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A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the 'gritador-do-nordeste', an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil

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A new species of treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov., is described from a specimen that for many years had been confused with Philydor novaesi. The morphology of this specimen, collected in 1986 at Pedra Branca, Murici, Alagoas, at 550 m elevation (currently the Murici Ecological Station), suggests its allocation in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The new species differs from P. novaesi by its considerably larger size, heavier body-mass, darker and more uniform forehead and crown, absence of buffy periocular- feathers, and a pale orange-rufous tail that contrasts with the rump and the rest of the dorsal plumage. It also has a flat-crowned appearance and a larger, deeper-based, and generally stouter bill. Behavioral specialization on bromeliads and vocal repertoire also suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Cichlocolaptes. The song of this species is markedly different from that of P. novaesi, and it closely matches that of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus. The new species is endemic to the 'Pernambuco Center' of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid forests in hilly terrain. It is known from only two localities in northeastern Brazil, one each in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Taken together, these areas contain less than 3,000 ha of suitable habitat for the species, where we estimate the population during our studies to have numbered no more than 10 individuals. We propose that this species should be categorized as Critically Endangered at a national and global level, and we consider the situation of its conservation to be critical in that it will require urgent action to avoid its global extinction.
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ARTICLE
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 75-94
June 2014
INTRODUCTION
Northeastern Brazil was the first area in the country
to be settled by Europeans, when the Dutch arrived
and established a colony that thrived along the coast
between Maranhão and Sergipe in the period 1630-1654
(Rodrigues 1949, Cascudo 1956). e area that had
been covered by extensive forests soon gave way to sugar-
cane plantations, a habitat modification that is now five
centuries old, and which may perhaps represent one of
the oldest, large-scale habitat modifications produced by
European colonies in South America. Despite its early
economic exploitation, northeastern Brazil has been one
of the most neglected areas in the country for biological
exploration. Ornithological attention was drawn to this
region, perhaps too late, as recently as the 1970s, when
expeditions by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro
(MN hereafter) resulted in the description of four new,
endemic taxa in the state of Alagoas, from Fazenda Serra
Branca (currently part of the Murici Ecological Station):
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853
(Furnariidae), the gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed
trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett1 and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti2,3
1 Deceased.
2 Centro de Estudos Ornitológicos. Rua Álvaro Rodrigues 139, sala 4, CEP 04582-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
3 Corresponding author: dante@dantebuzzetti.com.br
Received on 23 September 2013. Accepted on 21 May 2014. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5BE6C9E6-0E54-497E-84B8-90766A7A5A54, June 2014
ABSTRACT: A new species of treehunter, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov., is described from a specimen that for many years had
been confused with Philydor novaesi. e morphology of this specimen, collected in 1986 at Pedra Branca, Murici, Alagoas, at 550 m
elevation (currently the Murici Ecological Station), suggests its allocation in the genus Cichlocolaptes. e new species differs from P.
novaesi by its considerably larger size, heavier body-mass, darker and more uniform forehead and crown, absence of buffy periocular-
feathers, and a pale orange-rufous tail that contrasts with the rump and the rest of the dorsal plumage. It also has a flat-crowned
appearance and a larger, deeper-based, and generally stouter bill. Behavioral specialization on bromeliads and vocal repertoire also
suggest that the new species belongs in the genus Cichlocolaptes. e song of this species is markedly different from that of P. novaesi,
and it closely matches that of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus. e new species is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of endemism, where
it inhabits dense, humid forests in hilly terrain. It is known from only two localities in northeastern Brazil, one each in the states of
Alagoas and Pernambuco. Taken together, these areas contain less than 3,000 ha of suitable habitat for the species, where we estimate
the population during our studies to have numbered no more than 10 individuals. We propose that this species should be categorized
as Critically Endangered at a national and global level, and we consider the situation of its conservation to be critical in that it will
require urgent action to avoid its global extinction.
KEY WORDS: Atlantic Forest, Conservation, Ovenbirds, Philydor, Taxonomy, Treehunter.
Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi (Teixeira &
Gonzaga 1983a), Orange-bellied Antwren Terenura
sicki (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983b), Alagoas Antwren
Myrmotherula snowi (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1985), and
Alagoas Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ceciliae (Teixeira 1987).
Even by the 1970s, forested areas throughout northeastern
Brazil had already been much reduced, and they were
found mostly on remote mountaintops (Teixeira &
Gonzaga 1983a, Teixeira 1987). e present situation
is even more desperate, in that only 1,907 km2, or less
than 2% of the original forests, remain (Silva & Tabarelli
2001). Despite the near total removal of natural habitats
in this region, the forests still support undescribed bird
taxa, as demonstrated by the recent description of a new
pygmy-owl (Silva et al. 2002). Recent fieldwork at the
Murici Ecological Station (hereafter Murici) by field
ornithologists supported the extreme rarity of P. novaesi
(Roda 2011; IUCN, 2012), which has been by far the
rarest and most difficult to find element of the endemic
avifauna of Murici, and which, until recently, was known
76
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
exclusively from this one locality. During fieldwork at
Murici on 12 October 2002, we observed and tape-
recorded a bird that largely fit the plumage description
of P. novaesi. is bird, however, differed from P. novaesi
(or at least from P. atricapillus, its supposedly closely
allied sister-taxon (Teixeira & Gonzaga 1983a, Remsen
2003) and with which we were familiar) in its behavior,
general morphology and, most strikingly, in its voice.
In fact, these characteristics suggested instead affinities
with the genus Cichlocolaptes. ese similarities were so
striking that we quickly became convinced that P. novaesi
had been wrongly described in the genus Philydor, and
that it belonged instead in the genus Cichlocolaptes.
We later learned that several colleagues had already
reached this same conclusion some time before us (e.g.,
Andrew Whittaker and Kevin Zimmer). Nevertheless, in
February 2003, we found P. novaesi in montane forests
of the state of Pernambuco, at the Reserva Particular do
Patrimônio Natural Frei Caneca (hereafter Frei Caneca)
(Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004), along with the other
three endemic species of the ‘Pernambuco Center’ of
endemism (Roda 2003). e behavior, morphology,
and vocalizations of this bird were reminiscent of P.
atricapillus, yet they contrasted strikingly with the
ovenbird we had seen and heard at Murici. We realized
that the bird seen in Pernambuco may represent the true
P. novaesi, described by Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a), and
that the ovenbird we observed at Murici represented an
undescribed species. Teixeira et al. (1987) mentioned a
particularly large and heavy female specimen of P. novaesi
secured at Murici, and our subsequent examination of
the series of P. novaesi at MN further confirmed our
hypothesis, as we found that the particularly large female
specimen mentioned above represented an undescribed
taxon distinct from P. novaesi.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Morphology
We examined all specimens of Philydor novaesi at MN,
which represents the entire available collection of the
species, 35 specimens of the morphologically similar P.
atricapillus, and 30 specimens of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus
at MN, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São
Paulo (MZUSP), and Museo Argentino de Ciencias
Naturales (MACN) (Appendix 1). We measured the
exposed culmen, wing chord, tail, and tarsus length
of the specimens examined using a dial caliper to the
nearest 0.1 mm. We took additional measurements on
specimens of P. novaesi: distance from the commissure
to the external nares, distance from the commissure to
the bill tip, and the length of the 10th primary. Body
mass, total length, bill coloration, wingspan, and gonad
conditions were obtained from specimen labels. Remiges
and rectrices were counted. Color names used in the
description follow Smithe (1981) and Munsell (1994).
Field observations were made using Zeiss and Swarovski
10 × 40 binoculars and a 15-45× spotting scope.
Photographs of the specimens at MN were taken under
natural light.
Vocalizations
We recorded vocalizations with Sony TCM 5000EV
tape-recorders using Sennheiser ME66 and ME67
microphones. Original recordings are in the Arquivo
Sonoro Dante Buzzetti (ASDCB), maintained by the
second author. ese recordings have been deposited at
xeno-canto (www.xeno-canto.org). Additional recordings
are available at other online collections, IBC/Lynx
(http://ibc.lynxeds.com), the Macaulay Library (http://
macaulaylibrary.org), and on Minns et al. (2009). Other
recordings made by colleagues are listed in Appendix 2.
Tape-recordings were digitized at 44.1 kHz with a 16
bit word-size. Spectrograms were produced in Cool Edit
2000 using a Blackman window with a resolution of 512
bands. Vocal variables were measured using screen cursors
from the fundamental signals of the spectrograms. e
variables measured were: total phrase duration, duration
of intervals between notes, note length and frequency
(defined as frequency at the point of highest amplitude)
(sensu Isler et al. 1998). Note shape descriptions were
made from spectrograms at the same scale as those in the
figures. e name applied to each vocalization type in
the repertoire of suboscines is not standardized, but we
always attempted to compare homologous vocalizations
(as indicated by their overall similarity) regardless of
the name applied. Digitized recordings used to make
sonograms and additional recordings are available at the
second author’s website: www.dantebuzzetti.com.br.
