Article

Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in adult dogs

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to survey the seroprevalence of canine coronavirus (CCV) in healthy adult dogs and to determine whether there was any relationship between seroprevalence and the host parameters. Serum samples for determination of serum neutralization antibody titers against CCV were obtained from 812 healthy adult dogs over 1 year old brought to veterinary clinics for routine health care visit in 4 provinces from January 2003 to April 2004. Of the 812 dogs, 714 (87.9%) had positive antibody titers (more than 1 :4) against CCV The prevalence of positive CCV antibody titers were not significantly associated with age, sex, rearing province and environment, and vaccination status. However, the positive CCV antibody titers were increasing with the age. These serological findings have shown that prevalence of positive CCV antibody titers in Korean dogs were a relatively high and that CCV infection was widespread in Korean dog population. These suggest that it may be as important to protect dogs against infection with CCV as it is to vaccinate against canine parvovirus.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Canine coronavirus (CCV) and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) are the causative agents of gastroenteritis in dogs. Seventy fecal samples from dogs with signs of gastroenteritis (vomiting and diarrhea), twenty-five fecal samples from healthy dogs and one CPV-2 vaccine strain were amplified by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), aimed at specifically studying the gene encoding the most abundant capsid protein VP2 of CPV-2 and spike protein of CCV. The specificity of the CCV RT-PCR product was evaluated by sequencing. Positive specimens comprised 44 samples (62.8%) and 9 samples (12.8%) for CPV-2 and CCV, respectively. In nine CCV positive samples, seven displayed co-infection between CCV and CPV-2. Our CCV sequence (AF482001) showed a 94.9% nucleotide identity to CCV reported in GenBank accession number D13096. High prevalence of CCV and CPV-2 infections was found in 1-2 month- and 3-6 month-old dogs, respectively. Molecular biology of these viruses is important primarily for epidemic control and preventive measures.
Article
Full-text available
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled TGEV, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. TGEV was neutralized by feline anti-FIPV serum, and the reaction was potentiated by complement; heterologous neutralization involved antibody reacting with the peplomer protein (P), the envelope protein (E), and cellular (glycolipid) components incorporated into the TGEV membrane. Electrophoretic analysis of immune precipitates containing [35S]methionine-labeled disrupted TGEV and feline anti-FIPV antibody confirmed the reaction with the P and E polypeptides and showed the nucleocapsid protein (N) in addition. Electroblotting, followed by incubation with antibody, 125I-labeled protein A, and fluorography, disclosed cross-reactions between the three viruses at the N and E levels and revealed differences in the apparent molecular weights of the latter. Enzyme immunoassays performed with standard amounts of immobilized P, N, and E polypeptides of the three viruses showed recognition of the antigens by homologous and heterologous antibody to comparable degrees. These results indicate a close antigenic relationship between TGEV, FIPV, and canine coronavirus due to common determinants on the three major virion proteins. The taxonomic implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of an inactivated CCoV vaccine (Duramune PC) was evaluated in four pups. Two dogs were maintained non-vaccinated. Ten days after the booster shot all the pups were challenged with a field CCoV strain administered by oro-nasal route. The vaccinated pups did not display clinical signs and shed the challenge-virus for 11.25 days, evaluated by virus isolation, and 13.5 days, evaluated by PCR assay. The two non vaccinated pups displayed mild diarrhoea at day post-challenge 4 and shed the challenge-virus for 14 and 15 days respectively, by virus isolation, and for 22 and 24 days respectively, by PCR assay.
Article
Full-text available
Molecular characterisation of a canine coronavirus (CCoV) isolate (BGF), associated with an outbreak of diarrhoea in puppies, showed 92.7% identity with attenuated Insavc-1 strain. Canine coronavirus BGF revealed a full length non-structural protein 3b (nsp 3b), associated with virulence in other coronaviruses, and a highly divergent region at the amino terminal domain of the membrane protein that may be implicated in avoiding the host immune reaction. This new canine coronavirus strain could help to identify virulence factors in coronavirus.
Article
Cross-protection studies between the feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) viruses were conducted in cats, pigs and pregnant gilts. Cats vaccinated with TGE virus developed neutralizing antibodies against TGE virus and low titer antibody against FIP virus detected by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique but were not protected against a virulent FIP virus challenge. Baby pigs and pregnant gilts vaccinated with FIP virus did not develop detectable antibodies to TGE virus. Nevertheless, it appeared that vaccination of swine with FIP virus conferred some immunity against TGE virus infection. Seventeen-day-old pigs vaccinated with two doses of FIP virus had a 67% survival rate following a virulent TGE virus challenge, and 75% of the 3-day-old pigs suckling either FIP or TGE-virus-vaccinated gilts survived virulent TGE virus infection in contrast to 0% survival of baby pigs suckling unvaccinated gilts.
