Article

Assessing the impacts of tourism on forests: Mass tourism and policy in Turkey

Authors:
Article

Assessing the impacts of tourism on forests: Mass tourism and policy in Turkey

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

It is well known that badly managed tourism leads to serious environmental and socio-cultural problems throughout the world if not managed responsibly. Mass tourism is accepted as "the construction of large-scale tourism facilities and infrastructures on natural and cultural resources, leading to a depletion, fragmentation or degradation of the environmental resource base with other environmental-social problems" in the scope of this study. Worldwide, a significant proportion of natural lands and forests have been used for the construction of mass tourist facilities. Similar to many parts of the world, natural resource depletion-land use change characterised by deforestation or forest fragmentation, environmental degradation and pollution-related problems are major environmental impacts of mass tourism development on forests in Turkey. This study examines the impacts of mass tourism development on forests and focuses on deforestation and forest fragmentation as the most critical impacts with specific reference to Turkey and Belek, a popular destination in the Mediterranean region. The study also handles the conceptual framework of mass tourism and forest-tourism relations in terms of forest policy.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Sin embargo, el turismo puede tener efectos inesperados que generan importantes conflictos socio-ambientales. Estos efectos inesperados se asocian con el avance de la frontera urbana sobre bosques y ecosistemas asociados, lo que trae como consecuencia degradación, fragmentación y/o pérdida de la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos, migración de pobladores rurales y pérdida de socio-ecosistemas agropecuarios (Kuvan, 2012;Giusti, 2014;López et al., 2018). ...
...  Enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks favouring eco-friendly initiatives Kuvan, 2012;Peeters & Landré, 2012;Semernya et al., 2017)  Formation of appropriate governance mechanisms (Alipour and Olya, 2015;Tang et al., 2017)  Creation of institutional arrangements that would benefit both the nature and local community  Integration of institutional (governance), environmental, economic & cultural aspects in tourism development (Ioan, 2015; It is essential to develop plans toward the creation of favorable policies that support the implementation of NBS such as involving all stakeholders with a balance of power for all involved, protecting local communities, and limiting tourism activities which adversely impact the environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nature based solutions are innovative solutions which are inspired from nature and applied to contemporary societal problems such as climate change, overtourism, poverty alleviation, etc. The research on 'nature based solutions' in tourism is rudimentary and the main objective of this study is to identify and conceptualize the nature based solutions in tourism. A hybrid review has been conducted on papers in tourism and hospitality as well as other disciplines such as agriculture, building sector and urban planning. An examination of the characteristics of the nature based solutions examined have led to its conceptualization based on six constituent dimensions such as empowerment of the stakeholders, monitoring the state of natural environment, economic development of the residents, adoption of environment-friendly solutions, and changing the mindsets of stakeholders. Finally, limitations of the current study have been identified and some recommendations for further research have been provided.
... Among the areas facing ecological disintegration are coastal regions where risk levels must be urgently taken into account (Burak et al., 2004;Senlier and Özturk, 2011;Gazioğlu et al., 2016). In some cases, as will be discussed herein, tourism activities may create negative consequences for tree-covered land near coastal destinations due to deforestation and forest fragmentation (Kuvan, 2012). Given the extent of the environmental impact of tourism, the Black Sea coast, has been comparatively less influenced by anthropogenic activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study discusses the relationship between tourism and geomorphologic features, climatic comfort and natural vegetation cover in the coastal region from İğneada to Kastro Bay on the Black Sea. From the point of view of climatic comfort, Thermo-Hygrometric Index (THI) values indicate that May, June, September and October are favorable for coastal tourism while in the months of July and August temperatures are too hot. SSI index values indicate that comfort levels prevail for most people in June and September although the weather can be perceived by some people as cool. In July and August, when the temperatures are higher, the climate is comfortable part of the time, but it is rather hot and sticky. Despite climatic comfort conditions not being suitable for long-duration coastal tourism in the Kıyıköy-İğneada area, the floristic richness of the area and presence of longose forests offer many opportunities in terms of ecotourism. There are also numerous lakes and streams presenting unique possibilities for a variety of so-far unexploited tourism activities. Geomorphologically, uncontaminated sandy beaches and coastal spits as well as sheltered bays such as Kastro Bay are among the important assets of the area in terms of coastal tourism.
... In the east and the south of the Mediterranean Basin, the drivers of ecosystem services supply reduction are habitat homogenization due to the expansion of cultivated areas and urbanization, desertification and effects of climate change, and increasing use of forests for fuelwood, grazing, and mass tourism (García-Ruíz et al., 2011). In the north of the Mediterranean Basin, the abandonment of farmland and land-use intensification, as well as the growth of the tourist sector, have had the highest impact (Kuvan, 2012). However, overall, Mediterranean forests and shrubs are expanding, mainly as a result of farmland abandonment (García-Ruíz et al., 2011). ...
... In this debate, a large part of the economic literature (Gilpin, 2003;Holden and Fennell, 2013;Kuvan, 2012;Mondéjar et al., 2012;Mossalanejad, 2011;Scott et al., 2012), as well as many international organizations (UNEP, 2011;WWAP, 2009;WEF, 2009;World Bank, 2010) recognized the importance of having an appropriate environmental sustainability for the implementation of real development processes which may increase the quality of life of the population. ...
Article
Though at a first sight the potential of tourism was advocated, without any doubt, as an routine tool for improving the welfare of the population, in recent years several works have appeared that criticize the universal validity of tourism as a development tool, whose premise is that the relationship is not automatic between the two dimensions, but instead a country must meet certain characteristics in order for this link to occur and, therefore, calls into question the solution implemented by many countries and institutions to improve the level of economic development. Among these characteristics, the environmental dimension of sustainability plays a decisive role in the conditions of the population and, therefore, is key in the relationship between tourism and economic development Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify, through a country-level empirical analysis, which specific factors, related to the environmental dimension of sustainability that promote or hinder the transformation of tourism growth into an improvement of the economic development.
Article
Full-text available
Endemic species are highly adapted to grow exclusively in a specific geographical area. The goal of the current study is to determine the probable habitat distribution range of the narrowly endemic species Gluta travancorica. An ecological niche modelling is carried out, using four different models viz., BioClim, MaxEnt, Random Forest and Deep Neural Networks (DNN). A total of 506 G. travancorica cluster locations were surveyed and used for this study with thirty different ecogeographic, edaphic and bioclimatic environmental parameters. After a preliminary investigation using multi-collinearity analysis, soil parameter variables like pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), silt and clay content are used for final modelling. Factor analysis of ecological niche revealed the soil parameters like pH, CEC, silt and clay content as the key predictors. The result is validated using true skill statistics, sensitivity, specificity, kappa statistic and AUC-ROC. Results of the present study show that DNN have exceptional prediction performance, demonstrated by its AUC score of 0.959. DNN model projected 32.37% (938.18 km²) of the study region to have a ‘highly suitable habitat’, whereas 67.63% (1960.82 km²) was classified as having ‘low habitat suitability’. Besides, back-to-field assessments have also proven DNN's potential in predicting the habitat suitability of G. travancorica. The study results will facilitate the prioritization of conservation and seedling restoration strategies. The forest range explored in this work is a component of one of the most important global biodiversity hotspots, and it has significant implications for regional biodiversity conservation.
