ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The article examines the influence of a child on the buying behavior of parents in the Czech Republic. Previous studies claim that Czech consumers are only slightly influenced by the marketing tool of the product package when purchasing food. Whereas children are increasingly becoming influencers of consumption, the question arises, whether or not the parent succumbs to their requesting through their pester power. The main goal of this article is to evaluate the influence of children during deciding and purchasing the food in a supermarket. A secondary goal is to identify the techniques of pester power used by children and to identify the reaction of parents to children's food product requesting; to identify children's packaging preferences for food products. The primary data have been collected through an electronic questionnaire for parents. Complex factors are identified using exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis explored 4 factors: (1) "The effort of the child to influence shopping", (2) "Children's preferences in package design", (3) "Preference of unhealthy foods", (4) "Buying healthy foods with children". Results of hypotheses testing revealed a strong dependence relating to techniques of pester power, accommodating their requests and transact the purchase.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics
Volume VI Number 2, 2014
T. Balcarová, J. Pokorná, L. Pilař
Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Czech Republic
Článek zkoumá vliv dítěte na kupní chování rodičů v České republice. Dosavadní výzkumy tvrdí,
že jsou čeští zákazníci při nákupu potravin pouze slabě ovlivněni marketingovými nástroji, jakým je i obal
produktu. Vzhledem k tomu, že jsou děti stále častěji těmi, kdo ovlivňují nákup a spotřebu, vyvstává otázka,
zda rodič podléhá žádosti dítěte a s spojenému nátlaku. Cílem článku je zhodnotit vliv dětí při výběru
a nákupu potravin v samoobsluze. Dílčím cílem je: identikovat způsoby nátlaku vyvíjené dětmi; identikovat
reakci rodiče na nákupní tlak dětí v oblasti potravinářských výrobků; identikovat preference dětí u obalů
potravinářských výrobků. Primární data jsou pořízena prostřednictvím elektronického dotazníku určeného
rodičům. Komplexní faktory jsou identikovány s využitím explorativní faktorové analýzy. Faktorová
analýza odhalila 4 faktory: (1) “snaha dítěte ovlivnit nákup”, (2) “dětské preference designu obalu”,
(3) “preference nezdravých potravin”, (4) „nákup zdravých potravin s dětmi“. Výsledky testování odhalily
silnou závislost u způsobů, kterými se dítě snaží ovlivnit nákup nátlakem a vyhověním jejich požadavkům
a provedením nákupu.
Klíčová slova
Marketing potravin, druhy potravin, potravinové produkty, děti, kupní chování dětí, nátlak, zákaznická
The article examines the inuence of a child on the buying behavior of parents in the Czech Republic.
Previous studies claim that Czech consumers are only slightly inuenced by the marketing tool of the product
package when purchasing food. Whereas children are increasingly becoming inuencers of consumption,
the question arises, whether or not the parent succumbs to their requesting through their pester power.
The main goal of this article is to evaluate the inuence of children during deciding and purchasing the food
in a supermarket. A secondary goal is to identify the techniques of pester power used by children and
to identify the reaction of parents to children’s food product requesting; to identify children’s packaging
preferences for food products. The primary data have been collected through an electronic questionnaire
for parents. Complex factors are identied using exploratory factor analysis. Factor analysis explored 4 factors:
(1) “The effort of the child to inuence shopping”, (2) “Children’s preferences in package design”,
(3) “Preference of unhealthy foods”, (4) “Buying healthy foods with children”. Results of hypotheses testing
revealed a strong dependence relating to techniques of pester power, accommodating their requests and
transact the purchase.
Key words
Food Marketing, Foods, Food products, Children, Children’s Purchase Behavior, Pester Power, Customer
Present shift of consumption trends leads
to healthy foods that not ranks among the HFSS
category (High Fat, Salt and Sugar foods) (Ogba,
Johnson, 2010). This happens due to the general
growth of obesity, especially in children (Ogba,
Johnson, 2010). Due to changes in the lifestyle
of the population, the demand for food,
not belonging to HFSS categories, as well
as information of the composition displayed
on the food packaging increases (Ogba, Johnson,
2010). In the Czech Republic, the consumption
of the majority of agricultural products distributed
to consumers, which is meant as food products,
has not changed too much (Stavkova et al., 2007).
Previous studies showed increase in consumption
of cereals, dairy products, fruit, mineral water
and soft drinks, can indicate positive changes
in the lifestyle of Czech population. Buying decision
is mostly inuenced by product attributes (such
as price, quality, brand, discounts and package),
habits, advertisement, recommendation of other
people, innovations etc. on the one hand and
demographic/ economic ones, i.e. income category,
settlement size, age, education, and profession
on the other (Stavkova et al., 2007).
The role of packaging can be more or less important
depending on the type of product, for example,
buyig home accessories is not strongly inuenced by
its packaging (Novotný, Duspiva, 2014). Although
study conducted by Stavkova et al. (2007) claims,
that Factors “Advertising”, “Brand” and “Package”
were not important when buying food and the level
of their inuence was considered as low for Czech
customers, question is, to what extend the package
inuence customer - parents implicitly through
purchase preferences of their children? According
to previous studies, children are considered
to be main inuencers of family decision-making,
therefore can food marketers target on children
as on a specic market segment using both above and
below the line techniques to affect the preferences
of children and thus mediate the family purchase
decisions. (Ogba, Johnson, 2010). Among other
promotional tools used at point-of-sale (e.g. trays,
woblers, product sampling), product packaging
is substantial communicating tool, providing
information to consumers about attributes, content
and branding. Thus comply with children-oriented
marketing due to the use of lettering, iconography
and themes of interest to children, and cross-
promotions, tie-ins, competitions and premium
offers that appeal to children (Silayoi, Speece,
2004; Berry, McMullen; 2008).
In their study, Ogba and Johnson (2010) claim, that
marketers purposely target more at children than
parents when designing the package of the product
as they are maintaining children´s interest
to inuence parents’ buyer behavior. As Ogba,
Johnson (2010) stated, there are other studies
arguing that due to children’s lower abilities
to process information, they are likely to assess
products and their packaging mainly on a visual
level. Marketers, therefore, tries to use the children‘s
visual imagination, the ability to recognize different
characteristics, colors and design for enhancing
children‘s interest in products. Such child-
targeted marketing includes bright colors, shapes
of packages, cartoon or movie characters,
desirable box color schemes, free gifts, stickers,
etc. (Ogba, Johnson, 2010; Berry, McMullen,
2008). Customer socialization can be dened
as a process wherein children acquire knowledge and
opinions on products and services, as it can be seen
by their parents within their consumer behaviour.
