Article

Stress relief: The role of exercise in stress management

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

LEARNING OBJECTIVE: • Exercise can be an effective component of a stress management program, and all types of exercise can be beneficial for stress management. Exercise programs consistent with the current recommendations to improve health can be prescribed to manage stress. Fitness professionals should recognize that it might be necessary to refer a client to a psychologist or other health care provider to help develop strategies for managing stressors that produce chronic and acute episodic stress.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Emotional processing, stress response, and salience are also negatively affected by rising social risk, and potentially contribute to symptoms of mental illness and reduced resiliency in combatting various stressors (Meyer-Lindenberg & Tost, 2012). The protective effects of exercise adherence in attenuating maladaptive management of acute and long-term stress, have been well documented (Jackson, 2013). The physiological basis of exercise-attenuated stress is influenced by hormonal changes, as well as neurotransmitter activity (Jackson, 2013), including dopamine and serotonin action on cerebral structures; especially the brain's limbic system, which attends to emotional processing of negative and positive stimuli (Esch & Stefano, 2010). ...
... The protective effects of exercise adherence in attenuating maladaptive management of acute and long-term stress, have been well documented (Jackson, 2013). The physiological basis of exercise-attenuated stress is influenced by hormonal changes, as well as neurotransmitter activity (Jackson, 2013), including dopamine and serotonin action on cerebral structures; especially the brain's limbic system, which attends to emotional processing of negative and positive stimuli (Esch & Stefano, 2010). ...
... Historically, exercise has been identified as a eu-stressor which may not only benefit physical wellness (Jackson, 2013), but may also optimize cognition (Davey, 1973) in older individuals. As social risk factors, such as economic hardship, are suggested to contribute to deleterious mental and physical functioning, and mortality risk (Lynch, Kaplan, & Shema, 1997), physical activity may be critical in protecting against these adverse health outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the association between physical activity and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. adult population, with consideration by social risk. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to identify 2031 older adults, ages 60-85. Social risk was classified by measuring four NHANES variables, namely poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status, which were graded on a scale of 0-4, with higher scores corresponding with higher social risk. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess cognitive function. Physical activity was assessed via a validated self-report questionnaire. After adjustments, meeting physical activity guidelines (vs not) was associated with greater cognitive function (β = 3.0, 95% CI [1.5, 4.4], p < 0.001). In this same model, social risk status was also independently associated with cognitive function. Meeting physical activity guidelines (vs. not) was not associated with higher cognitive function among those with a social risk score of of 3 (β = -0.01; 95% CI [-6.3, 6.4], p = 0.99) or a social risk score of 4 (β = -6.8, 95% CI [-15.7, 2.0], p = 0.12). In this national sample of older adults, meeting physical activity guidelines, and degree of social risk were independently associated with cognitive function. However, physical activity was not associated with cognitive function among older adults with the highest degree of social risk.
... In previous studies, PA promoted sleep quality in various populations [28,[78][79][80]. Sleep quality benefits could be explained by positive mood changes, mental conditions, and autonomic nervous functions [81][82][83]. However, most existing studies only focused on outcomes or direct effects, while other indirect pathways are not very clear. ...
... By comparison, our findings demonstrate a potential mechanism for the benefits of PA on sleep quality in TikTok users and underline the role of stress in increasing mental health problems. PA's stress reduction function can be due to its positive impacts on hormones and neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, which may benefit emotional outcomes and further enhance sleep quality [81][82][83]85]. ...
Article
Full-text available
TikTok, the most popular social media, brings various benefits to nowadays living. However, the problematic use of TikTok has also elicited a range of health problems, such as sleep problems. Physical activity (PA) appears to play a protective role in the problematic use of TikTok and its health consequences, but the pathways between PA and sleep health are understudied. Therefore, we aimed to propose a framework to check whether PA can benefit the sleep health of TikTok users by reducing bedtime delays for TikTok. Stress and mental health issues were also considered as they are potential mediators between PA and sleep health and may also influence the problematic use of smartphones. A cross-sectional investigation that involved 660 Chinese TikTok users was conducted in April 2021. The volume of PA, perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), bedtime delay for TikTok use, and sleep quality (PSQI) were investigated through an online questionnaire survey . Structural equation modeling was employed to examine pathways from PA to sleep quality through stress, mental health issues (depression and anxiety), and bedtime delay for TikTok. We found that PA exerted a significant effect on sleep quality through indirect pathways (β = −0.056, p = 0.001). Stress was a critical mediator of all indirect pathways, and the pathway mediated by stress and mental health issues made a major contribution to the total effect (β = −0.048, p = 0.002). The identified pathways mediated by bedtime delay for TikTok were relatively weak but significant. PA showed a distinct effect on bedtime delay for TikTok through stress and mental health issues (β = −0.043, p = 0.001). In conclusion, our framework highlights some pathways to understanding the benefits of PA on TikTok users’ sleep quality . Future research is warranted to explore extra indirect pathways and re-examine the causal relationships between variables.
