Evaluation of potential aphrodisiac activity of Moringa oleifera seed in male Albino rats

ArticleinInternational Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(4):683-689 · January 2013with 414 Reads 
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Abstract
Objective: Evaluation of the effect of the aqueous, alcohol and chloroform extract of Moringa oliefera on sexual behaviour of male albino rats. Methods: Plant extracts (aqueous, alcohol and chloroform) at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg were administrated for 21 days. The female rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido along with orientation behaviour was studied. The effect of the extract on body weight, reproductive and vital organ weight were determined. The most effective aqueous extract was further studied for its effect on hormonal assay and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Similarly adverse effects and acute toxicity of the extract were also evaluated. Results: Oral administration of aqueous, alcohol and chloroform extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency and Ejaculation latency with reduction in Mounting Latency, Intromission Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. It also significantly increased the libido. The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and showed negative results for acute toxicity. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that aqueous, alcohol and chloroform extract of M. oliefera seed enhance sexual behaviour in male rats. It also thus provides a rationale for the traditional use of M. oliefera as acclaimed aphrodisiac and for the management of male sexual disorders.

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  • ... On the 24th day of the treatment each male rat in each group was put in a cage with two estrous female rats. Oestrous was induced in the female rats using 1mg progesterone and 100μg ethinylestradiol 6 and 48 hours respectively before the pairing (Varsha et al., 2013). The rats were observed for mounting behavior. ...
    ... On the 26th day of treatment the sexual episode/intromission is usually established when a male rat mount a female rat and lick its penis. The number of times each male rat in all the groups mounted a female and licked its penis was recorded for a period of five minutes (Varsha et al., 2013). ...
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    A common complication of diabetes mellitus is the disturbance in the male reproductive system which often leads to impotence. In this study, we investigated the effect of co-administration of the aqueous leaf extract of Lophira lanceolata (LLAE) and Cyperus esculentus (CEAE) on the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), sexual behaviour, sperm count and sperm motility of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Twenty (25) adult male diabetic wistar rats were randomized into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as control and received 5ml/kg of 0.9% Normal saline, Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received metformin (150mg/kg), LLAE (200mg/kg), CEAE (200mg/kg) and LLAE (200mg/kg)+CEAE (200mg/kg) respectively. Treatment was done orally for 28 days during which FBS was monitored weekly. On the 24th day of the treatment each male rat in each group was put in a cage with two estrous female rats in order to observe mounting and mating frequencies. At the end of the 28-day treatment, the rats were anaesthetized under chloroform and the epididymis was collected for semen analysis. The extracts and the co-administration produced significant (P < 0.05) reduction in FBS and significant (P < 0.05) increases in the mounting/ mating frequency, mean sperm count, sperm motility, epididymal weight and normal spermatozoa compared to the diabetic control group. The effects of the co-administration were observed to be significantly higher than that of metformin or either of the extracts administered alone. It was concluded that co-administration of the extracts of Lophira lanceolata and Cyperus esculentus through possible additive interaction possess pro-fertility effects. Hence, could be useful in the management of diabetes-associated sexual dysfunction in men.
  • ... The number of times each male rat in all the groups mounted a female and licked its penis was recorded for a period of five minutes. [30] 2.4.3 Biochemical method of assessing plants with aphrodisiac and fertility effects. ...
    ... 30] The rats were observed for mounting behavior. The number of times the male rat mounts the female within five minutes time frame was counted and recorded ...
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    Sexual dysfunctions occur at a point in an adult‟s lifetime. To address this problem a number of therapeutic strategies have been developed, some of which are inadequate and/or plagued with side effects. Consequently, alternative methods which include the use of herbs with aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing properties have been advocated. The present study investigated the mechanism of aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing activities of aqueous extracts of Cyperus esculentus, Phoenix dactylifera and Cocos nucifera and ‘Kunu aya’ (the beverage blend). The study was divided into in vivo and in vitro phases. In the in vivo phase, aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing activities of the extracts were assessed in rats using physical/ behavioral (observation of mounting/ mating frequencies), biochemical (determination of sperm count, testosterone and PSA levels) psychological/ mood (anxiolytic effect using EPM models) methods while in the in vitro phase, different concentrations of each extract were subjected to phosphodiesterase- 5 (PDE-5), Arginase, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition assays and their medium inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined through non-linear regression analysis. Results showed that the beverage blend significantly increased mounting/ mating frequency, sperm count, testosterone level, decreased PSA level and reduced anxiety. The blend was also more potent in inhibiting the enzymes compared to the individual extracts. It was then concluded that the possible mechanisms of aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing properties of the individual extracts and their beverage blend- „Kunu aya’ are via ability to increase testosterone level, increase sperm count, decrease anxiety and inhibition of key enzymes involved in erectile process.