Consumer behaviour is determined as a decision-
making process of those who purchase items
according to their personal consumption (Šrédl,
Soukup, 2011; Zámková, Prokop, 2013). Children
and young people learn by copying the behavior
of their parents (Turner et al., 2006), but
also exert pressure in the opposite direction,
to inuence behavior of parents in making purchases
in three fundamental categories – toys, clothes and
food (Nicholls, Cullen, 2004). This study aims
at parents without gender differences, however
Turčínková et al (2012) stated, that women are
more likely to buy impulsively various goodies
mostly for children.
McNeal (1999) dened 5 stages of children
consumer socialization. The rst stage is specic
in that the child accompanies parents on shopping
trips and just observes. In the second phase,
the rst requests take place through pointing, talking
and gesturing (Lee, Colins, 2000). This behavior
is known as “pester power”, or the “nag factor”
(Nash, Basini, 2012). Children enter this phase
at approximately 24 months of age. In the third
stage, the child accompanies parents on shopping
trips, but already participates in the selection
of foods, which are subject to parental approval.
In the fourth stage, independent purchasing
takes place, which is still partially accompanied
by parents. In the nal, fth, stage, full independence
takes place, where the child shops independently.
Nash, Basini (2012) dene “pester power”
as a child-parent game, where natural interaction
takes place. This engenders greater understanding
in the parent-child relationship, and involves
a positive process, where it is necessary
to understand a complex process of a child’s
behavior, using various tactics with the goal
of causing the desired feelings in a child. This
study was a reaction to previous research
(Bandyopadhyay et al., 2001), which denes pester
power as a phenomenon, which has a negative
affect on the family. Consumer organizations
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
and the media in general, benet from the pester
power and believe that promotions stimulate
pestering resulting in purchases on the basis
of creating indirect pressure through children
(Pilgrim, Lawrence, 2001). On the basis of these
studies, it can be said that the pester power is not
a negative phenomenon, as long as
the parent is aware of it and is able to use
of the appropriate tools to managethe consumer
socialization of a child. Currently, the need
of children pester power coping arrises,
as the modern concepts of buying goods (shopping
trips) give leisure and entertainment value
to the whole family (Wanninayake, Chovancová,
Aim of the study
The main aim of the contribution is to evaluate
the inuence of children during deciding and
purchasing the food in a supermarket assuming
the direct children participation. The secondary
goal is to: identify techniques of pester power
used by children; identify the reaction of parents
to children’s food product requesting; to identify
children’s food product packaging preferences.
For this purpose, 4 hypotheses are formulated.
The formulation of following hypotheses is based
on the previous studies conducted in the eld
of food marketing to evaluate the inuence
of children on buying behavior and the packaging
aimed at children:
H1: The ways of product requesting have impact
on the parents purchase transaction.
H2: The type of requested food product has impact
on the parents purchase transaction.
H3: The level of childrens´s inuence
of the purchase has impact on the parents purchase
H4: Packaging has impact on the children´s product
Materials and methods
Primary data are gathered by the surveying
using an electronic questionnaire. The electronic
questionnaire is intended for parents who at least
sometimes shop for groceries with their children.
The basic set consists of parents with children
from 1 to 18 years old. Due to large base of potential
respondents, the questionnaire is circulated
through community websites and social networks.
The questionnaire is based on the research
of Ogba, Johnson (2010), contains 26 core questions
and is structured into 4 sections: (1) identication
questions, (2) inuence of food packaging on child
preferences, (3) inuence of the child on the buying
behavior of parents (4) probability that the parents
comply with children´s request. The attitudes
of the respondents are recorded on a 5-degree Likert
scale in the range of “strongly agree – somewhat
agree – half and half – somewhat disagree –
strongly disagree”. A questionnaire structured
in this way enables evaluation of data through
factor or correlative analysis. To determine
the inuence of children on the nal purchase and
the inuence of food packaging on the preferences
of children, the Pearson correlation coefcient is
used. In terms of the factor analysis suitability,
individual variables are tested with the Kaiser-
Mayer-Olkin level (KMO). The KMO coefcient
ranges in the interval <0.1> and its value should
exceed 0,5. In case of this research, the KMO value
can be considered good at 0.834. Latent factors
are found using the main components method
with the Varimax rotation of factors. The number
of factors is selected to ensure that the value
of Eigen values of the identied latent factors is
higher than 1. Exploratory factor analysis was
performed in the statistical program SPSS 19.
The structure of factors is analyzed in the SPSS
AMOS program.
The sample size is 246 respondents. The sample
consisted of 80 % women (20 % men), evaluated
is the behavior of their child (59 % girls and
41 % boys) in an average age of 6 years and
2 months. The majority of respondents live in cities
with populations over 100,000 (46 %), 24 % live
in cities with 10,000 – 100,000 thousand residents
and 30 % in cities under 10,000 residents. Most
frequently, the respondents shop for groceries
2 - 5 x weekly (64 %), 1 x weekly (24 %),
5 - 7 x weekly (12 %), together with children
the most often shop 2 - 5 x weekly (40 %),
1 x weekly (36 %), 1 x in 14 days (11 %),
1 x monthly (10 %) and 5 - 7 x weekly (3 %).
Results and discussion
Results of testing the hypothesis focused
on identifying the ways product requesting
affect the parent’s purchase transaction (H1) are
evident from table no. 1. For all variables, a strong
to medium impact on the parent’s purchase
transaction is found for the way of product
requesting, at a signicance level of 0.01.
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
The strong impact is identied for verbal requests
(r = 0.754) and pointing to the product (r = 0.732).
A medium impact is found with reaching for
items (r = 0.669). The lowest value measured was
for placement of the product in the shopping
cart / basket (r = 0.531). From graph no. 1 it is
evident that it is verbal requests, which are stated
by each respondent/parent for all age categories
of their children as the most frequent way
of inuencing purchase, whereas this type of pester
power escalates with increasing age. A minimum
share is recorded for the youngest category
of children, aged 1 to 3 years, and that is 36 %.