Article
Full-text available
As an old northeast industrial base and forestry region, Heilongjiang Province is facing problems such as urban decline, aging population and great pressure on environmental conservation. However, the development of ecological tourism is increasing year by year, which is an effective way to solve social problems such as employment and economic development in various regions. In view of this, this paper determines the index weight through expert scoring, and evaluates the overall sustainable development ability of forest tourism in Heilongjiang Province by using analytic hierarchy process, so as to provide reference for the development of forest tourism industry in Heilongjiang Province. The research showed that the sustainable development of forest tourism in Heilongjiang Province should mainly consider the resource support system, focus on improving the quality of forest tourism resources, preserving the characteristic tourism culture, improving the level of tourists' consumption and the per capita growth rate of residents' tourism income, and increasing infrastructure investment.
Chapter
Full-text available
The sustainable management of agroforestry landscapes is complex because they are socio-ecosystems that integrate biological and socio-productive diversity with spatial-temporal dynamical interactions. Furthermore, agroforestry landscapes provide a variety of ecosystem goods and services at both the farm and global levels, and host thousands of rural people whose livelihoods depend on the forest. Strong dependence on the forest for subsistence strengthens the need to promote their sustainable management. In this chapter, we propose that management practices of Social-Ecological Systems (SES) should be addressed at the landscape scale using a resilience approach to reduce the vulnerability of agroforestry systems to environmental and/or anthropogenic drivers. We examine key properties of farm-level SES components; we demonstrate how they collectively interconnect at the landscape scale and analyze the benefits of resolving social-ecological conflicts at the landscape scale. We highlight a case study in which social-environmental conflicts are increasingly frequent and demonstrate that a resilience management approach at the landscape level should be used as a tool for resolving conflicts. Finally, we conclude that as the search for solutions through decision-making at the farm scale may have indirect and unexpected effects on other SES at the landscape level, replacing a farm-scale perspective with a landscape-scale perspective could increase SES-resilience, reducing its vulnerability to different drivers.
Article
Woodland covers about one third of Italy. No longer just a source of products for fuels and buildings, forests also have a protective function against natural disasters like landslides and they also serve as recreational areas for people. Our primary goal was to define an overall method for assessing the possible uses of woodland areas to help those preparing forest planning instruments for evaluating the productive, protective and recreational functions of the woodlands. We quantified, using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, three indices to evaluate separately these functions and then obtain the composite value for each area. We also used hierarchical analysis (AHP) as an instrument for integrating the preferences of local stakeholders in the assessment process. Three possible scenarios were created that simulated the possible preferences of the decision-makers, and different weights were assigned using a pairwise comparison method (on the basis of the Saaty scale) as envisaged by the hierarchical analysis. The method was applied to a mountainous municipality of northern Italy within the Lombardy Region. The application demonstrated that the method, being transparent and understandable, is helpful for decisionmakers. Further development should include applying the methodology to a larger area, adding ecological value to the wood products and introducing an economic value to the wood functions. © 2014, Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
The littoral area of the Adriatic countries has a unique attractiveness of the coast and the islands and is the basis for the development of nautical tourism. Despite the present development results, nautical tourism of the Croatian part of the Adriatic has not reached the quality level in line with available resources. On long-term basis, unplanned and unorganised development could, in many elements, become a serious threat to the preservation of the quality and complete economic valorisation. The authors have, therefore, studied physical, technical and technological and ecological preconditions of the development of nautical tourism, especially in the Croatian islands. A model of sustainable development and competitiveness of Adriatic nautical ports has been defined, which assumes integrated planning with special emphasis to preservation of environmental properties of the Adriatic and of the nature system. Such model requires modern technical and technological solutions that contribute to the preservation of coastal and marine environment and to the use of adequate equipment in waste management. The authors propose a model based on the principles of sustainable development which defines the development activities in improving nautical services and increasing the safety of boaters and their vessels in the Croatian Adriatic. The implementation of the model will improve socio-economic situation on the islands and the whole littoral. The development model can be applied to other nautical countries as well, especially in the Mediterranean, because of similar geographic conditions and physical possibilities.
Article
Full-text available
Measuring progress of the tourism destinations in the area of sustainability has now become one of the major challenges facing policymakers action. Sustainability is a dynamic concept. In fact, in reality, it really can be measured is not "sustainability", but "progress towards sustainability", bearing in mind that this is not an ideal target linked to a fixed state of harmony, but a continuous process of adjustment and reorientation of tourism development to achieve the balance between the multiple dimensions that comprise it. The aim of this paper -after initially analyzed the major advances made in recent years over the concept of sustainability applied to tourism and its measurement- is to propose a methodology for dynamic analysis of sustainability of tourism. This methodology is based on developing a composite index through factor analysis. This composite index is powered by a set of indicators that includes the four dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, economic and institutional) for the years 2000, 2004 and 2008. Thus, it is possible to measure progress towards sustainability (through the improvement of these indicators over time) of tourism destinations analyzed. To demonstrate the validity of the methodology, it has been applied to analysis of the sustainability of tourism in the Spanish regions, many of which (Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Andalusia, Catalonia, etc.) have a high level of tourism development.