... Stress encompasses a series of physiological and behavioral reactions in response to new, uncertain, uncontrollable, or unpredictable situations [15]. Stress exists in three different forms: acute, episodic acute, and chronic [16], [17]. Most people experience acute stress occasionally during their everyday life, and because it is short-term, it is not considered to be harmful to one's health. ...
... Most people experience acute stress occasionally during their everyday life, and because it is short-term, it is not considered to be harmful to one's health. Episodic acute stress refers to acute stress that occurs more frequently [17], [18], while chronic stress refers to stress sustained for a long period of time [19]. Both episodic acute and chronic stress can have detrimental effects on an individual's physical and psychological health [20], [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Workplace-related stressors, economic strain, and lack of access to educational and basic needs have exacerbated feelings of stress in the United States. Ongoing stress can result in an increased risk of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and mental health disorders. Similarly, workplace stress can translate to a decrease in employee productivity and higher costs associated with employee absenteeism in an organization. Detecting stress and the events that correlate with stress during a workday is the first step to addressing its negative effects on health and wellbeing. Although there are a variety of techniques for stress detection using physiological signals, there is still limited research on the ability of behavioral measures to improve the performance of stress detection algorithms. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of detecting stress using deep learning, a subfield of machine learning, on a small data set consisting of electrodermal activity, skin temperature, and heart rate measurements, in combination with self-reported anxiety and stress. The model was able to detect stress periods with 96% accuracy when using the combined wearable device and survey data, compared to the wearable device dataset alone (88% accuracy). Creating multi-dimensional datasets that include both wearable device data and ratings of perceived stress could help correlate stress-inducing events with feelings of stress at the individual level and help reduce intra-individual variabilities due to the subjective nature of the stress response.
... As the disease gradually worsen, many secondary symptoms develop, such as postural instability; difficulty in swallowing, breathing, and speaking; sleep disturbance; depression and dementia [21]. Recently, an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that oxidative stress has an involvement in autosomal assertive hereditary AD with changes in amyloid β protein precursor (AβPP), presenilin-1 (PS-1), or presenilin-2 (PS2) genes [22]. ...
... It is generally accepted that exercise is beneficial for aging humans as well as patients with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease [22]. Exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase hippocampal plasticity in the offspring postnatally. ...
Article
Full-text available
Every inherent or external incentive which involves natural reactions, is recognized as stress. Extenuatory reaction to these pressures is known as stress reactions. Stress contributes to broad variety of diseases including hypertension and superior plasma cortisol, cardiac and CVDs, inflammatory bowel syndromes, type 2 diabetes, and a reduced quality of life among those suffering with cancer. Stress happens in 3 stages. The first stage is an initial stage of alarm, which produces an increase of adrenaline. Living organisms can withstand intense stress and stay alive. Second phase is a brief conflict process that the body puts up to handle the problem. Last phase is the tiredness phase, which arises when the body has utilized every part of its accessible assets. Stress affects the different organs of the whole body. As far as chronic stress is concerned, it stimulates infection in the vasculature, particularly in the coronary arteries, also can alter cholesterol levels and excessive activation of sympathetic nervous system (depletes the system of neurotransmitters, peptides, cofactors, and other mediators). Regarding, endocrine stress, it affects the hypothalamus in brain. The stress condition in n individuals experiencing pressure needs a healthy and regular eating including important supplements, moreover, physical exercise and mind rest are regularly suggested for averting stress induced anxiety-linked objections and disease.
... Even though exercise may be effective in helping a person feel calmer, this change will not resolve the main triggers of chronic stress. It may be necessary to refer people suffering from chronic stress to professionals who can help them cope with their stressors [83]. Research on exercise and stress has typically focused on aerobic exercise. ...
... Recently, there has been an increase in the amount of research examining the role of body-mind types of exercise, such as yoga and Tai Chi in reducing stress. Nevertheless, there is limited research on the role of resistance exercise in managing stress [83]. Studies of humans and animal models have shown that being physically active improves the ability of the body to handle stress due to changes in hormonal responses and that exercise results in actions of brain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, that affect the body, state of mind and behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology, which was first described in 1936, is the study of the interactions between the psyche, neural and endocrine functions and immune responses. The aim of psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology is to apply medical knowledge to the treatment of different allergic, immune, autoimmune, rheumatic, neoplastic, endocrine, cardiovascular and dental pathologies, among other disorders. Epigenetic factors and major stresses from different types of stimuli acting through distinct pathways and neurotransmitters are highly involved in altering the psychoneuroimmunoendocrine axis, resulting in the emergence of disease. The main purpose of this report is to expand the understanding of psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology and to demonstrate the importance of the above-mentioned interactions in the etiology of multiple pathologies. In this review, a search of the medical literature using PubMed (free access search engine for the Medline database of the National Library of Medicine of the United States) over the years 1936 to 2016 was conducted, and descriptive and experimental studies and reviews of the scientific literature were included.