  • ... The number of times each male rat in all the groups mounted a female and licked its penis was recorded for a period of five minutes. [30] 2.4.3 Biochemical method of assessing plants with aphrodisiac and fertility effects. ...
    ... 30] The rats were observed for mounting behavior. The number of times the male rat mounts the female within five minutes time frame was counted and recorded ...
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    Full-text available
    Sexual dysfunctions occur at a point in an adult‟s lifetime. To address this problem a number of therapeutic strategies have been developed, some of which are inadequate and/or plagued with side effects. Consequently, alternative methods which include the use of herbs with aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing properties have been advocated. The present study investigated the mechanism of aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing activities of aqueous extracts of Cyperus esculentus, Phoenix dactylifera and Cocos nucifera and ‘Kunu aya’ (the beverage blend). The study was divided into in vivo and in vitro phases. In the in vivo phase, aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing activities of the extracts were assessed in rats using physical/ behavioral (observation of mounting/ mating frequencies), biochemical (determination of sperm count, testosterone and PSA levels) psychological/ mood (anxiolytic effect using EPM models) methods while in the in vitro phase, different concentrations of each extract were subjected to phosphodiesterase- 5 (PDE-5), Arginase, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition assays and their medium inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined through non-linear regression analysis. Results showed that the beverage blend significantly increased mounting/ mating frequency, sperm count, testosterone level, decreased PSA level and reduced anxiety. The blend was also more potent in inhibiting the enzymes compared to the individual extracts. It was then concluded that the possible mechanisms of aphrodisiac and fertility- enhancing properties of the individual extracts and their beverage blend- „Kunu aya’ are via ability to increase testosterone level, increase sperm count, decrease anxiety and inhibition of key enzymes involved in erectile process.
  • ... During the period of the experiment, food and water were given ad libitum. The non-estrous female mice were introduced into the cages of male animals with 1 male to 1 female ratio [25]. The occurrence of events and phases of mating were recorded using closed-circuit television video camera for about 2 h [26]. ...
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    Objective: To investigate the effects of Aquilaria subintegra leaf aqueous extracts on the aphrodisiac properties including sexual behaviour, testosterone level, percentage of pregnancy, number of offspring and male to female ratio of offspring in ICR mice. Methods: In this experiment, each male cohabitated with one female in a polysulfone cage. 30 ICR male mice were divided into 6 groups that received normal saline (the control group), 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1 000 mg/kg body weight of Aquilaria subintegra leaf aqueous extracts orally for 21 days consecutively. Sexual behavior, percentage of pregnancy, number of offspring and male to female ratio of offspring in ICR mice were measured according to the established methods. Testosterone level was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Mice that received Aquilaria subintegra leaf aqueous extracts at 50 mg/kg body weight (day 0) had significantly higher mount frequency as compared to the control group; groups treated with 100, 500, 1 000 mg/kg body weight extracts produced a greater number of offsprings when compared to the control group. All aphrodisiac parameters were similar between the treatment groups and the control group, indicating that Aquilaria subintegra leaf aqueous extract did not significantly alter the aphrodisiac parameters. Conclusions: Aquilaria subintegra leaf aqueous extracts have no effect on the aphrodisiac properties, but could increase the breeding rate in mice.
  • ... In fact, sexual organ weights are correlated with the production of steroid hormones including testosterone. Since increased sexual organ weights is associated with the genesis of steroid hormones (24), the significant increase in testicular, epididymal, and vas deferens weights observed in rats administered with R. vinifera extracts could be due to its androgenic effects. Androgens, especially testosterone, are anabolic compounds capable of improving proteins synthesis and thus muscle weight. ...