Article
Full-text available
Predicated on socio-economic changes in the more developed countries, international tourism in less developed countries has become an attractive option for economic development. As international tourism continued to grow however, it became apparent that a range of negative impacts was affected. As a result, sustainable development became a focus for tourism as a development tool. There are several inherent challenges in applying the principles of sustainable development at an operational level in tourism. These include the nature of the tourism industry and product, the fragmented fashion in which critical decisions about tourism are made, and the diverse and often conflicting interests in tourism development held by a broad range of stakeholders. Sustainability under these conditions is an elusive concept and even more of a challenge to implement within the tourism system. This paper considers the pragmatic implications of operationalizing sustainable practices in tourism development vis-à-vis the nature of the tourism industry and product.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism's effects on the social, cultural and physical environments in which it operates are well documented. Yet, it appears that little research has been conducted examining the underlying reasons why such impacts appear to be inevitable. This paper argues that a number of structural realities or ‘fundamental truths’ about tourism exist that explain why adverse impacts are felt, regardless of the type of tourism activity. Eight such truths are examined. They are: (1) As an industrial activity, tourism consumes resources, creates waste and has specific infrastructure needs. (2) As a consumer of resources, it has the ability to over consume resources. (3) Tourism, as a resource dependent industry must compete for scarce resources to ensure its survival. (4) Tourism is a private sector dominated industry, with investment decisions being based predominantly on profit maximisation. (5) Tourism is a multi-faceted industry, and as such, it is almost impossible to control. (6) Tourists are consumers, not anthropologists. (7) Tourism is entertainment. (8) Unlike other industrial activities, tourism generates income by importing clients rather than exporting its product.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing demand for resorts has brought about substantial changes in the spatial and structural patterns of coastal tourism development in Southeast Asia. While unplanned resort development has resulted and will continue to have negative impacts on the coastal environment, integrated resort development will increase significantly in future. Islands, which often are ideal locations for resorts, are more vulnerable because of their limited resources and size. Coastal tourism development has often insufficiently understood the coastal environment. The tourism experience provides valuable lessons for coastal zone management: the necessity for Environmental Impact Assessment, management of increasing tourist numbers, evaluation of small-scale resort development, consideration of conservation, defining and revising planning standards, and aiming for sustainable development.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, Turkey has experienced rapid economic and population growth coupled with both an equally rapid increase in energy consumption and a vast disparity in welfare between socioeconomic groups and regions. In turn, these pressures have accelerated the destruction of productive, assimilative, and regenerative capacities of the ecosystems, which are essential for the well-being of the people and the economy. This paper describes the structure and function of major ecosystem types in Turkey and discusses the underlying causes of environmental degradation in the framework of economy, energy, environment, and ethics. From a national perspective, this paper suggests three sustainability-based policies necessary for Turkey's long-term interests that balance economic, environmental, and energy goals: (1) decoupling economic growth from energy consumption growth through the development of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies; (2) linking economic efficiency and distributive justice of wealth and power through distributive and participatory public policies; and (3) integrating the economic and ecological systems through the internalization of externalities and ecosystem rehabilitation.
Article
Full-text available
Attempts to promoting sustainable tourism and ecotourism as quality products suffer from the lack of methods to ensure these are not just a green wash. The current proliferation of awards, labels and endorsements has confused consumers to the extent of preferring to ignore these green messages. Several initiatives have emerged to address the proliferation of small, little known, limited value ecolabels in tourism and hospitality, and to ensure that the larger ones meet internationally accepted criteria. This paper will review progress made by a wide range of public, private and non-profit agencies in developing environmental standards and method to measure them, which will be set against the internationally agreed process for compliance assessment. From the above experiences, the author will outline the prospects to environmental certification in tourism and hospitality, which are the development of an international accreditation system, following agreed standards, and linked to national, regional or sector-specific certification programmes.
Article
Full-text available
The rapid human population growth of Turkey and associated demands on natural resources threaten the biodiversity of the nation's natural ecosystems, including forests. Though limited to about 26% of the total land area of the country, maintaining healthy forests is vital to support sustainable development in Turkey. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the current status of Turkey's forests, present the national objectives for forest conservation and sustainable use, and describe the actions needed to protect forest biodiversity. While Turkey has numerous laws, regulations, and programmes that seek to promote biodiversity, implementation of these guidelines requires increased commitment and vigilance. Conservation programmes should be increased in number and effectiveness, particularly in light of increasing demand for forest products. Management plans for all conservation programmes require completion and implementation. Creating monitoring programs and building quantitative databases for conservation programs will be essential to assess future success in maintaining biodiversity. Conservation of natural resources requires public education and promoting awareness of the vital role of maintaining a healthy environment for sustainable development. Agroforestry endeavors can provide practical means of meeting both environmental protection and agricultural product production goals.
Article
Full-text available
Although research to date has addressed various elements of destination competitiveness there has been little attempt to systematically and comprehensively study the environmental competitiveness from the managerial perspective. Since the Calgary tourism competitiveness model brought a systematic approach to tourism competitiveness research, this paper selectively uses its management element as a tool to link the competitiveness and environmental management. Following the model the destination management is divided into two parts: (1) managerial and (2) marketing efforts. This paper studies them from environmental perspective. First, destination environmental competitiveness can be increased by appropriate managerial efforts related to environmental impact (EI), and environmental quality (EQ) management. Second, the destination competitiveness can be enhanced through certain environmental marketing activities. Further, environmental management is categorised into groups: management by codes of conduct, by self-developed environmental practice, by certified or awarded best practice and by accreditation schemes. Their usefulness for environmental destination management and competitiveness is evaluated.
Article
Full-text available
The provision of ecolabels to environmentally sensitive tourism enterprises is currently being practiced in developed nations in an attempt to protect the natural capital through improvements in existing environmental standards within the industry. The tourism industry in developing countries could soon follow suit by championing the utilization of internationally recognized ecolabeling schemes as a strategy for environmental management, and for setting the course for the environmentally compatible development of the industry. The achievement and promotion of internationally recognized environmental awards would be instrumental to the tourism enterprises of developing countries in marketing their services to high spending, environmentally conscious western tourists. This paper provides a conceptual analysis of the feasibility of adopting ecolabeling schemes for certifying tourism enterprises in developing countries. Key issues and potential barriers that could hinder the ecolabeling process in developing countries are discussed and testable propositions are developed to guide future research for evaluating the effectiveness of tourism ecolabels in developing countries.
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of ecosystems and biodiversity has become an important field of investigation for economists. Although their interest has been largely motivated by the search for arguments in favour of broader conservation policies, both the methods and the meaning of the results remain controversial. This article aims at clarifying the interest and limitations of these works, by revisiting a number of issues, such as the economic qualification of the services that human societies take from biodiversity and ecological systems in general, the specificities of their contribution to human well-being and the consequences of a valuation of biodiversity based on ecosystem services. We conclude with a discussion of the purposes of evaluations: improving public policies or creating new markets?
Article
Turkey has been affected by urbanization like other Mediterranean countries since its very first years of development, with a rate increasing from 18.5% in 1950 to about 62% after 2000 (İstanbul ve Göç Konferansı Bildiri Kitabı, Boğaziçi ve Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi, 1995, p.1.). Cities with already inadequate infrastructure facilities have to face congested population problems coupled with illegal settlements due to migration from the eastern part of the country to the western large metropolises. Smaller coastal settlements have become increasingly urbanized as a result of legislative and institutional incentives to encourage tourism investment. Construction of hotels and secondary housing cooperatives has exploded as a result of unearned and real income expectations to the detriment of fertile land, creating aesthetic pollution and loss of tangerine and olive orchards.After a thorough assessment of the impacts of urbanization and tourism on coastal zones, in general, the problem-specific areas, on the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas with regard to overriding issues such as salinization of the coastal aquifers due to overexploitation (e.g. Çeşme) and dense construction of multi-storey buildings along the shoreline that resulted in loss of agricultural land (e.g. Mersin), are highlighted and the means for preserving and protecting the Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey from further deterioration are proposed.
