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A preliminary report on sauropod trackways from the Avelino site, Sesimbra region, Upper Jurassic, Portugal

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... Trackway 1 (S1) is considered as the holotype (see text). The most complete right manus pes was molded and preserved as UCM 193.11 during the 1999 study (Contour line spacing 5 mm) Western Europe, in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Portugal, which has a footprint length of 30 cm and a footprint width of 25 cm (Lockley and Santos 1993). ...
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A restudy of the Barkhausen dinosaur tracksite shows that the track-bearing surface reveals considerably more detail than previously indicated, and a new map is presented, showing the trackways of nine sauropods, traveling north, possibly as a group. These are among the smallest sauropod tracks recorded in Europe. There is also evidence of two large theropods crossing the area, one moving to the south and the other to the west. Evidence of at least three other sauropods is registered in the form of isolated manus traces that represent larger individuals. Previous interpretations inferred that sauropod trackways trended south, and therefore suggested a predator chasing its prey as in the purported but controversial attack scenario claimed for the famous Paluxy River site in Texas. Based on the present study, this scenario is no longer tenable for the Barkhausen tracksite. The description of Elephantopoides barkhausensis (Kaever and Lapparent, 1974) shows that it represents a moderately wide gauge, but small manus sauropod and can be assigned under the ichnofamily label Parabrontopodidae. E. barkhausensis as originally defined was a nomen dubium , but it has since been re-described semi-formally, without renaming, we emend the description and assigned them to the ichnotaxon Parabrontopodus barkhausensis comb. nov. These tracks could have been produced by the small sauropod dinosaur taxon Europasaurus . The problematic ichnotaxon Megalosauropus teutonicus (Kaever and Lapparent, 1974), which represents a large three-toed theropod, is assigned to the recently described ichnogenus Jurabrontes from the Late Kimmeridgian of the Swiss Jura mountains as Jurabrontes teutonicus comb. nov. Furthermore, we attribute the theropod tracks from the time equivalent Langenberg quarry to the same ichnotaxon.
... Various authors have supported either the swimming or the under-tracking hypothesis, but most authors have favoured the latter explanation (cf. Ishigaki 1988Ishigaki , 1989Lockley and dos Santos 1993;Santos et al. 1994;Lee and Huh 2002;Henderson 2004;Vila, Oms, and Galobart 2005;Lee and Lee 2006;Hwang et al. 2008;Marty 2008;Ishigaki and Matsumoto 2009;Milner and Lockley 2016;Xing et al. 2016b). Computer simulation studies have also demonstrated that due to differential underfoot pressures, this effect may even occur on the tracking surface, and not just in undertracks (Falkingham et al., 2011a, Falkingham, Bates, andMannion 2012). ...
Article
Three parallel, manus-only sauropod trackways from the Coffee Hollow A-Male tracksite (Glen Rose Formation, Kendall County, Texas) were studied separately by researchers from the Heritage Museum of the Texas Hill Country and the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences. Footprint and trackway measurements generally show good agreement between the two groups’ data sets. Footprints appear to be shallowly impressed true tracks rather than undertracks. One of the Coffee Hollow trackways shows marked asymmetry in the lengths of paces that begin with the left as opposed to the right forefoot, and two of the Coffee Hollow trackways are unusually broad. The Coffee Hollow trackways differ enough from the manus portions of other Glen Rose Formation sauropod trackways to suggest that they were made by a different kind of sauropod. Greater differential pressure exerted on the substrate by the forefeet than the hindfeet probably explains the Coffee Hollow trackways, like other manus-only sauropod trackways, but the possibility that they indicate unusual locomotion cannot at present be ruled out.
... Small to medium-sized tridactyl tracks assigned to ornithopods are scarce in the Late Jurassic European record compared with other types of tridactyl dinosaur footprints such as those of theropods, which are quite abundant in areas such as the Jura platform Mazin et al. 2017;Castanera et al. 2018), the Lusitanian Basin (Lockley and Santos 1993;Lockley et al. 1994;Mateus and Milàn 2010) or the Asturian Basin (Lockley et al. 2008;Piñuela Suarez 2015). This scarcity of ornithopod tracks is a consequence of an abundance of sauropod-and theropod-dominated ichnofaunas preserved in carbonate facies in the socalled Brontopodus ichnofacies, which are characterized by a rather low ichnodiversity (Hunt and Lucas 2007). ...