RESULTS
We propose to name the new species:
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti sp. nov.
Cryptic Treehunter
gritador-do-nordeste
Holotype: Specimen No 34530, study skin of an
adult female deposited at the Museu Nacional do Rio de
Janeiro (MN), collected on 16 January 1986 by Dante
M. Teixeira at Serra Branca, Murici (currently Murici
Ecological Station), 09° 15' S, 35° 50' W, 550 m above
sea level, Alagoas State, Brazil.
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
Diagnosis: Differs from Philydor novaesi in its
considerably heavier and longer body (Figure 1, Table
1), uniformly blackish crown, forehead and lores
(speckled with light brown in P. novaesi, Figure 2); dark
periocular-feathers (buffy eyering in P. novaesi); buffy
supraloral-stripe (indistinct in P. novaesi, Figure 3); dark
patches on sides of neck (absent in P. novaesi); longer
and paler orange-rufous rectrices that contrast with
the brown rump (upper-tail coverts are rufous like the
rectrices in P. novaesi, Figure 4) and have rounded tips
(mucronate in P. novaesi); larger, deeper-based, and more
heavily built bill; a flat-crowned appearance (smaller bill
and rounded head in P. novaesi, Figure 3). Differs from
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus in having a uniform plumage
that lacks buffy stripes on the ventral and dorsal regions
of the body (Figure 5).
FIGURE 1. Adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right).
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
FIGURE 2. Upper view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right),
showing differences in bill length and the coloration of the crown, forehead and lores.
FIGURE 3. Lateral view of the heads of adult female Philydor novaesi (MN 33873, left) and Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530, right),
showing differences in the eyering, extension of the supercilium, head shape, and bill length and shape.
79
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
FIGURE 4. From left to right male and female Philydor novaesi (MN 33872 and 33873), female Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti at the center (MN
34530), and two male Philydor novaesi at right (MN 32028 and 32029, the latter the holotype), showing the differences in contrast between tail and
rump color.
FIGURE 5. From left to right Philydor atricapillus (MN 39355), P. novaesi (MN 33873), Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) and C.
leucophrus leucophrus (MN 9021).
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
Description of the Holotype: Crown and forehead
Jet-Black (3.2PB 1.6/0.5). Back of the neck, back, and
rump Cinnamon-Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Tail Pale
Orange-Rufous (2.5YR 5.0/8.0), with the central rectrices
darker dorsally. roat, sides of head, supercilium and
supraloral-stripe Pinkish-Buff (0.4Y 7.5/4.3). Auriculars
and moustachial region Pinkish-Buff, with dusky
streaking. Lower throat and sides of neck Cinnamon-
Brown (7.0YR 4.0/4.0). Breast, belly, and underwing
coverts Cinnamon (8.7YR 5.0/6.0). ighs, flanks
and undertail coverts Prout’s Brown (6.5YR 3.5/3.0).
Remiges Vandyke Brown (5.0YR 3.5/2.5), with Cream-
colored (3.5Y 8.5/5.5) fringes, wing-coverts darker than
the remiges. Irides brown (from specimen label). Tarsi
and toes in the dried skin Grayish-Olive (5.0 Y 4.8/2.5).
Upper mandible black, lower mandible paler, and both
with sides grayish in the dried skin. Total length 221.0
mm (from specimen label), exposed culmen 15.5 mm,
wing chord 96.5 mm, tail 82.0 mm (but R1 and R2 were
still growing), tarsus 23.2 mm, and body mass 48.0 g
(from specimen label).
Etymology: e second author dedicates the name
of the new species to the first author, a good friend
and colleague who suddenly passed away before this
manuscript was finished, in recognition of his important
contributions to the conservation of the Atlantic Forest
in northeastern Brazil and its declining avifauna. For the
English name we propose Cryptic Treehunter because
it is difficult to find and, particularly, to separate from
Philydor novaesi in the field. We propose naming this
species gritador-do-nordeste in Portuguese. ‘Gritador’
(meaning ‘screamer’) is an apt name given the loudness of
its vocalizations, but it also represents a figure in Brazilian
folklore. e story of the ‘Gritador’ is that of two brothers
who went hunting and one accidentally shot the other. In
desperation, he shot himself, and now his soul sometimes
can be heard as it wanders through the forest in the top
of the hills, screaming in pain while searching for his
brother. A parallel can be drawn with the story of the
‘Gritador’, as C. mazarbarnetti can be heard ‘screaming’
while wandering through the hilltop forest searching in
vain for his ‘brothers’, in this case due to the scarcity of
the species.
Additional specimen: Immature female MN
34531 collected on 20 January 1986. is specimen
is larger than P. novaesi, even the males, though it does
Measurements
Cichlocolaptes
mazarbarnetti
Female *
MN 34530
Philydor novaesi
Female**
MN 33873
Philydor novaesi
Males
MN 32028
MN 32029
MN 33872
Cichlocolaptes
mazarbarnetti
Juvenile
MN 34531
body mass 48.0 30.0 32.0-34.0 36.0
exposed culmen 15.5 12.9 12.3-13.0 12.8
bill depth 6.8 6.3 6.3-6.7 6.6
bill width 5.0 4.7 4.0-4.3 4.6
nares to commissure 14.9 9.8 10.1-11.4 -
commissure to tip 28.9 22.6 22.2-22.7 -
wing chord 96.5 83.5 91.4-94.9 90.1
wingspan 320.0 280.0 - 305.0
length of 10th primary 80.2 64.5 72.6-75.4 73.8
tail 82.0 76.1 80.0-84.8 83.9
tarsus 22.9 20.7 22.2-22.6 22.6
total length 221.0 195.0 193.0-205.0 207.0
* e female C. mazarbarnetti had an ossified skull and a globulous ovary with one ovum > 2 mm (based on the specimen tags).
We therefore treat it as an adult.
** e female P. novaesi had an ossified skull and a granular ovary (based on the specimen tags), and is thus treated as an adult.
TABLE 1: Measurements of specimens of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi housed at MN. e values are presented in millimeters,
with the exception of body mass, which was measured in grams.
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
not approach the size and body mass of MN 34530 (see
Table 1). It measured 207 mm in total length and 36
g. Like the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti, this specimen
has the rump and sides of neck browner, the plumage
more orange than any P. novaesi, and the crown and
lores unmarked and blackish, and it lacks the buffy
eyering (Figure 6). Although collected four days later,
this specimen was presumed to be the same bird seen
accompanying the holotype when it was collected
(Dante M. Teixeira pers. com., 2004). erefore, it is
possible that MN 34531 represents the offspring of MN
34530.
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti is known from only two sites,
the type locality at Murici in the state of Alagoas, and Frei
Caneca (08º 43' S, 35º 51' W), Jaqueira, in the state of
Pernambuco. e 6,116 ha of Murici presently has less
than a 2,000 ha covered by forests that are suitable for
this species. In recent years, C. mazarbarnetti has been
found at this site only in the vicinity of an area known as
Poço d’Anta, at Fazenda Bananeiras (09º 12' S, 35º 52'
W, 500–600 m). e species could potentially occur in
the forests of the nearby Fazenda São José (09º 13' S, 35º
54' W) and perhaps in certain tracts of forest at Serra do
Ouro (09º 14' S, 35º 50' W). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti
has been found at Frei Caneca, and it could potentially
be present in the forests of the contiguous Fazenda Pedra
D’Anta (08º 39' S, 35º 53' W), comprising together about
1,000 ha of forest (SAVE Brasil 2013). We did not find
the species at various other highland localities, or at two
lowland sites, in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco
(Appendix 3).
HABITAT AND BEHAVIOR
e Cryptic Treehunter is endemic to the ‘Pernambuco
Center’ of endemism, where it inhabits dense, humid
forests in hilly terrain with rainfall higher than at nearby
lowland sites. e areas at Fazenda Bananeiras and Frei
Caneca where the species and its co-endemics have been
found are forests near the hilltops, and especially those
in deep, forested ravines. e steep slopes and ravines
present taller and better-preserved forest, where a few
emergent trees reach over 25 m. ese forests have been
selectively logged, but some areas have suffered from
more severe logging. Most of these areas were not logged,
and have recovered some of the original structure with
multiple strata and a relatively open understory. e
best-preserved patches have a profusion of vine tangles
and they are densely laden with bromeliads, mosses, and
orchids (Figure 7). A great number of these epiphytes,
mainly bromeliads, are also restricted to the ‘Pernambuco
Center’ of endemism (Siqueira-Filho & Leme 2006).