Article
This paper provides evidence on local environmental mobilizations against tourism activities in Greece, Spain, and Portugal from the early 70s to the mid 90s. Its ultimate aim is to introduce to the sociology of tourism and environment a social movements approach. The paper focuses on active host community environmental groups and the groups they challenge. It examines these groups’ approaches and actions and the impact on tourism, local ecosystems, and sustainable development. The paper further highlights the determining factors of such conflicts and their deeper implications concerning socio-environmental aspects of Southern European societies.RésuméLe tourisme et l’environnement: une perspective de mouvements sociaux. Cet article porte témoignage des mobilisations environnementales locales contre les activités de tourisme en Grèce, en Espagne et au Portugal du début des années 70 au milieu des années 90. Son propos est de présenter une approche de mouvements sociaux à la sociologie du tourisme et de l’environnement. L’article focalise sur des groupes environnementaux actifs dans la communauté d’accueil et sur les groupes que ceux-là mettent en question. Il examine les approches et les actions des groupes et leur impact sur le tourisme, les écosystèmes locaux et le développement durable. En plus, l’article souligne les facteurs déterminants de tels conflits et leurs implications profondes pour les aspects socio-environnementaux des sociétés de l’Europe du Sud.
Article
Many environmental indicators have been accepted within the tourism industry. However while purporting to represent the environment, indicator research fails to evaluate the ecological impact of tourism. There are well-founded reasons for this failure, including the ambiguous character of science, which promises a regulatory regime for managing the environmental impact of tourism, but which cannot be delivered. To illustrate this dilemma, the difficulties involved in developing bio-indicators for a coral reef are discussed. The inconclusiveness of current knowledge is illustrated and attention drawn to the disturbing implication that the present situation offers little protection when called upon in the arbitration of land use decisions.RésuméLes indices écologiques s'utlisent de plus en plus dans le tourisme. Cependant, tout en se vantant de préférencier l'environnement, les recherches sur les indices écologiques ne mesurent pas l'impact écologique du tourisme. Il y a des raisons biens fondées pour ceci, y-inclus le charactère ambigu de la science. Les promesses d'un régime régulatoire sur l'impact sur l'environnement ne peuvent se réaliser. Comme illustration de cette ambiguité, nous présentons les difficultés de développement des indices de l'état biologique pour un récif de corail. L'inconclusivité des indices dans l'état actuel de nos connaissances est démontrée, et nous attirons attention au fait déconcertant que ces indices n'aident pas à protéger le milieu naturel dans les arbitrations sur l'utlisation du sol.
Article
Tourism in China has rapidly developed since the adoption of open-door economic reform policy in 1978. There is still little understanding about the role played by the Chinese government in the development of tourism. This paper represents a first attempt to identify the roles played by the Chinese government in developing its international inbound tourism. The period examined is from 1978, a turning point for China’s development, to the present. Generally, the Chinese government has played the following roles: Operator – involving ownership and provision of the infrastructure for tourism development and operation of tourism business activities; Regulator – formulating and implementing regulations to control tourism business; Investment stimulator – stimulating tourism investment through the provision of financial incentives; Promoter – spending money on the promotion of tourism in the international market; Coordinator – coordinating activities of different government departments with respect to tourism; and Educator – establishing a system of tourism education institutions and providing tourism education and training programs. Analysis of the policies and government roles in China was examined systematically in terms of demands, decisions, outputs and impacts for each of the three historical periods identified, namely 1978–1985, 1986–1991 and 1992 to the present. The framework adopted for examining the policies in terms of demands, decisions, etc. represents the specific policy issue components of the tourism policy-making process suggested by Hall’s model (1994). Based on China’s experiences, some implications of the governmental roles for other developing countries are suggested.
Article
Central America harbors some of the most important remnants of tropical vegetation at a global level. Its rainforests, among the most representative tropical ecosystems, cover only 5% of the Earth's surface but are home to half of the world's biological diversity. Costa Rica, the second smallest country on the Central American isthmus, has been able to establish a national network of protected areas safeguarding tropical biodiversity on more than 25% of its territory. These areas serve educational purposes and attract scientists and tourists, with important implications for the development of the surrounding rural communities. The creation in 1972 of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve brought important socioeconomic and environmental changes to adjacent communities. These changes were both positive (eg introduction of new rural production methods) and problematic (sudden urban development without prior land use planning).
Article
Preserving wildlife in a pristine state on a large scale is no longer feasible in view of continued human population increases, economic development, habitat fragmentation and degradation, the introduction of nonnative species, and commercialisation of wildlife products. The wise use of the planet's remaining wildlife resources will depend on management practices which recognise that indigenous people are integral parts of ecosystems. Community-based conservation, which attempts to devolve responsibility for the sustainable use of wildlife resources to the local level, can include consumptive activities, such as trophy hunting, as well as nonconsumptive forms of tourism. The trophy hunting management systems of six countries of eastern and southern Africa are profiled and critiqued, demonstrating a number of essential conditions for obtaining optimal wildlife conservation and community benefits.
Article
The recent diversification of domestic tourism needs in Japan, seen particularly in increasing demand for ecotourism and green tourism, shows that there is much potential for further development of nature tourism, much of which takes place in protected areas. However, numerous challenges exist. Based on case-study research on tourism taking place in three national parks, four common success factors of these sites were identified, namely, institutional arrangements; self-regulations related to conservation; high environmental awareness; and the existence of partnerships. This article demonstrates how, under the current system of Japanese national park management, community-based tourism can be facilitated by building upon these success factors. This would address the existing challenges to tourism in protected areas, and in turn would significantly contribute to the sustainable management of protected areas. Finally, this article points to the need for future research that focuses on the wider applicability of the lessons learned from the Japanese experience.
Article
The paper provides a review of available information on the impact of recreation and tourism on environments, particularly on vegetation and soil, in Australia, with an emphasis on forests. Efforts have been made to compare the current research and development situation in Australia with some overseas countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. While many documents reveal that Australia has been experiencing an increasingly high level of recreation and tourism use in its environments, only limited studies of environmental impacts of recreation and tourism have been published. Compared with other developed countries, particularly the United Kingdom and the United States, Australia lags behind in undertaking research in this area. The results of these limited studies and some observations indicate that the most common recreational and tourist activities (such as bush walking, camping, horse-riding) can, if not well managed, adversely affect the values of Australian natural and semi-natural resources. Overall, they can affect the vegetation and other recreational sites physically and biologically. Physical effects include track formation, soil loss and/or compaction and an increase in fire frequency. Littering and water pollution are also seen as impacts associated with bush walking and camping. Biological effects include causing damage to vegetation, increasing risk of myrtle wilt disease and the spread of the soil pathogen,Phytophthora cinnamomi, as well as assisting weed dispersal. Based on the information reviewed, the authors suggest the following areas as priorities for future research into the environmental impact of recreation and tourism in Australia: determine the type of natural features that attract recreation use; determine the quantitative relationship between the impact and the level of recreation and tourism use for different activities within major vegetation habitats; ascertain site carrying capacity or environment thresholds for major vegetation habitats and recreation activities; and determine the impacts of recreation and tourism for major regions and major vegetation habitats where there have been considerable nature-based recreation and tourism activities.1998 Academic Press
Article
Ecotourism has been proposed as a viable economic activity that can minimize negative human impacts on wildlife habitat and provide an incentive to preserve natural areas. The potential of ecotourism as a wildlife conservation strategy is limited by its inability to insure the long-term protection of environmental assets and by its tendency to contribute directly to environmental degradation. Ecotourism is a proxy market designed to align consumers' preferences for recreation with the protection of environmental assets. Because it does not necessarily address the direct protection of those assets, it is prone to market failure. Pressures on governments and firms involved in providing ecotourism services will impair their ability to minimize detrimental effects of human economic behavior. Ethical appeals to minimize harmful practices face serious obstacles. Promoting ecotourism may actually distract from more appropriate means of environmental protection.
