oleifera) to 10.47 meq O2/kg (C. cajan): Free fatty acids ranged from 1.11 mg/100 g (P. curatelifolia) to 4.80 mg/100 g (pigeon peas): Specific gravity ranged from 0.87 (P. curatelifolia) to 0.91 (groundnuts): Oxalate ranged from 75.41 mg/100 g (groundnuts) to 632.56 mg / 100 g (pigeon peas): Acid value ranged from 2.21 mg KOH/g (P. curatelifolia) to 9.53 mg KOH/g (Pigeon pea): Iodine value ranged from 35.53g/100 g (P. curatelifolia) and alkaloids ranged from 58.28 mg/g (M. oleifera) to 123.60 mg/g (groundnuts). Irrespective of the source of the oils, it was observed that the values in most of the oil quality parameters were within the acceptable levels. The findings in this study have demonstrated that nonconventional sources of oil have the potential to adequately supplement oils used for domestic consumption as well as industrial use in Malawi and therefore reduces the volumes of imported oils hence safeguarding foreign reserves.
... The A. digitata acid value of 2.21±0.01 was found to be low as compared to 6.52±0.02 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) but was closely in agreement with 2.75±0.14 reported by Abubakar et al. (2015) in a related study conducted in Nigeria. G. max had acid value of 4.05±0.024 ...
... was similar to 1.498±0.002 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) and 1.5±0.0 (Osman, 2004) for A. digitata oil studies conducted in Nigeria and Saudi Arabia. ...
... (Osman, 2004) but slightly lower than the value of 0.928±0.001 (Oyeleke et al., 2012) for studies conducted in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria. The specific gravity values for the crude oils were within the recommended standard values of 0.9-1.16 for edible oils (FAO/WHO, 2009) and 0.919-0.925 ...
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... Previous studies have reported the contribution of available carbohydrates by sorghum to contribute to 72% of its total weight (Stefoska-Needham et al., 2015), raw sesame seeds have 20 to 25% (Onsaard, 2012) and baobab fruit pulp at 74% (Oyeleke et al., 2012). Processing of sorghum by fermentation reduced available carbohydrate attributed to decrease in dry matter by Lactobacillus plantarum (Mugula and Lyimo, 2000). ...
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... Live weight value varied from 2.87 -3.2kg while the weekly feed intake was between 3.66 and 4.37kg. It was observed that the The observed depressed feed intake that apparently affected the live weight probably indicated that baobab leaf and garlic bulb combination as nutraceaticals was not palatable to the treated hens, thus buttressing the reports of several anti-nutritional constituents in herbs and medicinal plants [3,60,61]. Hen day production value was however lower than 77.33 -87.67% recorded in Nera Black hens when different feed types were offered in a humid environment [44]. It was observed that a combination of baobab leaves and garlic bulbs in D2 appeared to have depressed egg laying potentials in Nera Black strain. ...
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Several reports have shown that medicinal herbs have antibacterial properties that can lower diseases outbreak in poultry. However, little is known about utilisation of baobab, garlic, tiger nuts and amaranthus as nutraceuticals to improve poultry eggs production and quality. These herbs may cause depressed physiological integrity of the layers. Therefore, processed baobab leaves, garlic bulbs, tiger nuts and amaranthus leaves were mixed proportionally, added to commercial layers mash and fed to 240 layers for 7 weeks, with the aim of evaluating the egg quality, performance and haematological indices. Eggs were collected on daily basis, processed for external and internal qualities evaluations. Blood samples were collected at week 7, processed for haematological examination following standard procedures. Also, feed intake, live weight and hen day production were determined. Results showed that feed intake varied from 3.66 kg (D3)-4.25 g (D5), while live weight ranged from 2.96 kg (control: D1)-3.2 kg (D5). Egg weight ranged between 40.66 g (D5) and 46.37 g (D1), eggshell thickness was highest (70.9 mm) in D3, compared to 57.18 mm in D5 and albumen pH was 7.06 (D1) but ranged from 6.31-6.41 (D2-D5). Haugh unit varied between 10.58 and 11.09HU, foaming capacity was highest (414.64 mL) in D2 and lowest (307.57 mL) in D1. Hen day production was significantly depressed (P<0.05) in D2 (17.71%), compared to 43.67% (D1). Packed cell volume ranged from 20.0-28.5%, haemoglobin (6.8-9.37g/dL), white blood cells (99.0-207.0 x 10 3 /mm 3), neutrophils (1-5%) and lymphocytes varied between 95.5 and 99%. Although, baobab and garlic bulb combination seemingly depressed egg production, inclusion of baobab, garlic, tiger nuts and amaranthus up to 125-250g, may not distort egg quality and blood profiles in layers. Since there was no mortality during the study, baobab, garlic, tiger nuts and amaranthus could be utilised as nutraceaticals in poultry nutrition to enhance performance.
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