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti can be found alone or in
pairs, sometimes on their own, but usually in association
with large, mixed-species flocks. ey move between the
FIGURE 6. Juvenile Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (MN 34531), showing the dark crown, the absence of a buffy eyering, and browner sides of neck.
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
mid-levels and the subcanopy (mostly 8–20 m). A bird
seen by the authors on 12 October 2002 was foraging
actively in the lower part of an open tree-crown. It visited
bromeliads exclusively, searching deeply within them.
On one occasion, a bird was seen entering and almost
disappearing into one large bromeliad, leaving only its
upward pointing tail visible. is bird removed and threw
away dead leaves from the bromeliad’s interior while
searching for food. Another individual was observed on
21 January 1998 foraging at 12–15 m in the subcanopy
and again inside a large bromeliad cluster on a canopy
branch off the main trunk (A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A
bird seen in January 1999 was foraging 12–15 m up in the
sub-canopy by ‘rummaging around in bromeliads, with
just its tail and hind-parts sticking out’ (K. Zimmer and
A. Whittaker in litt. 2004). A bird was also seen foraging
about 15 m up in a bromeliad on 23 February 2003 (W.
Silva in litt. 2004). e pair seen and tape-recorded by
DCB at Frei Caneca on 3 October 2003 was searching
a large bromeliad 15 m up. A bird observed on 19 April
2007 at Murici was attracted with playback after natural
vocalizations were heard. It flew through the subcanopy
18 m up and then stopped at a branch covered by moss
15 m up, where it started to sing again for a few minutes
before flying away. Probably the same bird was heard and
tape-recorded in the same area on 20 April 2007 at dawn,
when it gave non-stop songs for at least 12 minutes from
a large concentration of bromeliads 8 m above the ground
on the top of a hill. One individual seen on 12 October
2002 was in a flock with Veniliornis affinis, Picumnus exilis,
Automolus lammi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, amnophilus
aethiops, amnomanes caesius, Myrmotherula axillaris,
Myrmotherula snowi, Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus,
Terenura sicki, Myrmoderus ruficaudus, Conopophaga
melanops, Myiopagis gaimardii, Rhynchocyclus olivaceus,
Hemitriccus griseipectus, Caryothraustes canadensis, and
Saltator maximus. e mixed-species flock joined by
the individual observed on 21 January 1998 included
X. atlanticus, T. caesius, M. snowi, T. sicki, and Myiobius
atricaudus. is bird was in heavy wing and tail molt,
including both the primaries and secondaries (A.
Whittaker in litt. 2004).
VOCAL REPERTOIRE
Vocalizations of birds that match the morphological
characteristics of the type of C. mazarbarnetti were
recorded at Murici and Frei Caneca. Most of the songs
analyzed were spontaneous, and from recordings made
between March 2001 and April 2007, in the months of
January, February, March, April and October, by four
different recordists on five occasions. Given that all of
these recordings were made at Fazenda Bananeiras and
Frei Caneca, it is also possible that only five or six
individuals are represented. In the following description,
we compare C. mazarbarnettis vocalizations with those
of C. leucophrus, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus,
FIGURE 7. Detail of primary forest at Frei Caneca, showing the profusion of epiphytes (and in particular bromeliads) in the canopy. Photo by DCB.
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
showing their differences and homologies. Examination
of the complete vocal repertoire of C. mazarbarnetti
would be necessary for a thorough analysis, yet we feel
that the available material is sufficient to document our
assertion that C. mazarbarnetti and Philydor novaesi
represent different species. What we regard as Song Type
1 of C. mazarbarnetti is a fast, dry rattle of 0.38–2.81 s
followed closely by a series of 4–8 loud, raspy notes
delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8A). Each of these
raspy notes, lasting 0.12-0.23 s, increases slightly in
frequency before decreasing suddenly at the end. e
initial rattle is a rapid series of 9–62 notes at a pace of
21.1–24.7 notes/s in spontaneous songs, but it is faster
following playback. is initial rattle maintains a
constant frequency throughout and it may escape
detection if the bird is distant. Sometimes the song
includes a shorter rattle after the series of harsh notes,
and this occurs mostly when the number of harsh notes
is fewer. In response to playback, and spontaneously at
dawn, we observed a modified version of Song Type 1
that we refer to as Song Type 2: the initial rattle increases
to 1.8–3.2 s and the number of following notes is reduced
to 1–3; the first note is lower pitched than the second,
and the second is lower than the third (if present) (Figure
FIGURE 8. A. Song Type 1 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici, Alagoas
(DCB, XC180893). B. Song Type 2 of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti, recorded in same take as A. C. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus
recorded on 3 May 1997 in the municipality of Vargem Alta, Espírito Santo (Ricardo Parrini). D. Song of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, recorded
on 28 June 2003 at Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, São Paulo (DCB, XC180863). E. Song of Philydor novaesi recorded on 15 February
2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181063). F. Song of Philydor atricapillus recorded on 16 October 1993 in the
municipality of Ubatuba, São Paulo (Andrew Whittaker).
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
8B). On one occasion, we recorded a spontaneous
vocalization at dawn that was delivered for 12½ minutes,
and that comprised 10 phrases of the first song-type, 64
phrases of the second song-type, and one isolated rattle.
e interval between songs was shorter at dawn, when
the number of phrases of Song Type 2 was greater than
that of Song Type 1, but most spontaneous songs made
throughout the day matched Song Type 1, and Song
Type 2 was given almost exclusively in response to
playback. Analysis of 123 phrases of song (including
both types 1 and 2) shows only limited variation. In
addition to songs, birds may deliver a fast rattle without
the following notes, at a rate of 21.7–24.0 notes/s, and
lasting up to 8.5 s (Figure 11A). Isolated rattles may be
delivered among songs, as was heard at dawn, or after
playback, when the bird is excited, but it is unusual to
hear them given spontaneously during the day. Calls
recorded in response to playback are a fast, staccato series
of three dry notes that have an ascending and then a
descending shape, and which are delivered at 2.0–2.4
kHz (Figure 9A; Table 2). Single-note calls are reminiscent
of the raspy notes of the song, but without the upward
and downward inflections, and they are delivered at 1.7-
2.7 kHz (see Table 2). A presumed alarm-call was
recorded once, and possibly related to an agonistic
behavior, given that two birds were involved. It consisted
of 1-3 notes, the first a fast and sharply descending
modulation, followed by a fast upward and slow
downward modulation, and finally, a raspy note at the
end. Sometimes two notes were delivered after the raspy
note, and sometimes only the raspy notes were delivered
(Figure 10A). e song of C. leucophrus leucophrus
consists of a fast, dry rattle of 2.2-3.6 s followed closely
by a series of 5-8 loud, short notes delivered at a regular
pace (Figure 8C). e structure of the song is similar to
that of C. mazarbarnetti, but the timbre and shape of the
short notes are different. Like C. mazarbarnetti, C. l.
leucophrus sometimes delivers a faster rattle of about 1.0
s at the end of the phrase, and sometimes in response to
playback, isolated rattles at a rate of 19.5–22.2 notes/s,
with the rattle lasting up to 9.2 s (Figure 11C). e song
of C. leucophrus holti is similar in pattern to that of C. l.
leucophrus and C. mazarbarnetti, in that it is a fast, dry
rattle of 0.5-4.3 s followed closely by a series of 4-8 loud,
short notes delivered at a regular pace (Figure 8D). Each
of the short notes begins by increasing in frequency, but
unlike the songs of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus,
the decrease at the end is not so evident. e initial rattle
maintains a constant frequency throughout. Like C.
mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus, C. l. holti sometimes
delivers a shorter (0.3 s) and more rapid rattle at the end
of the phrase. Possibly because of its smaller body size, all
notes in the song of C. l. holti are given at a higher
frequency than those of the other taxa (see Table 2). e
song of C. mazarbarnetti is closer to that of C. l. leucophrus
than C. l. holti in the range and frequency of the initial
rattle and raspy notes. Some homologies in the calls and
rattles were also noted between C. mazarbarnetti and C.
FIGURE 9. A. ree-note calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 5 March 2001 at Murici, Alagoas. (Curtis Marantz, LNS/Macaulay
Library #128035). B. Calls of Philydor novaesi recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (DCB, XC181036). C. Calls of
Philydor atricapillus recorded on 17 July 1994 at Serra da Cantareira, municipality of Guarulhos, São Paulo (DCB, XC180995).
