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Efficacy of different herbicides on controlling weeds and their effect on yield and yield components of edible pea (Pisum sativum L.)

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... Green pods yield (ton/fed) and dry seed yield (kg/fed) were significantly negatively correlated with number and weight of grassy, broad-leaved and total weeds (Fakkar and El-Dakkak, 2015). Khan et al. (2003) proved that pod length, No. of seeds pod-1 and pod yield of pea was the highest in hand-weeded, followed by post emergently Metribuzin treated. Wagner (2006) double rates of Stomp 330 AS and Sencor 70 WG significantly declined height of shoots and roots of a green pea. ...
... Imazethapyr and pendimethalin have been reported to be the effective chemical treatments for weed control in pea (Rana et al. 2013). Khan et al. (2003) stated that pod length (9.6 cm), No. of seeds pod1 (6.14) and pod yield (4673 kg ha1) were the maximum in hand weeding followed by post-emergence of application Metribuzin treated plots. Seed yield of field pea was decreased by 50% when weeds were allowed to compete for the entire season. ...
... Similar results were introduced by Khan et al. (2003); Jukka et al. (2005); Salonen et al. (2005); Wagner (2006) and Gbor and Erzsbet (2009). -------469.8 --------184.4 ...
... Blackshaw (1998) indicated that the hand-weeding method was good enough to control the weed growth in pea. Khan et al (2003) proved that pod length, No. of seeds pod -1 and pod yield of pea was the highest in hand-weeded, followed by post emergently Metribuzin treated. Blackshaw et al. (2006) indicated that reducing herbicide doses within competitive cropping systems have a multi-year approach for weed management. ...
... On the other hand, the lowest values of each traits were observed in the un-weeded plots resulted from the high competition between weeds and pea crops. Our findings are in accordance with those introduced by Khan et al. (2003) Gbor and Erzsbet (2009) ...
... These treatments can accelerate the vegetative growth and enhance the photosynthetic activity, increasing carbohydrates and subsequently, yield and its components. The findings are also in accordance with those shown by Khan et al. (2003); Wagner (2006); Blackshaw et al., (2006); Avola et al., (2008); Gbor andErzsbet (2009) andEl-Dakkak et al. (2010). ...
... However, numerically the earliest germination was observed in control plots (5.67 days) whereas as the plots with black plastic took maximum days to germination (7.33). Contradictory to our results Sajid et al. (2012) and Khan et al. (2003) reported high germination percentage in control followed by stomp and Dual gold treated plots. ...
... In addition, Ekinci and Dursun (2009) observed early flowering in clear plastic in contrast to black plastic mulches. While Khan et al. (2003) reported late flowering in herbicide treated plots. ...
... In all the treatments, three hand weeding performed better as compared to other treatments however, black plastic mulch and Dual gold were likewise effective but clear plastic mulch was least efficient. Our results were scientifically endorsed by Khan et al., (2003) and Sajid et al. (2012) who suggested chemical and plastic mulching for getting longer pods. ...
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A study was carried out to check the outcome of different weed management techniques on the growth and yield of Pea cv. Meteor at Vegetable Research Area, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Dera Ismail Khan, during 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with six treatments including control (weedy check), Stomp (pendimethalin) @ 2.5 L ha-1, Dual gold (S-metolachlor) @ 2.5 L ha-1, threehand weeding (20, 40 and 60 DAS), transparent plastic mulch and black plastic mulch. Each treatment was replicated three times. Data on days to germination and flowering, weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, plant height, pods plant-1, pod length, seeds pod-1andseed yield ha-1were recorded and analyzed statistically. Weed density, fresh and dry biomass of weed were significantly reduced by different weed management techniques. Whereas, all plant growth, yield and yield contributing traits were considerably improved due to weed management. Significant variations existed among different weed management strategies regarding all parameters. The maximum pod yield (5.11 t ha-1) was recorded from hand weeded plots, followed by black plastic (4.84) and Dual gold (4.10 t ha-1). Stomp (2.61 t ha-1) and clear plastic (2.55 t ha-1) were statistically at par with respect to pod yields. It was concluded from the results that highest yield of pea and effective weed control were achieved by three hand weeding followed by black plastic mulch. However, maximum value of BCR (2.33) was obtained in Dual gold followed by hand weeding (2.24), suggesting that for large scale pea production, application of Dual gold @ 2.5 L ha-1 was economical.
