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Sustainable development of rural biogas

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... As a result, new concepts and approaches for the future development proposed, such as "sustainable development", "environmental justice" and recently the "smart growth". Sustainability debates in development practices (sustainable development) are originated in biological and environmental studies, and then gradually were injected into the social, economic and physical issues (Saeidi 1998). In the most development processes in the 1970s and 1980s, conservation of natural resources, was the main debate (Azizi 2006). ...
... As a result, new concepts and approaches for the future development proposed, such as "sustainable development", "environmental justice" and recently the "smart growth". Sustainability debates in development practices (sustainable development) are originated in biological and environmental studies, and then gradually were injected into the social, economic and physical issues (Saeidi 1998). In the most development processes in the 1970s and 1980s, conservation of natural resources, was the main debate (Azizi 2006). ...
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The article explains the concept of sustainability and investigates its appliance in two neighborhoods of Tehran. Features such as identity, vitality, access, diversity, providing services and security are evaluated in two neighborhoods of Tehran. First one is Narmak which is the product of planning and design of contemporary urban planners (French experts in 1960 decade), and the second is Ghanat Kosar neighborhood which has grown without planning. Method of research is a statistical analysis of questionnaires based on indicators of sustainability, and field observations are used too. By Cronbach's Alpha the validity and reliability of the measuring instrument (questionnaire) were evaluated. Then for expressing the difference between sustainability of two neighborhoods, Mann-Whitney U test was used. According to the results of this study, Narmak neighborhood can be considered as a more sustainable neighborhood, which is in accordance with the principles and criteria of sustainability. Physical features such as green spaces and squares, desirable urban landscape, beside various activities, lead to vitality and the residents' feeling that they belong to their neighborhood makes Narmak a neighborhood with identity. To reach sustainability measures in the second neighborhood changes should be done. The most important point is that, although the neighborhood of Narmak has sustainability principles, but carrying capacity of neighborhood is close to saturation. Therefore increasing building density and population which is inevitable in Tehran due to its growing rate, would imbalance the quality of life and degree of sustainability in this neighborhood very soon.
... There Livestock manures and other organic feedstocks are digested in sealed vessels and the biogas produced is used to produce heat and power to heat buildings and as fuel for cooking (Wu et al., 2012). Smaller-scale digesters have been subsidised in the past, but once full with biogas sludge, there appears to be a labour issue in emptying them, so they are often abandoned (Luo and Tu, 2001). At the larger scale, capital investment is often high, and the benefits in return are often relatively low, so further research and development is required to improve productivity. ...
... Instead, the adjustment loans diverted resources away from the domestic economy by encouraging countries to continue importing large quantities of consumer goods and food staples from developed countries (Hongo, 2000:9). This resulted in the stagnation of the domestic economy, the increase in the balance of payments crises and the ballooning of the debt burden (Sheperd, 1998: dependency and debt burden in Africa. In the end, it was concluded that SAPs have been rather unsuccessful in alleviating poverty, especially in rural areas (Moreno, 2001:3). ...
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Thesis (M.A. (Public governance))--University of Johannesburg, 2006. Includes bibliographical references.