Article
This paper and its successor examine the gap between ecotourism theory as revealed in the literature and ecotourism practice as indicated by its on-site application. A framework is suggested which, if implemented through appropriate management, can help to achieve a balance between conservation and development through the promotion of synergistic relationships between natural areas, local populations and tourism. The framework can also be used to assess the status of ecotourism at particular sites.
Article
Travel and tourism have historically faced environmental challenges ranging from the impact of aircraft noise, largely at major departure airports, through provision of infrastructure at destinations, to interaction with communities and wildlife. The emerging challenge for air transport is the contribution of gases emitted by aircraft engines to the greenhouse effect and climate change. This is a relatively recent area for public attention and, while progress may seem slow to some observers, a number of options are under active study. Aviation will remain an essential part of the world's communication and transportation network but growth will increasingly be linked to solutions to these environmental challenges.
Article
While sustainable development is recognized as an essential requirement for achieving economic goals without degrading the environment, major problems arise in defining methods for formulating and implementing sustainable strategic actions at the macro-level, including islands. Bearing in mind this limitation, this research paper will attempt to present a strategic planning methodology for drawing up strategic issues for tourism development from the point of view of sustainability, which is particularly appropriate to islands. The authors first review existing literature on sustainable development with a view to defining a conceptual approach to sustainability and identifying particular areas for sustainable tourism development in the island context. A methodology for formulating strategic issues for sustainable tourism development in Gran Canaria is then drawn up. Sociocultural aspects, the environment and the economy, with particular emphasis on tourism, are examined in order to identify major strategic issues for sustainable development in Gran Canaria. Copyright Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Article
Environmental security, as the opposite of environmental vulnerability (fragility), is multi-layered, multi-scale and complex, existing in both the objective physical, biological, and social realm, and the subjective realm of individual human perception. In this paper, we detect and quantify the scales and spatial patterns of human land use as ecosystem disturbances at different hierarchical levels in a panarchy of social–ecological landscapes (SELs) by using a conceptual framework that characterizes multi-scale disturbance patterns exhibited on satellite imagery over a four-year time period in Apulia (South Italy). In this paper we advance the measure of the functional importance of ESPs provided by natural areas and permanent cultivations based on their effectiveness at performing the services. Any landscape element contributes to the overall proportion of disturbance in the region, through its composition of disturbed locations (pixels), and to the overall disturbance connectivity through its configuration. Such landscape elements represent, in turn, functional units for assessing functional contributions of ES providers at different scale(s) of operation of the service. We assume that such effectiveness at performing the services will result directly affected by how much disturbance surrounds ESP locations at different neighborhoods. Multi-scale measurements of the composition and spatial configuration of disturbance are the basis for evaluating vulnerability of ecosystem services through multi-scale disturbance profiles concerning land-use locations where most of ecosystem service providers reside. Vulnerability estimates are derived from the identification of scale range couplings or mismatches among land-use disturbances related to different land uses and revealed by trajectories from the global profile to local spatial patterns. Scale mismatches of disturbances in space and time determine the role of land use as a disturbance source or sink, and may govern the triggering of landscape changes affecting ecosystem service providers at the scale(s) of operation of the service. The role of natural areas and permanent cultivations (olive groves and vineyards) in providing disturbance regulation across scales in South Italy has consequences for regional SELs since it may govern if and how disturbances associated with land-use intensification (sources) will affect the functional contribution of ES providers.
Article
The Maldives host a sophisticated and competitive international tourist industry which has replaced fishing as the dominant economic activity. With their rich tropical reef ecosystems and the abundant biodiversity of their marine environment, a total of 86 uninhabited islands had been converted into Resort Islands by the end of 2000. Resort Islands are equipped with comprehensive facilities for accommodation, food, recreation and leisure. They are also strictly reserved for foreign tourists and guarantee complete privacy. This gives the benefit of averting conflicts of acculturation with local islanders. In the arena of impacts on the physical environment, however, the consumptive leisure lifestyle of the tourists has been harmful to the Resort Islands as seen in sewage, garbage and waste pollution, as well as reef destruction and beach erosion. While the government of the Maldives takes great effort to harmonise tourism and the environment, the growth of mass tourism in the last 20 years has engendered grave environmental impacts. For future sustainable development of the Resort Islands, the tourists' environmental awareness must be increased to promote greater responsibility for the protection of the fragile coral and reef ecosystems of the Maldives.
This paper provides a social and ecological analysis of tourism development in Kenya and identifies possible solutions to the problems confronting the tourism industry in the country. These problems include the degradation and reduction of the quality of the tourism product; decreasing per capita tourist revenues; and an unequitable distribution of the country's tourism earnings among different stakeholders. To minimize the negative impacts of tourism, Kenya needs alternative tourism strategy which derives from the country's dynamic and evolving socio-economic and environmental demands. Consequently, policy and institutional mechanisms need to be put in place which encourage local participation in tourism project design and management. Increased linkage of the tourism industry with other domestic economic sectors will decrease the leakage rates and increase the multiplier effect. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Over the past 50 years the Sherpa-inhabited Mt Everest region of Nepal has become a premier international mountaineering and trekking destination. Tourism development has brought prosperity to many Sherpas. It has also, however, had adverse impacts on regional forests and alpine vegetation because of the use of firewood by camping groups and inns and the felling of trees to construct inns and other tourist facilities. Concern that tourism was causing widespread deforestation helped catalyse the 1976 establishment of an inhabited protected area, Sagarmatha (Mt Everest) National Park, in the Khumbu region and spurred the implementation of a series of forest conservation and alternative energy development measures both within the national park and in a recently declared buffer zone in the adjacent Pharak region. This paper examines the changing pressures that tourism has placed on regional forests and alpine vegetation over the past half century and their role in regional vegetation change. This analysis is based primarily on detailed accounts of past and present forest use and change obtained during fieldwork conducted in all Khumbu and Pharak villages, along with corroborating evidence from early foreign visitors’ accounts and photographs. Contrary to some early reports it now appears there has actually been little deforestation since 1950. The continuing use of firewood by inns, however, has contributed to the thinning of forests in some parts of the national park and to the depletion of shrub juniper in the most heavily visited alpine regions. There has been a greater impact on forests just outside the national park, which have been heavily thinned over an extensive area in order to provide timber to build inns within the national park.
