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A Review on Pharmacological Effects of Ferula assa - foetida L.: a Systematic Review

Authors:
  • Institute of Medicinal Plants- Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research

Abstract

Ferula assa - foetida L., commonly known as Asafetida is an herbaceous, monocarpic, perennial medicinal plant of the Apiaceae family. The main origin of Ferula assa - foetida is the steppes of Iran and Afghanistan. Asafetida gum-resin has a long history for food additive and medicinal uses. In Asian traditional medical systems Asafetida gum-resin has been expected to be used as digestive system, cleansing and strengthening the gastro-intestinal tract, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, sedative and stomachic. Due to its current uses as well as its pharmacological effects further information needs for future clinical studies. The aim of this review was to provide an update overview of research studies focused on the pharmacological effects of Asafetida gum-resin. A computerized search of published articles was performed using the electronic database such as MEDLINE to 2010. The results indicate that, the large numbers of articles published on pharmacological effects of Asafetida over recent three decade. Asafetida gum-resin exert several pharmacological effects including, anti-histamine effect in gastero intestinal system, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anticholinergic, and hypoglycemic as observed in experimental and clinical studies. In conclusion the present scientific-based evidence provides good information about pharmacological effects of Asafetida gum-resin. This information may be useful to researcher for induction of clinical trial for this herbal medicine in treatment of traditionally recognized application such as gastrointestinal disease, cancer, hypertension and diabetes.
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ﻞﺴﻠﺴﻣ هرﺎﻤﺷ ،مرﺎﻬﭼ هرود ،ﻢﻫد لﺎﺳ ﺰﻴﻳﺎﭘ ،ﻢﻠﻬﭼ1390
ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ
هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲﻳوراد هﺎﻴﮔ يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا ﺮﺑ يروﺮﻣ)Ferula assa – foetida L.(: ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ ﻚﻳ
مﺎﻈﻧ يروﺮﻣ ﺪﻨﻣ
ﺮﻴﻣا يﺰﻳرﺎﻛ عراز ﺎﺿر
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يﺪﻴﻣا رﻮﺼﻨﻣ ،
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حﻼﻓ ﻦﺴﺣ ، ﻲﻨﻴﺴﺣ
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،ﻲﻧادﺰﻳ باراد
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،هدازﺎﺿر ﻲﻠﻌﺴﻤﺷ
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،
ﻲﻧاوﺮﻳا اﺪﻧ
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*، دﻻوا ﺎﻨﺗآ داز
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1- ﺪﺷرا سﺎﻨﺷرﺎﻛ ،يژﻮﻟﻮﻨﻜﺗﻮﻴﺑ هوﺮﮔ ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔدﺎﻬﺟ ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ هﺪﻜﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ، جﺮﻛ ،ﻲﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
2- دﺎﺘﺳا، ناﺮﻬﺗ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ،ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ و يزروﺎﺸﻛ ﺲﻳدﺮﭘ ،تﺎﺗﺎﺒﻧ حﻼﺻا و ﺖﻋارز هوﺮﮔجﺮﻛ ،
3- ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ رﺎﻳدﺎﺘﺳا هوﺮﮔ ،يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ دﺎﻬﺟ ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ هﺪﻜﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ،يدﺮﺑرﺎﻛ ﺐﻃ و جﺮﻛ ،ﻲﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
4- ﺶﻫوﮋﭘ رﺎﻳدﺎﺘﺳاﺮﮔ ،دﺎﻬﺟ ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ هﺪﻜﺸﻫوﮋﭘ ،يزﺎﺳوراد و يزﻮﻨﮔﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ هو جﺮﻛ ،ﻲﻫﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
5- ﺪﺷرا سﺎﻨﺷرﺎﻛهوﺮﮔ ، يروﺎﻨﻓ و يژﺮﻧا ﻲﺳﺪﻨﻬﻣ هﺪﻜﺸﻧاد ،يژﻮﻟﻮﻨﻜﺗﻮﻴﺑ ناﺮﻬﺗ ،ﻲﺘﺸﻬﺑ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ،ﻦﻳﻮﻧ يﺎﻫ
* سردآﻪﺒﺗﺎﻜﻣ :يروﺎﻨﻓ و يژﺮﻧا ﻲﺳﺪﻨﻬﻣ هﺪﻜﺸﻧاد ،ﻲﺘﺸﻬﺑ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد ،ﻦﻳوا ،ناﺮﻬﺗ ﻦﻳﻮﻧ يﺎﻫ
قوﺪﻨﺻ ﻲﺘﺴﭘ:1983963113 ،ﻦﻔﻠﺗ: 09198305197ﺮﺑﺎﻤﻧ ، :22431964 )021(
ﻚﻴﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟا ﺖﺴﭘ :neda.irvani@gmail.com
ﺖﻓﺎﻳرد ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ :20/4/89 ﺐﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ: 11/11/89
هﺪﻴﻜﭼ
ﻲﻤﻠﻋ مﺎﻧ ﺎﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآL. foetida
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Ferula assa ﻨﭼ و ﻚﻴﭘرﺎﻛﻮﻨﻣ ،ﻲﻔﻠﻋ ،ﻲﻳوراد ﻲﻫﺎﻴﮔ نﺎﻳﺮﺘﭼ هﺮﻴﺗ زا ﻪﻟﺎﺳﻪﻛ هﺎﮕﺘﺳﺎﺧ
ﭗﺘﺳا نآ ﻲﻠﺻا ﻲﻣ نﺎﺘﺴﻧﺎﻐﻓا زا ﻲﻘﻃﺎﻨﻣ و ناﺮﻳا يﺎﻫ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ. ﻎﻤﺻ ﻲﻨﻳزرﻮﺌﻟاﻪﺘﺷﺬﮔ زا هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻲﻳوراد و ﻲﻳاﺬﻏ دﺮﺑرﺎﻛ رود يﺎﻫ
ﻲﻧاواﺮﻓدراد .ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ رد ﺎﻴﺳآ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ ، ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺗ ناﻮﻨﻋكﺎﭘ ،ﻪﻤﺿﺎﻫ ﻢﺘﺴﻴﺳ ﻚﻳﺮﺤﺗ و هﺪﻨﻨﻛ ر يﺎﻫزﺮﭘ هﺪﻨﻨﻛهدو ،يا
مﺮﻛ ،ﺶﻛﻂﻠﺧ روآ، ﺪﺿ ﺖﺳﻮﺒﻳﺎﻬﺘﺷا و ﻦﻜﺴﻣ يوراد ، روآ ﻲﻣ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ دﻮﺷ. صاﻮﺧ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ و ﻲﻳوراد و ﻲﻳاﺬﻏ دﺮﺑرﺎﻛ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ
ﺮﻬﺑ ﺖﻬﺟ نآ يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓه ﻲﻣ سﺎﺴﺣا ﻲﻨﻴﻟﺎﺑ تﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺗ مﺎﺠﻧا رد يرادﺮﺑ دﻮﺷ.
ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ ﻦﻳا زا فﺪﻫ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﺮﺑ يروﺮﻣ دﻮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا ﻪﻨﻴﻣز رد هﺪﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا. ﻪﻟﺎﻘﻣ ﻦﻳا رد هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﺎﺑ
تﺎﻋﻼﻃا هﺎﮕﻳﺎﭘ زا ﺮﻴﻈﻧ ﻲﺘﻧﺮﺘﻨﻳا
MEDLINE هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا درﻮﻣ رد ﻪﻛ ﻲﺗﻻﺎﻘﻣ ، لﺎﺳ ﺎﺗ2010 يدﻼﻴﻣ
ﺪﺷ ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ دﻮﺑ هﺪﺷ ﻪﻳارا.
ﻛﺎﺣ ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧهدﺮﺘﺴﮔ تﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺗ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا نآ زا ﺮﻴﺧا ﻪﻫد ﻪﺳ رد يا ﺮﺑيور ﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﻮﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ مﺎﺠﻧا هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ.
دﺪﻌﺘﻣ ﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ رد دﻮﺟﻮﻣ تﺎﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗي ﻪﻠﻤﺟ زا، ﻦﻴﻣﺎﺘﺴﻴﻫ ﺮﺛا ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ رﺎﻬﻣ
ﻧآ ﺮﺛا ،هﺪﻌﻣ رد ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻣ ﺢﺷﺮﺗ ﻚﻳﺮﺤﺗ ،ﻲﺷراﻮﮔ يرﺎﺠﻣ ﺮﺑﻲﺘ ﺴﻣ ﻢﻳﺰﻧآ رﺎﻬﻣ ،ﻲﻧاﺪﻴﺴﻛالﻮﻠﺳ ﻢﺟﺎﻬﺗ لو يﺎﻫ ﺪﻴﻟﻮﺗ رد ﻚﻳﺮﺤﺗ ،ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ
ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺴﻧا و ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ شراﺰﮔ ﻲﻨﻴﻟﺎﺑ و ﻲﻫﺎﮕﺸﻳﺎﻣزآ تﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺗ رد قوﺮﻋ فﺎﺻ ﻪﭽﻴﻫﺎﻣ يور ﻦﻴﻟﻮﻛ ﻞﻴﺘﺳا ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ رﺎﻬﻣ .ﻪﺠﻴﺘﻧ تاﺮﺛا ﻪﻜﻧآ يﺮﻴﮔ
ﻚﻳدﺰﻧ طﺎﺒﺗرا ﺮﮕﻧﺎﻴﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ زا هﺪﺷ هﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ يرﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﺎﺑ تاﺮﺛا ﻦﻳا ،نﺎﻃﺮﺳ ،ﻲﺷراﻮﮔ تﻻﻼﺘﺧا ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ يﺎﻫ
ﺖﺳا ﻻﺎﺑ نﻮﺧرﺎﺸﻓ و ﺖﺑﺎﻳد .يرﺎﻤﻴﺑ رد ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ رد هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ ﻪﻜﻧآ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻲﻣ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ دﺪﻌﺘﻣ يﺎﻫ ﻲﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ دﻮﺷ ﺪﺳر
يرﺎﻤﻴﺑ نﺎﻣرد رد هدﺎﻣ ﻦﻳا يور ﻲﻨﻴﻟﺎﺑ تﺎﻘﻴﻘﺤﺗ مﺎﺠﻧا ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا مزﻻ هﺪﺷﺮﻛذ يﺎﻫ.