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    Background: Raphia vinifera (Arecaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used as a sexual enhancer. Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of aqueous extract (AE) and methanolic extract (ME) of R. vinifera in sexually experienced male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (5 rats per group) and administered for 14 days with distilled water (10 ml/kg), sildenafil citrate (1.44 mg/kg), and AE or ME of R. vinifera (100 or 500 mg/kg). The copulatory activity was tested on days 0, 7, and 14 using receptive females. Further, on day 14, rats were sacrificed and biochemical analyses (testosterone, total protein, and acid phosphatase) were performed. Results: Sildenafil citrate significantly decreased the intromission latency (day 14, p = 0.04) and frequency (days 7 and 14, p = 0.03) but increased the mount frequency (day 14, p = 0.04), compared with control. Remarkably, R. vinifera enhanced the sexual activity by significantly decreasing the intromission latency (AE and ME, 500 mg/kg, day 14, p = 0.04) and increasing the mount frequency (AE and ME, 100 mg/kg, day 7, p = 0.02) compared with control. Moreover, R. vinifera improved plasmatic (AE, 100 mg/kg, p = 0.03; AE, 500 mg/kg, p = 0.001; ME, 100 mg/kg, p = 0.01) and testicular (AE, 100 mg/kg, p = 0.001; AE, 500 mg/kg, p = 0.01; ME, 100 mg/kg, p = 0.001; ME, 500 mg/kg, p = 0.01) testosterone levels as well as plasmatic total proteins concentration (ME, 500 mg/kg, p = 0.04). Conclusion: These findings showed that R. vinifera possesses an aphrodisiac property which could further justify its folkloric use in traditional medicine as a sexual enhancer. Keywords: Raphia vinifera, Aphrodisiac, Testosterone, Rat.
  • ... The phytochemical tests carried out in this study reveal that the ginger rhizomes essential oil contains various compounds including phenols, terpenes, and alkaloids. It has been demonstrated that these compounds possess fertilizing properties [19]. In fact, phenolic compounds in general possess various physiological properties such as antioxidant, antiallergic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antiviral, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, antithrombotic, cardioprotective, and vasodilatory [20,21]. ...
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    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger ( Zingiber officinale , Rosc.) essential oil on growth and laying performances, egg yolk antioxidant and cholesterol status, and serum metabolites in Japanese quail. Eighty 3-week-old Japanese quails weighing between 120 and 130 g were equally and randomly assigned to four groups receiving daily and orally, respectively, 100 µ l/kg body weight (bw) distilled water and 50, 100, and 150 µ l/kg bw of ginger rhizomes essential oil, respectively. The entire feeding trial for all groups lasted for 9 weeks and the Z. officinale essential oil effects were studied on growth and laying performances, serum metabolites, and egg yolk antioxidant and cholesterol status. Results revealed that feed intake, live and body weights gain, feed conversion ratio, egg production, and weekly mass of eggs were not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by oral administration of ginger rhizomes essential oil. Unlike the abdominal fat weight which decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all treated quails, the oral administration of ginger rhizomes essential oil had no significant effects (p> 0.05) on liver, intestine, heart, and gizzard relative weights as compared to the control. Egg weight markedly (P<0.05) increased in Japanese quails treated with ginger rhizomes essential oil whatever the dose with reference to the control. The serum content in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and transaminases (AST and ALT) decreased significantly (P<0.05) with 100 and 150 µ l/kg bw of ginger rhizomes essential oil compared to control group. In conclusion, oral administration of 100 to 150 µ l/kg bw of ginger rhizomes essential oil to laying Japanese quails positively influences egg weight and decreased serum and egg cholesterols without any adverse effect on feed intake and body weight gain.
  • ... The non-estrous female mice were introduced into the polysulfone cages of male animals with 1 female to 1 male ratio. During observation period, any jerking movement of the mating area was avoided to enable the mice to chase each other; and cleaning of the mating area was performed after each trial, since the urine trails left by one mouse might alter the sexual behavior of the next mouse [51]. The occurrence of events and phases of mating were recorded using CCTV video camera about 2 hours [52]. ...