For the oldest age group, verbal requests are made
by 53 %.
When evaluating the impact between the level
of parents purchase transaction in the store and
the type of foods requested (H2), a medium impact
on buying of sweets (r = 0.617), is identied.
A medium level of impact between parents purchase
transaction in the store and the type of food required
is found in yoghurt (r = 0.433) and Lunch foods
(snack foods) (r = 0.416) and at a signicance level
of 0,01 for all three variables as seen in table no. 2.
In evaluating whether a signicant impact can
be found resulting from the inuence of a child
on shopping and whether parents transact a purchase
(H3), a medium dependency on the inuence
of the child is identied for the nal purchase
of products preferred by children (r = 0.464)
at the signicance level of 0.01 (table no. 3).
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 1: The ways of product requesting have impact vs. parents purchase transaction.
VAR00004 VAR00005 VAR00006 VAR00007
VAR00003 Pearson
Correlation ,732** ,754** ,669** ,531**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0000
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Graph 1: Types of product Requesting According to Children’s age.
1 - 3 4 - 6 7 - 9 10 -12 13 -17
0.24 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.15
0.36 0.38 0.41 0.46 0.53
0.3 0.28 0.24 0.2 0.12
0.1 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.2
Putti ng into tro lly
Reaching for Items
Verbal Request
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 2: The type of requested food product vs. the parents purchase transaction.
VAR03 Pearson
Correlation ,617** ,309** ,302** ,433** ,191** ,146* 0.122 ,416** ,270**
(2-tailed) 00000.003 0.022 0.055 0 0
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 3: The level of childrens´ inuence of the purchase vs. parents purchase transaction.
VAR03 Pearson Correlation 1,464**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 4: Packaging vs. children´s product preference.
VAR00018 VAR00019 VAR00020 VAR00021 VAR00022 VAR00023
VAR00003 Pearson
Correlation ,554** ,428** ,423** ,437** ,516** ,326**
Sig. (2-tailed) 000000
The results of testing the impact of packaging
on the children’s product preferences (H4) show
a medium strength impact, especially
for the overall inuence of the package
(r = 0.554), further, by interesting shape
of package (r = 0.516). A signicant impact is also
identied for pictures associated with a specic
product (the Nesquick Rabbit, Bebe Brumík, etc.),
(r = 0.437), further for bright colors used
on packaging (r = 0.428) and for familiar characters
displayed on packages (Spiderman, Hello Kitty,
etc.) at a value of (r = 0.423). All variables are tested
at the signicance level of 0,01 and the results are
shown in table no. 4.
For the identication of factors determining
children’s preferences leading to purchase
of foods, an exploratory factor analysis is performed.
Original 26 variables were reduced to 22 usable.
Four factors exceeded the recommended value
of the Eigen value. The latent factors include
variables with an absolute value of a coefcient
of factor weight in an interval of < 0.511; 0.863
> and cumulatively explain 59 % of the total
dispersionof monitored variables. The rst group
of variables represents 20.2 % of the total dispersion,
includes a factor weight in the range of 0.679 - 0.802
with an Eigen value of 4.85. The rst factor found
can be interpreted as (1) “The effort of the child
to inuence shopping”. This group characterize
the ways which the child tries to inuence
purchase, such as reaching for items, pointing
at them, or verbal requests. The second group
of variables found (2) “Children’s preferences
in package design” focuses on the characteristic
elements of packages attracting a child’s interest
such as bright colors, package shape or display
of familiar characters. This factor represents
16.4 % of the total dispersion, a factor weight
in the range of 0.720 - 0.863 and the value
of the Eigen valueis 3.94. The third group
of variables (3) “Preference of unhealthy foods”
includes children’s interest in salty foods,
sweet drinks, avoring such as ketchup, etc.
(12.8 % of the total dispersion, factor weight
0.511 - 0.688, Eigen value 3.07) or the preferences
of free gifts as part of the package. The fourth
group of variables (4) “Buying healthy food
with children” includes the interest of children
in foods such as yoghurts or fruits and vegetables,
the pleasure of parents shopping together
with children and purchasing the food requested
by children (9.50 % of the total dispersion, factor
weigh 0.515 - 0.728, Eigen value 2.28).
For analyzing the correlation between latent
factors, the structural modeling method is used.
The factor structure of individual latent factors is
taken from the results of exploratory factor analysis.
The highest correlation (0.706) is identied
between the factors (1) “The effort of the child
to inuence shopping” and (2) “Children’s
preferences in package design”. This indicates
that package design and all of its determinants
(bright colors, display of familiar characters, etc.)
has a close relationship to the effort of the child
to inuence the purchase. The second highest
relationship was found between the factors
(3) “Preference of unhealthy foods” and (2)
“Children’s preferences in package design” (0,510).
On the other hand, an insignicant relationship
was found between the factors (2) “Children’s
preferences in package design” and (4) “Buying
healthy foods with children” (table no. 6).
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 5: Rotated Component Matrix.
F1 F2 F3 F4
VAR01 – happy to take my child shopping with me 0.515
VAR03 – child inuences the purchases 0.779
VAR04 – inuence by pointing 0.723
VAR05 – inuence by verbal requests 0.802
VAR06 – inuence by reaching for items 0.8
VAR07 – putting in my trolly 0.679
VAR08 – purchase of confectionary 0.682
VAR09 – purchase of sweet drinks 0.562
VAR11 – purchase of yoghurts 0.589
VAR12 – purchase of avoring 0.655
VAR13 – purchase of fruit and vegetables 0.586
VAR14 – purchase of frozen food 0.511
VAR15 – purchase of snack food 0.6
VAR16 – purchase of salty food 0.805
VAR18 – inuenced by the packiging 0.788
VAR19 – inuenced by bright colors 0.863
VAR20 – inuenced by characters licensed 0.803
VAR21 – inuenced by famous characters 0.762
VAR22 – inuenced by shape 0.72
VAR23 – inuenced by free gifts 0.688
VAR24 – taking my child´s preferences into consideration 0.728
VAR25 – buying products that my child requests 0.66
Source: own calculation, questionnaire survey, 2014
Table 6: Correlation between factors.