FIGURE 10. A. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 3 October 2003 at Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira, Pernambuco
(DCB, XC180906). B. Alarm calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 11 May 1999 in the municipality of Boa Nova, Bahia
(Ricardo Parrini).
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
l. leucophrus, these mainly in the rattle and alarm calls.
Alarm calls of C. mazarbarnetti and C. l. leucophrus have
a similar pattern (Figs. 10A and 10B). Unlike those of
the taxa described above, the song of P. novaesi is a high-
pitched rattle that combines two simultaneous notes as it
descends slightly in pitch through the song (Figure 8E).
Each component note decreases sharply in pitch, the
whole rattle is longer than that of C. mazarbarnetti, and
it is delivered at a slower pace (see Table 2). e length of
the phrases varies relative to the bird’s level of excitement.
e song is usually delivered at intervals of 5–15 s, but
occasionally at longer intervals. e analysis of 75 phrases
of the P. novaesi song, including an abnormal type (see
below), showed only limited variation in frequency and
pace. e songs analyzed were, for most part, spontaneous,
and they were made between February 2003 and
November 2010, in the months of February, March,
June, October, November and December, by six different
recordists on nine occasions. Given that all of these
recordings were made at Frei Caneca, it is possible that
only three or four individuals were represented. e song
of P. atricapillus is similar to that of P. novaesi, in that it
consists of a high-pitched rattle that descends slowly in
frequency (Figure 8F). Each note has a simple, descending
shape that is quite similar to that of the lower frequency
notes of songs of P. novaesi. Each component note
decreases sharply in pitch as well, and the whole song is
delivered at 18.2–21.6 notes/s, and thus somewhat faster
than P. novaesi (see Table 2). e duration of the phrases
likewise varies based on the bird’s level of excitement.
One call of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus is similar in both
structure and pace, and it consists of four, ascending
notes given in a series (Figs. 9B and 9C). Although the
vocal repertoire of P. novaesi is poorly known, we feel that
the similarities in the songs and calls of P. novaesi and P.
atricapillus show a clear homology, making a compelling
case for a close relationship between them. e
vocalizations of P. atricapillus tend to be ‘softer’ and
higher in frequency than those of P. novaesi, which
probably reflects its smaller size. By contrast, the fast
rattle that begins the song of C. mazarbarnetti is different
from that of the song of P. novaesi in structure, pace,
frequency, and duration. It reaches 21.1–24.6 notes/s
versus 12.2–16.3 notes/s and its frequency is 2.5 kHz
compared to 5.2 kHz. e duration of 1.6 s is also
markedly shorter than the 3.8 s of P. novaesi (see Table 2).
It is important to note that the initial rattle of C.
mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C. l. holti all maintain
a constant frequency from beginning to end, whereas the
frequency of the songs of P. novaesi and P. atricapillus fall
steadily throughout the vocalization. Equally importantly,
the raspy notes are absent in the song of both P. novaesi
and P. atricapillus, yet they are present and conspicuous
in the songs of C. mazarbarnetti, C. l. leucophrus, and C.
l. holti. Calls of C. mazarbarnetti consist of series of three
rapidly ascending and descending modulations at 2.0–
2.4 kHz (see Figure 9A). Philydor novaesi has a similar
sounding call, but it consists of 3–6 ascending notes
FIGURE 11. A. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April 2007 at Murici, Alagoas. (DCB, XC 180893). B. Rattle of Philydor
novaesi, recorded in response to playback on 12 April 2003 at Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, Pernambuco (JMB, XC181072). C. Rattle of Cichlocolaptes
leucophrus leucophrus recorded on 03 May 1997 at Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, Espírito Santo (Andrew Whittaker).
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
delivered at 4.6-5.6 kHz (see Figure 9B; Table 2). e
isolated rattle of C. mazarbarnetti is delivered at a rate of
21.7–24.0 notes/s and with a duration of 1.2-8.5 s,
whereas the rattle of P. novaesi is 7.2-13.6 s in length and
it is delivered at a rate of 13.8-15.8 notes/s (Figure 11B).
ese vocalizations also differ in frequency and note
shape (Figure 12A). It is interesting to compare the rattle
of C. mazarbarnetti, whether as the initial part of the
song or as a stand-alone vocalization, with the song of P.
novaesi, which is also a rattle. e rattle of C. mazarbarnetti
is both quicker (21.1–24.6 notes/s for the initial part of
the song and 21.7-24.0 notes/s for a stand-alone rattle
versus 12.2-16.3 notes/s) and lower in frequency (2.5
kHz versus 5.2 kHz). ese vocalizations also differ in
frequency and shape of the notes (Figure 12B). A
playback experiment was carried out at Murici to test the
Cichlocolaptes
leucophrus
holti
Cichlocolaptes
leucophrus
leucophrus
Cichlocolaptes
mazarbarnetti
Philydor
novaesi
Philydor
novaesi*
Philydor
atricapillus
Rattle/Song
length (s)
0.51-4.30
(2.35 ± 1.17)
n = 14
2.25-3.65
(2.95 ± 0.70)
n = 3
0.38-2.81
(1.62 ± 0.35)
n = 27
2.45-5.64
(3.83 ± 0.63)
n = 35
2.8
2.64-4.76
(3.64 ± 0.55)
n = 15
number of notes
10-89
(47.07 ± 23.08)
n = 14
50-77
(63.66 ± 13.50)
n = 3
9-62
(38.03 ± 14.49)
n = 27
32-76
(53.60 ± 9.9)
n = 35
45
56-103
(71.93 ± 12.19)
n = 15
notes per second
16.94-21.78
(20.09 ± 1.22)
n = 14
21.10-22.22
(21.62 ± 0.56)
n = 3
21.11-24.66
(23.44 ± 0.83)
n = 27
12.28-16.34
(13.98 ± 1.16)
n = 35
16.07
18.28-21.64
(19.77 ± 1.24)
n = 15
frequency (kHz)
3.55-4.10
(3.72 ± 0.13)
n = 14
2.87-3.13
(2.98 ± 0.13)
n = 3
2.34-2.98
(2.53 ± 0.15)
n = 27
4.82-5.52
(5.29 ± 0.16)
n = 35
3.83
2.48-3.07
(2.76 ± 0.18)
n = 15
Raspy notes
length of note (s)
0.12-0.23
(0.20 ± 0.02)
n = 101
0.19-0.37
(0.25 ± 0.05)
n = 18
0.12-0.23
(0.35 ± 0.05)
n = 129
-
0.18-0.20
(0.18 ± 0.01)
n = 4
-
number of notes
4-8
(6.31 ± 1.01)
n = 16
5-8
(6.00 ± 1.73)
n = 3
4-8
(3.55 ± 1.63)
n = 31
-4 -
frequency (kHz)
3.50-4.31
(3.80 ± 0.16)
n = 88
2.87-3.58
(3.07 ± 0.23)
n = 18
1.13-2.64
(2.07 ± 0.29)
n = 129
-
1.62-1.95
(1.83 ± 0.14)
n = 4
-
Calls with one note
frequency (kHz)
3.82-5.50
(4.53 ± 0.31)
n = 71
2.93-3.48
(3.24 ± 0.18)
n = 68
1.75-2.72
(2.29 ± 0.19)
n = 84
3.54-4.23
(3.75 ± 0.22)
n = 13
-
3.31-5.00
(4.41 ± 0.57)
n = 34
Calls with 3-6 notes
frequency (kHz) --
2.09-2.47
(2.28 ± 0.10)
n = 33
4.68-5.69
(5.26 ± 0.31)
n = 25
-
3.87-5.73
(4.61 ± 0.51)
n = 14
*abnormal song of P. novaesi after playback of C. mazarbarnettis song (n = 1 phrase)
TABLE 2: Comparison of songs and calls of Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti, C. l. leucophrus, C. mazarbarnetti, Philydor novaesi, and P. atricapillus. e
values presented are range, mean ± standard deviation (in parentheses) and sample size for songs and calls (in italics).