Article
This paper reviews some of the literature and guidance provided for businesses considering responses to the environmental aspects and impacts of their tourist activities. It concentrates on the role of individual business organizations within the tourism industry and examines both supply-side (production) and demand-side (consumption) policies. In its review of a number of guidelines the paper attempts to make recommendations for improving both the provision of tourism services through supply chain management and destination management, and the education of the consumer in ways which make tourism more consistent with the concept of sustainable development. This emphasizes the need for businesses involved in tourism provision not only to look at the supply side and the demand side of their activities but also to provide stronger signals between the two parts so that more meaningful progress is made towards sustainable tourism. It places considerable emphasis on the role of intermediaries in bridging the gap between demand and supply. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Article
Economic valuation of ecosystem damages is an important building block in the development of full cost accounting which may lead to improvements in environmental policy making. Based on an analysis of the negative impacts of land reclamation on coastal ecosystem services and a review of different valuation techniques, this study develops a framework for selecting relevant valuation methods for different ecosystem services and for developing total ecosystem loss estimates for land reclamation projects. We illustrate the framework through a case study of Tong'an Bay, Xiamen, China where four reclamation schemes have been proposed. The results show that the costs associated with ecosystem damages are significantly higher than the internal costs of these reclamation projects.
Article
Mussoorie, a hill resort in the Garhwal Himalaya reveals the changing trends and impacts of tourist activity on its environment. This study was carried out during 1993–1994 and it showed that while Mussoorie had a permanent residential population of 25400 during the winter months, in the peak tourist season of May and June the population exceeded 200000 per month. Because of this huge influx of tourists the demand for lodges/hotels and other related infra-structure and super-structure facilities and amenities in the area was enormous, and it imposed a great stress on the natural environment. The data collected showed that from 1958 to 1988 the number of tourists had increased gradually but that from 1989 tourism in the town escalated following the political disturbances in the Kashmir Valley. The main purpose of the tourism was recreation (80%). It was recorded that the greatest number (60%) of the tourists were middle aged, 53% of the tourists worked in professional services. The majority of the tourists preferred to use the indigenous hotels and about 96% of the tourists used a private vehicle rather than public transport. The installation of modern tourist related facilities and infra-structure has led to the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. Tourist facility development is often disorderly and scattered. To reduce the traffic to Mussoorie town it is suggested that some nearby places like Dhanolti and Park estate should be developed for tourism.
Article
The manifold influences of tourism on coastal areas are analysed from three different angles: (1) The development of seaside tourism including the changes of socio-economic and settlement patterns; (2) its cultural impact on the local population; (3) its environmental aspects. Point 1 is described with the help of a model showing four peripheries in space and time: (I) the North Sea and Baltic coasts since the 18th century; (II) Southern Europe during the 19th century; (III) the North African shores around 1950; (IV) the tropical oceans after 1965. Within every periphery, several phases (pioneer, domestic, international) can be distinguished according to the origin of tourists, the investment, the know-how etc. While the beginning of every phase is dominated from abroad, later-on national actors play an increasing role. This applies also to point 2, which refers mainly to developing countries. As for point 3, mass tourism may result detrimentally on water supply, sensitive coastal landscapes, socio-cultural identity etc. Among the questions to be raised are: How far are industrial societies responsible for any negative impacts of tourism, and what are the chances for, and a general consciousness on, a sustainable tourism development?
Article
There is growing interest in ecological footprint analysis in aiding our understanding of societal demands upon the biosphere. Increasingly, attention is being focused on potential new applications of the technique. Tourism is one of the world's largest industries and can play a major part in encouraging more consumerist lifestyles. It is now widely accepted that tourism development may have profound impacts on local environments, and that, consequently, the sustainable development of tourism at destination areas is an important issue. However, sustainable tourism studies rarely look beyond the destination area, and there has been no substantive recognition of the wider ecological footprint of tourism activities. This paper attempts to connect, conceptually, the realms of sustainable tourism and ecological footprint thinking. In so doing, various conceptualisations of the 'touristic ecological footprint' (TEF) are suggested, along with some potential applications. It is argued that primary research should focus on calculating the touristic ecological footprint associated with individual tourism products, throughout the product's life-cycle. As well as bringing another dimension to our understanding of tourism's actual ecological demand, it is also argued that the concept of the touristic ecological footprint may be used to clarify theoretical aspects of the sustainable tourism debate, helping to rejuvenate this debate in the process.
Article
A simple two sector and two factor general equilibrium model is developed to study the interactions among tourism, other economic sectors, and the environment. Tourism is considered an endogenous activity and modeled as a function of prices and environmental damage. Two types of the latter functions are considered. It is assumed that the damage occurs from activities related to the resource sector and that activities from both the resource and the composite tourism sector affect the environment. Simulation results suggest that impacts of policy changes differ with the type of environmental damage function but that the integration of environmental linkages into economic impacts models may reveal significant differences in results.RésuméLe modelage de l’impact du tourisme pour les régions d’extraction de ressources. Un simple modèle d’équilibre général à deux secteurs et à deux facteurs est développé pour étudier l’interaction parmi le tourisme, d’autres secteurs économiques et l’environnement. Le tourisme se considère comme une activité endogène et comme une fonction de prix et de détérioration environnementale. On examine deux sortes de fonctions de cette détérioration. On suppose que les dommages sont causés par des activités liées au secteur des ressources et que les secteurs du tourisme composite et des ressources ont un effet sur l’environnement. Les résultats de simulation suggèrent que les impacts des changements politiques varient selon le type de fonction des dommages environnementaux mais que l’intégration des liens environnementaux dans des modèles d’impacts économiques peuvent révélér des différences significatives dans les résultats.
Article
This article presents an analysis of the challenges to sustainable tourism development in developing countries with special references to Turkey as a part of the developing world. It was found that the factors that have emerged as challenges to sustainable tourism development related to priorities of national economic policy, the structure of public administration, an emergence of environmental issues, over commercialisation, and the structure of international tourism system. It concludes that although the principles of sustainable tourism development are beneficial, their implementation is an enormously difficult task to achieve and owing to the prevailing socio-economic and political conditions in the developing world. Hence, any operation of principles of sustainable tourism development necessitates hard political and economic choices, and decisions based upon complex socio-economic and environmental trade-offs. Moreover, it states that implementation of these hard decisions may not be possible unless international organisations encourage and collaborate with governments of developing countries to implement the principles of sustainable tourism development.