Estimate S.E. C.R. P
F1 <--> F2 0.706 0.104 7.929 ***
F1 <--> F3 0.467 0.071 5.011 ***
F1 <--> F4 0.264 0.026 2.258 0.024
F2 <--> F3 0.51 0.068 5.319 ***
F2 <--> F4 0.193 0.02 1.95 0.051
F3 <--> F4 0.496 0.026 2.568 0.01
The results of statistical signicance testing
revealed a large dependence, in particular
of the ways by which the child attempts to
inuence the purchase transaction. The study of
Ogba, Johnson (2010) is dedicated to the strength
of the inuence of a child on the buying behavior
overall, and the testing reported in this research
shows signicant differences in individual ways
of purchases inuencing. The results therefore build
on McNeal (1999) stages of consumer socialization.
There is a weak impact on the purchase transaction
by the level of children inuence on the buying
behavior revealed from the results of verication
of the 4th hypothesis. This assumption can be further
expanded by the structure of the ways of inuencing
parents, where the most signicant ways are verbal
request and pointing to the product.
The results also conrm previous studies,
where the child attempts to inuence
the purchase, in particular, of sweets, which are
among the foods that are not in accordance
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
with a healthy lifestyle and are among the HFSS
foods (Ogba & Johnson, 2010; Marshall et al., 2007).
It was also conrmed that the package inuences
the level of pressure of the child on parents.
The results also conrmed theses of Ogba
& Johnson (2010) and Berry, McMullen
(2008), that children are mostly inuenced
by the shape of the product, characters associated
with a concrete product and weakly, also by colors,
and does not agree with the research of Marshall
et al. (2007), which states that the color acts
as the most signicant factor.
Exploratory factor analysis extracted 4 factors
determining children’s preferences leading
to the food purchase transaction. The performed
research is based on the work of Ogba,
Johnson (2010) as they conducted the research
in the UK. In the Czech environment the number
and composition of factors arising from the same
questionnaire and factor analysis varies. In the case
of submitted research, similarity can be found,
in particular, within factors (1) “The effort
of the child to inuence shopping” and (4) “Buying
healthy foods with children”. A dominant factor
of the British researchers is “the inuence
of packaging on children”, which in meaning
corresponds to the factor (2) “Children’s
preferences in package design” and was expanded
only by the preference of an interesting package
shape. Agreement also occurred in the case
of factor (4) “Buying healthy foods with children”
and the British third factor “the likelihood
the parent is to yield to child inuence”. In this
submitted research, purchasing of foods requested
by children is further associated with the willingness
to take child shopping and the interest of the child
in healthy foods. Contrasting with healthy
shopping with children is our factor (3), which is,
on the other hand, associated with the interest
of the child in unhealthy foods, often supported
with a free gift.
According to the results of the structural equation
modeling, the effort of a child to inuence
the purchase of foods is determined by package
design. These results are also based on the conrmed
hypothesis H3. A child is inuenced in decision
making by the package, and, in particular, the shape
of the package, which builds on the previous studies;
however, the results of this research point more
to the inuence of the shape of the package,
over the color scheme, as stated by Marshall et al.
(2007). On the basis of other results of structural
equation modeling, the package design has more
inuence in the case of unhealthy foods, which
might indicate the effort of manufacturers to sell
these foods on the basis of pressure, which they
place on parents through the requesting of this
product. The results also show, that the signicant
impact on the buying decision has the actual way
of children´s product requesting. In correlation
with the development of the child, the structure
of pester power techniques changes. While
in the youngest category, children point
to a product, with increasing age the level
of verbal requests also increases. At the same time
it applies that with increasing age of the child,
pointing to and touching the product decreases and,
conversely, the independent placing of products
in the cart takes place. The highest impact as well
as the greatest level of consent of the parents was
measured for verbal requests. The results have
a growing character for individual age categories
of children, and that from minimum values
of 36 % (for the youngest category of children
between the ages of 1 to 3 years), up to 53 %
(for the eldest category of children between
13 to 17 years). The reaction of parents to a child’s
request increases with the growth of emphasis
in the expression of the request. That is,
if the child addresses the parent or points
to a product, this could indicate fear of a potential
conict at the shopping location. This is also
conrmed by the question of whether or not
the parent sometimes buys products, the child
wants, in order to avoid conict. 71.3 % of parents
agreed with this statement, where the average
value of positive responses was 1,25. In relation
to the previous studies (Nash, Basini, 2012;
Pilgrim, Lawrence, 2001), pester power cannot
be dened as a negative or positive phenomenon,
but a phenomenon which, from the perspective
of parents, must be understood and which they
must learn to direct by certain tactics. Negative
consequences may arise if we try to suppress this
phenomenon by acceding to the requests of the child
because we wish to avoid conict. This no longer
involves interaction, which leads to understanding
(Nash, Basini, 2012), but rather behavior
with possible negative consequences
(Bandyopadhyay et al., 2001).
Exploratory factor analysis extracted 4 latent
factors: (1) “The effort of the child to inuence
shopping”, (2) “Children’s preferences in package
design”, (3) “Preference of unhealthy foods”
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
and (4) “Buying healthy foods with children.
On the basis of structural modeling, weak to medium-
strong dependencies were found (0.264 - 0.706).
The greatest correlation (0.706) was identied
between factors (1) “The effort of the child
to inuence shopping” and (2) “Children’s
preferences in package design”.
From the perspective of package attributes, shape
can be indicated as the most important element,
generating child´s interest.
Submitted research shifts previous studies in view
of children´s pester power structure. Previous
research indicated the importance of packaging
within the marketing mix framework (Ogba,
Johnson, 2010). Research points to the high
impact of verbal requests of children, but also
reaching for food or putting it into the trolly/basket.
Inuencing parents’ shopping by putting food
into the trolley/basket escalates with the increasing
age of the child. The results of this research have
a signicance for marketing practicioners
in the food area. Not only the importance
of a package and its design as a part of the promotion,
but also the placement of the product at the point
of purchase is a key aspect to be considered. Despite
the ethical perspective (Piacentini et al., 2000),
results demonstrate the possibility of stimulating
pester power through placement of a product
at the child’s eye level and within reach of the child.
A starting point for further research could
be the fact that 71 % of parents purchase foods
requested by the child in order to avoid conict.