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    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves aqueous extracts on the aphrodisiac properties, which included; sexual behaviour, orientation activity, and testosterone level in ICR mice. Thirty healthy and sexually experienced male and thirty non-estrous female mice were used. In this experiment, each male was cohabitated with one female in a polysulfone cage. The mice were divided into 6 groups that received normal saline (control group), 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of A. malaccensis leaves aqueous extract orally for 21 days consecutively. Results showed that all aphrodisiac parameters investigated in this study were similar between the treatment groups to the control group. However, two treated groups that received 100 mg/kg (day 14; day 21) and 200 mg/kg (day 0; day 21) resulted in significantly higher in mount frequency as compared to the control group. Overall, the results revealed that A. malaccensis leaves aqueous extract did not significantly alter the aphrodisiac parameters. Thus, this study validated that A. malaccensis leaves aqueous extracts lack of aphrodisiac properties in mice. KEYWORDS: Aquilaria malaccensis; aphrodisiac; sexual behaviour; orientation activity; testosterone.
  • ... Each male rat was allocated separately in a cage and female rats were admitted in the similar cage. The total number of intromissions and ejaculations were observed [20]. ...
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    Background: Ganoderma lucidum was traditionally used to manage male sexual dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate and establish the traditional aphrodisiac potential of the herb. Methods: Aphrodisiac potential was evaluated following the oral administration of two different doses (150 and 300 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Mounting, intromission and ejaculation frequencies, mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self were observed. Serum testosterone levels were also evaluated. Results: The results of the study show that the extract has significantly increased the mounting behavior and mating performance of the rats. There was also significant increase in the number of intromissions and ejaculations. The rats treated with extract were more interested in female rats as indicated by significant increase in the number of anogenital sniffing and climbing. Serum testosterone levels were also significantly increased in the treatment groups. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum possesses aphrodisiac activity in male Wistar rats. The lower dose of 150 mg/kg was more effective in terms of aphrodisiac potential of the extract. Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum, Sildenafil citrate, aphrodisiac, testosterone,
  • ... Aqueous, alcohol and chloroform extract of M. oliefera seed enhance sexual behaviour in male rats (Varsha et al., 2013). The effect of M.oleifera leaves extract on male sexual behaviors in animal model of sexual dysfunction. ...
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    ‘The Tree of Life' or 'Miracle Tree' is the name of the plant of Moringa oleifera (Shajna). Moringa oleifera is one of the important plants in plant kingdom. Its leaves and fruits are used as vegetable in Indian sub continent, at the same time each part of the plant rich with some important medicinal values. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases. The present review is to focus on the nutritive values, physico-chemical properties, phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activities of M. oleifera. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, anthraquinone, alkaloids, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, glucose have been reported for significant antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and antiulcer activities of Drumstick tree and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.
  • ... Ini sejalan dengan Prabsattroo et al, (2015) yang menggunakan ekstrak daun kelor pada tikus wistar jantan fertil yang mengalami stress dapat menurunkan intromisi latency dan meningkatkan frekuensi intromisi. Hal ini juga didukung oleh Zade et al, (2013aZade et al, ( , 2013b yang menggunakan ekstrak buah kelor yang diekstraksi dengan air, alkohol, dan kloroform, secara signifikan meningkatkan perilaku seksual dan libido tikus wistar jantan albino. Demikian pula Egwurugwu et al. (2013) yang menggunakan Zn sulfat pada tikus wistar jantan albino, signifikan meningkatkan hormon testosteron sehingga dapat meningkatkan libidonya. ...