ﻞﮔ اونﺎﮔژ :،هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ ،ﻲﻳوراد هﺎﻴﮔ ،ﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا
17
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ﻪﻣﺪﻘﻣ
ﻎﻴﺗ زا ﻞﺻﺎﺣ هﺮﻴﺷ ﺎﻳ ﻲﻨﻳزرﻮﺌﻟوا ﻎﻤﺻ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﺎـﻳ و ﻪﺸﻳر ندز
ﻲﻤﻠﻋ مﺎﻧ ﺎﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻗﺎﺳ ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ Ferula assa- foetida L. و
مﺎـﻧ ﻲـﺴﻴﻠﮕﻧا يﺎـﻫAsafetida ،Devil's dung،Food of the
Gods
ﻮﮔ ﺪﻨﺗ يﻮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا و ﻦﻔﻌﺘـﻣ ﺮﻴـﺳ يﻮـﺑ ﻪـﺑ ﻪﻴﺒﺷ يدﺮﮔ
دراد هﺪﻨﻧز ﻢﻌﻃ]1،2،3 .[ ﻲـﺳرﺎﻓ هژاو زا هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻲﻤﻠﻋ مﺎﻧaza
)assa ( ﻦﻴـﺗﻻ هژاو و ﻎﻤـﺻ ﻲﻨﻌﻣ ﻪﺑfoetid ﺖـﻐﻟ نآ ﻪـﺸﻳر ﻪـﻛ fetid ﻲﻣ ﻮﺑﺪﺑ يﺎﻨﻌﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻖﺘﺸﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ]1،4[. رد هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا
مﺎﻧ ﻪﺑ نﺎﻣرﻮﺸﻛ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ا ،دﮋﮕﻧا ،ﻲﺗاﺮﻫ هزﻮﻐﻧآ يﺎﻫ ﺖـﺸﮕﻧ
ﮓﻨﻴﻫ ،كﺮﺘﭘ ،هﺪﻨﮔ ،ناﺪـﺠﻧا ،ناﺪـﮕﻧا ،ﮋـﺑ ،ﺎﻤﻛازﻮﮕﻧا ،ﺎﻤﻛارﻮﺧ ،
ﻲﻣ فوﺮﻌﻣ ﺎﻤﻛ نرﻮﻛ و ﺎﻤﻛ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ،ﺮﭘ ﻪﻟﻮﻛ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ]2،5،6.[
عﻮﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺘﺴﺑ ﻪﻛ ﻲﺘﻌﻨﺻ و ﻲﻌﺗﺮﻣ ،ﻲﻳوراد ﺖﺳا ﻲﻫﺎﻴﮔ هزﻮﻐﻧآ
ﻦﻳﺮﻴــﺷ و ﺦــﻠ هزﻮــﻐﻧآ عﻮــﻧ ود هﺎــﻴﮔ نآ زاﻲــﻣ ﺖــﺷادﺮﺑ دﻮــﺷ .
ﻲﻠﻋ ﻎﻤﺻ و نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ يﺮﻫﺎﻇ توﺎﻔﺗ ﻢﻏر ﺮـﻫ ،ﺖـﺷادﺮﺑ درﻮﻣ يﺎﻫ
ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﻪﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﻣ عﻮﻧ ودF. assa - foetida ﺖﺳا .]7،6.[
ﻲﻣور مﻮﺳﺮﻣ ﻪﻳودا ﻖﺑﺎﺳ رد هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ هدﻮﺑ ﺎﻫ هزوﺮـﻣا و
عاﻮـﻧا ،ﺎﻫاﺬـﻏ ﻪـﻴﻬﺗ رد ﻪـﻳودا ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ ﻊﻴﺳو رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻨﻫ رد
ﺲﺳ عاﻮﻧا و تﺎﺠﻳﺰﺒﺳ ،ﻲﻫﺎﻣ ﺎﻫﻲﻣ فﺮﺼﻣ دﻮـﺷ . ﺶـﺨﺑ يﺎـﻫ
ﺰﻴﻧ هﺎﻴﮔ ﺰﺒﺳ يﺰﺒﺳ ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻲـﻣ هدرﻮﺧ دﻮـﺷ ]8،9 .[ ﻎﻤـﺻ زا
ﻪـﻴﻬﺗ و يزﺎـﺳﺮﻄﻋ ﻊﻳﺎﻨـﺻ رد ﻲـﻳوراد فرﺎـﺼﻣ ﺮﺑ هوﻼﻋ هﺎﻴﮔ
دﺎﻤﺿ ﺰﻴﻧﻲﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا دﻮﺷ ]10 .[ﺪﺿ ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ رد ،ﺞﻨـﺸﺗ
ﺪﺿ يرﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﻊﻓر ،مﺮﻛ ،هدور ﻲـﻠﺒﻨﺗ ﻊـﻓر ،روآﺎﻬﺘـﺷا ،ﻲﺒﺼﻋ يﺎﻫ
ﺪﺿ ،ﻪﻈﻓﺎﺣ ﺖﻳﻮﻘﺗ ،ﻪﻴﻠﻛ درد ﻊﻓر ﻪـﻳﺬﻏا رﺮـﺿ ﻊﻓر ،ﻢﺴﻴﺗﺎﻣور
ﺪﺿ ،بﺮﭼ ﺘﻓﺮﮔ نﻮﺧ رﺎﺸﻓ ﺮﺑ ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ و تﻼﻀﻋ ﻲﮕياﺮﺑ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ
ﺮﻛذﺖﺳا هﺪ ]15 - 11 .[ ﻪـﻴﻬﺗ ﺖﻬﺟ ﻲﻜﺷﺰﭙﻣاد رد ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ
مﺎﻤﺣ ﻲﻣ راﺮﻗ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا درﻮﻣ ﻲﻜﻴﻨﺳرآ يﺎﻫ دﺮﻴﮔ]7[
.
هﺮﻬﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲـﻠﺧاد فﺮـﺼﻣ ناﺮـﻳا رد هﺪـﺷ يرادﺮﺑ رﺎﻴـﺴﺑ
دراد دوﺪﺤﻣ دوﺪـﺣ ﻪﻧﺎﻴﻟﺎﺳ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﻣ رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ و70 ﻎﻤـﺻ زا ﻦـﺗ
رﻮﺻ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻲـﻣ ردﺎﺻ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ يﺎﻫرﻮﺸﻛ ﻪﺑ مﺎﺧ ت ﻮـﺷد.
ﻲﻣ اراد ناﺮﻳا زا ار هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲﺗادراو ﻢﺠﺣ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ﺪﻨﻫ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ . ﺲﭘ
ناﺮﻳا ﻦﻳﺮﻴﺷ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ناراﺪﻳﺮﺧ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﻤﻬﻣ ﻦﻳاﺮﻛا و تارﺎﻣا ﺪﻨﻫ زا
ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻫ ]6،7.[
ﻪﻧﺎﻔﺳﺎﺘﻣ لﺎﺳ ﻲﻃ ﻲـ ﺖﺷادﺮﺑ ﺮﻴﺧا يﺎﻫ ﺮـﻴﻏ و ﻪـﻳور ﻲـﻤﻠﻋ
)شور ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺖﺷادﺮﺑ يﺎﻫ ( ـﻛ ﺚﻋﺎﺑ ،هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﺶـﻳور ناﺰـﻴﻣ ﺶﻫﺎ
ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﻦﻳا هﺪﺷ ﺖﺳا . ﻪـﺗﻮﺑ ﻢﻛاﺮﺗ ﺖﻬﺟ ﻦﻴﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ رد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ يﺎـﻫ
ﺎﭘ تﺪﺷ ﻪﺑ ﻊﺗاﺮﻣ ﺮـﻄﺧ ضﺮﻌﻣ رد ﺪﻴﻔﻣ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻞﺴﻧ و هﺪﻣآ ﻦﻴ
ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ راﺮﻗ ضاﺮﻘﻧا]16 .[ و هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﺖﻋارز و ﺖﺸﻛ نﺎﻜﻣا
شور ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﻦﻳﻮﻧ يرادﺮﺑ هﺮﻬﺑ يﺎﻫ، راﺪـﻳﺎﭘ يرادﺮﺑ هﺮﻬﺑ ﻪﻨﻴﻣز
زا د هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳاﻲﻣ ﻢﻫاﺮﻓ ار شزرا ﺎﺑ ﻲﻳورا ﺪﻳﺎﻤﻧ ]17.[
هﺎﻴﮔ ﻲﺳﺎﻨﺷ
كﺮـﻛ ،ﻲـﻔﻠﻋ ﻲﻫﺎﻴﮔ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻚـﻴﭘرﺎﻛﻮﻨﻣ و ﻪﻟﺎـﺳ ﺪـﻨﭼ ،راد
)ﻦﻳﺪﺑ ﻚﻳ ﻂﻘﻓ ﺶﻳور لﻮﻃ رد ﻪﻛ ﻲﻨﻌﻣ ﻲـﻣ ﻞـﮔ ﻪـﺑ رﺎـﺑ و دور
ﻲـﻣ ﻪـﻤﺗﺎﺧ نآ ﻲـﺸﻳور هرود ﺲﭙﺳ ﺪـﺑﺎﻳ( نﺎـﻳﺮﺘﭼ هداﻮﻧﺎـﺧ زا )Apiaceae( ﻲﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ]4،18 .[راﺪﺘﺷﻮﮔ ،ﺖﺳار هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻪﺸﻳر
هﺮﻴـﺷ ﻪـﻛ ﺮﺒﻴﻓ ﻲﻤﻛ ﺎﺑ ﻢﻴﺨﺿ ًﺎﺘﺒﺴﻧ و و ﻪﺘﺧﺎـﺳ دﻮـﺧ رد ار يا
ﻲﻣ هﺮﻴﺧذ ﻎﻴﺗ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻨﻛ هﺮﻬﺑ درﻮﻣ ندز ﻲﻣ راﺮﻗ يرادﺮﺑ دﺮﻴﮔ
]19 .[ گﺮـﺑ يداﺪـﻌﺗ ياراد ًاﺮـﺼﺤﻨﻣ لوا لﺎـﺳ ﺞﻨﭘ رد هزﻮﻐﻧآ
،گرﺰﺑ ﻦﻴـﻣز ﺢﻄـﺳ يور ﺮﺑ ﻊﻗاو ،گﺮﺒﻣد زا يرﺎﻋ و راﺪﺘﺷﻮﮔ
ﺖـﺳا ]2،20[. ﻪﻗﺎـﺳ لﻮـﻃ200 - 100 ﻧﺎـﺳﻲﺘ ،مﺎـﻓ درز ،ﺮـﺘﻣ
ﻮﺗ ًﺎــﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ ﻲﻧﺎــﻴﻣ ﺶــﺨﺑ رد و كﺮــﻛ نوﺪــﺑ ،ﺐﻌــﺸﻨﻣ ،ﻲﻟﺎــﺧ
15 ﻲﻠﻴﻣ دراد ﺖﻣﺎﺨﺿ ﺮﺘﻣ .ﻞﮔ ترﻮـﺻ ﻪـﺑ و ﮓﻧردرز نآ يﺎﻫ
ﺐﻛﺮﻣ ﺮﺘﭼ ﻦﻳذآ ﻞﮔ ﺪـﻧا. هﻮـﻴﻣ ﺖـﻟﺎﺣ رد ﺮـﺘﭼ ﻲـﻫد25 - 20
ًﺎﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ ماﺪﻛ ﺮﻫ ﻪﻛ دراد ﻪﻌﺷا 5 ﻲﺘﻧﺎﺳ كﺮـﻛ ﺪـﻗﺎﻓ و لﻮـﻃ ﺮـﺘﻣ
ﻲﻣ ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ]2،6،19[ .