This fact indicates that the need of appropriate
techniques for guiding the pester power of a child
has to be managed. In the next phase, the research
could be expanded on the observation method
of children’s buying behavior directly where
shopping, and potentially conict, takes place.
The article originated as a part of the Internal
Grant Agency (IGA) of the Czech University
of Life Sciences in Prague, Registration Numbers
20131053 and 20131026.
Corresponding author:
Ing. Tereza Balcarová, Ph.D.
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Management,
Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic
[1] Bandyopadhyay, S., Kindra, G., Sharp, L. Is television advertising good for children? Areas
of concern and policy implications, International Journal of Advertising, 2001, Vol. 20 (1),
p. 89 – 116. ISSN 0265-0487.
[2] Berry, B., McMullen, T. Visual communication to children in the supermarket context: Health
protective or exploitive? Agriculture and Human Values, 2008, Vol. 25 (3), p. 333 – 348.
ISSN 0889-048X.
[3] Grossbart, S., Carlson, L., Walsh, A. Consumer socialisation and frequency of shopping
with children. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 1991,Vol. 19 (3), p. 155 – 163.
ISSN 0092-0703.
[4] Lee, Ch. K., Collins B. A. Family decision making and coalition patterns. European Journal
of Marketing. 2000, Vol. 34 ( 9/10), p. 1181 – 1198. ISSN 0309-0566.
[5] Marshall, D., O’Donohoe, S., Kline, S. Families, food, and pester power: beyond the blame game?
Journal of Consumer Behaviour. 2007, Vol. 6 (4), p. 164 – 181. ISSN 1472-0817.
[6] McNeal, J., U. The kids market: myths and realities. Ithaca, NY: Paramount Market. 1999, 272 p.
ISBN 09-671-4391-8.
[7] Nash, C., Basini, S. Pester power: it‘s all in the game. Young Consumers. 2012, Vol. 13 (3),
p. 267 – 283. ISSN 1747-3616.
The Inuence of Children on the Parents Buying Behavior: Food Purchase in the Czech Republic
[8] Nicholls, A. J., Cullen, B. The child–parent purchase relationship: pester power, human rights
and retail ethics, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 2004, Vol. 11 (2), p. 75 – 86.
ISSN 0969-6989.
[9] Novotný, J., Duspiva, P.: Faktory ovlivňující kupní chování spotřebitelů a jejich význam
pro podniky. E+M Ekonomie a Management. 2014, No. (1), p. 152-166. ISSN 1212-3609.
[10] Ogba, I., Johnson. R. How packaging affects the product preferences of children and the buyer
behaviour of their parents in the food industry. Young consumers. 2010, Vol. 11 (1), p. 77 – 89, 2010.
ISSN 1747-3616.
[11] Piacentini, M., MacFadyen, L., Eadie, D. Corporate social responsibility in food retailing.
International Journal of Retai & Distribution and Management. 2000, Vol. 28, p. 459 – 469.
ISSN 0959-0552.
[12] Pilgrim, P., Lawrence, D. Pester power is a destructive concept, Young Consumers, 2001, Vol. 3 (1),
pp. 1 – 9. ISSN 1747-3616.
[13] Silayoi P., Speece M. Packaging and purchase decisions: An exploratory study on the impact
of involvement level and time pressure. British Food Journal. 2004, Vol. 106 (8/9), p. 607 628.
ISSN 0007-070X.
[14] Stávková J., Prudilová, H., Toufarová, Z., Nagyová L. Factors inuencing the consumer
behaviour when buying food. Agricultural Economics – Czech. 2007, Vol. 53 (6), p. 349 – 353.
ISSN 1805-9295.
[15] Šrédl, K., Soukup, A. Consumer‘s behaviour on food markets. Agricultural Economics. 2011,
Vol. 57 (3), p. 140 – 144. ISSN 0139-570X.
[16] Turčínková, J., Brychtová, J., Urbánek, J. Preferences of men and women in the Czech Republic
when shopping for food. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis.
2012, Vol. 60 (7), p. 425 – 432. ISSN 1211-8516.
[17] Turner, J., Kelly, J., McKenna, K. Food for thought: parents‘ perspectives of child inuence, British
Food Journal. 2006, Vol. 108 (3), p. 181 – 91. ISSN 0007-070X.
[18] Wanninayake, W. M. C. B., Chovancová, M. Store personality and behavioral intentions
of customers: a comparative study of retail industry in the Czech Republic and Sri Lanka. Acta
Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 2012, Vol. 60 (7), p. 477 – 484.
ISSN 1211-8516.
[19] Winson, A. Bringing political economy into the debate on the obesity epidemic. Agriculture and
Human Values. 2004, Vol. 21 (4), p. 299 – 312. ISSN 0889-048X.
[20] Zámková, M., Prokop, M. Consumers behaviour of students when shopping for organic food
in the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis.
2013, Vol 61 (4), p. 1191 – 1201. ISSN 1211-8516.
... In the present study, 21.1% of the children reported that their parents purchased advertised foods for them. Previous studies have found that parents' purchasing behaviour could be affected by children' purchasing requests [28,29]. Some studies have shown that parents usually have negative attitudes towards ads; they believe that unhealthy foods in ads may have harmful influences on children's dietary habits [30][31][32]. ...
Full-text available
Background This study aims to examine the effects of the request and purchase of Television (TV) advertised foods on children’s dietary intake, overweight and obesity in China. Methods Data from 1417 children (aged 6–17 years) in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey were analysed. The request and purchase of TV advertised foods were assessed through the frequency of children’s requests to purchase TV advertised foods and the frequency of parents’ purchases of these advertised foods, as well as the frequency of children’s purchases of TV advertised foods. The height and weight of children were measured. Logistic regression models were used to identify the associations between the request and purchase of TV advertised foods and overweight/obesity of children. Results The request and purchase of TV advertised foods were positively associated with children’s dietary intake of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, children’s request and purchase of TV advertised foods and parent’s purchase of TV advertised foods were positively associated with children’s overweight/obesity: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overweight/obesity were: 1.46 (1.01–2.11) for children purchasing advertised foods ≥1 time/week, 1.59 (1.15–2.18) for parents purchasing advertised foods for their children ≥1 time/week and 1.39 (1.00–1.95) for children requesting advertised foods ≥1 time/week. Conclusions The request and purchase of TV advertised foods are associated with children’s dietary intake. Moreover, the request and purchase of TV advertised foods can increase the risk of overweight and obesity of children. Health education involving children’s request and purchase of TV advertised foods and parents’ purchase of TV advertised foods should be considered in China.