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    Low libido and semen quality of bulls often occur resources semen that can decrease the efficiency of reproduction, thus affecting food security. This study aims to evaluate the role of the mineral zinc in the Moringa oleifera (M.oleifera) leaves to increase the libido and semen quality of Bali bulls. Two Bali bulls were reared for three periods, each period of eight weeks. The first period (control), fed with concentrates 1% of body weight and rice straw ad lib. The second period (given M.leifera leaves), fed with equal to the first period plus M.oleifera leaves 15% of the weight of the concentrate. The third period (given Zn), fed with equal to the first period plus Zn equivalence Zn content of the M.oleifera leaves in the second period. The libido and semen quality measured twice a week. The M.oleifera leaves and Zn significantly (P<0.05) increase libido (331.75 vs 192.75 vs 152.00 seconds), volume of semen (2.71 vs 3.78 vs 4.19 ml), total sperm motility (57.38 vs 91.22 vs 89.37%), and progressive sperm motility (58.14 vs 77.12 vs 76.4%), but not indicate a significant the difference (P>0.05) between M.oleifera leaves with Zn, while the concentration of sperm (871 vs 1,091 vs 969 million/ml) did not show a significant increase (P>0.05). Sperm bulls who were given M.oleifera leaves and Zn has characteristics motility significantly higher (P<0.05) than control, but shows no significant the difference (P>0.05) between the M.oleifera leaves with Zn. The M.oleifera leaves and Zn to restore libidinous Bali bulls and increase the volume of semen, total motility and progressive motility of sperm as well as occurring hyperactivation so to increase fertility. This result indicates that the zinc in the M.oleifera leaves had a role increase the libido and semen quality of Bali bulls.
  • ... Steroidgenesis Table 2 Effects of testosterone and, aqueous and methanolic extracts of F. asperifolia on total proteins, total cholesterol and prostatic acid phosphatase in normal immature rats after four weeks of treatment is one of the causes of increased body and sexual organ weight. An increase in these parameters could be regarded as a biological indicator for effectiveness of the plant extract in improving the synthesis of steroidal hormones [26]. Androgenic steroids are essential for male development and the major androgen is testosterone secreted from testes. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background Androgen deficiency is a clinical syndrome resulting from the inability of the testes to produce physiological levels of testosterone due to a disturbance occurring at one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the androgenic properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ficus asperifolia on normal and castrated immature rats. Methods Normal rats were treated either per os with aqueous or methanolic extract of Ficus asperifolia (100 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg b.w.), distilled water (10 ml/kg b.w.), 5% Tween 80 (10 ml/kg b.w.) or subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg b.w.). Castrated rats were treated with plant extracts (100 mg/kg b.w. or 500 mg/kg b.w.) alone or with the co-administration of plant extracts and testosterone propionate (s.c., 0.5 mg/kg b.w.) or bicalutamide (2 mg/kg b.w. per os). Animals were treated once a day during four weeks. Body weight growth and relative sexual organ weights were recorded at the end of each treatment. Some biomedical parameters were measured in the plasma (proteins, cholesterol), testes (cholesterol) and epididymis (proteins). Results In normal rats, Ficus asperifolia significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative weights of the testes and all sexual-dependent organs whereas total testicular cholesterol concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased. In castrated groups, treatment with Ficus asperifolia was followed by an increase in the sexual organ weights, epididymal protein and prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations. The co-administration of testosterone and plant extracts significantly (p < 0.05) increased the weight of accessory sexual organs and epididymal protein contents. In the presence of bicalutamide (an anti-androgen), the sexual stimulating activity of Ficus asperifolia was diminished with remarkable effects on vas deferens weight (p < 0.05), plasma (p < 0.01) and epididymal (p < 0.05) protein contents. Conclusion Ficus asperifolia possesses androgen-like activity through possible stimulation of cytoplasmic and/or nuclear receptors by the bioactive compounds found in its extracts.
  • ... Ini sejalan dengan Prabsattroo et al, (2015) yang menggunakan ekstrak daun kelor pada tikus wistar jantan fertil yang mengalami stress dapat menurunkan intromisi latency dan meningkatkan frekuensi intromisi. Hal ini juga didukung oleh Zade et al, (2013aZade et al, ( , 2013b yang menggunakan ekstrak buah kelor yang diekstraksi dengan air, alkohol, dan kloroform, secara signifikan meningkatkan perilaku seksual dan libido tikus wistar jantan albino. Demikian pula Egwurugwu et al. (2013) yang menggunakan Zn sulfat pada tikus wistar jantan albino, signifikan meningkatkan hormon testosteron sehingga dapat meningkatkan libidonya. ...