ﻓاﺮﻐﺟ ﺶﻨﻛاﺮﭘيژﻮﻟﻮﻛا و ﻲﻳﺎﻴ
ﭗﺘــﺳا هزﻮــﻐﻧآ هﺎﮕﺘــﺳﺎﺧ ﺖﻤــﺴﻗ و ناﺮــﻳا يﺎــﻫ زا ﻲﻳﺎــﻫ
ﻲﻣ نﺎﺘﺴﻧﺎﻐﻓا ﺪﺷﺎﺑ
]21 ،19 .[ ﻖﻃﺎـﻨﻣ و يﺰـﻛﺮﻣ تﻼﻓ ناﺮﻳا رد
نﺎﺘﺳا رد سﺮﮔاز لﺎﺒﺟ ﻪﻠﺴﻠﺳ ﺎﺗ يﺮﻳﻮﻛ ،نﺎـﻣﺮﻛ ،سرﺎـﻓ يﺎـﻫ
،نﺎﻬﻔﺻا ،نﺎﺘﺴﭼﻮﻠﺑ و نﺎﺘﺴﻴﺳ ،نﺎﮔﺰﻣﺮﻫ ،نﺎﻨﻤﺳ ،دﺰﻳ ،نﺎﺳاﺮﺧ
و ﺪﻤﺣا ﺮﻳﻮﺑ و ﻪﻳﻮﻠﻴﻜﻬﻛ ،نﺎﺘﺳﺮﻟ هﺎﮕـﺸﻳور ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ ﺮﻬـﺷﻮ
هﺪﺷ ﺮﻛذ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻲﻠﺻا ﺪﻧا]21 ،6 .[
ﻦﻴﻣز ،ﺮﻳﺎﺑ ﻲﺣاﻮﻧ رد هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻪﺳﺎﻣ يﺎﻫ يوﺎﺣ و ﻚﺸﺧ يا
عﺎﻔﺗرا رد مﺮﮔ ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ﻲﻜﻫآ تﺎﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗ2400 - 190 زا ﺮﺗﻻﺎﺑ ﺮﺘﻣ
ﺐﻴـﺷ رد دﺎـﻳز يﺪﻨﻠﺑ و ﻲﺘﺴﭘ ﺎﺑ ﻲﻘﻃﺎﻨﻣ رد و ﺎﻳرد ﺢﻄﺳ يﺎـﻫ
70 - 15 ﺪﺻرد رد ﻲﮔﺪﻧرﺎﺑ ناﺰﻴﻣ ﺎﺑ دوﺪ350-250 ﻲﻠﻴﻣ ﺮﺘﻣ
ﻲﻣ ﺪﻳور .هﺎﮕﺸﻳور كﺎﺧ ،ﻢـﻛ ﻖـﻤﻋ ياراد ًﻻﻮـﻤﻌﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ يﺎﻫ
18
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لﺎﺳ ،ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ،مرﺎﻬﭼ هرود ،ﻢﻫد
ﻞﺴﻠﺴﻣ هرﺎﻤﺷ ﺰﻴﻳﺎﭘ ،ﻢﻠﻬﭼ1390
يﺰﻳرﺎﻛ عراز نارﺎﻜﻤﻫ و
ﺶﻳﺎﺳﺮﻓ و دﺎﻳز ﺐﻴﺷﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻳ .ﺪﻨﻔﺳا ﻂﺳاوا هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﺰﺒﺳ هﺎﻣ
ﻲﻣ تراﺮﺣ ﻪﺟرد ﻪﺑ ﻞﻤﺤﺘﻣ و دﻮﺷ كﺎـﺧ يرﻮـﺷ و ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ يﺎﻫ
ﻲﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ]6،19،22 .[ ﻂـﺳاوا ﺎـﺗ رﺎـﻬﺑ ﻞﻳاوا زا هﺎﻴﮔ ﺪﺷر ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ
دراد ﻪﻣادا هﺎﻣﺮﻴﺗ .رود ﺲﭙﺳه ﻪﺗﻮﺑ باﻮﺧ ﺎـﺗ و زﺎـﻏآ ﻎﻟﺎﺑﺎﻧ يﺎﻫ
ﺪـﻴﻣﺎﺠﻧا ﺪـﻫاﻮﺧ لﻮـﻃ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻌﺑ لﺎﺳ رﺎﻬﺑ. ﻂـﺳﻮﺗ هﺎـﻴﮔ تﺎـﻴﺣ
ماﺪﻧا ﻲﻨﻴﻣزﺮﻳز يﺎﻫ)ﻪﻧاﻮﺟ و ﻪﺸﻳر ﻲﻳﺎﻬﺘﻧا (ﻲﻣ ﻆﻔﺣ دﻮﺷ . لﺎﺳ
ﻪﻧاﻮﺟ زا هرﺎﺑود ﺪﻌﺑ راﺮـﻗ كﺎـﺧ ﺮـﻳز رد و ﻪـﺸﻳر يور ﻪـﻛ يا
گﺮﺑ ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ﻲـﻣ ﻞﻴﻜـﺸﺗ يﺪﻳﺪﺟ يﺎﻫ ﻮـﺷ ﻪـﻣادا هﺎـﻴﮔ و د
ﻴﺣﻲﻣ تﺎ ﺪﻫد]23 .[
هﺮﻬﺑ و ﺮﻴﺜﻜﺗ يرادﺮﺑ
رﺬـﺑ ﻖـﻳﺮﻃ زا هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻲـﻌﻴﺒﻃ تﺎﻴﺣ ﺪﻳﺪﺠﺗ هار ﺎﻬﻨﺗ
ﺖﺳا. ﻞﮔ ﻪﻗﺎﺳ ﺮﻫ ﺮـﺘﭼ تﺎﺠﺘـﺳد رد ار رﺬـﺑ زا ﻲﻫﻮﺒﻧا هﺪﻨﻫد
ﻲﻣ ﺪﻴﻟﻮﺗ يﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ ﺪﻳﺎﻤﻧ . ﻪـﻴﻣﺎﻧ هﻮـﻗ دراﺪﻧﺎﺘـﺳا رﺬـﺑ زا ﺶﻴـﺑ80
ﺪﺻرد ﺖﺳا ﺎﺗ و3 ﻲـﻣ ﻆـﻔﺣ ار دﻮـﺧ ﻪـﻴﻣﺎﻧ هﻮـﻗ لﺎـﺳ ﺪـﻨﻛ .
راﺪﻧﺎﺘــﺳا دوﺪــﺣ ﺰــﻴﻧ نآ صﻮــﻠﺧ د80 ﻲــﻣ ﺪــﺻرد ﺪــﺷﺎﺑ ]2.[
ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ لﺎـﺳ رد ﺮـﻴﺧا يﺎـﻫ ،هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هﺎـﻴﮔ ﺮـﻴﺜﻜﺗ رﻮـﻈﻨﻣ ﻪـﺑ
ﺖﻓﺎﺑ ﺖﺸﻛ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻦﻴـﻨﺟ ﻖﻳﺮﻃ زا ﻲﻜﻴﺗﺎﻣﻮـﺳ ﻲـﻳاز ]24 [ و
سﻮﻟﺎﻛ ﻖﻳﺮﻃ زا ﻲﻳاززﺎﺑ ]17 [مﺎﺠﻧا ﺰﻴﻧ ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ ﺖﺳا .