Article
In this study, data from a contingent valuation survey was used to estimate the recreation value, in economic terms, of various stand types within boreal forest landscapes, given by four different silvicultural systems. In a model, using recreation value functions and a maximum likelihood procedure, recreation value contributions in monetary terms were estimated for each stand type, or phase of the rotation period. Further, the shares of the different stand types were modified in the estimated value functions to analyse the potentials for increasing the recreation value of the forest landscapes. The shelterwood system yielded the forest landscape with the highest recreation value and the clearcutting system the lowest, both for equal and modified stand type shares. The results indicate that the choice of silvicultural strategy is very important in order to produce timber and forest recreation environments in an economically efficient way.
Article
In many developing countries governance is highly centralized. The considerable potential benefits of decentralization for such countries are widely espoused, but less attention is paid to the potential difficulties and dangers. This paper develops a framework of issues to consider when evaluating the decentralization of tourism governance, including its potential benefits and shortcomings. There is examination of the transfer of authority and the distribution of power, legitimacy and accountability. The framework is used to assess tourism governance in the Turkish coastal resort of Belek, notably the involvement of central and local government, a privatized company, and a nongovernmental organization. The difficulties and threats linked to decentralization in Belek warn against an uncritical adoption of such policies.RésuméLa gouvernance centralisée et décentralisée du tourisme en Turquie. Dans beaucoup de pays en voie de développement, la gouvernance est extrêmement centralisée. Les bénéfices de la décentralisation pour de tels pays sont généralement soutenus, mais on prête moins d’attention aux possibles difficultés et dangers. Cet article développe une structure théorique pour les questions à considérer pour évaluer la décentralisation de la gouvernance du tourisme, y compris les avantages et les désavantages éventuels. On examine le transfert de l’autorité et la distribution du pouvoir, de la légitimité et de la responsabilité. La structure est utilisée pour évaluer la gouvernance du tourisme à Belek, une station côtière turque, surtout le rôle des gouvernements central et local, d’une entreprise privatisée et d’une organisation non gouvernementale. Les difficultés et les menaces associées à la décentralisation à Belek servent d’avertissement contre l’adoption sans réserves de telles politiques.
Article
During the last two decades tourism in Turkey has become a mass industry concentrated in the western and southern coastal areas. As these areas were part of the more developed regions of the country, tourism in its current structure contributes to the strengthening of interregional disparities in Turkey. In addition, in the centres of mass tourism socio-economical unsustainable demand and supply structures evolved. Simultanously, the domestic tourism market has increased, and it can offer a socio-economic alternative to the further expansion of international mass tourism. Thus, the so far little developed South-East and East Anatolia, with an abundance of historical sights and natural highlights, can offer new destinations for domestic travellers while contributing to a sustainable development of these regions. As a precondition a national domestic tourism policy, stable prices and a strong promotion of the new destinations are essential.
Article
The Himalayas in Nepal have become popular destinations for international tourism, which has rapidly increased in recent years with serious socioeconomic and environmental consequences. In the light of the recently concluded Visit Nepal 1998 Year, it is important to reconsider the environmental impacts of tourism, and reformulate strategies that would make tourism a viable industry and a sustainable alternative in this country. Drawing from the experience of the three most popular destinations in the Nepal Himalayas, this paper discusses some national level policy and management issues. The paper concludes by stressing the need for more scientific research and forging a partnership between local people, the service industry, and tourism professionals.RésuméLe tourisme dans les régions protégées: l’Himâlaya népalais. L’Himâlaya du Népal est devenu une destination prisée du tourisme international, dont la croissance rapide des années récentes dans cette région a eu des conséquences socio-économiques et environnementaux sérieuses. Puisque le Népal vient de fêter l’Année 1998 de la Visite, il est important de réexaminer les impacts environnementaux du tourisme et de reformuler des stratégies pour faire du tourisme une industrie viable et un choix durable dans ce pays. En puisant des expériences des trois destinations les plus en vogue de l’Himâlaya népalais, cet article examine la politique nationale et des questions d’administration. L’article se termine en soulignant le besoin de faire plus de recherches scientifiques et d’établir une association entre habitants, services et professionnels du tourisme.
Article
The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and several classification schemes. We argue that any attempt at classifying ecosystem services should be based on both the characteristics of the ecosystems of interest and a decision context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. Because of this there is not one classification scheme that will be adequate for the many contexts in which ecosystem service research may be utilized. We discuss several examples of how classification schemes will be a function of both ecosystem and ecosystem service characteristics and the decision-making context.
Article
Coastal tourism started in the 19th Century and has increased in non-linear fashion ever since, stimulated by a combination of developments in transport technology and rising prosperity. Initially, mainly national in character, the introduction of roll-on, roll-off ferries and inexpensive air transport caused an exponential 28-fold rise in international tourism between 1950 and the start of the 21st Century. This review considers the impact of tourism at two levels: (1) that created by the sheer numbers of tourists and their demands (‘mass tourism and transport’) and (2) that resulting from individual, often novel, forms of transport (‘personal leisure transport’). Under (1), the consequences of the construction of coastal resorts and roads, marinas and jetties for habitat fragmentation and reduced biodiversity are described. Next, the effects of large cruise ships (now some 250 in number) are considered, particularly in relation to unregulated pollution and the delivery of substantial numbers of tourists to remote destinations. Thirdly, the literature related to disturbance caused by intertidal trampling by tourists on rocky/sandy shores is reviewed, followed by a section devoted to the unappreciated effects of beach ‘cleaning’ (i.e. removal of natural strandlines as well as litter) that is practiced throughout the world's sandy beach resorts. Finally, the potentially positive area of coastal ecotourism is considered, but evidence is assembled to highlight the problems associated with too high a demand. Under (2), the impact of a range of personal leisure transport modes is considered. These range from relatively innocuous pursuits (e.g. swimming, surfing, sailboarding and dinghy sailing), to an extremely popular sport (SCUBA diving) that is marketed for its environmentally-friendly nature, yet causes measurable deterioration in the world's coral ecosystems despite good management practices. The impact of motorboats is considered, particularly in the context of transmission of non-native species, while the highly polluting and disturbing technology of ‘personal watercraft’ is evaluated. Finally, the uncontrolled emergence of new ‘extreme sports’ (e.g. ‘coasteering’, kitesurfing) is identified as a future problem.