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The Sociedade de História Natural in Torres Vedras, Portugal houses an extensive collection of as yet undescribed dinosaur tracks with ornithopod affinities. They have been collected from different Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Tithonian) geological formations (Praia de Amoreira-Porto Novo, Alcobaça, Sobral, and Freixial) that outcrop along the Portuguese coast, and belong to two different sub-basins of the Lusitanian Basin (the Consolação and Turcifal sub-basins). Three main morphotypes can be distinguished on the basis of size, mesaxony and the morphology of the metatarsophalangeal pad impression. The minute to small-sized morphotype is similar to the Anomoepus-like tracks identified in other Late Jurassic areas. The small to medium-sized morphotype resembles the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous ichnotaxon Dinehichnus, already known in the Lusitanian Basin. Interestingly, these two morphotypes can be distinguished qualitatively (slightly different size, metatarsophalangeal pad impression and digit morphology) but are nevertheless difficult to discriminate by quantitatively analysing their length-width ratio and mesaxony. The third morphotype is considered a large ornithopod footprint belonging to the ichnofamily Iguanodontipodidae. This ichnofamily is typical for Cretaceous tracksites but the new material suggests that it might also be present in the Late Jurassic. The three morphotypes show a negative correlation between size and mesaxony, so the smaller tracks show the stronger mesaxony, and the larger ones weaker mesaxony. The Upper Jurassic ornithopod record from the Lusitanian Basin has yielded both small and medium-sized ornithopod remains, mainly iguanodontians such as dryosaurids and ankylopollexians, which are the main candidates to be the trackmakers.
... Portugal: The Late Jurassic deposits from the Lusitanian basin have yielded a large amount of tracksites located in different geological formations and localities (Lockley et al., 1992(Lockley et al., , 1994a(Lockley et al., , 1994b(Lockley et al., , 2000Lockley and Santos, 1993;Meyer et al., 1994;Antunes and Mateus, 2003;Santos, 2008;Mateus and Milàn, 2010;Castanera et al., 2016Castanera et al., , 2017. At Cabo Mondego (Figueira da Foz), tetradactyl footprints were identified in 1884 and this tracksite was the first to be described within the Lusitanian basin (Gomes, 1916). ...
Article
Late Jurassic theropod tracks are very common both in North Africa and Europe. Two recently described ichnotaxa Megalosauripus transjuranicus and Jurabrontes curtedulensis from the Kimmeridgian of Switzerland show the coexistence of two apex predators in the same palaeoenvironment. Similar tracks can be found in tracksites from the Iberian Peninsula and from Morocco. Here, we further explore the similarities among the Swiss ichnotaxa and the other tracks from Germany (Kimmeridgian), Spain (Tithonian-Berriasian), Portugal (Oxfordian-Tithonian) and Morocco (Kimmeridgian) through novel three-dimensional data comparisons. Specimens were grouped in two morphotypes: 1) large and gracile (30 < Foot Length<50cm) and 2) giant and robust (FL > 50cm). The analyses show a great morphological overlap among these two morphotypes and the Swiss ichnotaxa (Megalosauripus transjuranicus and Jurabrontes curtedulensis, respectively), even despite the differences in sedimentary environment and age. This suggests a widespread occurrence of similar ichnotaxa along the western margin of Tethys during the Late Jurassic. The new data support the hypothesis of a Gondwana-Laurasia faunal exchange during the Middle or early Late Jurassic, and the presence of migratory routes around the Tethys.
... In our comparative statistical analysis, we analyzed the 10 Tafaytour trackways as well as other small-sized sauropod trackways based on data taken from the literature (Lockley et al., 1986(Lockley et al., , 2002a(Lockley et al., , 2002b(Lockley et al., , 2004(Lockley et al., , 2006(Lockley et al., , 2014Lim et al., 1989;Lockley and Santos, 1993;Dalla Vecchia, 1994;Meyer et al., 1994;Gierli nski and Sawicki, 1998;Lee et al., 2000;Dalla Vecchia et al., 2001;Huh et al., 2003;P erez-Lorente, 2003;Day et al., 2004;Nicosia et al., 2007;Marty, 2008;Gonz alez Riga and Calvo, 2009;Castanera et al., 2011;Xing et al., 2011Xing et al., , 2013Xing et al., , 2014aXing et al., , 2014bXing et al., , 2014cXing et al., , 2015aXing et al., , 2016bXing et al., , 2016cXing et al., , 2016dKim and Lockley, 2012;Marty et al., 2013;Fern andez-Baldor, 2015;Mazin et al., 2016), resulting in a total of 79 trackways (Supplementary Data 2). Besides Morocco, the included trackways come from Switzerland, Germany, England, France, Italy, Croatia, Spain, Portugal, China, Korea, the U.S.A., Argentina, and Bolivia and range from the Lower Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. ...