... These results are in agreement with the previous inferences of ( Bakht et al., 2009;Hutton and Handley, 2007) who found that mulching was effective in suppressing weeds and promoting plant growth. While (Khan et al., 2003;Sajid et al., 2012) also suggested herbicides application like Stomp and Dual gold for controlling weeds and promoting plant growth. Weeds density (m 2 ): The experimental field was infested with different broad leaf as well as grassy weeds, however, the most abundant weeds were Chenopodium album L, Anagallis arvensis L, Cyprus rotendus, C. Muale, Fumera indica L, Caronopus didymus L, and Vicia sativa L. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that weed density m 2 was significantly reduced by different weed management practices during both years of study (Table 2). ...
... As the competitive weeds were removed periodically, thus lowering their competition for nutrients, space, water and light. These results are in corroboration with the previous work (Khan et al., 2003;Sajid et al., 2012;Prakash et al., 2000;Jilani et al., 2007) who found that chemical control of weeds like application of Dual Gold and Stomp significantly improved plant growth and number of productive parts, i.e. pods per plant. Similarly, Banga et al., (1998), Hutton and Handley (2007) and Bakht et al. (2009) reported that plastic mulching controlled weeds effectively and enhanced number of pods and yields of vegetables. ...
... These results also showed that the treatment having more number of pod per plant has obvious more weight of fresh pod per plant (g) and vice versa. Several scientists have suggested conventional, chemical and mulching strategies for suppressing weeds and enhancing grain weight of crops (Khan et al., 2003;Sajid et al., 2012;Prakash et al., 2000;Jilani et al., 2007;Hutton and Handley, 2007). Similarly, Bakht et al. (2009) found that mulching like plastic as well as other materials controlled weeds effectively and enhanced number of pods and yields of vegetables. ...
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Though Pea is considered as one of the most important winter vegetable belonging to leguminoseae family is also very much prune to weed infestation. A study was conducted to observe the effect of various weed management techniques on weed density, plant growth, yield and yield contributing traits of pea. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments replicated thrice. During 2011-12, the earliest germination (5.33 days) took place in plots where black plastic and transparent plastic were laid out as mulch, followed by control and hand weeding plots (6.33 days). The significantly tallest plants (65.57 cm), lowest weed density (13.43 m²), minimum fresh weed biomass (35.72 g/m²), lowest dry weed biomass (12.54 g/m²), maximum number of pod per plant (21.03), the longest pods (7.54 cm), the highest weight of fresh pods per plant (44.17 g), number of gains per pod (8.02) and 100-grains weight (50.73 g) were recorded in hand weeded plots. Hand weeding recorded substantial increase in pod yield (8.63 t ha-1) which was significantly the highest from all other treatments. In 2012-13, the significantly highest number of days taken to 50% flowering (65.33) was recorded in plots covered with white plastic. The lowest weed density (14.20 g/m²), least fresh weed biomass (42.32 g/m²), the lowest dry weed biomass (15.19 g/m²), maximum number of pod per plant (14.76), the highest weight of fresh pods per plant (44.17 g), the longest pods (6.97 cm), maximum number of gains per pod (6.43) and the highest 100-grains weight (52.06 g) were recorded in hand weeded plots. Significantly the highest pod yield (7.66 t ha⁻¹) was also recorded in hand weeding. It was concluded that during both the years, hand weeding surpassed all other techniques in minimizing weeds density, weeds fresh and dry biomass enhancing all other growth and yield parameters followed by transparent plastic mulch, black plastic mulch, Dual Gold and Stomp.
... Dimitrova (1998) noted that weed competition reduces the green pod yield by 44.6-55.6% in pea field. Khan et al. (2003) stated that pod length (9.6 cm), No. of seeds pod À1 (6.14) and pod yield (4673 kg ha À1 ) were the maximum in hand weeding followed by postemergence of application Metribuzin treated plots. Jukka et al. (2005) and Salonen et al. (2005) showed that herbicides decreased number of weed species per field (Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Viola arvensis and Elymus repens). ...
... compared with unweeded treatment in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons, respectively. Similar results were obtained by Khan et al. (2003), Gbor andErzsbet (2009) andEl-Dakkak et al. (2010). Effect of crop sequence and weed control treatments (Table 3). ...
... Effect of crop sequence and weed control treatments (Table 3). The results are in agreement with that mentioned by Khan et al. (2003), Gbor and Erzsbet (2009) and El-Dakkak et al. (2010). ...
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Field experiment was carried out at Shandaweel Agriculture Research Station during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 winter seasons to study the effect of 24 treatments which were the combinations in spilt plot design where four crop sequences (Wheat/sorghum, Wheat/peanut, clover/sorghum and clover/peanut) were laid main plots and six weed control treatments (Gesagard at 1.0 L/fed, Sencor at 300 g/fed + Select super at 500 cm3/fed, Basagran at 500 cm3/fed + Select super, Gesagard + Select super, hand hoeing twice at 20 and 45 days after sowing (DAS) and unweeded treatment (check) in split plot design on pea yield and associated weeds).