Article
Sustainable development calls for wise management of natural, built, and sociocultural resources in destination areas. Resources created mainly for tourism are used in time by the local population as well. Many others are shared in common with local people in everyday life. More often than not, resources are overused and degraded, as is the unfortunate fate of most ‘common pool resources’. When this happens, sustainable development is severely threatened: economic wellbeing declines, environmental conditions worsen, social injustice grows, and tourist satisfaction drops. This paper analyzes the central role that common pool resources play in sustainable tourism development, outlines policy design principles for their management, and offers future research directions.RésuméLe tourisme soutenable et la question des biens communs. Le développement soutenable exige la gestion judicieuse des ressources naturelles, construites et socioculturelles des régions de destination. Certaines des ressources, initialement destinées au tourisme, peuvent être utilisées ultérieurement par la population locale. D’autres ressources sont partagées avec la population locale dans la vie quotidienne. La plupart du temps, les ressources son surexploitées et dégradées, comme c’est souvent le cas des biens communs. C’est alors que le développement soutenable est sérieusement menacé: les conditions économiques et environnementales sont détériorées, l’injustice sociale augmente et la satisfaction touristique baisse. Cet article analyse le rôle majeur joué par les ressources communes dans le développement du tourisme soutenable, donne des principes pour une politique de gestion et propose des directions de recherche.
Article
In this paper data on the bird community overwintering in the subalpine zone of Sagarmatha National Park (Khumbu Himal area, Nepal) are presented, with particular emphasis on habitat structure and bird–habitat relationships. The impact of land use and management on the conservation of diversity is analysed and discussed. Four habitat types were considered: mixed forest, pure juniper forest, dwarf rhododendron shrubbery and cultivations. Mixed forest supports the richest avifauna, but forest birds are sensitive to over-exploitation of their habitat: bird density, species richness and diversity are significantly lower in heavily utilised forest. Here, the lower density of rhododendrons, firs and birches, together with their younger age, seem to be unattractive to insectivorous gleaners and granivores, which prefer tree- and understorey-rich spots of unutilised forest. Terraced cultivations also are a rich habitat for wintering birds, and traditional cultivations with hedgerows and scattered bushes have a great potential for bird conservation. Juniper woods are important habitats mainly for frugivores, whereas dwarf rhododendron shrubberies support the poorest avifauna. This study emphasises that forest birds and habitats are severely threatened. As deforestation is the consequence of the tourist pressure for fuelwood along the trekking route to Mt. Everest Base Camp, a strict regulation of tourist-related developments is essential to preserve biodiversity and manage land uses within sustainability.
Article
In 2000, almost 700 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide. Even though a global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment, its consequences have never been assessed and quantified. In this contribution, five major aspects of the leisure-related alteration of the environment are investigated: (1) the change of land cover and land use, (2) the use of energy and its associated impacts, (3) the exchange of biota over geographical barriers and the extinction of wild species, (4) the exchange and dispersion of diseases, and (5), a psychological consequence of travel, the changes in the perception and the understanding of the environment initiated by travel.
Article
This study investigates residents' attitudes to tourism impacts on forests within the larger framework of economic, social and general environmental impacts. The study site is Belek, a resort town on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, with a high concentration of tourists. The results of the survey indicate that residents have favorable attitudes towards tourism development in the area, but they also show widely held concern for the negative effects of tourism, mainly the impacts on the forests in the area. Moreover, these forest-related negative impacts are not attributed to the tourism activity or the tourist themselves, but to the quality of decision-making by the public authority, which is perceived as failing to exercise sound management and fair judgment in the allocation and use of land. The responses show uniformity related to perceived negative general environmental impacts.
Article
Sweden has a vast quantity of forests and the Right of Common Access allows tourists to freely enter any forest no matter who owns it. An economic valuation study was carried out in two tourism areas, one in the southern part of the country and one in the northern part. It was shown that a considerable portion of the value to tourists is attributable to forest characteristics. Furthermore, the results suggest that this value can be increased by modifying forest management practices; for example, by making clearcuts smaller, even if there were more of them, and by increasing the proportion of broad leaved trees in forest stands.RésuméLa valeur des forêts pour le tourisme en Suède. La Suède a une vaste étendue de forêts; le Droit d'Accès Commun permet aux touristes d'entrer dans n'importe quelle forêt, qui que soit son propriétaire. On a mené une étude d'évaluation économique dans deux régions touristiques, dans le nord et dans le sud. On démontre que la valeur pour les touristes de ces deux régions se doit en grande mesure aux attraits des forêts. En plus, les résultats suggère qu'il est possible d'augmenter cette valeur en modifiant les pratiques de l'exploitation forestière, en coupant des sections plus étroites, par exemple, même si elles étaient plus nombreuses, et en augmentant la proportion des arbres feuillus dans les groupes forestiers.
Article
The principal aim of this paper is to evaluate the actions of tourism stakeholders towards nature within the context of environmental ethics. Through an understanding of the ethical stance taken by stakeholders towards nature, it becomes possible to comprehend actions and evaluate their suitability. The conceptual literature in the field of environmental ethics is utilized to analyze the policy statements and actions of stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the majority of them now pursue an ethic of conservation vis-a-vis an instrumental use of nature. However there seems to be little desire for a further shift to a non-anthropocentric environmental ethic.RésuméLe but principal de cet article est d’évaluer les actions des protagonistes du tourisme envers la nature dans le contexte d’une éthique environnementale. Si on comprend la position éthique des protagonistes envers la nature, il devient possible de comprendre leurs actions et de juger si elles sont convenables. On se sert de la littérature conceptuelle de l’éthique environnementale pour analyser les déclarations de principes et les actions des protagonistes. La conclusion principale est que la majorité des protagonistes suivent une éthique de sauvegarde en ce qui concerne l’utilisation de la nature. Il y a pourtant peu d’intérêt pour une éthique moins anthropocentrique de l’environnement.
Article
The pressure of globalization is having a major impact on the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of the European tourism industry. Globally acting suppliers, decreasing transportation costs and emerging new destinations have put pressure on the European SMEs in traditional destinations. As many European countries are economically very dependent on tourism, a need for effective policy support arises. The paper focuses on the questions: What could be done to restore the European tourism industry as a growth engine for income and employment? as well as: What roles should the government sector and the private sector respectively play? The implementation of flexible operating network alliances and holistic destination management techniques geared to meet ‘post-modern’ tourism demand are suggested to alleviate the impacts of globalization on SMEs.
Article
The aim of the research was to assess the physical impacts of four-wheel drive related nature-based tourism in the Central Coast Region of Western Australia. This coast is 271 km long, in a natural and largely undeveloped state, but coastal recreation impacts due to four-wheel drive use has increased significantly since the 1960s. Research methods included interpretation of aerial photographs for 1965 and 1998 for a 1 km zone, measured immediately landward from the shoreline. Features associated with recreation use, such as off-road tracks and access points to beaches were digitised and analysed using Geographic Information System. For 1965, 516.5 km of four-wheel drive tracks were measured, compared to 812.9 km in 1998. Access points to the coast also increased from 421 to 908 during the same period. Results were analysed within 25 biophysical and five local authority units. Results within biophysical units were related to physiographic setting, beach and dune type.