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Forelimb posture in sauropod dinosaurs is still poorly understood. Although a laterally directed (semisupinated) manus is the plesiomorphic condition in sauropodomorphs, the sauropod track record prevailingly shows anterolateral to anterior manus orientations, suggesting a high degree of manus pronation. The ?Middle Jurassic Tafaytour tracksites described herein preserve at least 10 trackways, nine of which show laterally oriented, and in two examples even posterolaterally oriented, manual impressions. Located in the Argana Basin of the Western High Atlas, Morocco, the tracksite yields hundreds of footprints on a highly bioturbated surface, including examples with well-preserved digit and claw impressions. Footprint morphology and trackway configuration vary greatly between trackways. A literature review indicates that laterally directed manual impressions are restricted to small- and medium-sized trackmakers. Statistical analysis was performed on a larger sample (n = 79) of small sauropod trackways from around the world, indicating that lateral manual orientations are correlated with low locomotion speeds and narrow trackway gauges. Manus pronation in sauropods is hypothesized to occur when the forelimb is actively contributing to the propulsion of the animal, which would be the case at faster speeds or at wider trackway gauges where the center of mass is located more anteriorly. We present new approaches to the quantitative analysis of trackway data. Mean configuration plots allow for direct graphical comparisons of different trackways. Two types of trackway asymmetries are defined and quantified. The apparent glenoacetabular distance (GAD) represents a feasible proxy for body size, at least for the smaller sauropod trackmakers analyzed herein. SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP Citation for this article: Lallensack, J. N., S. Ishigaki, A. Lagnaoui, M. Buchwitz, and O. Wings. 2019. Forelimb orientation and locomotion of sauropod dinosaurs: insights from the ?Middle Jurassic Tafaytour tracksites (Argana Basin, Morocco). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2018.1512501.
... 09°7′23.84″W, respectively) are classified as natural monuments (Decret-law number 20/97 of 7 May) and are particularly important because of: 1) The number and extent of the preserved trackways; 2) their age, making them among the oldest known worldwide; 3) the rare evi- dence of the gregarious behaviour of these animals; 4) the signs, in one of the trackways, pointing to the limping gait of one individual; and 5) the association with the popular legend that tells of Our Lady being carried up the cliffs at Cape Espichel, mounted on a giant mule (Antunes, 1976;Lockley & Santos, 1993;Dantas et al., 1994;Lockley et al., 1994a, b). ...
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The Arrábida chain is an impressive basin inversion structure of Miocene age that is exposed over almost the entire Mesozoic sedimentary sequence of the southern sector of the Lusitanian Basin (LB). This field trip provides a complete cross-section through some of the key outcrops, illustrating important moments in the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an Atlantic-type basin, namely: a)the extensional tectonic control on Early–Middle Jurassic sedimentation in a low- to high-energy carbonate ramp setting; b) the presence of a basin-wide unconformity at the Middle–Upper Jurassic transition; c) the tectonic rejuvenation of the eastern border of the LB, the effects of rift shouldering, and the progressive exhumation of the eastern margin in the sedimentary infill; d) the distal expression of the basin’s breakup unconformity (rift to drift stage); and e) magmatism in a passive margin.
... In the homepage of the activity's website, special attention was given to explaining the rationale of the activity -getting to know local nature and learning to value it -and to providing information about geodiversity and its values, as well as about the need for respecting and preserving natural sites. The fi ve sites selected for this outdoor activity were appealing -mainly dealing with dinosaur tracks -well known, from a scientifi c, cultural, and educational perspective alike (e.g., Antunes 1976 ;Santos et al. 1992Santos et al. , 2008; Lockley and Santos 1993 ;Santos 2008 ; easily to moderately accessible; and evaluated as not particularly vulnerable to independent public visitation. ...
Chapter
Today, more people live in urban areas than in rural ones. Hence, there is a strong case for using urban geodiversity, rocks, fossils, landforms, etc., in outdoor geological educational and geoawareness activities. On the other hand, the present-day world is deeply influenced by technology. Smartphones, GPS-capable devices, tablet computers, and Internet access are widely available technologies to an increasingly large portion of the world’s population. Therefore, why not combine the two facts expressed above – mostly urban population with access to technology – and use them in outdoor geoeducational and geoawareness activities in urban areas and also in natural environments? In this work, a series of activities and experiments in geoeducation and geoawareness actions using commonly available technology, set both in urban and natural environments, will be presented and briefly discussed. These activities have been used in middle school, high school, and university teaching and in science popularization activities mainly fostered by undergraduate and graduate students and teachers of the Department of Geology of the University of Lisbon: GPS-assisted geological trails, QR codes for urban fossils, geotagged geodiversity photos, etc. Used collectively they constitute a technological geoeducational bundle, contributing to the attractiveness and the success of outdoor geological activities. This process is an interactive one, because, on the one hand, new technologies are being used in geoeducation, but, on the other hand, the usage they were originally designed for is being modified and adapted in novel ways as a result of the know-how ensued from their educational use.