... Parents perceive children to exert significant influence for the products envisaged for children's or family use (Dikcius et al., 2014), minor daily purchase items (Kim et al., 2009), vacation-related decisions (Chaudhary and Gupta, 2012) while lesser influence in major appliance decisions (Jenkins, 1979). Likewise, some researchers assert children's influence in the parental decision-making differs with the type of product involved, say, food items (Balcarova et al., 2014), convenience items (Flurry and Veeck, 2009), home equipment (Tustin, 2009), durables and garments (Shoham and Dalakas, 2005) transport-related (Shergill et al., 2013). One recent study argues that children often use the information provided by media to influence family decisions which are perceived positively by the parents as it fulfils their parental duties (Bertol et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to identify the perception levels of the child and parents towards the child’s influence on different product categories and stages of the family buying process in an Arab country Oman. Design/methodology/approach On the basis of the research gap identified from the literature, two separate bilingual questionnaires (parent and child) in English and local language (Arabic) were developed. The research commenced with a pilot study on 10 school students followed by contact with school authorities requesting to conduct a survey on school students 8–12 years of age and data collection through the survey on the students and their parents (either father/mother) during September-November, 2017–2018. Data analysis was made through an independent sample t-test and confirmatory factor analysis was made using AMOS 24. Findings A model was proposed incorporating three product categories as noisy, quiet and loud goods and perceptions of Arab parents and children were examined for the three stages of the family buying process. The findings of the study reveal that significant differences exist in child-parental perceptions on the child’s influence in the search, evaluation and final buying stages. The mean score among the three product categories was highest for noisy goods (Mean = 3.21, SD = 0.817) while in the case of buying stages, the mean of the final buying stage was highest (Mean = 2.11, SD = 0.514). Research limitations/implications More research studies are required in the Arab context, especially bringing in the social status of parents to justify their different shopping behaviours. This analysis is based on the perceptions of the tweenager segment, adding perceptions of the teenage segment could generate better research implications. Practical implications The research will serve as a base to consumer marketers in understanding distinct features of Arab tweenagers towards different products and will aid them in designing appropriate marketing strategies targeting parents and children in the Arab region. Originality/value After an extensive review of the consumer literature, it is assumed that almost no research study has been made examining parent-child perceptions towards the different product categories and buying stages targeting traditionally oriented families in the Arab region.
... Spotrebitelia sa v súčasnom modernom a globalizovanom svete nachádzajú v čoraz konkurenčnejšom a dynamickejšom prostredí trhu (Polakevičová, 2015, Džupina et al., 2016, Mach et al., 2018, Balcarová et al., 2014, Kádek, 2014, kde značka ako taká buď stráca svoj význam, alebo si ho naopak posilňuje. Jedným z primárnych cieľov existencie značky je vytvorenie vzťahu medzi ňou samotnou a spotrebiteľom. ...
Full-text available
Consumers and their preferences have been the subject of matter of many different researches and research articles. Unfortunately, almost none have focused on the issue of consumer preferences in the issue of private labels and especially in the dairy yoghurt segment. The submitted paper focuses on consumer preferences in the context of loyalty to the brand of selected food products in the segment of dairy yoghurts. There have been investigated the consumers' preferences between the traditional and private label brand in the segment of yoghurts. The mentioned survey was realized on the sample of two yoghurts labelled with a traditional-brand and two yoghurts labelled with a private-brand, which were tested in the form of a blank test. The aim of the submitted paper was to analyse the customer preferences in the context of loyalty to the brand in the segment of yoghurts. In order to achieve the mentioned aim, we have used the methods of survey, structured questionnaire (realized on the sample of 693 randomly chosen respondents) and blind test (realized on the sample of 100 respondents testing the four yoghurts – 2 yoghurts of traditional brands and 2 yoghurts of private labels). For a deeper analysis of the obtained results, totally four hypotheses were set out and tested with the use of statistical methods of Contingency table chi-square test, Pearson´s chi-square test, Cramer's coefficient, Friedman test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. The results of the survey proved that more than 30 % of respondents consume yoghurts on a daily basis, 30 % of respondents prefer to buy the yogurts of private labels, more than 64 % of respondents consider themselves as loyal consumers and based on the package, the tested sample of private label yoghurt (sample A) would be purchased by 56 % of respondents while the same sample of yoghurt (sample A) would be purchased for its taste just by 47 % of respondents.
... In today's modern and globalized world, the consumers live in an increasingly competitive and dynamic market environment (Smutka et al., 2016, Polakevičová, 2015Džupina et al., 2016;Mach et al., 2018;Balcarová et al., 2014;Kádek, 2014), where the brand by itself either loses its power or strengthens it. One of the primary objectives of the brand's existence is to establish a relationship with the consumer. ...
Full-text available
Background: The present study attempts to bring together the observations and findings of research studies related to children's influence on household purchase decisions. Methods: Research literature from 2001 to 2021 was analyzed to examine past research on children's impacts on purchasing decisions using the software VOS viewer. The objective is to highlight some of the associated strengths and limitations that define this field of research and suggest some potential future research directions. This section offers facts regarding the number of noteworthy research papers, journal information, indexed author keywords related to the domain, a country-wise citation index, and author-specific citations. Results: According to the findings of the study, bibliometric analysis is critical in delving into the theoretical literature and establishing an integrated theoretical framework on the quality of children's influence in households. In addition to summarizing and evaluating the subject matter, this paper helps identify the gaps in the existing body of literature
Full-text available
The generation gap has been present since the beginning of humanity and has symbolized one of the challenges of decision-making in families. It affects family members’ consumption behavior, namely buying decisions, and creates an interrelated impact on consumption behavior among family members. The aim of this study is to examine factors related to the parents’ perceptions of how the new online purchase behavior of their Generation Z children affected their consumption behavior. To meet the research objective, the paper has shed light on Generation Z’s new online purchase behavior. A survey was sent to 384 Indonesian parents of Generation Z children to collect their perceptions of consumption behavior. The data were then computed and processed using factor analysis, reliability analysis, regression analysis, as well as correlation and a t-test. The research results indicate that the new online purchase behavior of Generation Z children significantly affected their parents’ consumption behavior through different factors, such as online purchase illiteracy and self-control of consumption behavior. The findings also asserted that family consumption behavior is easily influenced by factors associated with parents’ perceptions. Moreover, this study also discussed the implications of the findings and identified the areas for future research.