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    Abstract. Low libido and semen quality of bulls often occur resources semen that can decrease the efficiency of reproduction, thus affecting food security. This study aims to evaluate the role of the mineral zinc in the Moringa oleifera (M.oleifera) leaves to increase the libido and semen quality of Bali bulls. Two Bali bulls were reared for three periods, each period of eight weeks. The first period (control), fed with concentrates 1% of body weight and rice straw ad lib. The second period (given M.leifera leaves), fed with equal to the first period plus M.oleifera leaves 15% of the weight of the concentrate. The third period (given Zn), fed with equal to the first period plus Zn equivalence Zn content of the M.oleifera leaves in the second period. The libido and semen quality measured twice a week. The M.oleifera leaves and Zn significantly (P<0.05) increase libido (331.75 vs 192.75 vs 152.00 seconds), volume of semen (2.71 vs 3.78 vs 4.19 ml), total sperm motility (57.38 vs 91.22 vs 89.37%), and progressive sperm motility (58.14 vs 77.12 vs 76.4%), but not indicate a significant the difference (P>0.05) between M.oleifera leaves with Zn, while the concentration of sperm (871 vs 1,091 vs 969 million/ml) did not show a significant increase (P>0.05). Sperm bulls who were given M.oleifera leaves and Zn has characteristics motility significantly higher (P<0.05) than control, but shows no significant the difference (P>0.05) between the M.oleifera leaves with Zn. The M.oleifera leaves and Zn to restore libidinous Bali bulls and increase the volume of semen, total motility and progressive motility of sperm as well as occurring hyperactivation so to increase fertility. This result indicates that the zinc in the M.oleifera leaves had a role increase the libido and semen quality of Bali bulls. Keywords: Zn, Moringa oleifera, libido, semen quality, Bali bulls.
  • ... Arachidonic acid cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway has been highlighted for its role in the relaxation of smooth muscle and vasodilation (Jin et al., 2006;Yousif and Benter, 2007). Ability of Butea frondosa (Goswami et al., 2013b), C. cassia (Goswami et al., 2013a;Goswami et al., 2014), S. aromaticum (Tajuddin et al., 2003), M. pruriens (Suresh et al., 2009;Shukla et al., 2009), and M. oleifera (Prabsattroo et al., 2012;Zade et al., 2013aZade et al., , 2013b to increase sexual function could at least in part be because of sEH inhibition. ...
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    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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    Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.
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    The effect of an ethanolic extract of Salvia haematodes roots was studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. In the initial experiments, male sexual responses were assessed by recording penile erection, licking and grooming of genitals and copulatory movement in absence of females. In the second set, copulatory behaviour was observed by caging males with a receptive female brought into estrus with s.c. injection of estradiol benzoate and progesterone. The frequencies of mounting and intromission and latency of the ejaculation were recorded. The results show that the extract (500 mg/kg, orally) produced a significant increase in episodes of penile erection. The drug was found to enhance the orientation of males towards the female by increased anogenital investigatory behaviour and enhanced licking and grooming of the genitals. The extract also increased the ejaculation latency. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac and for the treatment of premature ejaculation.
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    In male rats copulation has antinociceptive effects as measured either by shock-induced vocalizations or hindlimb withdrawal to pinch. Prolonged mating reduces the content of endogenous opioids in midbrain but not in hypothalamus or caudate nucleus. Blockage of opiate receptors with the narcotic antagonist naloxone (4 mg/kg) significantly extends the postejaculatory interval. The results indicate that mating is a biological stimulus for the release of endogenous opoids, possibly to (a) prevent intense sexual stimulation from becoming aversive, and (b) increase its reward value.
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    Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) has been mentioned in Unani medicine to be of value in the management of male sexual disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aphrodisiac effect of 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg along with its likely adverse effects and acute toxicity using various animal models. The suspension of the extract was administered (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) to different groups of male rats daily for seven days. The female rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were studied and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Likely adverse effects and acute toxicity of the extract were also evaluated. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, produced significant augmentation of sexual activity in male rats. It significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, Intromission Latency and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. It also significantly increased Mounting Frequency with penile anaesthetization as well as Erections, Quick Flips, Long Flips and the aggregate of penile reflexes with penile stimulation. The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and acute toxicity. The resultant significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous adverse effects indicates that the 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing both libido and potency, which might be attributed to its nervous stimulating property. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of nutmeg in the management of male sexual disorders.