Cognitive impairment in epileptics may be a consequence of the epileptogenic process as well as antiepileptic medication. Thus, there is a need for drugs, which can suppress epileptogenesis as well as prevent cognitive impairment. In the present study, the effect of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (CA) (100 and 300 mg/kg), an Indian medicinal plant known to possess antiepileptic, ... [Show full abstract] cognitive-enhancing and antioxidant property, was evaluated on the course of kindling development, kindling-induced learning deficit and oxidative stress markers in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled rats. Male Wistar rats were injected PTZ (30 mg/kg ip) once every alternate day (48+/-2 h) until the development of the kindling. Passive avoidance test and spontaneous locomotor activity were carried out 24 and 48 h after the last administration of PTZ, while the oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA] and glutathione) were carried out in the whole brain upon completion of the behavioral assessment. The administration of CA (300 mg/kg orally) decreased the PTZ-kindled seizures and showed improvement in the learning deficit induced by PTZ kindling as evidenced by decreased seizure score and increased latencies in passive avoidance behavior. However, low dose of the CA (100 mg/kg) showed improvement only in the learning deficit due to the kindling and failed to improve the seizure score. The findings suggest the potential of aqueous extract of CA as adjuvant to antiepileptic drugs with an added advantage of preventing cognitive impairment.