Full-text available
The present paper is focused on the issues of private labels, their establishment, perception and preference by selected groups of respondents, namely consumers under the age of 25 and also inhabitants of selected V4 countries (Slovakia, Hungary and Czech Republic). An anonymous questionnaire survey was chosen as the main research method. A total of 3038 respondents aged under 25 participated-1064 respondents were from Slovakia, 973 from Hungary and 1001 from Czech Republic. This research method was subsequently supplemented with selected statistical methods evaluated in the XL Stat statistical program, SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1 and SAS 9.4, where hypotheses were examined by Pearson's Chi-Square Test, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test, Cramer's V contingency coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Friedman's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Correspondence analysis and Phi Coefficient. The results of the survey can be perceived more than positively as most of the respondents declared that they knew the concept of private labels; more than 80% of respondents buy them either regularly or sporadically; just over 32% of respondents explicitly prefer them in their purchases and in terms of the perception of the quality, almost 75% of respondents think the quality of private label products is comparable to that of traditional brands.
Full-text available
Att dela med sig av det som växer i ens trädgård kan betraktas som en enkel, vardaglig vänskapsgest eller helt enkelt ett sätt att bli av med något man inte själv har användning för. Det kan emellertid också ses som inslag i större och vidare sammanhang. Ett sätt att tolka fenomenet är att se det som del i en delningsekonomi; ett begrepp som under senare år allt oftare kommit att användas om de framväxande alternativa ekonomiska mönster som gör det möjligt att få tillgång till varor och tjänster utan att köpa dem (se t ex Ince & Hall 2018). I detta kapitel avser vi att diskutera trädgårdsinnehavares delning av växter dels som en motpol till den expanderande kommersiella marknaden för trädgårdsrelaterade produkter, dels som ett mer eller mindre medvetet förvaltande av växter med historia. I vår forskning om livet i nutida privata trädgårdar har vi hört många berätta att de gärna delar med sig av det de odlar. Det kan handla om småplantor, sticklingar och frön, liksom om frukt och annat som skördats i trädgården. Överflödet kan erbjudas vänner, grannar, släktingar och kollegor, men det även kan även spridas på olika typer av informella marknader, som växtloppis och växtbytarforum på internet. Flera berättar också om växter de fått från andra, eller tagit med sig från andra platser, och som därigenom bär på en särskild historia. Att dela med sig av plantor är en slags transaktion men det är också en social situation; genom delandets praktik skapas många olika slags värden och relationer. Vi lägger här fokus på hur människor i vardagliga sammanhang delar med sig av sina trädgårdsväxter i form av sticklingar, småplantor och delade växter. Vi tar stöd i internationella studier som uppmärksammat trädgårdsrelaterade aspekter av delningsekonomin, främst med fokus på hantering och förmedling av fröer (Phillips 2013, Pottinger 2018). Dessa studier vittnar om hur sociala länkar skapas när växtmaterial delas i olika mer eller mindre informella nätverk, ibland med en uttrycklig ambition att utgöra ett alternativ till etablerade marknadskanaler och det växande inflytandet från stora kommersiella aktörer. Precis som med fröer kan förmedling av delade växter fungera både som vardaglig social interaktion, som en kulturarvsförvaltande handling, och som en mer eller mindre aktiv form av motstånd.
Full-text available
Although there were many consumer behavior studies, their focus was on traditional brands. Despite that, their conclusions and recommendations can serve as a model for private label research. This paper aims to find out the influence of packaging on consumer purchasing decisions in the yoghurt segment. Attention was drawn to Slovak consumers under the age of 25 years. To achieve the aim, survey, structured questionnaire (549 randomly chosen respondents) and blind test (20 respondents) methods were used. For a deeper analysis, four hypotheses were set out and tested using statistical methods of Pearsons’ Chi-Square Test, Friedman test, Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square Test, Phi Coefficient, Cramer’s V Coefficient and correspondence analysis. The results proved that almost 58% of respondents bought private labels sporadically, over 20% of respondents bought them multiple times a week, and over 18% of respondents bought them once a week. In terms of perceived quality, it can be said that quality of private label products is perceived as good and adequate, they evoke impression of adequate quality at a reasonable price, the decisive factor for their purchase is a combination of reasonable price and quality, and the reasons not to buy are high price, low quality and lack of information about the producer. Regarding the impact of packaging on respondents’ purchasing decisions, it is found that less than 34% of respondents believe that packaging of private label products is unattractive, and up to 33% of respondents think that packaging does not affect them. AcknowledgementThe paper was supported by the research project GA SUA No. 8/2019 “Private labels as the alternative to purchase”, which is solved at the Department of Marketing and Trade, Faculty of Economics and Management, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.
Full-text available
The paper analyses buying behaviour of Czech consumer units on the market with food. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, brand, quality, product attributes, habits, price reductions, advertisement, innovation and word-of-mouth. The results were obtained within the framework of a survey performed in a set of 1074 Czech households by the staff of the Department of Marketing and Trade, the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, in November and December 2004. Respondents were classified on the base of their annual income, residency, social group, age and education.
Full-text available
The article is interested in the problems of consumer's behaviour in the food market and namely the determining factors of his (her) behaviour according to the neoclassical theory approaches and its modern modifications, which are compared here with the concepts of other authors. It also is interested in the possibilities of the marginalist analytical apparatus in the consumer's decision-making.