هﺮﻬﺑ ﺖﻬﺟ يروﺮـﺿ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﻪﺳ مﺎﺠﻧا هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ زا يرادﺮﺑ
ﻲﻣ ؛ﺪﺷﺎﺑ1- نﺪﻧﺎﭽﻴﭘ ﻪﻠﺣﺮ)ﺖﻓَﺮﮔ:( زا ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﻦﻳا مﺎﺠﻧا ياﺮﺑ
مﺎﻤﺗ ﺖﺸﻬﺒﻳدرا ﺮﺧاوا ﺎﺗ ﻞﻳاوا ﻲﻳاﻮﻫ ماﺪﻧا و هﺪـﻧﺎﭽﻴﭘ ار ﻪـﺗﻮﺑ
ﻲﻣ راﺮﻗ نآ يور ﻲﮕﻨﺳ ﻚﺸﺧ ترﻮﺻ ﻦﻴﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ ﺎﺗ دﺮﻴﮔﻮﺷد و
هﺮﻬﺑ ﺖﻬﺟ دﻮﺸﻧ ﻢﮔ ﺪﻳد زا يرادﺮﺑ .2- ﻦﺘـﺸُﻛ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ : ﻦـﻳا رد
ﻪﻟﺎﭼ ،ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ دوﺪﺣ ﻖﻤﻋ ﻪﺑ يا15 ﻲﺘﻧﺎﺳ ا رد ﺮـﺘﻣ ﻪـﺸﻳر فاﺮـﻃ
ﺮﻔﺣ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻲﻣ ﻮﺷيرﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ د ﻞﻗاﺪـﺣ ﻪـﻛ7 ﺎـﺗ10 ﻲﺘﻧﺎـﺳ زا ﺮـﺘﻣ
ﻲـﻣ ﻊﻄﻗ ﻪﻘﻳ ﻞﺤﻣ زا ار هﺎﻴﮔ و دﻮﺷ نﺎﻳﺎﻤﻧ ﻲﻠﺻا ﻪﺸﻳر ﺪـﻨﻨﻛ و
ﻧﺎﺒﻳﺎﺳ ﺲﭙﺳ زاﻲﻣ نآ يور ﮓﻨﺳ ﺪﻧراﺬﮔ. 3- ندز ﻎﻴﺗ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ :
ﻢﻴـﻧ ﻎـﻴﺗ ﻪﻠﻴـﺳو ﻪـﺑ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﻦﻳا رد هﺮـﻳاد صﻮـﺼﺨﻣ ﻞﻜـﺷ يا
)كدرﺎﻛ( ﺖﻣﺎﺨـﺿ ﻪﺑ ﻲﺿﺮﻋ ﻲﺷﺮﺑ ،1 ﺎـﺗ 5/1 ﻲﺘﻧﺎـﺳ ﻪـﺑ ﺮـﺘﻣ
رد ﻲﻌﻄﻘﻣ ترﻮﺻﻪﻗﻮﻃ ﻞﺤﻣ ﻲﻣ هدز دﻮﺷ و 3 ﺎـﺗ5 ﺲـﭘ زور
ﻲﺻﻮﺼﺨﻣ راﺰﺑا ﺎﺑ ،ندز ﻎﻴﺗ زا هدﺮﻛ شواﺮﺗ ﻪﺑاﺮﻴﺷ ﺖﻨﻠﻛ مﺎﻧ
ﻊﻤﺟ ار ضﺮﻋ ﻪﺑ ًادﺪﺠﻣ و هدﻮﻤﻧ يروآ2 ﺎﺗ3 ﻲﻠﻴﻣ ار ﻪﺸﻳر ﺮﺘﻣ
ﻲﻣ شﺮﺑ ﺪﻨﻫد .هﺮﻬﺑ نﺎﻳﺎﭘ ﺎﺗ ﻲﻣ يرادﺮﺑ ﺎـﺑ ناﻮﺗ15 ﺎـﺗ20 شﺮـﺑ
نﺎﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ ،ﺮﮕﻳددﻮﻤﻧ لﺎﺼﺤﺘﺳا هﺮﻴﺷ ترﻮﺻ. هﺮﻬﺑ هرود يرادﺮﺑ
ﻲﻣ ﺮﺜﻛاﺪﺣ ﺪﺸﻜﺑ لﻮﻃ هﺎﻣ ود ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ ]25.[
هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺮﻴﺷ ﻲﻳﺎﻴﻤﻴﺷ تﺎﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗ
ياراد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ بﻮـﻏﺮﻣ عﻮﻧ62 ،ﻦـﻳزر ﺪـﺻرد25 ﺪـﺻرد
،ﻎﻤﺻ7 - 3 ،ﺲﻧﺎﺳا ﺪﺻرد28/1 و دازآ ﻚـﻴﻟوﺮﻓ ﺪﻴﺳا ﺪﺻرد
ﻲـﻣ ﻦﻴـﻠﻴﻧاو ﻲﺋﺰﺟ رﺎﻴﺴﺑ راﺪﻘﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ ]10،18.[ ًﺎـﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ مﺎـﻤﺗ
تﺎﻘﺘـﺸﻣ ،ﺪﻴﻔﻟﻮـﺳ اﺮﺘﺗ ،يﺮﺗ ،يد تﺎﺒﻴﻛ ﺮﺗ ياراد هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ
ﻦﻳرﺎــﻣﻮﻛ ]26[ ﻦﻳﺪﻧﺎﻛرﺎﻣﺎــﺳ ﻲــﭘا ،لوﺮﻔﻧﻮﻟﻮﻣﺎــﻛ ، ]27[ ،
ﻲﻠﺒﻣآ لوﺮﻔﻧﺎﻛ و ﻦﻴﻧﺮﭘ]28 [ﻲﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ . ﺮـﻴﻈﻧ ﻲﺗﺎـﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻦﻴـﻨﭽﻤﻫ
ﻦﻳﺪــــﻴﺘﺋﻮﻓازآ]29[ ﻦﻴــــﺴﻴﻟﻮﻛوﺮﻓ ،]30[ ،لﻮﻧﺪــــﻴﺘﺋﻮﻓازآ ،
لﻮﻧﺪﻴﺘﺋﻮﻓازآB ﺮﺘﺳا ،ﻦﻳﺮﻓادارﺎﺳ ، ﻳﺪﺟ يﺎﻫ ]31 [ ﻦﻳﺪـﻴﺘﺋﻮﻓ و
ﻦﻳرﺎﻣﻮﻛ هوﺮﮔ زا هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ ﻦﻳزر زا يﺪﻴﺋﻮﻨﭘﺮﺗ ﻲﺋﻮﻛﺰﺳ يﺎﻫ
يزﺎﺳاﺪﺟ ﺖﺳا هﺪ]32،33 .[ ﺮـﺻﺎﻨﻋ ناﺰـﻴﻣ ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ سﺎﺳا ﺮﺑ
ﻞﻴﺒﻗ زا يﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ رد دﻮﺟﻮﻣ
هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا رد ﻲﻬﺟﻮﺗ ﻞﺑﺎﻗ ناﺰﻴﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺲﻣ و يور ،ﻢﻴﺴﻧاﺮﺘﺳا ،ﻦﻫآ
دﻮﺟﻮﻣﻲﻣ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ]34[.
ﺳافﺎﺻ ﻲﻌﻳﺎﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﺲﻧﺎ، ﻲـﺑ درز ﮓـﻧر ﻪـﺑ ﺎـﻳ و ﮓـﻧر
ﻮﻬﻗ ﺎﻳ ﻦﺷور ه ﺖﻋﺮـﺳ ﻪـﺑ اﻮﻫ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ رد ﻪﻛ ﺪﺑ رﺎﻴﺴﺑ يﻮﺑ ﺎﺑ يا
ﻲﻣ هﺪﻴﺴﻛا دﻮﺷ . يراددﺮﮔﻮـﮔ تﺎـﺒﻴﻛﺮﺗ ياراد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﺲﻧﺎـﺳا
يد ﻞـﻴﻨﭘوﺮﭘ ﻞـﻴﺗﻮﺑ ﺮﻴﻈﻧ ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا ﺪﻳﺎﻔﻟﻮـﺳ65 ار نآ ﺪـﺻرد
ﻲﻣ ﻞﻴﻜﺸﺗ ﺪﻨﻫد. ﺎـﻔﻟآ زا يﺮـﺘﻤﻛ يﺎﻫﺪـﺻرد ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ- ،ﻦﻨـﻴﭘ
ﺎﺘﺑ- ،ﻦﻨﻴﭘ3- ﺲﻴﺳ ،نرﺎﻛ- ﺎﻔﻟآ و ﻦﻴﻤﺳوا- ﻲﻣ ﻦﻟﻮﻣﻮﻫ ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ .
ﺐﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻦﻳا ﻲﻳﻮﻛﺰـﺳ ﻪـﺑ ﻞﻳﺪـﺒﺗ نﻮﻴـﺳاﺪﻴﺴﻛا ﺮـﺛا رد ﺎـﻫ ﻦﭘﺮـﺗ
ﻲﻣ ﺖـﺳا سودﻮﺧﻮﻄـﺳا ﻪﻴﺒﺷ نآ يﻮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ ]35.[ ﺲﻧﺎـﺳا
بآ رﺎﺨﺑ ﺎﺑ ﺮﻴﻄﻘﺗ شور ﺎﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲﻣ ﺖﺳد ﺪﻳآ ]36 .[
ﺮﻴﺷ عاﻮﻧاه هزﻮﻐﻧآ
ﺮﻴﺷه وا هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻎﻤـﺻ ﺎﻳ ود ﻪـﺑ ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا ﻲﻨﻳزرﻮـﺌﻟ
هدﻮﺗ و ﻲﻜﺷا ترﻮﺻ ﻲﻣ ﻪﺿﺮﻋ رازﺎﺑ رد يا دﻮـﺷ . ﻲﻜـﺷا عﻮـﻧ
ﺖـﺳا ﻲﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻊﻄﻘﻣ نوﺪﺑ ﻪﺑاﺮﻴﺷ ﺖﺷادﺮﺑ ﻦﻴﻟوا، ﺖـﻟﺎﺣ رد ﻪـﻛ
جرﺎﺧ ﻢﻛ راﺪﻘﻣ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻗﺎﺳ زا ﻲﻌﻴﺒﻃ ﻲﻣ دﻮـﺷ ]6[ . عﻮـﻧ ﻦـﻳا
بﻮﻏﺮﻣ هﺮﻴﺷ و كﺎـﺧ نوﺪﺑ ،ﺖﺳا هزﻮﻐﻧآ عﻮﻧ ﻦﻳﺮﺗردﺎﻧ و ﻦﻳﺮﺗ
ًﺎﺒﻟﺎﻏ يﺮﻫﺎﻇ و كﺎﺷﺎﺧ يﻮﻀﻴﺑ و ﺢﻄﺴﻣ دراد ار دﻮﺧ ﻲﻣﺮﻧ ﻪﻛ
ﺪﻣ ﺰﻴﻧﻲﻣ ﻆﻔﺣ ﻲﺗ ﺪﻨﻛ . هﺮـﻴﺗ و هﺪﻴـﺴﻛا ًﺎﻌﻳﺮﺳ اﻮﻫ تروﺎﺠﻣ رد
19
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ﻲﻣ ﺰﻣﺮﻗ ﺲﭙﺳ و ﺶﻔﻨﺑ ﮓﻧر ﻪﺑ و دﻮﺷ - هﻮﻬﻗ ﻲـﻣ رد يا و ﺪـﻳآ
ﺪﻴﻔﺳ ﮓﻧر ﻪﺑ نآ ﻊﻄﻘﻣ دﻮﺷ ﻪﺘﺴﻜﺷ ﺮﮔا ﻞﻳﺎﻣ ﻲـﻤﻛ ﺎـﻳ درز ﻪﺑ
ﻲﻠﮔ هﺪﻳد ﻲﻣ دﻮﺷ . ﻦﻳا ردهﺮﻴﺷ عﻮﻧ ﺎﺗ15 دﻮﺟو ﺲﻧﺎﺳا ﺪﺻرد
دراد. هدﻮﺗ عﻮﻧ ـﻘﻳ ﻞـﺤﻣ ندز ﻎـﻴﺗ ﺮﺛا رد يا ) ﻞـﺣاﺮﻣ زا ﺪـﻌﺑ
هدﺎﻣآ هﺎﻴﮔ يزﺎﺳ ( ﻲـﻣ جرﺎﺧ ﻢﺧز ﻞﺤﻣ زا ﻲـﺑ ﺎـﺑ و دﻮـﺷ ﻲـﺘّﻗد
ﻊﻤﺟ ﮓﻧر ﻪﺑ و هﺪﺷ يروآ هﻮـﻬﻗ و ﺰـﻣﺮﻗ ،درز توﺎـﻔﺘﻣ يﺎﻫ يا
ﺖــﺳا .ﺺﻟﺎــﺧﺎﻧ و ﻲﻜــﺷا عﻮــﻧ زا ﺮﺗدﺎــﻳز نآ ﻲﺘﻔــﺳ نآ زا ﺮــﺗ
ﻲﻣ ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ . يرﻮـﻃ ﻪـﺑ
و ﻪـﺸﻳر تﺎـﻌﻄﻗ ﻲـﺘﺣ و هﺎـﻛ نآ رد ﻪـﻛ
هدﺮﺧ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎـﺑ ﻲﻜـﺷا عﻮـﻧ زا نآ شزرا و دﻮـﺷ ﺖﻓﺎﻳ گﺮﺑ يﺎﻫ
ﺖﺳا ﺮﺘﻤﻛ ]6،37[.
ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ يﺎﻫرﻮﺸﻛ ﻪﻣﺎﻧوراد و ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ رد ﻲﻧﺎﻣرد فرﺎﺼﻣ
،يﺮﺘـﺴﻴﻫ نﺎـﻣرد ياﺮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ هﺪﻧﺎﺷﻮﺟ نﺎﺘﺴﻧﺎﻐﻓا رد
ﻲﻣ هدرﻮﺧ هﺪﻌﻣ ﻢﺧز و ﻪﻓﺮﺳ هﺎﻴﺳ
دﻮﺷ ]37 .[گﺮﺑ هﺪﻧﺎﺷﻮﺟ ﺎﻫ
ﻪﻗﺎﺳ و ﺮﺑ رد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هﺪﺷ ﻚﺸﺧ يﺎﻫ كﺮـﺤﻣ ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ ﻞـﻳز
ﻲﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا نادﺮﻣ رد ﻲﺴﻨﺟ دﻮﺷ .گﺮﺑ هرﺎﺼﻋ ﻪﻗﺎـﺳ و ﺎـﻫ يﺎـﻫ
رﻮﻃ ﻪﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻚﺸﺧ دﺮﺑرﺎـﻛ ﺶﺨﺑوﺮـﻴﻧ يوراد ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﻲﻠﻛ
دراد ﻲﻛارﻮﺧ]38 .[ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤـﺻ ردﻮـﭘ ﻦﻴـﻨﭽﻤﻫ ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ
ﻲﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا اﺬﻏ ﻲﻨﺷﺎﭼ دﻮﺷ]39.[ ﻦﻳا هﺪﻧﺎﺷﻮﺟ ﻦﻴﭼ رﻮﺸﻛ رد
ﺪـﺿ يوراد ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ مﺮـﻛ دراد ﻲﻛارﻮـﺧ فﺮـﺼ]40 .[
يﺮﺼﻣ ﺪﺿ يوراد ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ار هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ ﺎﻫ ﺎـﻳ ﻞـﺒﻗ ﻲﻨﺘـﺴﺑآ
هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﻲﻠﺒﻬﻣ ترﻮﺻ ﻪﺑ ﻲﺴﻨﺟ ﺖﺑرﺎﻘﻣ زا ﺪﻌﺑ ﻲﻣ ﺪـﻨﻨﻛ]15 .[
ﻪﺸﻳر هﺪﻧﺎﺷﻮﺟ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻦـﻳا هﺪﺷ ﻚﺸﺧ يﺎﻫ
ﺪﺿ يوراد راردا ،ﺞﻨﺸﺗ و ضﺎﺒﻘﻧامﺮﻛ ،روآ ﻦﻜـﺴﻣ يوراد و ادز
ﻲﻣ هدرﻮﺧ دﻮﺷ]41 .[ ﻢﻠﻛ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ار هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ نﺎﺘﺳوﺪﻨﻫ مدﺮ
ﺪﻴﻔﺳ ﻞﮔ
)Brassica alba(
ﻪﻠﻴﺳو ﻪﺑ و طﻮﻠﺨﻣ ﻚﻤﻧ ﮓﻨﺳ و
هدﺎﻔﺘـﺳا ﻦﻴـﻨﺟ ﻂﻘـﺳ يوراد ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ،ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻖﻴﻗر ﻪﻛﺮﺳ
ﻲﻣ ﺪﻨﻨﻛ]42 .[ ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ هﺪﻧﺎﺷﻮﺟ زا نﺎﺘﺳوﺪﻨﻫ رد
ﺪــﺿ يوراد ﺪــﺿ ،ﺦــﻔﻧ ﻂــﻠﺧ يوراد ،ﺞﻨــﺸﺗ و ضﺎــﺒﻘﻧا رد روآ
ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﺖﻴﺸﻧﺮﺑ ﺮـﻴﮔا و هﺪﻴﺑﻮﻛ ﺰﻣﺮﻗ ﻞﻔﻠﻓ ﺎﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ طﻮﻠﺨﻣ زا و
ﻲـﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘـﺳا ﺎـﺑو يرﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﺎﺑ هزرﺎﺒﻣ يوراد ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﻲﻛﺮﺗ دﻮـﺷ
]19 .[يﺪﻨﻫ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ و ﻚـﻤﻧ ﺎـﺑ ﻪـﻛ ار هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻲﻨﻳزر ﻎﻤﺻ ﺎﻫ
ﺖـﺧرد ﺖـﺳﻮﭘ هﺮﻴـﺷ
Moringa pterygosperma طﻮـﻠﺨﻣ
درد لد ياﺮﺑ ﻲﻌﺿﻮﻣ ترﻮﺻ ﻪﺑ ،ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ]43 [ هﺪﻧﺎـﺷﻮﺟ و
ﻚﺸﺧ ﻎﻤﺻهﺪﻋﺎﻗ ﻪﻳودا ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ار هﺪﺷ ﻲـﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا روآ ﺪـﻨﻨﻛ
]48.[
رد ناﻮﻧﺎﺑ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻎﻤﺻ يﺰﻟﺎﻣ رد نﺎﻣرد ﻲﮔﺪﻋﺎﻗ مﺪﻋ
]19[ﺪﺿ يوراد ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺶﻛاﺮﻣ رد ، عﺮـﺻ]45 [ لﺎـﭙﻧ رد و زا
ﺪﺿ يوراد ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻎﻤﺻ ﻲﺑآ هرﺎﺼﻋ مﺮﻛ ترﻮـﺻ ﻪﺑ
دﻮـﺷ ﻲﻣ هدﺎﻔﺘﺳا ﻲﻛارﻮﺧ]46 .[ ﻌـﺻ نﺎﺘـﺴﺑﺮﻋ رد ﻎﻤـﺻ يدﻮ
ﻲﮕﻨﺗ ،ﻪﻓﺮﺳ هﺎﻴﺳ ياﺮﺑ هﺪﺷ ﻚﺸﺧ هدﺎﻔﺘـﺳا ﺖﻴـﺸﻧوﺮﺑ و ﺲـﻔﻧ
ﻲﻣ ﻂﻠﺧ ،ﻲﮔﺪﻋﺎﻗ دﺎﻳدزا يوراد ناﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ ﺎﻜﻳﺮﻣآ رد و دﻮﺷ ،روآ
دراد ﻲﻛارﻮـﺧ دﺮﺑرﺎـﻛ بﺎـﺼﻋا و ﺰﻐﻣ كﺮﺤﻣ و مﺮﻛﺪﺿ . ﺎـﻋدا
ﺪﺿ يوراد ﻚﻳ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻲـﻣ ﺪـﻨﻤﻧاﻮﺗ ﺞﻨـﺸﺗ ﺪـﺷﺎﺑ
]19.[
ﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛاﻲﻜ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺮﻴﺷ
شراﻮﮔ :ضﺎﺒﻘﻧا ﺮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ ﻪﭽﻴﻫﺎﻣ يﺎﻫ يرﺎـﺠﻣ فﺎﺻ
ﻲﻣ هدﺎﻣ ﻦﻳا ﻪﻛ داد نﺎﺸﻧ شراﻮﮔ فﺎـﺻ ﻪـﭽﻴﻫﺎﻣ تﺎﺿﺎﺒﻘﻧا ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ
ﺪﻳﺎﻤﻧ ﻲﺜﻨﺧ ار ﻦﻴﻣﺎﺘﺴﻴﻫ ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ زا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ]47 .[ ـﺑ شراﺰـﮔ هوﻼـﻋ
زا ﻲـﺷﺎﻧ هﺪـﻌﻣ ﻢـﺧز زا يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ،هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﻪﻛ هﺪﺷ
ﻲﻣ ﻦﻳﺮﭙﺳآ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻮﺷد .ﻲﺷﺎﻧ يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﻦﻳا ﺢﺷﺮﺗ رد ﻚﻳﺮﺤﺗ زا
ﻦﻴﺴﭙﭘ و ﺪﻴﺳا ﺪﻴﻟﻮﺗ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﺎﺗ ﺖﺳا هﺪﻌﻣ رد ﻦﻴﺳﻮﻣ ]48.[
ﺪﺿ ﻞﮕﻧا : زا هﺪـﺷ جاﺮﺨﺘـﺳا ﻦـﻳزر ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ شراﺰﮔ
لﺎــﻨﻳژاو سﺎــﻧﻮﻣ ﻮــﻜﻳﺮﺗ ﻞــﮕﻧا ﺪــﺷر هزﻮــﻐﻧآ ﻪﻗﺎــﺳ و ﻪــﺸﻳر
(Trichomanas Vaginalis) رد لوزاﺪـﻴﻧاﺮﺘﻣ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺴﻳﺎﻘﻣ رد ار
هﺎﮕﺸﻳﺎﻣزآ ﻂﻴﺤﻣ هدﺮﻛ رﺎﻬﻣ يﺮﺛﻮﻣ رﻮﻃﺖﺳا ]49.[ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ
يرﻮـﺳ شﻮـﻣ ﻪـﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ هﺮﻴﺷ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ و ﻦﻏور ﻲﻛارﻮﺧ
ﻲﻧﻮــــﺴﻧ ﺎــــﻣ ﺎﻣﻮــــﺳ ﻮﺘــــﺴﻴﺷ ﻞــــﮕﻧا ﻪــــﺑ هدﻮــــﻟآ
(Schistosoma mansoni) رد هدﺎـﻣ ﻦـﻳا ﻦـﻳزر ﻪﻛ داد نﺎﺸﻧ
ﻢﺨﺗ داﺪﻌﺗ و مﺮﻛ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﺖـﺳا هدﻮـﺑ نآ ﻦـﻏور زا ﺮﺗﺮﺛﻮـﻣ ﺎـﻫ
]50.[
ﺪﺿ نﺎﻃﺮﺳ : لوﺮـﻓ ﻲـﺴﻧرﺎﻓ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﺖـﺳا هﺪـﺷ شراﺰـﮔ