... Mawalia et al. (2016) concluded that pendimethalin 1000 g/ha supplemented with one hand weeding at 45 DAS being statistically at par to the application of pendimethalin fb imazethapyr + imazamox 60 g/ha (post) significantly reduced the density of major weeds in peas. Khan et al.(2003) [25] stated that pod length (9.6 cm), No. of seeds pod −1 (6.14) and pod yield (4673 kg ha −1 ) were the maximum in hand weeding followed by postemergence of application metribuzin treated plots. Jukka et al. (2005) [22] and Salonen et al. (2005) [50] showed that herbicides decreased number of weed species per field (Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Viola arvensis and Elymus repens). ...
... Mawalia et al. (2016) concluded that pendimethalin 1000 g/ha supplemented with one hand weeding at 45 DAS being statistically at par to the application of pendimethalin fb imazethapyr + imazamox 60 g/ha (post) significantly reduced the density of major weeds in peas. Khan et al.(2003) [25] stated that pod length (9.6 cm), No. of seeds pod −1 (6.14) and pod yield (4673 kg ha −1 ) were the maximum in hand weeding followed by postemergence of application metribuzin treated plots. Jukka et al. (2005) [22] and Salonen et al. (2005) [50] showed that herbicides decreased number of weed species per field (Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Viola arvensis and Elymus repens). ...
Article
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Garden pea is an important offseason vegetable, which is widely grown as cash crop during winter and summer in northwest Himalayan region. Among the several factors responsible for low yield of winter legumes, competition due to weeds is the important one. Uncontrolled weed growth in pea has been reported to cause yield reductions from 37.3 to 64.4%. Slow initial growth, wider spacing and fairly good application of FYM along with inorganic fertilizers provide congenial environment for weeds. The dominant weed species in pea crop were Stellaria media, Phalaris minor, Vicia sativa, Tulipa asiatica, Vicia hirsuta, Avena ludoviciana, Poa annua and Anagallis arvensis. Since environmental protection is a global concern, the age-old agronomic manipulations, viz. tillage and inter-cultivation, inter cropping, mulching, cover crops, crop rotation, higher seed rate or plant populations, planting at closer spacing, nutrient management, planting methods, and other agro-techniques are used for weed management. Therefore, a review based on cultural weed management practices in organically managed pea was done. 1. Introduction In Himachal Pradesh 70-75% area is rainfed. Maize-wheat is the major cropping system in these areas. The system is over exploitative of resources. Thus some remunerative crops like pea can be grown as an alternative to wheat in the system. Pea is cultivated in 23.65 thousand ha area with production of 277.2 thousand MT (Horticulture Statistics at a Glance, 2017, Horticulture Statistics Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, GOI). However, cultivation is limited to garden peas only with no cultivation of field peas. The main problem in its production is the occurrence of weeds which interfere with the crop and cause huge losses in yield. Of the total losses caused by pests, weeds have a major share (30%). In India, weeds, generally, reduce crop yields by 36.5% during rainy-season and 22.7% during winter, and in some cases, cause complete crop failure. The battle against weeds is never ending and often the costliest agronomic input for successful crop production. Concern about potential increases in weed populations without the use of herbicides has limited the uptake of organic farming. However, as both public demands for organic produce and the profile of organic farming have increased in recent years, so too has the range of weed control options. Thus, a dire need was felt to discover the agronomic manipulations for weed management which are environmentally safe. Progress in cultural methods of weed control has included the use of novel weed-suppressing cover crops and the identification of specific crop traits for weed suppression. Direct weed control has also seen developments, with new implements appearing on the market that could benefit in the future from sophisticated machine guidance and weed detection technology. Many weed control operations in organic systems present the grower with conflicts and both these and many of the most recent developments in organic weed control are reviewed (Bond et al. http://www.organicweeds.org.uk). An increase in our understanding of weed biology and population dynamics underpins long-term improvements in sustainable weed control. Emphasis is required to be given for flexibility and a combination of weed biology knowledge, cultural methods and direct weed control to maintain weed populations at manageable levels. Further, since environmental protection is a global concern, the age-old agronomic manipulations, viz. tillage and inter-cultivation, inter cropping, mulching, cover crops, crop rotation, higher seed rate or plant populations, planting at closer spacing, nutrient management, planting methods, and other agro-techniques are used for weed management.
... The other factors like non usage of recommended agronomic practices, application of improper fertilizer doses; diseases and harvesting losses also play an important role in yield reduction. According to [6] the main hurdle in the way of increasing per hectare pea production is the weed competition. Sometimes season long crop-weed competitions reduce the green pod yield by up to 45-55% [7]. ...