87
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
reaction of C. mazarbarnetti to the song of P. novaesi. e
individual of C. mazarbarnetti recorded on 20 April
2007 at dawn (see Habitat and Behavior) had sung
spontaneously for at least 12 minutes. Immediately after
it stopped singing, we played a single song of P. novaesi
several times, at intervals of one or two minutes. No
vocal or visual reaction by C. mazarbarnetti was observed.
is was probably the same individual that was recorded
in the same area on the previous afternoon, when it was
attracted immediately by playback of its own song,
clearly demonstrating territorial defense behavior. e
bird recorded on 12 October 2002 at Murici also showed
strong territorial defense behavior after playback of its
own song, first flying back-and-forth overhead several
times and then singing for some minutes. e same
behavior was noted by Curtis Marantz when he recorded
C. mazarbarnetti at Murici in March 2001 (http://
macaulaylibrary.org/audio/128037). Cichlocolaptes
mazarbarnettis behavior on these occasions led us to
conclude that it did not recognize the song of P. novaesi
as part of its own species’ repertoire. An abnormal song
of P. novaesi was recorded at Frei Caneca on November
2010 (www.xeno-canto.org/65550) with simultaneous
photos and observations made following extended
playback of the song of both C. mazarbarnetti and P.
novaesi (Ciro Albano in litt. 2010). is vocalization
consisted of an initial rattle followed by four short notes,
and in this respect if superficially resembled a song by C.
mazarbarnetti. is song has been considered by some
colleagues to be the same as the song of C. mazarbarnetti,
thus leading them to conclude, based on this recording
and the concomitant observation of a bird that visually
matches P. novaesi, that only one species is involved. We
therefore analyzed this recording and compared it with
the songs of both P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. e
initial rattle of the abnormal song is similar to the song of
P. novaesi in length, pace, and in the number and shape
of the notes, and it descends in frequency throughout. It
differs from the song of C. mazarbarnetti in all these
parameters (see Table 2). e four terminal notes of the
abnormal song are softer than the loud and raspy notes of
C. mazarbarnetti, and their shape and timbre are quite
different. In the recording, the abnormal song is followed
by three typical songs of P. novaesi, which are closely
similar to the initial rattle of the abnormal song. We
therefore conclude that this phrase was delivered by an
excited P. novaesi during an unusual behavioral context,
as opposed to by C. mazarbarnetti.
DISCUSSION
Evidence for a new species
e differences between C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi
in morphology and plumage noted on museum skins,
combined with vocalizations and observations of foraging
behavior made in the field, provide strong evidence that
two different species are involved. ese differences are at
odds with variation within a single population (see also
Claramunt [2014] regarding morphometric evidence).
Aspects of the plumage that aided our diagnosis of the
new species from P. novaesi in the field were noted, most
notably characters of the facial pattern and color of the
upper-tail coverts. ere is a photo available at Lees et al.
(2014), where the buffy eyering and the rufous upper-
tail coverts of P. novaesi are shown simultaneously, and
we can see at Figure 4 the different facial pattern and
the dark rump color of C. mazarbarnetti. A video made
at Frei Caneca on 11 October 2008, available at http://
ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor-
novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away,
shows a singing bird with a buffy eyering. e four
phrases of the song presented in this video have the same
pattern of the song of P. novaesi shown in Figure 8E in
duration, pace, number and shape of the notes, and the
descending frequency. e facial pattern and the domed
head of this bird match the four unambiguous skins of
P. novaesi by comparison (see Figs. 3 and 5). Another
video made at Frei Caneca on 5 November 2010,
available at http://ibc.lynxeds.com/video/alagoas-foliage-
gleaner-philydor-novaesi/one-adult-bird-singing, shows
a singing bird with a bill that appears both larger and
stouter than that of the bird in the first video. e large
FIGURE 12. A. Comparison between the rattles of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes.
B. Comparison between the rattle of C. mazarbarnetti and the song of P. novaesi, showing differences in frequency, pace, and shape of the notes.
88
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
bill in particular suggests C. mazarbarnetti. Although
we noted little variation in bill size in the type series of
P. novaesi, representing one female and three males (see
Table 1), individual variation in bill size in ovenbirds and
sexual dimorphism in Philydor are both expected (see
Claramunt 2014). e bird recorded on 5 November
2010 does have a buffy eyering, and the six phrases of
the song heard in this video have the same pattern as
those in the first video, and they are again like that shown
in Figure 8E. We therefore conclude that this bird also
represents P. novaesi, and that the most important features
to separate P. novaesi from C. mazarbarnetti in the field
are the facial pattern, in particular the presence versus
absence of buffy eyering, respectively, rufous upper-tail
coverts versus brown rump, and a song that represents
a long, descending rattle in P. novaesi versus a rattle that
maintains a constant frequency throughout followed by
some raspy notes in C. mazarbarnetti. ere are many
other cases in which vocalizations provided the first
insight that a new species was present, to be corroborated
only later by morphological or molecular evidence (such
as, for a few recent examples, Herpsilochmus sellowi
(Whitney et al. 2000), Suiriri islerorum (Zimmer et al.
2001), and Formicivora grantsaui (Gonzaga et al. 2007)).
Our observations suggest that foraging behavior differs
in C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi. e Philydor forages
in the lower strata, up into the canopies of mid-sized
trees, where it forages along branches and in tangles.
Of the four unambiguous specimens of P. novaesi, two
were mist-netted in the understory and one was shot in
the mid-levels (based on information contained on the
specimen labels). It also adopts a variety of postures when
foraging, with its head down, or hanging with the belly
upwards, even from suspended branches, or perching on
vertical branches. ese birds search the edges of green
leaves, they inspect dead leaves that have fallen or those
that have accumulated in clusters, they rummage in balls
of detritus, they creep along surfaces of trunks, and they
even lift bark. ese birds also hammer thick and rotten
branches in the manner of a Xenops (Teixeira & Gonzaga
1983a). Birds seen at Frei Caneca in February 2003
and in September–October 2003 (Mazar Barnett et al.
2004) moved along thin horizontal branches in the lower
to middle levels among the crowns of small trees (ca. 4
m). P. novaesi was also seen foraging on bromeliads in
the mid-levels, searching mainly the edges of the leaves
and clusters, but not ‘entering’ bromeliads leaving only
its tail visible, as does C. mazarbarnetti when foraging.
Philydor novaesi fanned their tails, as described by Teixeira
& Gonzaga (1983a), which resulted in the tail appearing
broad and rounded, and thus much like P. atricapillus.
Foraging maneuvers observed included a bird pecking at
a dead leaf that was hanging from a small clump of mosses
in a fork, and another bird that systematically investigated
clumps of hanging, dead leaves (Mazar Barnett et al.
2004; see also Philydor novaesi photos #6-8 in Minns et
al. [2009]). Despite the paucity of data on the foraging
behavior of P. novaesi, similarities with P. atricapillus
were noted by us and by other researchers (Gussoni et
al. 2011), yet consistent and marked differences were
noted between P. novaesi and C. mazarbarnetti. Philydor
atricapillus has been regarded as a dead-leaf-searching
specialist (Remsen & Parker 1984, Parrini et al. 2010)
that frequently assumes acrobatic postures, such as
hanging upside-down vertically. It also uses substrates
such as bits of rotten wood, hanging debris, vine tangles,
living foliage and epiphytes (especially bromeliads),
though more often these birds inspect clusters of dead
leaves (Mallet-Rodrigues 2001). Philydor atricapillus has
also been seen foraging in a Xenops-like manner (Fontana
et al. 2003), as described above for P. novaesi. We have
noted in P. atricapillus the typical and characteristic
movement of the fanned tail, identical to that described
above for P. novaesi. e behavior of C. mazarbarnetti is
notably different from that described above for P. novaesi
and P. atricapillus as a result of its clear preference for
foraging at bromeliads, and by inhabiting the middle
to upper strata of the forest (see Habitat and Behavior).
In these respects, the behavior noted closely matches
that of C. leucophrus. It is also important to note that
the holotype of C. mazarbarnetti (MN 34530) was shot
near the canopy and that it was searching a bromeliad at
the time (based on the specimen label; D. M. Teixeira
pers. comm. 2004). Our requests for permission to X-ray
skulls and take samples for molecular analysis from the
specimens of C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at MN
were denied in September 2004, November 2008, and
June 2013. Our conclusions, based on morphology,
plumage, vocalizations, and foraging behavior, could be
corroborated in the future using molecular methods.
Affinities of C. mazarbarnetti
Morphometric features that link C. mazarbarnetti to
Cichlocolaptes were presented by Claramunt (2014). What
little is known of the behavior of the new species also links
it to Cichlocolaptes. e tendency of C. mazarbarnetti to
remain in the subcanopy or higher strata is shared with
C. leucophrus, even though both species do frequent lower
strata on occasion. Cichlocolaptes leucophrus is known to
be highly dependent on bromeliads, and while foraging,
it searches deep within leaf clusters, sometimes almost
disappearing altogether (Pizo 1994, Ridgely & Tudor
1994, Fontana et al. 2003). We have noticed a similar
foraging behavior and dependency on bromeliads for C.
mazarbarnetti, and our data are supported by observations
by others (e.g., K. Zimmer and A. Whittaker in litt.