(Farnesiferol) ﻞﻴﻜـﺸﺗ ﻢـﻬﻣ داﻮـﻣ زا ﻲﻜﻳ ﻪﻛ ﻦـﻳزر هﺪـﻨﻫد
ﻲﻣ ﺖﺳا هزﻮﻐﻧآ قوﺮـﻋ مﻮﻴﻠﺗوﺪـﻧا ﺪـﺷر رﻮﺘﻛﺎـﻓ رﺎﻬﻣ رد ﺪﻧاﻮﺗ
ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﺮﺛﻮﻣ . لﻮﻠـﺳ رﺎـﻬﻣ ﺐـﺟﻮﻣ ،ﺪـﺷر رﻮﺘﻛﺎـﻓ ﻦﻳا رﺎﻬﻣ يﺎـﻫ
ﺪـﻴﻟﻮﺗ و قوﺮـﻋ ﻞﻴﻜـﺸﺗ ،ﻢﺟﺎـﻬﺗ ،تﺮﺟﺎﻬﻣ ،ﺮﻴﺜﻜﺗ رد ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ
ﻲﻣ ﺪﻨﺒﻤﻫ ﺖﻓﺎﺑ دﻮﺷ . شﻮـﻣ ﻪـﺑ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﺮﻴـﺷ ﻲﻛارﻮـﺧ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ
20
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لﺎﺳ ،ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ،مرﺎﻬﭼ هرود ،ﻢﻫد
ﻞﺴﻠﺴﻣ هرﺎﻤﺷ ﺰﻴﻳﺎﭘ ،ﻢﻠﻬﭼ1390
يﺰﻳرﺎﻛ عراز نارﺎﻜﻤﻫ و
ﺎﻣزآ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ زا ﻲـﺷﺎﻧ نﺎﺘﺴﭘ نﺎﻃﺮﺳ ﺪﺷر رﺎﻬﻣ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ﻲﻫﺎﮕﺸﻳ
هروازوﺮﺘﻴﻧ(N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) ﺪﺷ . ﻪـﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻦﻳا رد
،هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا هﺪﺷ شراﺰﮔ رد ﻚـﻳﺮﺤﺗ ﺐـﺟﻮﻣ
ﺗﺎــﺗﻮﻠﮔ ﺖــﻴﻟﺎﻌﻓ ،زﺎﺗﻮﻤــﺴﻳد ﺪﻴــﺴﻛا ﺮﭘﻮــﺳ ،زاﺮﻔــﺴﻧاﺮﺗ سا نﻮ
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ نﻮﺒﺗﺎﺗﻮﻠﮔ و زﻻﺎﺗﺎﻛ . ﺐـﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ
ﺳزﺎﺑﻲﺘﻧآ ﻢﺘﺴﻴﺳ يزﺎ هﺪﺷ هروا زوﺮﺘﻴﻧ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ زا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻲﻧاﺪﻴﺴﻛا
ﺖﺳا ]51 .[ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﻪـﻛ ﺪﺷ هداد نﺎﺸﻧ تﺪﻣ ﻲﻧﻻﻮﻃ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ رد
لﻮﻠﺳ ﺪﺷر زا هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ زا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ نﺎﺘﺴﭘ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ يﺎﻫ
ﺮﻴﺧﺎـﺗ ﻪﺑ ار نﺎﻃﺮﺳ رﻮﻬﻇ ﺎﺗ نﺎﻬﻧ نﺎﻣز و يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ هروا زوﺮﺘﻴﻧ
ﻲﻣ دزاﺪﻧا]52 .[ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﺮـﮕﻳد ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ رد نﺎﻃﺮـﺳ هدﺎـﻣ يور از
ﻲﺘﻧآ ﻢﺘﺴﻴﺳ ﻒﻴﻌﻀﺗ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳﻮﭘ لﻮﻠﺳ رد ﻲﻧاﺪﻴﺴﻛا يﺎـﻫ
لﻮﻠﺳ ﻞﻴﻜﺸﺗ و ﻲﺘﺳﻮﭘ ﻲﻣ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ يﺎﻫ ﻲﻧﺎـﻣرد ﺶﻴـﭘ ﺎـﺑ ﺪـﺷ
ﻲــﺘﻧآ ﻢﺘــﺴﻴﺳ يزﺎــﺳزﺎﺑ ﺐــﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮــﻐﻧآ ﻦــﻳزر و ﻲﻧاﺪﻴــﺴﻛا
لﻮﻠﺳ نﺪﺷ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ زا يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﺖـﺳا هﺪﺷ ﺖﺳﻮﭘ يﺎﻫ]53 .[
وﺮﭘﻮﻟﺎﺘﻣ ﻢﻳﺰﻧآ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳا هداد نﺎﺸﻧ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻂـﺳﻮﺗ يﺪﻴﻟﻮﺗ زﺎﻨﻴﺗ
لﻮﻠﺳ لﻮﻠـﺳ ﻢﺟﺎﻬﺗ ﻚﻳﺮﺤﺗ رد ﻲﻤﻬﻣ ﺶﻘﻧ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ يﺎﻫ يﺎـﻫ
دراد بﺎﻬﺘﻟا دﺎﺠﻳا و ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ .ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ رد ﻦـﻳزر ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﺮﮕﻳد يا
ﻢﺟﺎـﻬﺗ رﺎـﻬﻣ ﻪﺠﻴﺘﻧ رد و ﻢﻳﺰﻧآ ﻦﻳا ﺖﻴﻟﺎﻌﻓ رﺎﻬﻣ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ
لﻮﻠﺳ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ يﺎﻫ ]54 .[ ﻲﻛارﻮـﺧ ﺰﻳﻮـﺠﺗ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻚﻳ رد
ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ود رﺎﻬﻣ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ لﻮﻃ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ و نﺎﻃﺮﺳ شﺮﺘﺴﮔ
شﻮﻣ ﺮﻤﻋ نﺎﻃﺮﺳ هدﺎﻣ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ هﺪﺷ ﻲﻧﺎﻃﺮﺳ يﺎﻫ يد ياز ﺮﻨﺑ ﻞﻴﻓ
ﺪــﺷ ﺖــﺳﻮﭘ يور ﺲﻧاﺮــﺗ نآ]55 .[ صاﻮــﺧ ﻪــﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻚــﻳ رد
ﻲﺘﻧآ ﻪـﺑ هدراو ﺐﻴـﺳآ رﺎـﻬﻣ رد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﻦـﻳزر ﻲﻧاﺪﻴﺴﻛاDNA
ﻂﺳﻮﺗ
H2O2
ﺪﺷ ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ ﺪﻴﺳا ﻚﻴﺑرﻮﻜﺳآ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺴﻳﺎﻘﻣ رد . ﺞﻳﺎـﺘﻧ
زﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﺮﺛا ﻪﻛ داد نﺎﺸﻧ ﻚﻴﺑرﻮﻜـﺳآ زا ﺮﺘﻳﻮﻗ درﻮﻣ ﻦﻳا رد ه
ﺖﺳا ﺪﻴﺳا]56.[
ﺪﺿ ﺮﺛا ﻲﺘﺑﺎﻳد : لﻮﻠـﺳ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر رد ار هﺪـﻌﻤﻟازﻮﻟ يﺎـﻫ
ﻲﻣ ﺖﻈﻓﺎﺤﻣ نﺎﺴﻛﻮﻟآ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ زا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﺐﻴﺳآ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺪﻨﻛ. ﻚﻳ رد
ﺶﻫﺎـﻛ ﺐـﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻪﻛ ﺪﺷ هداد نﺎﺸﻧ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ
شﻮﻣ رد نﻮﺧ ﺪﻨﻗ آ رد ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺴﻧا ﺖﻈﻠﻏ ﺶﻳاﺰﻓا و ﻲﺘﺑﺎﻳد يﺎﻫ ﺎﻬﻧ
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ]57.[
نﻮﺧ رﺎﺸﻓ : تﺎـﺿﺎﺒﻘﻧا ﺮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﺮﻴﺛﺎﺗ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻚﻳ رد
،ﻦﻴﻟﻮـﻛ ﻞﻴﺘـﺳا ﺮﻴﺛﺎـﺗ زا ﻲـﺷﺎﻧ يﺪـﻨﻫ ﻪﭽﻛﻮﺧ هﺪﺷ اﺪﺟ ﺖﻓﺎﺑ
ﺪﺷ ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ ﺪﻳﺮﻠﻛ ﻢﻴﺳﺎﺘﭘ و ﻦﻴﻣﺎﺘﺴﻴﻫ . ﻪـﻛ داد نﺎـﺸﻧ ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ ﻦﻳا
فﺎـﺻ ﻪـﭽﻴﻫﺎﻣ يور قﻮﻓ داﻮﻣ زا ﻲﺷﺎﻧ تﺎﺿﺎﺒﻘﻧا هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر
ﻲﻣ رﺎﻬﻣ ار ﺪﻨﻛ .ﺘﻧ نﺎﻘﻘﺤﻣﻪﺠﻴ ﻦـﻳزر ﺮـﺛا ﻦـﻳا ﻪـﻛ ﺪﻧدﺮﻛ يﺮﻴﮔ
ﺖﺳا ﺮﺛﻮﻣ نﻮﺧ رﺎﺸﻓ ﺶﻳاﺰﻓا رﺎﻬﻣ رد هزﻮﻐﻧآ]58[.
