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Epidemiology and molecular studies in cerebrovascular disease at the late period after radiation exposure in Chornobyl
Abstract and Figures
Consensus on the radiation effects in cardiovascular system doesn't exist. More evidence is needed to conclude whether or not radiation exposure has increased the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and associated mortality. The observed excess of cerebrovascular diseases is linked to those having worked during the first six months and having cumulated doses of more than 150 mSv. Although these results are statistically compatible with those of the atomic bombings survivors study, they could only be regarded as preliminary. Latest hibakusha data supposes an increase in mortality. Industrial cohorts' studies have controversial results. According to UNSCEAR, "There are deterministic effects, such as cataracts or cardiovascular disease, for which radiation exposure is not the only known cause. If these effects occur, usually some time after high levels of exposure, and there is no specific marker for radiation exposure having caused them, it is not possible to attribute the effect with certainty to radiation exposure, but only to express a probability that radiation was wholly or partly the cause,". The existing level of knowledge allows considering the contributive role of the immune function changes of the late period after irradiation to the cerebrovascular pathology pathways. Therefore, it is also actually taking into account an interaction between the immune and nervous systems. Encephalopathy ("radiation encephalopathy", "discirculatory encephalopathy"- DEP, "demielinisation" encephalopathy) according to medical statistics is one of the most common disorders of a late period after irradiation and one of the most frequent diagnosis for establishing a causal connection of disease with a radiation factor. At the same time, the nature of this disorder is not identified, and many researchers do not recognize it as an effect of irradiation. In some studies it was depicted as a result of direct brain tissue radiation damage, or as an indirect effect due to damage of vascular circulation. Development of the brain pathology as a result of CVD and vegetative dysfunctions, and the substantial vasculatory changes revealed in encephalopathy patients provide support to a latter assumption. More evidence is needed to conclude whether or not radiation exposure has increased the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and associated mortality .
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