Article
Complex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-, CCV- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. Both the serological and antigen-detection ELISAs were used to screen samples from dogs in The Netherlands, with or without a history of acute diarrhea. It was shown that the results of the respective serological ELISAs correlated well and that CPV was the major cause of virus-induced acute diarrhea in dogs in The Netherlands.
Article
Sera of weaned puppies from a hysterectomy-derived, specific pathogen free (SPF) closed dog colony did not contain antibodies against a TGE-associated virus or a serologically related one, but sera from puppies and older dogs from open kennels did. The higher antiviral titers in serum of older dogs suggested that these animals had suffered either persistent or recurrent infections. Seventy-two puppies had no contact with swine, indicating that the virus was able to propagate independently of contact with swine.
Article
The infectivity and pathogenicity to newborn pigs of antigenically related coronaviruses from pigs (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; TGEV), cats (feline infectious peritonitis virus; FIPV), and dogs (canine gastroenteritis virus; CGEV) were studied by light, scanning electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Hysterectomy-derived, 12-hour-old pigs were orally given tissue culture or frozen preparations of 6 coronavirus strains (3 porcine, 2 feline, and 1 canine). The pigs were killed at regular intervals between 24 and 144 hours after exposure. Virulent TGEV and virulent FIPV produced necrosis of villous epithelium, resulting in villous atrophy in the jejunum and the ileum. Similar, but less extensive and severe lesions, were produced by the 4 other viruses. Coronaviral antigens were identified by immunofluorescence in villous epithelial cells of pigs that had been inoculated with virulent TGEV, attenuated TGEV, virulent FIPV, and tissue culture-adapted FIPV. In contrast, coronaviral antigens were not induced by the small plaque variant TGEV and virulent CGEV in the villous epithelium, but rather in cells of the lamina propria and crypt epithelium.
Article
A heterologous neutralization assay for feline infectious peritonitis virus serology was developed using a single continuous cell line of canine origin, A-72, which is susceptible to cytopathic infection with both transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs and canine coronavirus. Of several coronavirus isolates tested, the 1-71 isolate of canine coronavirus demonstrated the most effective neutralization by serum and body fluids of cats with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis.
Article
Ten strains, eight field and two reference laboratory strains, of canine coronavirus (CCV) were comparatively examined with respect to antigenic relationships and pathogenic potential in dogs. With monoclonal antibodies and hyperimmune antisera to feline coronavirus and CCV, respectively, varying degrees of antigenic diversities were found among the strains by neutralization and immunofluorescence assays, but it was felt that they belong to one serotype. Specific-pathogen-free puppies experimentally inoculated with some CCV strains manifested clinical symptoms, but there was a difference in their virulence. In order to elucidate the prevalence of CCV infections in dogs in Japan, we tested for neutralizing antibodies to CCV in 467 field dogs, and found a prevalence of 44.1%. Moreover, by using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on rectal swabs of 100 diarrheic dogs recently presented in veterinary clinics, evidence of CCV in 16% of these specimens was found. The results suggested that CCV infection is more widespread than expected in dogs, and that CCV is a significant etiologic factor in canine diarrhea also in Japan.
Article
To estimate the frequency of serum antibodies (IgG and IgM) to canine coronavirus (CCV) in the Australian dog population and evaluate the role of CCV as a causative agent of gastroenteritis. A serological survey of antibodies to CCV among different dog populations. The development and characterisation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies (IgG and IgM) to CCV was undertaken. Sera collected from both diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal dogs from various populations throughout Australia were tested for these antibodies to CCV. Serum samples (1396) collected from 1984 to 1998 were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to CCV. Samples were divided into two categories on the basis of the number of dogs housed together. The groups were either an open population containing dogs housed as groups of three or less, or kennel populations. Sera from 15.8% of the open population and 40.8% of kennelled dogs were positive for CCV antibodies. The prevalence of antibodies varied from zero to 76% in kennelled dogs. About 23% of 128 dogs positive for IgG antibodies to CCV were also positive for IgM antibodies to CCV, indicating recent CCV infection. Of those dogs that were presented with clinical signs of gastroenteritis such as diarrhoea and vomiting (n = 29), 85% were positive in the IgM ELISA and 85.7% in the IgG ELISA for antibodies to CCV. In comparison, for those dogs presented without any history of gastroenteritis only 15% were positive for IgM and 30% positive for IgG. Serological evidence indicates that infection with CCV in dogs is widespread throughout the Australian mainland. The prevalence of antibodies varies greatly among different populations, with an average of 40.8% positive in kennelled populations and 15.8% in the open population.
Article
Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained.
Article
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa), using as antigen canine coronavirus-infected CrFK cell supernatant, was developed to detect antibodies against canine coronavirus (CCoV). Out of a total of 109 dog serum samples, 80 which were positive by routine virus neutralisation test were also Elisa positive. Seventeen samples which were negative by the virus neutralisation test, were positive by Elisa and by the confirmatory Western blotting test. The Elisa was substantially more sensitive than the virus neutralisation test in detecting antibodies to CCoV and may be used as an alternative technique to virus neutralisation.