ﻲﺳوﺮﻳوﺪﺿ تاﺮﺛا :ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ شراﺰﮔ ﺖـﺳا نآ زا ﻲﻛﺎـﺣ يا
عﻮﻧ اﺰﻧﻼﻔﻧآ سوﺮﻳو رﺎﻬﻣ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﻪﻛA ﻲـﻣ دﻮـﺷ
]59 .[ ﻲﻧﺎـﺴﻧا سوﺮﻳو ﺮﻴﺜﻜﺗ رﺎﻬﻣ رد هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا هرﺎﺼﻋ هوﻼﻋ
ﻞﺑﺎﻗ ﺮﺛا سوﺮﻳو ﻮﻨﻳرﻪﻈﺣﻼ ﺖﺳا ﻪﺘﺷاد يا]60.[
ﺪﺿ ﺮﺛا ﻲﺑوﺮﻜﻴﻣ :ﺪﺿ ﺮﺛا شﻮﺳ ﺮﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﻲﺑوﺮﻜﻴﻣ يﺎﻫ
Streptococcus pyrogens وS. pneumoniae هﺪـﺷ شراﺰﮔ
ﺖﺳا]61.[
ﺪﺿ تاﺮﺛا ﻲﮕﻠﻣﺎﺣ :شﻮﻣ ﻪﺑ هزﻮﻐﻧآ ﻦﻳزر ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ زا هدﺎﻣ يﺎﻫ
ﻦﻴﺑ رد ﻲﮕﻠﻣﺎﺣ يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ﻲﮕﻠﻣﺎﺣ ﻢﺘﻔﻫ ﺎﺗ لوا زور85 -
65 ﺪﺻرد شﻮﻣ ﺪﺷ ﺎﻫ . صاﻮـ هدﺎـﻣ ﻦـﻳا ﻪـﻛ ﺖـﺳا هﺪـ ﺎﻋدا
ﻂﻘﻓ و ﻪﺘﺷاﺪﻧ ﻲﻧژوﺮﺘﺳا ﻢـﺴﻴﻟﻮﺑﺎﺘﻣ لﻮﺌـﺴﻣ ﻢﻳﺰـﻧآ رﺎـﻬﻣ ﻞـﻴﻟد
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺷ ﻲﮕﻠﻣﺎﺣ زا يﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﺮﺛا ﺐﺟﻮﻣ ﻢﺣر رد تارﺪﻴﻫﻮﺑﺮﻛ
]62.[
هﺮﺸﺣ ﻲﺸﻛ: هﺮﺸﺣ ﺮﺛا ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ رد هرﺎﺼﻋ ﻲﺸﻛ ﻲﻫﺎـﻴﮔ يﺎﻫ
ﺧﻮﻄﺳا و هﺮﻫزﺮﺧ ،هزﻮﻐﻧآﭙﺷ و درآ هﺮﭘ ﺐﺷ يور ﺮﺑ سود ﻪﺸ
ﺺﺨﺸﻣ درآ ﺮـﮕﻳد هﺎـﻴﮔ ود ﻪـﺑ ﺖﺒـﺴﻧ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هرﺎﺼﻋ ﻪﻛ
هﺮﺸﺣ ﺖﻴﺻﺎﺧ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ياراد ﻲﻣ ﻲﺸﻛ ﺪﺷﺎﺑ]63 .[
ﺪﺿ تاﺮﺛا ﻲﭼرﺎﻗ : ﻪـﻴﻠﻋ هزﻮـﻐﻧآ ﺲﻧﺎﺳا ﺮﺛا ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ ﻚﻳ رد
هﺪــﺷ رﺎــﻬﻣ ﺞﻳﺎــﺘﻧ و هدﺎﻔﺘــﺳا ﺲﻳزﻮﻜﻳﺎــﻣرﻮﻛﻮﻣ ﺪــﻟﻮﻣ ﻞــﻣاﻮﻋ
ﻪﻟوﺰﻳا ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ ﺎﻫ ]19 [ رد هزﻮـﻐﻧآ هرﺎـﺼﻋ ﺮـﮕﻳد ﻲﺳرﺮﺑ رد
ﺖﻈﻠﻏ10 - 5 ﻲﻠﻴﻣ ﻦﻴـﺴﻛﻮﺗﻼﻓا ﺪـﻴﻟﻮﺗ زا ﺮﺘﻴﻟ رد مﺮﮔ ﻂـﺳﻮﺗ
Aspergillus parasiticus
دﺮﻛ يﺮﻴﮔﻮﻠﺟ
]64[
.
ﺖﻴﻤﺳ : زا ﺮﻴﻏ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻲﻛارﻮﺧ ﻲﻤﺳ تاﺮﺛا زا ﻲﺷراﺰﮔ
نﺎـﻫﺎﻴﮔ هدﻮﻧﺎـﺧ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻛ يداﺮﻓا ياﺮﺑ ﻲﺘﺳﻮﭘ ﺖﻴﺳﺎﺴﺣ و يژﺮﻟآ
ﺖﺳا هﺪﺸﻧ شراﺰﮔ ﺪﻧراد ﺖﻴﺳﺎﺴﺣ نﺎﻳﺮﺘﭼ . درﻮﻣ ﻚﻳ رد ﻲﻟو
زود ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻪـﺘﻔﻫ ﺞﻨﭘ دازﻮﻧ ﻪﺑ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻦﻳزر مﻮﻠﻌﻣﺎﻧ ﺖـﻬﺟ يا
دور ﻚﻴﻟﻮﻛ نﺎﻣرده نﻮـﺧ ﻦﻴﺑﻮـﻠﮕﻤﻫ ناﺰـﻴﻣ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﺐﺟﻮﻣ يا
ﺪﺷ ]55[. رد ﻲﻟو ﺖﺴﻴﻧ ﺺﺨﺸﻣ هﺎﻴﮔ ﻦﻳا ﻦﻳزر فﺮﺼﻣ ناﺰﻴﻣ
ناﺰـﻴﻣ ﻪـﻴﻠﻛ و اﺮﻔـﺻ ﮓﻨﺳ نﺎﻣرد ﺖﻬﺟ نﺎﺘﺳوﺪﻨﻫ ﻲﺘﻨﺳ ﺐﻃ
فﺮﺼﻣ200 ﻲﻟا300 ﻲﻠﻴﻣ ﻲﻣ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ زور رد مﺮﮔ دﻮﺷ]19.[
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يژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ تاﺮﺛا ﺮﺑ يروﺮﻣ ...
ﻪﺠﻴﺘﻧ يﺮﻴﮔ
ﺶﻳﺎﻣزآ رد ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻲﻧﺎﺴﻧا و ﻲﻧاﻮﻴﺣ يﺎﻫ هﺎـﻴﮔ ﻪـﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ
هزﻮﻐﻧآ تاﺮﺛا يارادﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ هدﺮﺘـﺴﮔ ﺖـﺳا هدﻮـﺑ يا . ﺎـﺑ
صاﻮﺧ ﻦﻳا ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﻚﻳژﻮﻟﻮﻛﺎﻣرﺎﻓ ﺪﻨﻤﺷزرا رﺎﻴﺴﺑ ﻪﺸﻳر ﻎﻤﺻ
هزﻮﻐﻧآ هﺎﻴﮔ و نآ ناواﺮﻓ ﺰﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻞﻴﻟد ﻲﺘﻨـﺳ ﺐـﻃ رد ﺚـﻋﺎﺑ
يرﺎــﻤﻴﺑ رد هزﻮــﻐﻧآ فﺮــﺼﻣ ﻪــﻛ ﺖــﺳا هﺪــﺷ ﺎــﻫ ي تﻻﻼﺘــﺧا
ﻻﺎﺑ نﻮﺧرﺎﺸﻓ و ﺖﺑﺎﻳد ،نﺎﻃﺮﺳ ،ﻲﺷراﻮﮔ دﺮـﻴﮔ راﺮـﻗ ﺮﻈﻧدرﻮﻣ .
ناﻮـﻨﻋ ﻪـﺑ ﻎﻤﺻ ﻦﻳا فﺮﺼﻣ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺷاد ﺮﻈﻧ رد ﺪﻳﺎﺑ ار ﻦﻳا ﻲﻟو
يرﺎـﻤﻴﺑ نﺎـﻣرد و يﺮﻴﮕـﺸﻴﭘ ﺖﻬﺟ وراد ﻪـﺑ زﺎـﻴﻧ دﺪـﻌﺘﻣ يﺎـﻫ
ﺶﻳﺎﻣزآ دراد ﻲﻠﻴﻤﻜﺗ ﻲﻨﻴﻟﺎﺑ يﺎﻫ.
ﻊﺑﺎﻨﻣ
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لﺎﺳ ،ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ،مرﺎﻬﭼ هرود ،ﻢﻫد
ﻞﺴﻠﺴﻣ هرﺎﻤﺷ ﺰﻴﻳﺎﭘ ،ﻢﻠﻬﭼ1390
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لﺎﺳ ،ﻲﻳوراد نﺎﻫﺎﻴﮔ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ ،مرﺎﻬﭼ هرود ،ﻢﻫد
ﻞﺴﻠﺴﻣ هرﺎﻤﺷ ﺰﻴﻳﺎﭘ ،ﻢﻠﻬﭼ1390
يﺰﻳرﺎﻛ عراز نارﺎﻜﻤﻫ و
59. Lee CL, Chiang LC, Cheng LH, Liaw CC, Abd
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... In Iran, some women with gynecological disorder such as dysmenorrhea (6) and oligomenoreha (7) use herbal medicines such as Ferula assa-foetida,that is locally known as Anghuzeh. Owing toits anti hirsutism, antibacterial, anthelmintic, and anticancer properties (8), this herbal medicine has been traditionally used for different purposes: abdominal pain, cancer and colic in children (9) and also for treatment of vaginal infection (10). This medicinal plant belong to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family. ...
... In Department of phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with Herbarium Voucher Number 981, Ferula assa foetida essence was produced by distilling the Root and Stem with steam and then for this study they were formed into pearl-shaped pills (100 mg). The major components of Ferula assa foetida included 65% oleo g um resin, 20% essence, 25% stem (17) .Ferula assa foetida drug toxicity was assessed in a past study and its safety had been reported, Based on systematic review study, Ferula may be cause the skin allergic sign and do not recommended for infant (9). ...
... Animal Studies showed pharmacological effects of Ferula on testosterone level (12,14), gastrointestinal function, blood pressure, anti-cancer and anti-parasite (9). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. As a result of side effect of pharmaceutical medications women are interested in using alternative medicines to treat. To determine the comparative effects of Ferula assa-foetida on androgenic hormone levels and ovarian features in patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this triple-blinded controlled clinical trial, 34 student participants were randomly divided in two groups. Intervention group received 100 mg of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa- foetida, control group received oral paraffin (Placebo) twice daily for 3 months. The efficacy of this herbal medicines was measured after the 3-month intervention. Hormonal assay for evaluating Testosterone, DEHAS, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH levels and also trans abdominal ultrasound for evaluating ovarian volumes, number of follicles of both ovaries, and endometrial thickness. Were measured before and after the study. Results: In this study, significant changes in DEHAS and TSH level were observed (p value<0.03). The greatest reduction in the number of ovarian follicles was reported in the Ferula group (p value <0.00). Conclusion: Use of Ferula assa-foetida can be effected in decrease of DHEAS, TSH levels, and ovarian follicles number in young girls with PCOS.
... In Iran, some women with gynecological disorder such as dysmenorrhea (6) and oligomenoreha (7) use herbal medicines such as Ferula assa-foetida,that is locally known as Anghuzeh. Owing toits anti hirsutism, antibacterial, anthelmintic, and anticancer properties (8), this herbal medicine has been traditionally used for different purposes: abdominal pain, cancer and colic in children (9) and also for treatment of vaginal infection (10). This medicinal plant belong to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family. ...
... In Department of phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with Herbarium Voucher Number 981, Ferula assa foetida essence was produced by distilling the Root and Stem with steam and then for this study they were formed into pearl-shaped pills (100 mg). The major components of Ferula assa foetida included 65% oleo g um resin, 20% essence, 25% stem (17) .Ferula assa foetida drug toxicity was assessed in a past study and its safety had been reported, Based on systematic review study, Ferula may be cause the skin allergic sign and do not recommended for infant (9). ...