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Abstract In the mid-1980s, at the same time as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms resulted in a decrease in agricultural employment, the Single European Act transformed the reduction of regional differences into an objective of European regional policy. The LEADER Initiative and the PRODER Program were two of the instruments chosen by the European Commission to deal with the effects that these new challenges would have for the rural environment. This research studies the scope and limitations of these programs. For this, we analyzed their implementation, resorting to the case study of the region of La Vera, Extremadura (Spain). The results show that although the structure of these programs is consistent with the purpose of developing and diversifying rural economies, their application must overcome a number of risks, including an excessive concentration of investments in the tourism sector, which stands out from the rest. In addition to highlighting the limitations of tourism as an axis of development, this research detects some aspects that should be taken into account when implementing these programs. View Full-Text Keywords: rural tourism; economic diversification; PRODER program; LEADER initiative
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conservación de los bosques. Ésta, principalmente se ha propuesto para bosques altamente diversos, para sistemas de bosques tropicales y para comunidades indígenas pobres. Poco atención tiene la extracción de PFNM en los sistemas forestales menos diversos y comunidades menos pobres (o modernas), aunque algunas teorías sugieren que pueden ser potencialmente alta para estas áreas. Se llevo a cabo un inventario de los PFNM en los bosques del Complejo Volcánico de Colima, Jalisco, México (CVC), en la comunidad relativamente moderna de Zapotitlán de Vadillo. A partir de una lista potencial de 147 especies reportadas para la zona, se reconoció que actualmente sólo 57 de ellas se utilizan, y sólo 18 de ellas se extraen directamente de los bosques por 8 usuarios locales. La presencia de PFNM se midió en los tres principales tipos de bosque del CVC: bosque seco tropical, mesófilo y de Abies. El bosque tropical seco fue el más diverso, con 104 especies identificadas, de las cuales 21 especies son PFNM. Los valores respectivos fueron 94 y 15 para mesófilo y 60 y 12 para bosque Abies. El CVC ofrece principalmente plantas medicinales, mientras que los otros estudios muestran una fuerte preferencia por el uso de la madera. En el CVC existen relativamente menos especies de uso de PFNM (alrededor del 23%), en comparación con el 65% de la diversidad de los bosques. Las plantas medicinales ofrecen oportunidades para el comercio como hierbas medicinales y algunas especies comestibles ya se extraen comercialmente. Especial atención merece el bosque tropical seco, ya que alberga una mayor diversidad y productos forestales no maderables más atractivos comercialmente además de que es un tipo de bosque en peligro de extinción.
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The essential purpose of this dissertation was to analyze current sources of effective demand for university credentials in adult education in Botswana and to assess progress made and issues still to be resolved in the professionalization of the field of adult education in southern Africa. Overall, four data collection methods were used to assemble the material necessary to achieve this purpose: a survey of graduates of the Department of Adult Education in the University of Botswana, document analysis of related material from the Department and the Government of Botswana, interviews of key informants, and focus group discussions. The “demand for adult education” can have two related but distinct meanings: perceived need and effective demand. Evidence is presented in the dissertation concerning both – on the one hand, what stakeholders see as needs for adult education and for the services of professional adult educators in the country; and, on the other, selected data on what graduates in fact do with their new qualifications and skills once they have them and on the evolution of the job market for those with such credentials. Overall, demand and opportunities for adult education graduates have increased markedly in Botswana over the last twenty years, in tandem with -- if not at exactly the same rate as -- the remarkable growth in government employment in the country that has accompanied its rise from poverty-stricken to middle-income status on the strength of mining revenues. These opportunities in any case far outstrip the current production of adult education graduates and offer possibilities for better organizing and “professionalizing” the occupation, most of which remain to be better exploited. Yet opportunities continue to be almost entirely restricted to the public sector. The field of adult education in Botswana has been slow to professionalize, though the country possesses in the form of its university program for the training of adult educators one of the essential resources for such a movement. Recommendations are made regarding means for enhancing effective demand for adult educators in the country and better supporting efforts to professionalize their status.
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Regionally specific sustainability processes that account for diverse environments and populations and that integrate social, economic, political and ecological spheres are being developed in Western Australia. A coordinated commitment to sustainability principles and a participatory philosophy by the state and local governments is necessary. This requires a transformation of the public service, from a director of passive programmes and laws to a facilitator of community projects and outcomes, towards an enabling state. An international participatory paradigm provides an array of concepts and methods for local and regional communities in partnership with government and industry to achieve this. Participatory methodologies are utilised successfully around the globe to create an institutional framework that facilitates a process of dialogue, partnership, networking, learning and managing change. This paper examines the potential contribution of a participatory approach to improve the participatory capacity of regional communities and both local and state governments towards the facilitation of regional sustainability processes.
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The Future Search process in principle appears relevant for promoting participatory approaches to rural regeneration, offering a forum for stakeholders to conduct dialogue and find a common sense of direction. Consequently, a Future Search conference was organized in Devon, England, to encourage community-led rural regeneration, and this paper reflects on that experience. It highlights achievements but focuses on difficulties encountered in using Future Search where democratic processes are a key issue. The carefully planned structures of Future Search and the intensity of the conference process were found in some respects to be incongruous with the needs and expectations of the participants. The conference also revealed that action planning can be problematic when participants belong to different organizations. Therefore, the value of Future Search for rural regeneration would seem to be primarily in creating dialogues and establishing networks, with more limited scope for action planning. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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