Full-text available
Organic farming and organic food are terms that attract the attention of not only farmers, but also economists. It is paper, which could address many consumers in the future. A healthier way of life is becoming more and more popular. This paper primarily aims to collect basic knowledge of organic farming, organic food and its labelling. Furthermore, according to conducted marketing research (1.289 respondents were addressed in questionnaire survey), it is aim to characterize the factors that infl uence respondents when buying organic food. Based on the results of research another goal is to identify the main factors that could make the younger generation of Czechs buy organic food more frequently. Then according to the statistical data processing this paper aims to formulate recommendations to producers and traders of organic products to entice young people to become customers of this article for many years. Next goal is to compare the results with some other European countries. Interesting relationship between frequency of organic food purchases and other indicators will be assessed by using analysis of contingency tables. An intention is also to identify the target group for marketing strategies. What the respondents most o en link with various organic labelling will be identified by using correspondence analysis of monitored data and better fl ows of information will be proposed. It is clear from the research that organic food is most o en bought by women and respondents with higher level of household life. It is purchased mainly fruit and vegetables, as well as dairy products. Respondents mostly make their purchases of organic food in hypermarkets and supermarkets. In addition to the primary reason of disinterest in buying organic food, which is the price, respondents also don't believe that organic food is better than conventional food and it is not attractive for them.
Full-text available
Brand personality is recognized as a key platform for developing a loyal customer base for service organizations. When it comes to the modern retail sector, self-service supermarkets are highly concerned about branding strategies for attracting customers to their stores. However, the impacts of brand personality of supermarkets can vary in different cross-cultural contexts. Hence, in this study, researchers examined this issue by selecting two samples: from Sri Lanka and from the Czech Republic, with the purpose of comparing the impact of brand personality on customer behavioral intentions in two different cultural contexts. For the first sample, 150 regular shoppers were randomly selected in Colombo (Sri Lanka), and data was collected from a researcher administrated questionnaire. The second sample was drawn from Zlin, (the Czech Republic) where data was collected from 120 customers via using a self-administrated questionnaire. Principle component analysis and multiple regressions were used for data analysis and for testing hypotheses. This paper concludes by explaining the implications for modern retailers in designing their branding strategies, and by comparing which aspects of brand personalities of supermarkets are important in two different contexts.
Full-text available
Buying behavior of men and women shows considerable differences. The individual stages of purchase decision-making process lead to convergence or conversely deepening of these differences. The paper provides results of analysis of chosen aspects of consumer behavior of men and women in the Czech Republic. It focuses on the grocery shopping in small-sized shops. Due to the complexity of the problem the research could not cover all aspects associated with this topic. It identifies who in a household is responsible for grocery shopping, how often and in what quantity of purchases. The paper examines to what extent is a purchase planned and by what a consumer is usually stimulated to an impulsive shopping. Further, it describes factors leading to a choice of shopping place and to a satisfaction with shopping conditions. The primary data was collected through a method of in-depth interviews conducted from January to March 2011 on a sample of 56 respondents in the three smaller stores in the Moravské Budějovice, and via questionnaire survey which took place in all regions of the Czech Republic (n = 5809) among respondents aged 12+. The results confirmed we can observe differences in shopping behavior of women and man, even though the importance of various factors taken into account when making a choice of a particular food product show significant differences from the gender perspective (none of the analyzed factors was found to have higher statistical significance than weak, p < .05). The qualitative research, however, revealed that women tend to make more frequent purchases and keep a certain level of supplies at home, while men tend to leave shopping till it becomes necessary, they are more likely to stick to their shopping list and more loyal to their favorite products. Women are more fl exible when in need to replace a missing product with its substitute. The proportion of impulsively purchased items in a shopping basket is higher for women than for men. The findings should help in particular small-scale operators of stores.
Full-text available
The roles of children in modern society are changing. Children continually assume larger roles in their homes and are becoming more involved in the shopping habits of the household. As a result, they have become the prime targets of television advertising. This has led to a serious debate among the advertisers, policy makers and consumer protection groups about the influence of television advertising on children. We highlight the major areas of concern in this debate, present arguments for and against these areas, and make policy recommendations.
Full-text available
The importance of packaging design as a vehicle for communication and branding is growing in competitive markets for packaged food products. This research utilized a focus group methodology to understand consumer behavior toward such products and how packaging elements can affect buying decisions. Visual package elements play a major role, representing the product for many consumers, especially in low involvement, and when they are rushed. Most focus group participants say they use label information, but they would like it if simplified. The challenge for researchers is to integrate packaging into an effective purchasing decision model, by understanding packaging elements as important marketing communications tools. Propositions for future research are proposed which will help in developing better understanding of consumer response to packaging elements.
The article reports the results of research consumers' behavior and preferences when buying housing supplements, household equipment and preparation of new processed models which identifies the key factors influencing the purchasing behavior of consumers. Nowadays, the purchasing behavior of consumers is a topical problem on market due to frequent changes in society which have a substantial impact on the purchasing behavior, such as economic conditions, demographic trends, the influence of minorities, globalization or climate changes in the world. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed through research of consumers according to segmentation criteria divided into eight segments and that was aimed on selected factors having a topical influence on consumers. Based on the results of the research was drawn a model of identical and nonidentical factors influencing purchase consumers' behavior and the model cobwebs. Both models forms basis for management decision-making enterprise in business policy. Subsequently, research was performed in enterprises whose business activities are aimed on home furnishings and household equipment. Research observed verification of test hypotheses concerning the marketing activities of enterprises and the possibility of using models. The proposed models allow enterprises more efficient decision-making during product innovation, specialization in business policy and marketing activities. The enterprises that do not consistently pay attention to purchasing behavior of consumers with using of factors that are influencing consumers' purchasing behavior, they may lose competitiveness, market position and customers.
This study examines co-shopping frequency (mothers shopping with children) from a consumer socialization perspective. It also compares consumer orientations and socialization behaviors of heavier, moderate and lighter co-shoppers. Results indicate that these groups differ in desires to develop children’s consumer competence, consumer roles played by children, consumption motivations and values, and potential efforts to mediate marketing influence.
Describes a study investigating the motivations of food retailers to engage in corporate socially responsible (CSR) activities. Focusing on confectionery retailing and merchandising, the study sought to establish the extent of CSR activities and the motivations for companies to act as they do. An audit of food retailers was first conducted to establish the nature and extent of CSR activities. This was followed by a series of in-depth interviews with key decision makers in food retailing organisations, to reveal motivations behind their policies on confectionery retailing. The authors found the main motivations driving confectionery merchandising decisions to be space maximisation, profitability and customer pressure. While certain proactive companies recognised the benefits of being seen as a socially responsible company, none of the companies was driven primarily by philanthropic motivations.