Information gleaned from various sources.
-“A BRIEF DESCRIPTION” -
Quantum physics is the physical theory that describes the behavior of matter, radiation and all their interactions views as both wave phenomena as either particle phenomena (wave-particle duality), unlike the classical Newtonian physics based on Isaac Newton's theories or, which sees for example the light just like wave and the electron just as a particle.
***In May 1926, Schrödinger proved that Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and his own wave mechanics made the same predictions about the properties and behaviour of the electron; mathematically, the two theories had an underlying common form. Yet the two men disagreed on the interpretation of their mutual theory. For instance, Heisenberg accepted the theoretical prediction of jumps of electrons between orbitals in an atom, but Schrödinger hoped that a theory based on continuous wave-like properties could avoid what he called (as paraphrased by Wilhelm Wien) "this nonsense about quantum jumps."
The reconceived theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle.
Important applications of quantum mechanical theory include uperconducting magnets, light-emitting diodes and the laser, the transistor and semicoductors such as the microprocessor, medical and research imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging magnetic resonance and electron microscopy, and explanations for many biological and physical phenomena.
Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves.
It addresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
As Einstein wrote: "It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty.
We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do".
There are two ways to visualize the wave-particle behaviour: by the "standard model" and by the Broglie–Bohm model, where no duality is perceived.
The more localized the position-space wavefunction, the more likely the particle is to be found with the position coordinates in that region, and correspondingly the momentum-space wavefunction is less localized so the possible momentum components the particle could have are more widespread.
Conversely the more localized the momentum-space wavefunction, the more likely the particle is to be found with those values of momentum components in that region, and correspondingly the less localized the position-space wavefunction, so the position coordinates the particle could occupy are more widespread.
When we do ,we form a the "superposition" of the individual matter waves,these superpositions turn out to have a central role in the theory of matter waves and in quantum theory as a whole.
The distances between adjacent peaks and troughs differ in different parts of the wave.
Wave–particle duality is an ongoing conundrum in modern physics.
Most physicists accept wave-particle duality as the best explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena; however, it is not without controversy. Alternative views are not generally accepted by mainstream physics, but serve as a basis for valuable discussion within the community.
When first discovered, particle diffraction was a source of great puzzlement.
Are"particles" really "waves?" .
Today it is possible to detect the arrival of individual electrons, and to see the diffraction pattern emerge as a statistical pattern made up of many small spots (Tonomura et al., 1989). Evidently, quantum particles are indeed particles, but whose behaviour is very different from classical physics would have us to expect.
It has been claimed that the Afshar experiment (2007) shows that it is possible to simultaneously observe both wave and particle properties of photons. This claim is, however, rejected by other scientists.
Wave–particle duality is exploited in electron microscopy, where the small wavelengths associated with the electron can be used to view objects much smaller than what is visible using visible light.
The nature of consciousness remains deeply mysterious and profoundly important, with existential, medical and spiritual implication.
We know what it is like to be conscious – to have awareness, a conscious ‘mind’, but who, or what, are ‘we’ who know such things?.
How is the subjective nature of phenomenal experience – our ‘inner life’ - to be explained in scientific terms? What consciousness actually is, and how it comes about remain unknown. The general assumption in modern science and philosophy - the ‘standard model’ - is that consciousness emerges from complex computation among brain neurons, computation whose currency is seen as neuronal firings (‘spikes’) and synaptic transmissions, equated with binary ‘bits’ in digital computing.
Consciousness is presumed to ‘emerge’ from complex neuronal computation, and to have arisen during biological evolution as an adaptation of living systems, extrinsic to the makeup of the universe. On the other hand, spiritual and contemplative traditions, and some scientists and philosophers consider consciousness to be intrinsic, ‘woven into the fabric of the universe’.
In these views, conscious precursors and Platonic forms preceded biology, existing all along in the fine scale structure of reality.