Article
Jurassic units of the Lusitanian Basin, housed at the Sociedade de História Natural in Torres Vedras, are here described. They were collected from three different geological formations, the Praia da Amoreira‐Porto Novo (upper Kimmeridgian) and the Alcobaça (Kimmeridgian‐lower Tithonian) formations in the Consolação Sub‐basin and the Freixial Fm. (middle‐upper Tithonian) in the Turcifal Sub‐basin. Four different theropod morphotypes are identified as follows: cf. Jurabrontes isp., Megalosauripus cf. transjuranicus, Grallatoridae indet. and an indeterminate morphotype (Theropoda indet.) that have affinities with other Therangospodus‐like tracks described in Europe. An indeterminate sauropod track is also identified. These five morphotypes suggest high saurischian dinosaur ichnodiversity, similar to that seen in other European Late Jurassic areas (e.g. the Swiss Jura Mountains), but represent just a portion of the higher diversity exhibited by the osteological record in the Lusitanian Basin. Further, one crocodylomorph pes track identified as Crocodylopodus isp. and swim tracks assigned to Characichnos isp., possibly also produced by crocodylomorphs, are also identified. The newly identified ichnotaxa, together with the older and other recent identifications, indicate ichnodiversity comparable with the richest coeval Upper Jurassic units.
Thesis
http://hdl.handle.net/10803/402396 The terrestrial Campanian/Maastrichtian geological and paleontological record from southwestern Europe is one of the best outside North America to study the last 15 million years previous to the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. The narrative of the last dinosaur communities from the Ibero-Armorican Island (European Archipelago) is addressed by studying their occurrences, associated paleoenvironments and magnetostratigraphic dating. Such integrated works in the Mesozoic portion of the Tremp Group (South-Pyrenean Basin) includes the study of footprints of the ichnogenus Hadrosauropodus, linked to hadrosaur dinosaurs. These tracks are abundant in the fluvial coastal plains of the upper Maastrichtian. In addition to the fluvial ecosystem, hadrosaurs also colonized the coastal environment (e.g. lagoons), as reveals the L’Espinau site (amongst other localities). In contrast, sauropods were dominant in the Campanian and the lower Maastrichtian coastal and inland environments of the region, but were still present in those settings until the uppermost Maastrichtian, as evidenced by bones, eggshell and tracks, and skin impressions. However, their remains were much scarcer than those of hadrosaurs at this age. The dinosaur faunal succession of southwestern Europe has been improved by means of: 1) habitat understanding, 2) dating and integrating the Aude record (northern Pyrenees), 3) improving of the age calibration of the Isona sector (southern Pyrenees), and 4) integrating of the Campanian- Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record from the rest of France, Spain and Portugal (Provence and Iberian areas). Dating refinements permit a new model for the Maastrichtian dinosaur faunal succession. Instead of a rapid faunal shift from titanosaurian-dominated herbivorous assemblages to hadrosaur-dominated communities around the early-late Maastrichtian boundary, the achieved data show that the extinction of major clades and the apparition of new ones took place diachronously and was not time coincident. On the contrary, a coexistence period of about two milion years between older and newer Ibero-Armorican dinosaur inhabitants have been identified.