... Animal Studies showed pharmacological effects of Ferula on testosterone level (12,14), gastrointestinal function, blood pressure, anti-cancer and anti-parasite (9). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. As a result of side effect of pharmaceutical medications women are interested in using alternative medicines to treat. To determine the comparative effects of Ferula assa-foetida on androgenic hormone levels and ovarian features in patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods In this triple-blinded controlled clinical trial, 34 student participants were randomly divided in two groups. Intervention group received 100 mg of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa- foetida, control group received oral paraffin (Placebo) twice daily for 3 months. The efficacy of this herbal medicines was measured after the 3-month intervention. Hormonal assay for evaluating Testosterone, DEHAS, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH levels and also trans abdominal ultrasound for evaluating ovarian volumes, number of follicles of both ovaries, and endometrial thickness. Were measured before and after the study. ResultsIn this study, significant changes in DEHAS and TSH level were observed (p value<0.03). The greatest reduction in the number of ovarian follicles was reported in the Ferula group (p value <0.00). Conclusion Use of Ferula assa-foetida can be effected in decrease of DHEAS, TSH levels, and ovarian follicles number in young girls with PCOS.Trial registrationthe Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial (IRCT2016040427207N1).url: https://www.irct.ir/trial/22343
... In Iran, some women with gynecological disorder such as dysmenorrhea (9) and oligomenoreha (10) use herbal medicines such as Ferula assa-foetida,that is locally known as Anghuzeh. Owing toits anti hirsutism, antibacterial, anthelmintic, and anticancer properties (11), this herbal medicine has been traditionally used for different purposes: abdominal pain, cancer and colic in children (12) and also for treatment of vaginal infection (13). This medicinal plant belong to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family. ...
... The major components of Ferula assa foetida included 65% oleo g um resin, 20% essence, 25% stem (19).Ferula assa foetida drug toxicity was assessed in a past study and its safety had been reported, Based on systematic review study, Ferula may be cause the skin allergic sign and do not recommended for infant (12). ...
... Animal Studies showed pharmacological effects of Ferula on testosterone level (2,15), gastrointestinal function, blood pressure, anti-cancer and anti-parasite (12). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. As a result of side effect of pharmaceutical medications women are interested in using alternative medicines to treat. To determine the comparative effects of Ferula assa-foetida on androgenic hormone levels and ovarian features in patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this triple-blinded controlled clinical trial, 34 student participants were randomly divided in two groups. Intervention group received 100 mg of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa- foetida, control group received oral paraffin (Placebo) twice daily for 3 months. The efficacy of this herbal medicines was measured after the 3-month intervention. Hormonal assay for evaluating Testosterone, DEHAS, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH levels and also trans abdominal ultrasound for evaluating ovarian volumes, number of follicles of both ovaries, and endometrial thickness. Were measured before and after the study. Results: In this study, significant changes in DEHAS and TSH level were observed (p value<0.03). The greatest reduction in the number of ovarian follicles was reported in the Ferula group (p value <0.00). Conclusion: Use of Ferula assa-foetida can be effected in decrease of DHEAS, TSH levels, and ovarian follicles number in young girls with PCOS. Trial registration: the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial (IRCT2016040427207N1). url: https://www.irct.ir/trial/22343
... In Iran, some women with gynecological disorder such as dysmenorrhea (9) and oligomenoreha (10) use herbal medicines such as Ferula assa-foetida,that is locally known as Anghuzeh. Owing toits anti hirsutism, antibacterial, anthelmintic, and anticancer properties (11), this herbal medicine has been traditionally used for different purposes: abdominal pain, cancer and colic in children (12) and also for treatment of vaginal infection (13). This medicinal plant belong to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family. ...
... After study was completed ,the researcher received information about the numbers and the nature of the Root and Stem with steam and then for this study they were formed into pearl-shaped pills (100 mg). The major components of Ferula assa foetida included 65% oleo g um resin, 20% essence, 25% stem (18).Ferula assa foetida drug toxicity was assessed in a past study and its safety had been reported (12). The placebo contained 100 mg para n. ...
... Animal Studies showed pharmacological effects of assa-foetida on testosterone level (2,15), gastrointestinal function, blood pressure, anti-cancer and anti-parasite (12). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. As a result of side effect of pharmaceutical medications women are interested in using alternative medicines to treat. To determine the comparative effects of Ferula assa-foetida on androgenic hormone levels and ovarian features in patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this triple-blinded controlled clinical trial, 34 student participants were randomly divided in two groups. Intervention group received 100 mg of oleo-gum resin of Ferula assa- foetida, control group received oral paraffin (Placebo) twice daily for 3 months. The efficacy of this herbal medicines was measured after the 3-month intervention. Hormonal assay for evaluating Testosterone, DEHAS, Prolactin, TSH, FSH, LH levels and also abdominal sonography for evaluating ovarian volumes, number of follicles of both ovaries, and endometrial thickness. were measured before and after the study. Results: In this study, no significant hormonal changes were observed (p value>0.5). Although the greatest reduction in the number of ovarian follicles and ovarian volume was reported in the Ferula assa-foetide group (p value <0.01). Conclusion: Use of Ferula assa-foetida can be effected in decrease of ovarian volume and ovarian follicles number in young girls with PCOS. Trial registration: the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial (IRCT2016040427207N1). url: https://www.irct.ir/trial/22343
... In the literature, some reports occasionally discuss phytochemistry in addition to the biological and medicinal properties of some species of the genus Ferula (Iranshahy and Iranshahi, 2011;Sahebkar and Iranshahi, 2011;Zare et al., 2011;Kareparamban et al., 2012;Akaberi et al., 2015;Amalraj and Gopi, 2017;Sattar and Iranshahi, 2017a,b;Upadhyay et al., 2017;Zhou et al., 2017). However, the current review paper aims to give a deeper insight into the major ethnopharmaceutical properties, along with chemical compositions of the essential oils, organic extracts and volatiles from the different Ferula species growing wild worldwide. ...
Article
This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the medicinal, folkloric and traditional culinary uses of Ferula species, related products and extracts in different countries together with the description of recently isolated new components and the related bioactivities. The phytochemical composition of the essential oils (EOs), oleo-gum-resin (OGR) and the non-volatile fractions obtained from several endemic and indigenous Ferula species is also reported. A special emphasis is placed on their unusual components, i.e. sulfur-containing volatiles from the EOs and the new phytochemicals with mixed biogenetic origins. More than 180 chemical constituents (excluding common essential oils components), including sulfur-containing metabolites, terpenoids, coumarins, sesquiterpene coumarins, etc., as both aglycones and glycosides, are reported, along with their occurrence and biological activities when available. A large number of new secondary metabolites, belonging to different classes of natural products possessing interesting biological activities, from the antiproliferative to the anti-inflammatory to the neuroprotective ones, among the others, have been recently found in the Ferula genus. Several of these phytochemicals are exclusive to this genus; therefore may be considered chemotaxonomic markers. All these aspects are extensively discussed in this review.
... Nevertheless, our discovery that the plant extracts can be used as accessible source of natural anthelmintic from plants is rewarding, as it will lead to the development of a phytomedicine to act against parasite. These extracts have enormous therapeutic potential, as they can fulfil their purpose without any side effects that are often associated with synthetic compounds [28,29]. ...
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The high incidence of equine gastrointestinal worms and their increased resistance against anthelmintics has encouraged research into the effectiveness of rational phytotherapy. This study investigates the in vitro anti-parasitic effects of extracts of Ferula asafoetida and Allium sativum, two native plants that are widespread in Iran on Strongylus spp. larvae. Faecal samples were collected from horses, examined by routine parasitology methods and positive samples were used for future examination. After incubation, the third-stage larvae were harvested by the Baermann technique. A hydroalcoholic extract from the plants was used for the antiparasitic study, while tap water was used for controls. Trials for each concentration and control group were performed in three replicates. The results showed that that during the first day of exposure, the hydroalcoholic extract of F. asafoetida at concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 90% of the larvae, and A. sativum extract at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/ml killed over the 95% of larvae (p<0.05). The results obtained from the bioassay showed that two plant extracts have a larvicidal effect on the Strongylus spp. larval stages compared with the control group.
... The plant species (Table 1) were chosen according to the records of their nematicidal effect on human-and animal-parasitic nematodes (Zargari, 1988;Zare Karizi et al., 2011;Fallah Hosseini et al., 2011). They are either commercially available or can be collected from the field. ...
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The effect of aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa, Ferula assa-foetidae, Peganum harmala, and Portulaca oleracea, separately and in combination with salicylic acid (SA), β–aminobutyric acid (BABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were examined for the control of M. javanica in the laboratory and greenhouse. Eggs and second-stage juveniles were exposed to different concentrations of the plant extracts and defense inducer (DI) molecules. In the greenhouse, the effect of treatments on the number of juveniles in roots, nematode reproduction, and plant growth were evaluated. The highest mortality of juveniles and lowest egg hatch occurred after exposure simultaneously to F. assa-foetida extract and BABA for 72 hr. Concomitant application of F. assa-foetida extract with 1.5 mM concentration of all DI molecules inhibited penetration of juveniles into roots as effectively as cadusafos which was used as a standard nematicide. Concurrent application of 1.5 mM BABA or SA with all of the plant extracts lowered nematode reproduction similar to the nematicide standard. Application of plant extracts and DI molecules did not affect fresh or dry shoot weight, but did affect shoot height and root fresh weight. Based on our data, the defence inducer molecules, in combination with all of the plant extracts that were tested, have potential for the control of M. javanica.
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Continuing the high standards set by the widely acclaimed first and second volumes of Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Ivan A. Ross now comprehensively documents in Volume 3 the medicinal value of 16 major plant species widely used around the world in medical formulations. The plants for this volume are Camellia sinenis, Cannabis sativa, Cocos nucifera, Coffea arabica, Daucus carota, Ferula assafoetida, Hordeum vulgare, Larrea tridentata, Nicotiana tabacum, Olea europaea, Oryza sativa, Plantago ovata, Saccharum officinarum, Serenoa repens, Sesamum indicum, and Zingiber officinale. The author's exhaustive summary of available scientific data for each plant provides detailed information on how the plant is used in different countries, describing its traditional therapeutic applications and what is known from its use in clinical trials. Additional material presented includes a botanical description with a color photo of each plant for identification, the common names used for the plant throughout the world, and a listing of the plant's known chemical constituents. A comprehensive bibliography cites the literature available from a wide range of disciplines. Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Volume 3, offers a unique collection of vital scientific information for pharmacologists, herbal medicine practitioners, drug developers, phytochemists, medicinal chemists, phytologists, toxicologists, and researchers who want to explore the many uses of plant materials for medicinal and related purposes. Its wealth of significant information will reveal little-known facts about these plants and open new horizons of application for the many novel drugs and drug candidates found in them.
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