2004). e rather slow and deliberate movements of C.
mazarbarnetti while foraging also recalled those of C.
leucophrus to A. Whittaker (in litt. 2004). Above all, we
89
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
think that the undeniable similarity of the vocalizations
of C. mazarbarnetti and C. leucophrus suggests better
than anything else that the two are closely related. e
differences in plumage between C. mazarbarnetti and
C. leucophrus are considerable; however, there are other
examples of sister species of foliage-gleaners in which one
has a plain plumage and the other has a strongly streaked
one: Simoxenops ucayalae and S. striatus, Syndactyla
rufosuperciliata and S. dimidiata, and Automolus subulatus
and A. cervicalis (Remsen 2003, Robbins & Zimmer
2005, Derryberry et al. 2011, Claramunt et al. 2013).
e difference in plumage pattern and color between C.
mazarbarnetti and the southern forms C. l. leucophrus and
C. l. holti could indicate that the latter two heavily streaked
taxa are more closely related to each other. e extent
to which these plumage features indicate relationships is
hard to determine, and as such, a molecular analysis of
Cichlocolaptes will likely be necessary to determine the
true affinities of the new species.
Biogeography
e forests of northeastern Brazil, north of the São
Francisco River, have long been recognized as a center
of endemism. e ‘Pernambuco Center’ (Prance 1982,
Coimbra-Filho & Câmara 1996, Silva & Casteleti 2005)
is well-known to harbor endemic plants (Prance 1987,
Tabarelli & Santos 2004), butterflies (Brown 1987),
and birds (Cracraft 1985, Stattersfield et al. 1998, Roda
2003). e endemic avifauna of this area is composed
of two sets of taxa with different biogeographical
affinities. One set has affinities with the Atlantic Forest,
and the other is related to Amazonian taxa (Teixeira
1986, Roda 2003). Taxa with Atlantic Forest affinities
include Philydor novaesi, Automolus lammi, Dendrocincla
taunayi, Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, Synallaxis infuscata,
Myrmotherula snowi, Terenura sicki, Phylloscartes ceciliae,
and Tangara fastuosa (Roda et al. 2011). Treatments of
these taxa as either species or subspecies reflect uneven
taxonomic studies of the regions birds.
CONSERVATION
e existence of a cryptic taxon resembling P. novaesi
render past records of this species uncertain if not
accompanied by a recording or detailed morphological
or behavioral data. ere are no recent observations
of P. novaesi at Murici. It went unrecorded September
2002-October 2003 despite the near constant presence
of a resident ornithologist. DCB searched for P. novaesi
in April and December 2007 at Murici, but found only
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti. We have searched for both
C. mazarbarnetti and P. novaesi at many other sites (see
Appendix 3), and failed to find it. Since the discovery of P.
novaesi at Frei Caneca (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2004),
the species was seen frequently there until September
2011 (Carlos Gussoni in litt. 2014), but there have been
no subsequent reports, and its conservations status in the
area is considered critical (Pedro Develey, SAVE Brasil, in
litt. 2014, Lees et al. 2014). ere is only one record of
P. novaesi at the contiguous area Fazenda Pedra D’Anta,
municipality of Lagoa dos Gatos, close to the border of
Frei Caneca (Roda 2011). Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti,
like P. novaesi, is certainly one of the rarest birds in the
world. It is known from only two localities. At Murici,
less than 3,000 ha remain forested (Goerck 2001a), and
probably no more than 1,500–2,000 ha are suitable
for the species. Frei Caneca and Fazenda Pedra D’Anta
comprise together about 1,000 ha of contiguous forest
(SAVE Brasil, 2013). We propose that C. mazarbarnetti
should be categorized as Critically Endangered at both
national and global levels. Criteria for such categorization
are the small range (Extent of Occurrence estimated at
<100 km2, in only two localities), and a population of
<50 individuals (BirdLife International 2000, IUCN
2012). We suspect that no more than two pairs each
survive at sites from which all recent reports have been
made. Based on intensive fieldwork at Murici by JMB
and W. Silva as part of the conservation project of
BirdLife International Brazil Programme, we estimated
that a maximum of 5-10 pairs may have existed in the
entire reserve in 2004; however, the number of birds
remaining is likely lower. At Frei Caneca, we estimate
that no more than one or two pairs survive. Murici has
been a mythical spot among birdwatchers because of the
presence of several range- restricted species. It is likewise
a key place for conservationists, due to the difficulty of
implementing measures to protect its remaining bits of
natural habitat (e.g., BirdLife International 2000: 357).
Ironically, Teixeira & Gonzaga (1983a) argued for the
declaration of an ecological station in the forests of
Murici when they described the first endemic bird from
the site, 18 years before its designation as such. Goerck
(2001b) stated that the official designation of Murici’s
protected area status ‘should ensure the survival of its
many threatened species.’ Sadly, we doubt that this
is the case, as most land is still in private hands, and
troubling levels of small to medium-scale deforestation
were detected during September–October 2002-2007.
Most unsettling then was the felling of much of the
forest on the entire slope opposite the ravine that holds
all recent records of C. mazarbarnetti, with evidence
of further logging occurring between visits during the
above period. is area appeared to be ideal habitat for
C. mazarbarnetti, given the profusion of bromeliads and
other epiphytes that remained in the now broken and
very open canopy. Most of the cleared land on steep
slopes is being converted into grazing areas for cattle.
e lower slopes, valley bottoms, and adjacent lowlands
90
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
were long ago converted to sugarcane plantations,
though some fields are now used for cattle grazing. e
specialization of C. mazarbarnetti on bromeliads, as is
known for Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (Pizo 1994), is a very
important aspect of its conservation. Secondary forests
have lower densities of epiphytes, including bromeliads
(Dettke et al. 2008, Mania & Monteiro 2010). We
suspect that C. mazarbarnetti can survive only in
primary or mature secondary forests where bromeliads
are abundant. is habitat is disappearing from the
remnant forests in Alagoas and Pernambuco. We have
searched unsuccessfully for the species at both Fazenda
Riachão da Serra and Fazenda Branca dos Tavares,
on patches of mature secondary forest with tracts of
primary forest at the neighborhood of Murici. e more
inaccessible forests of Fazenda São José and the remnant
forest at Serra do Ouro, on the lands of the University of
Alagoas, both at Murici, should also be surveyed. Usina
Serra Grande, with ca. 3,500 ha of forests, is situated
almost directly between Murici and Frei Caneca (Mazar
Barnett et al. 2004). Although the species has never been
recorded there (Roda in litt. 2004, Roda et al. 2008,
Marantz in litt. 2014), specific searches in the area of
Engenheiro Coimbra should be undertaken. Similar
patches of forest at the complex of mountains known as
‘Serra Grande’, or ‘Complexo Catende’ (Ministério do
Meio Ambiente 2000) should be identified and surveyed.
Searches for C. mazarbarnetti should be undertaken in
the most humid tracts of primary or mature secondary
forests, which is where the forests have a high density
of bromeliads. Searches should be undertaken between
March and October, when the birds are most vocal.
Sadly our expectations for the long-term survival of this
species are not high, and we may now be witnessing its
passage through the temporal window representing the
time-lag between deforestation and extinction (Brooks
& Balmford 1996). Conservation efforts at Murici have
been undermined by political and bureaucratic problems
since the ornithological discovery of the area. Without
the political will to design and implement environmental
policies and the commitment of private interests and
stakeholders in Murici, little will be achieved for the
conservation of its damaged forests (Mazar Barnett
et al. 2004). An educational program targeting local
communities is also essential. Such a program should
focus on the biological uniqueness of the regions forests,
their value, and the results of habitat deterioration by
human activities. e current popularity of Murici with
birders, which we now expect will increase, makes the
choice of an ecotourism enterprise a valuable option
to develop in the area. Murici and Frei Caneca are of
maximum priority for the conservation of birds in the
Atlantic Forest (see Goerck 2001a), and continent-wide
(Collar et al. 1992, Goerck 2002), and the presence of
this new species is a renewed reason to take actions for
their preservation. e story of this discovery is unique,
and it provides a crude testimony of how such remarkable
phenomena can be missed, even when right before our
eyes. Vocalizations once again provided the main lead in
solving a twisted riddle in Neotropical ornithology. It was
only after additional fieldwork that C. mazarbarnetti was
‘discovered’, and the ‘true’ P. novaesi was rediscovered.
If all the factors of this complicated case had not taken
place the way they did, C. mazarbarnetti could have
remained forever overlooked.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Fieldwork at Murici during September–October 2002 by
JMB was part of a conservation project by the BirdLife
International Brazil Programme in association with
Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia. We thank Jaqueline
Goerck and Fabio Olmos for allowing us to be part of this
project and for constant assistance and encouragement.
e Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia, and especially Dora
Melo, provided assistance and support during all phases
of fieldwork. Beneficia Foundation financed BirdLife’s
project in Murici. ICMBio is thanked for permits to
work in the area. Our specific searches for this bird in
northeastern Brazil were funded partly through a Charles
Blake Fund Grant from the Nuttall Ornithological Club.