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Extensive and well-preserved tracksites in the coastally exposed Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula provide almost the entire fossil record of dinosaurs from the western half of the Australian continent. Tracks near the town of Broome were described in the late 1960s as Megalosauropus broomensis and attributed to a medium-sized theropod trackmaker. Brief reports in the early 1990s suggested the occurrence of at least another nine types of tracks, referable to theropod, sauropod, ornithopod, and thyreophoran trackmakers, at scattered tracksites spread over more than 80 km of coastline north of Broome, potentially representing one of the world's most diverse dinosaurian ichnofaunas. More recently, it has been proposed that this number could be as high as 16 and that the sites are spread over more than 200 km. However, the only substantial research that has been published on these more recent discoveries is a preliminary study of the sauropod tracks and an account of the ways in which the heavy passage of sauropod trackmakers may have shaped the Dampier Peninsula's Early Cretaceous landscape. With the other types of dinosaurian tracks in the Broome Sandstone remaining undescribed, and the full extent and nature of the Dampier Peninsula's dinosaurian tracksites yet to be adequately addressed, the overall scientific significance of the ichnofauna has remained enigmatic. At the request of the area's Goolarabooloo Traditional Custodians, 400+ hours of ichnological survey work was undertaken from 2011 to 2016 on the 25 km stretch of coastline in the Yanijarri–Lurujarri section of the Dampier Peninsula, inclusive of the coastline at Walmadany (James Price Point). Forty-eight discrete dinosaurian tracksites were identified in this area, and thousands of tracks were examined and measured in situ and using three-dimensional photogrammetry. Tracksites were concentrated in three main areas along the coast: Yanijarri in the north, Walmadany in the middle, and Kardilakan–Jajal Buru in the south. Lithofacies analysis revealed 16 repeated facies types that occurred in three distinctive lithofacies associations, indicative of an environmental transgression between the distal fluvial to deltaic portions of a large braid plain, with migrating sand bodies and periodic sheet floods. The main dinosaurian track-bearing horizons seem to have been generated between periodic sheet floods that blanketed the preexisting sand bodies within the braid plain portion of a tidally influenced delta, with much of the original, gently undulating topography now preserved over large expanses of the present day intertidal reef system. Of the tracks examined, 150 could be identified and are assignable to a least eleven and possibly as many as 21 different track types: five different types of theropod tracks, at least six types of sauropod tracks, four types of ornithopod tracks, and six types of thyreophoran tracks. Eleven of these track types can formally be assigned or compared to existing or new ichnotaxa, whereas the remaining ten represent morphotypes that, although distinct, are currently too poorly represented to confidently assign to existing or new ichnotaxa. Among the ichnotaxa that we have recognized, only two (Megalosauropus broomensis and Wintonopus latomorum) belong to existing ichnotaxa, and two compare to existing ichnotaxa but display a suite of morphological features suggesting that they may be distinct in their own right and are therefore placed in open nomenclature. Six of the ichnotaxa that we have identified are new: one theropod ichnotaxon, Yangtzepus clarkei, ichnosp. nov.; one sauropod ichnotaxon, Oobardjidama foulkesi, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.; two ornithopod ichnotaxa, Wintonopus middletonae, ichnosp. nov., and Walmadanyichnus hunteri, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.; and two thyreophoran ichnotaxa, Garbina roeorum, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov., and Luluichnus mueckei, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. The level of diversity of the main track types is comparable across areas where tracksites are concentrated: Kardilakan–Jajal Buru (12), Walmadany (11), and Yanijarri (10). The overall diversity of the dinosaurian ichnofauna of the Broome Sandstone in the Yanijarri–Lurujarri section of the Dampier Peninsula is unparalleled in Australia, and even globally. In addition to being the primary record of non-avian dinosaurs in the western half of Australia, this ichnofauna provides our only detailed glimpse of Australia's dinosaurian fauna during the first half of the Early Cretaceous. It indicates that the general composition of Australia's mid-Cretaceous dinosaurian fauna was already in place by the Valanginian–Barremian. Both sauropods and ornithopods were diverse and abundant, and thyreophorans were the only type of quadrupedal ornithischians. Important aspects of the fauna that are not seen in the Australian mid-Cretaceous body fossil record are the presence of stegosaurians, an overall higher diversity of thyreophorans and theropods, and the presence of large-bodied hadrosauroid-like ornithopods and very large-bodied sauropods. In many respects, these differences suggest a holdover from the Late Jurassic, when the majority of dinosaurian clades had a more cosmopolitan distribution prior to the fragmentation of Pangea. Although the record for the Lower Cretaceous of Gondwana is sparse, a similar mix of taxa occurs in the Barremian–lower Aptian La Amarga Formation of Argentina and the Berriasian–Hauterivian Kirkwood Formation of South Africa. The persistence of this fauna across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in South America, Africa, and Australia might be characteristic of Gondwanan dinosaurian faunas more broadly. It suggests that the extinction event that affected Laurasian dinosaurian faunas across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary may not have been as extreme in Gondwana, and this difference may have foreshadowed the onset of Laurasian-Eurogondwanan provincialism. The disappearance of stegosaurians and the apparent drop in diversity of theropods by the mid-Cretaceous suggests that, similar to South America, Australia passed through a period of faunal turnover between the Valanginian and Aptian. -------- In: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir (Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Vol. 36, supplement to 6, November 2016).
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