... The other factors like non usage of recommended agronomic practices, application of improper fertilizer doses; diseases and harvesting losses also play an important role in yield reduction. According to Khan et al. (2003) the main hurdle in the way of increasing per hectare pea production is the weed competition. Sometimes season long crop-weed competitions reduce the green pod yield by up to 45-55% (Prakash et al. 2000 ). ...
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The present research work was designed to find out the amount of genetic variability that may exist in different pea cultivars. For this purpose six advance lines/commercial pea varieties were collected from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad and one local variety was included in the experiment as a control. The experiment was conducted during 2014-15 at National Tea & High Value Crops Research Institute (NTHRI) Shinkiari, Mansehra. Altogether seven pea genotypes were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Normal agronomic practices were carried out during the growth period and data was recorded on different growth parameters. Significant differences were observed for all the agronomic traits studied. Root rot attack was observed during the growth period. Pea variety 'Meteor' was found susceptible against this disease followed by 'Sarsabz 9800-1' as moderately susceptible and 9375 as resistant. The other varieties/lines Pea-09, Climax, Local and PF-400 were found tolerant against this disease. Green pod yield per hectare data revealed that pea variety 'Climax' produced the highest yield (11.6 t ha-1) followed by advance lines PF-400 (11.5 t ha-1) and 9375 (9.9 t ha-1), respectively. The lowest yield (2.1 t ha-1) was recorded for 'Meteor' which was also found susceptible against root rot disease. Based on our findings, it is recommended that pea variety 'Climax' cultivation should be promoted in the area at large scale in order to increase the production and give more financial benefits to the farmers of the area. Advance lines PF-400 & 9375 which performed well in the experiment and bear bright future prospects should be considered in designing future hybridization programs.
... Higher dose of pendimethalin (@0.99 kg ha -1 ) caused 50 % phytotoxicity (as determined by chlororsis on pea plants) when applied as PE. However, the symptoms of phytotoxicity disappeared in the concerned treatments in the advanced growth stages of the crop [14]. Pendimethalin gets adsorbed strongly by the soil organic matter and clay and is not readily leached down in the soil. ...
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The bio-efficacy of different herbicide treatments on the performance of mustard crop and its effect on population dynamics of beneficial soil microorganisms like Azotobacter (aerobic and free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria), Bacillus and Pseudomonas (phosphate solubilisation and biocontrol agents) were studied. Higher doses of pendimethalin (@1.0 kg ha-1) and isoproturon (@1.0 kg ha-1) had toxic effect on the germination (13.33 and 17.33 m-2) and emergence of mustard crop and resulted in significantly lower plant population. These treatments resulted in reduction of plant population to the tune of 47.92 and 31.48 %at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and 47.06 and 27.96 % at harvest. Weed free treatment recorded significantly higher seed yield (2781 kg ha-1) which was about 99 % more than the weedy check. The increase in seed yield with different herbicides was to the tune of 27–73 % over weedy check, except pendimethalin @1.0 kg ha-1 as pre-emergence (PE). The weedy check plot showed highest population of Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas throughout the observation period. However, among different herbicide treatments, the highest population of Azotobacter and Bacillus was observed with pendimethalin 0.5 kg ha-1 as PE and that of Pseudomonas with isoproturon 1.0 kg ha-1 30 DAS at harvest stage.
Article
A study was conducted during winter 2004-06 at Jabalpur, to evaluate the efficacy of metribuzin against weeds in fieldpea (Pisum sativum L.) Littleseed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) (37%), wild oats (Avena ludoviciana Dur.) (21%), toothed burclover (Medicago hispida Gaertn.) (38%) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) (4%) were the major weeds observed in the field. Application of metribuzin 250 g/ha as post-emergence significantly reduced the population of P. minor but did not control A. ludoviciana compared to its pre-plant soil incorporation and pre-emergence application. Integration of metribuzin with 1 hand-weeding and its sequential application were significantly effective in reducing M. hispida population. Application of metribuzin significantly reduced the root nodulation at 60 days after sowing. Infestation of weeds throughout the crop growth period caused 46% reduction in seed yield of fieldpea. The highest seed yield (2 594 kg/ha) was obtained with 2 hand-weeding at 30 and 45 days after sowing, closely followed by metribuzin 250 g/ha at 30 days after sowing + 1 hand weeding at 45 days after sowing (2 331 kg/ha). Sequential application of metribuzin 250 g/ha as pre-emergence + 125 g/ha as post -emergence gave the highest net returns (Rs 11 090) and B:C ratio (1.97).
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