We are also grateful to Robert Ridgely for his assistance
in securing funds for this work and for general assistance
in other respects. DCB thanks Maria Flávia Nunes,
Andrei L. Roos, and CEMAVE for allowing him to be
part of their project at Murici on 2007. At MN we thank
Dante M. Teixeira, Marcos Raposo, Carlos Rodrigo M.
Abreu, and Jorge B. Nacinovic for assistance during our
visits to the collection. Weber Silva joined us during our
visits to Murici, and he shared his data from over one
year of field experience in the area. Edilson Dias Barbosa
drove us to the most inaccessible places. We are grateful
to Fernando Pinto, for his generous assistance in Alagoas,
arranging for our visits to some of the remaining forest
patches. We thank the owners of the usinas (sugar-mills)
and fazendas (ranches) whose properties we visited to
conduct our fieldwork. Luiz A. P. Gonzaga and Andrew
Whittaker were constant source of encouragement and
advice from the beginning of this work. Special thanks
are due to Curtis A. Marantz, Santiago Claramunt,
Roberto Antonelli Filho, Kevin J. Zimmer, José Fernando
Pacheco, and Bret Whitney, who provided much insight
for our work. Ricardo Parrini, Mark Pearman, Tom
Schulenberg, Dave Willis, Pedro Develey, and Carlos
Gussoni also provided information about their records.
Jeremy Minns prepared the sonograms for publication
with the help of Phyllis Isler and revised the English
of the finished text. Nigel Collar and David Wege at
BirdLife International discussed issues of our work. We
91
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
thank Rolf Grantsau for preparing the photoart and for
discussing important morphological aspects. At MZUSP
we thank Guilherme R. Rocha Brito and Luís Fábio
Silveira for assistance during our visits. Greg Budney and
Viviana Caro provided material archived at the Macaulay
Library of Natural Sounds (Cornell Laboratory of
Ornithology). We thank José Alves Siqueira Filho
for obtaining permission and support for our work at
Frei Caneca, and for information about sites where
bromeliads are abundant at Alagoas and Pernambuco.
Ciro Albano supplied photos and tape-recordings of
Philydor novaesi, and we also thank the other recordists
whose material we used in this work. Santiago Claramunt
supplied morphological information and Braulio Carlos
supplied important recordings of C. mazarbarnetti made
at Frei Caneca. Mary LeCroy provided copies of obscure
references that we would have been unable to obtain
without her help. Christian Henschke translated some
text from German. Dick Banks enlightened us on issues
of nomenclature. Sonia A. Roda made it possible for us
to visit some localities in the region, and she assisted with
data from her own work. Ignacio Roesler joined JMB
during part of the fieldwork, and he provided comments
on a draft of the manuscript. Wandir Ribeiro helped
with additional references and botanical information.
Hernán Casañas, Fernando Straube, Giovanni Maurício,
Martha Argel, Fernando M. D’Horta, Jeremy Minns,
Renata Stopiglia, Frank Lambert, Paul Salaman, Luís
Fábio Silveira, and Guy Kirwan all discussed with us
various aspects of our work. Pablo Tubaro is thanked
for assistance to JMB at MACN. Martino Buzzetti
Júnior and Roberta Buzzetti helped with the English,
and Ana Carolina Canavese edited the final version of
the manuscript.
We also thank Alexandre Aleixo, Curtis
Marantz, and Santiago Claramunt for reviewing several
versions of this manuscritpt. DCB would like to thank
Luciano Nicolás Naka and Mário Cohn Haft for the
opportunity to publish the manuscript.
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Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
APPENDIX 1:
Specimens examined:
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, one female (MN 34530, holotype)
and one juvenile (MN 34531).
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Teresópolis, two males and two females (MZUSP
20263, 20438, 20196, and MN 38390); Fazenda Campestre, Nova Friburgo, one male (MN 36129). Brazil, Minas
Gerais: Rio Doce, two males (MZUSP 25609, 25610). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Cupido, one male (MN 27152); Água
Boa, Santa Cruz, one female (MN 19197); Chaves, one male and one female (MZUSP 28507, 28506); Pau Gigante, one
female (MZUSP 9358); Rio São José, one male (MZUSP 28508); Itaúnas, one male (MZUSP 34530).
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti: Brazil, São Paulo: Iporanga, one male and one female (MZUSP 2864, 49761);
São Paulo, Rio Ipiranga, one male (MZUSP 47838); Quadro Penteado, one male (MZUSP 49762); Rio das Corujas,
one male (MZUSP 56751); Salesópolis, one male and one female (MZUSP 64439, 64591); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz,
one male and two females (MZUSP 60716, 54949, 60714); Rocha, two males (MZUSP 49690, 49760); Boracéia,
three males (MZUSP 31491, 31665, 31667); Juquiá, one female (MZUSP 32147). Brazil, Paraná: Guaratuba, one male
(MZUSP 35397).
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus (intermediate specimens): Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Visconde de Mauá, Rio Maromba,
one male (MZUSP 36443). Brazil, São Paulo: Serra da Bocaina, two males and one unsexed bird (MZUSP 27132, 29544,
11048).
Philydor novaesi: Brazil, Alagoas: Murici, Serra (=Pedra) Branca, three males (MN 32028 paratype, 32029 holotype
and 33872) and one female (MN 33873).
Philydor atricapillus: Brazil, Bahia: Cachoeira Grande do Sul, Rio Jacurucú, one male (MZUSP 14188). Brazil,
Espírito Santo, one male (MZUSP 6327); Rio São José, one female (MZUSP 28525); Conceição da Barra, Rio Itaúnas,
four females (MZUSP 34526–34529). Brazil, São Paulo, Iguape, two males and one female (MZUSP 62815, 62821,
62818); Iguape, Icapara da Serra, one female (MZUSP 62817); Iguape, Rio Ribeira, one female (MZUSP 66935);
Iguape, Barra do Icapava, three males and two females (MZUSP 64951, 66933, 68303, 54940, 66934); Primeiro Morro,
three males (MZUSP 49763, 49764, 49784); Rio Ipiranga, one female (MZUSP 47869); Campo Grande, one female
(MZUSP 51141); Estação Engenheiro Ferraz, two males and three females (MZUSP 60684, 60686, 54938, 60687,
60688). Argentina, Misiones: Departamento Frontera, Refugio Piñalitos, nine males and six females (MACN 36748–
36762).
APPENDIX 2:
Sound recordings examined
For each set of recordings, general localities are followed by the name of municipalities.
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti Brazil, Alagoas: Murici Ecological Station, municipality of Murici: Song Type 1
and 2 (n = 35), isolated rattles (n = 24), calls with three notes (n = 11), recorded by Curtis A. Marantz (LNS/ML #128025,
128032, 128034-128037); same locality: Song Type1 and 2 (n = 8), calls with 3 notes (n = 42), angry-calls (n = 147),
recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #1-4 and 10-11); same locality: Song
Type1 (n = 7), recorded by JMB (XC180942 and 181076); same locality: Song Type 1 and 2 (n = 71), isolated rattle (n
= 1), spontaneous calls with one note (n = 59), recorded by DCB (XC 180893,180902, 180909 and 181080). Brazil,
Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: calls with two and three notes (n = 8), calls with one note (n = 5)
recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recording #11); same locality: calls with three notes (n
= 1), calls with one note (n = 57), recorded by DCB (XC180906); same locality: Song Type 2 (n = 2), recorded by Braulio
Carlos (XC180936).
Cichlocolaptes lecucophrus leucophrus – Brazil, Bahia: Municipality of Boa Nova. song (n = 1), calls (n = 7),
recorded by Luiz P. Gonzaga (Gonzaga & Castiglioni 2001: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #89); Fazenda Farofa,
municipality of Boa Nova, calls (n = 11), alarm call (n = 1), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes
leucophrus recording #7; same locality, song (n = 5), calls (n = 32) recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80778, XC80781); same
locality, song (n = 1), recorded by Ciro Albano (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #2). Brazil, Espírito
Santo: Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, rattle (n = 4), song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew
Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #3); municipality of Vargem Alta, song (n = 3), calls
(n = 4), recorded by Ricardo Parrini (Minns et. al 2009: Cichlocolaptes leucophrus recording #4). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro:
94
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 2014
A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the ‘gritador-do-nordeste, an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil
Juan Mazar Barnett and Dante Renato Corrêa Buzzetti
Municipality of Guapimirim, angry calls (n = 1), calls (n = 9), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180430).
Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holtiBrazil, São Paulo. Bananal Ecological Station, municipality of Bananal, calls
(n = 23) recorded by DCB (XC 180870, 180871, 180874 and 180879); Rio Vermelho, municipality of Bananal, song
(n = 10) recorded by DCB (XC180863 and 180866); municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 1), calls (n = 4) recorded
by Jeremy Minns (XC180433); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba, song (n = 9) recorded by DCB (XC180865);
Fazenda Lavrinhas, municipality of Campos do Jordão, calls (n = 19) recorded by DCB (XC180868); Carlos Botelho
State Park, municipality of São Miguel Arcanjo, calls (n = 11) recorded by DCB (XC180878). Brazil, Santa Catarina:
Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta Velha, municipality of Itapoá, song variant (n = 2), calls (n = 7), recorded
by DCB (XC180867 and 180880); Aparados da Serra National Park, municipality of Jacinto Machado, alarm-calls (n =
3), recorded by DCB (XC180881).
Philydor novaesi – Brazil, Pernambuco: Frei Caneca, municipality of Jaqueira: song (n = 10), calls with 4-6 notes
(n = 17), recorded by Ciro Albano (XC16447, 65550); same locality: song (n = 14), calls with one note (n = 2), recorded
by Jeremy Minns XC80732; same locality: calls with one note (n = 15), call with four notes (n = 6) recorded by Andrew
Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor novaesi recordings #9 and 11); same locality: rattle (n = 4), song (n = 11), recorded
by JMB (XC181063, 181068 and 181072); same locality: song (n = 26), calls with four notes (n = 35), recorded by DCB
(XC181036, 181054, 181056 and 181059); same locality: song (n = 8) recorded by Josep del Hoyo (http://ibc.lynxeds.
com/video/alagoas-foliage-gleaner-philydor-novaesi/bird-tree-singing-several-times-flying-away); same locality: song (n =
6), recorded by Carlos Gussoni (XC77752).
Philydor atricapillus – Brazil, Bahia: Una Biological Reserve, municipality of Una: calls with one note (n = 4),
recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #5). Brazil, Espírito Santo: Municipality
of Santa Teresa: calls with one note (n = 8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180436). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Ilha Grande,
municipality of Angra dos Reis: song (n = 3), recorded by DCB (XC180950); Serra dos Órgãos National Park, municipality
of Guapimirim: scolding-calls (n = 16), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80733). Brazil, São Paulo: Fazenda Angelim,
municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with one note (n = 1), recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009:
Philydor atricapillus recording #1); Corcovado, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), recorded by Andrew Whittaker
(Minns et. al 2009: Philydor atricapillus recording #2); Folha Seca, municipality of Ubatuba: song (n = 3), calls with
one note (n = 7), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80922); Cantareira State Park, municipality of Guarulhos: calls with
four notes (n = 11), recorded by DCB (XC180995); Rio Mococa, municipality of Caraguatatuba: scolding-calls (n =
8), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC80847); Bopiranga, municipality of Itanhaém, scolding-calls (n = 21), calls with one
note (n = 7), recorded by DCB (XC181034, 181001 and 181030); Córrego do Engano, municipality of Miracatú,
song (n = 14), recorded by DCB (XC181125). Brazil, Santa Catarina: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Volta
Velha, municipality of Itapoá: calls with three notes (n = 4) recorded by Andrew Whittaker (Minns et. al 2009: Philydor
atricapillus recording #9); same locality: calls with one note (n = 12), recorded by Jeremy Minns (XC180442); Canyon
Fortaleza, municipality of Jacinto Machado: calls with 2-3 notes (n = 19), recorded by DCB (XC180992).
APPENDIX 3:
Fieldwork by one or both authors in search of C. mazarbarnetti and later P. novaesi was undertaken during the
periods: 10 September 2002–15 October 2002 (Murici); 19 January 2003–9 February 2003 (with 19–23 January spent at
Murici); 23 September–4 October 2003 (with 23–26 September spent at Murici and 28 September–04 October spent at
Frei Caneca); 12-15 November 2003 at Usina Serra Grande, Ibateguara, Alagoas (08º 59' S, 35º 51' W); 18-22 November
2003 at Usina Trapiche, Pernambuco (08º 38' S, 35º 12' W);10-13 March 2004 (Murici); 14 March 2004 at Reserva
Particular do Patrimônio Natural Senador Carlos Lyra, Maceió, Alagoas (09° 25' S, 36° 02' W); 17-18 March 2004 at
Fazenda Riachão da Serra, União dos Palmares, Alagoas (09° 10' S, 35° 56' W); 19-21 March 2004 at Fazenda Recanto,
Chã Preta, Alagoas (09º 17' S, 36º 14' W); 14–15 July 2004 (Murici); 16-22 April 2007 (Murici); 6-10 December 2007
(Murici).
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... The loss of large mixed flocks may leave Alagoas Antwrens exposed to higher predation risk and/or lower foraging success (Develey and Peres, 2000). The two globally Extinct species that occurred at the same site (Alagoas Foliagegleaner and Cryptic Treehunter) also foraged with mixed flocks (Mazar Barnett and Buzzetti, 2014). ...
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Discovered in 1979, the Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi was initially known only from its type locality of Murici in Alagoas, north-east Brazil. However, on 7 February 2003 Juan Mazar Barnett and Caio Carlos discovered a second site for this Critically Endangered species, on the Serra do Urubu in Pernambuco. Subsequently the species became progressively more difficult to find at Murici until the last sighting there in 2007, and we report here the lack of recent records from the Serra do Urubu and other suitable forest fragments, despite intensive searches. It is our suspicion that this bird, which is restricted to the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism, may have slipped to extinction in the last two years, and here we discuss the the causes of this decline and and what can be done for the remaining endemic species in their last fragmented forest bastions.
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Study of vocalizations of Herpsilochmus antwrens in northeastern Brazil revealed that the traditional H. pileatus complex is comprised of not two but three species-level taxa. We show that the systematics and biogeography of the group have been based on an unnamed species that has been called H. pileatus for most of this century. Here, we name this “new” species and conclude that its several morphological and vocal distinctions clearly set it apart from other members of the complex. True H. pileatus, as determined through comparison of the lectotype with recently collected specimens and from the distribution of recordings, is confined to southern coastal Bahia. Morphological and vocal analyses suggest that H. pileatus and H. atricapillus are each other's closest relatives. We provide a simple key to diagnostic plumage and mensural characters to permit identification of museum specimens. An extensive series of specimens demonstrated that H. atricapillus includes two male morphs. Geographic overlap of pure morphs in southern Goiás, and the existence of some apparent intermediates in this general area, suggest secondary contact of two weakly differentiated populations, perhaps along complex habitat gradients. Analysis of recordings of H. atricapillus disaggregated geographically and by male morph revealed no diagnostic (by criteria of Isler et al. [1998]) variation within that species, although average measures of overall pace and pace of three sections of loudsongs differed between the morphs by approximately 20%, which we interpret as another indication of incipient differentiation. Revision of the Herpsilochmus pileatus complex provides a case in point for the fundamental role in conservation of both field and taxonomic research and demonstrates the importance of examination of type specimens and inclusion of topotypical samples (whether anatomical, biochemical, or tape recordings) in studies of taxonomy and systematics.
Article
Formicivora grantsaui sp. nov. (Sincorá Antwren) is described from a series of specimens from the valley of the Rio Cumbuca (12 o 58’29”S, 41 o 21’29”W, elevation 860 m), 3.5 km northeast of Mucugê, Bahia, Brazil, and adjacent areas. It is more closely related to F. acutirostris, F. grisea, and F. rufa than to other species of the genus, differing from them by a combination of plumage and vocal characters. The new species is known only from the campo rupestre vegetation of the Serra do Sincorá between 850 m and 1100 m in the Chapada Diamantina, which is part of the Espinhaço Range, a distinctive area of endemism for birds and other groups of organisms in South America. In places it occurs sympatrically with F. rufa, but the two occupy different habitats.
Article
Formicivora grantsaui sp. nov. (Sincorá Antwren) is described from a series of specimens from the valley of the Rio Cumbuca (12°58'29"S, 41°21'29"W, elevation 860 m), 3.5 km northeast of Mucugê, Bahia, Brazil, and adjacent areas. It is more closely related to F. acutirostris, F. grisea, and F. rufa than to other species of the genus, differing from them by a combination of plumage and vocal characters. The new species is known only from the campo rupestre vegetation of the Serra do Sincorá between 850 m and 1100 m in the Chapada Diamantina, which is part of the Espinhaço Range, a distinctive area of endemism for birds and other groups of organisms in South America. In places it occurs sympatrically with F. rufa, but the two occupy different habitats.