... It is estimated that 75% to 90% of his GP visits are due to stress-related illnesses. Cardio-vascular disease, obesity, diabetes, depression, anxiety, immune system suppression, headaches, back and neck pain, and sleep disturbances are some of the stress-related health problems (26). Human and animal studies show that physical activity improves how the body handles stress through changes in hormonal responses, and exercise affects neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and serotonin, which influence mood and behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and Aim: Stress is a reaction of the body to substantial or unusual demands. It, a complex reaction of the neurologic and endocrinologic system which can initiate the ‘Fight or Flight’ response. This may lead to headache, tense muscles, insomnia. Stress can alter the memory function, immune function, metabolism, and susceptibility to the disease. The effect of stress and relationship in making teachers quite inefficient in their profession is a growing concern. The present study objective is to investigate the effective significance of exercise, relaxation, and ergonomics on physiological stress in teachers. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 teachers, both male and female were randomly selected. They supported the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were between 30 to 60 years, separated into 2 groups. They were asked to fill necessary information in the stress profile for teachers. The subjects with moderate to high stress were taken for the study and were divided into two groups. Group ‘A’ were given aerobic stepper exercise and relaxation techniques. Group ‘B’ were given aerobic stepper exercise and suggestions given on ergonomic correction for an intervention period of about 8 weeks, 5 days per week 45 minutes per session. Pre- and post-test values were taken on blood pressure and blood glucose level using sphygmomanometer and glucometer. Results: The pre- and post-test between group A and group B show a highly significant difference. However, group A showed higher significance than group B. Conclusion: According to the findings, aerobic stepper exercise with relaxation techniques shows highly significant difference and aerobic stepper exercise with ergonomic correction shows significance but aerobic exercise with relaxation technique is highly effective in reducing stress and maintaining blood pressure and glucose level in teachers.
... Asimismo, la actividad física parecía ser una forma importante de afrontar situaciones muy estresantes. En este sentido, nuestros hallazgos sobre la actividad física se relacionan con lo descrito por diversas investigaciones, ya que se sabe que el ejercicio aeróbico es una estrategia eficaz en el manejo de la ansiedad por estrés y la depresión, así como para aumentar la motivación y la calidad del sueño (Jackson, 2013;Shohani et al., 2018). Por otro lado, Shanahan et al. (2020) encontraron estrategias de afrontamiento similares a las que encontramos en esta investigación en personas adultas jóvenes, destacando su conveniencia, ya que las medidas de confinamiento no limitaban a las personas a hacer ejercicio al aire libre. ...
... This is in sync with earlier studies reporting that physical exercise, yoga, and meditation produce feel-good hormones and relax one's mind leading to reduced stress. [25][26][27] A study done by Agius et al also reported physical exercise as the most common coping strategy. 15 Family and friends play an important role in striking a balance in one's life and the same has been reflected in our study where 93% relied on them to share their feelings (Pie Chart 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dental students were adversely impacted by coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) leading to changes in their personal and professional lives. They have been under stress and adapting to new technologies and scenarios at the workplace. With the omicron threat looming, new challenges await them. The study aims to assess perceptions, stress, and coping mechanisms adopted by dental students during COVID-19 times, and to invite suggestions to improve the professional scenario. Methodology A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study was planned for third- and final-year undergraduate and postgraduate dental students from dental colleges around the Chandigarh region. Convenient sampling was done. Thirty-item questionnaire was sent via email and WhatsApp groups in the form of Google Form. p -Value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results Overall, 389 students participated, with majority (93.8%) being 21 to 25 years of age, females (75.6%), and undergraduates (90.2%). Also, 35% had a positive COVID-19 family history. Social media was the most common source (81.1%) of information regarding the pandemic. The majority received online teaching (84.83%) and gave online exams (58.6%). Altered sleep patterns (81.5%) and increased screen time (82%) were reported. Being female (stress score 11.15; p < 0.001; Mann–Whitney U test), final-year undergraduate (stress score 11.1; p < 0.017; Kruskal–Wallis test), and positive COVID-19 family history (stress score 11.83; p < 0.002; Mann–Whitney U Test) was associated with significantly higher mean stress scores. Watching movies (30%) and sharing a stressful feeling with family (47%) were the most common coping mechanisms. Students suggested flexible work schedules, more offline work with better safety protocol, and counselors for the future. Conclusion Decreasing number of stressors and increasing involvement in the coping mechanism will help students to better embrace the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... detrimental to the population's health in the long run 6 as physical exercise is believed to be one of the most powerful lifestyle measures to cope with stressful events 7,8 such as the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11th March 2020, the public health recommendations have applied lockdowns and restrictions to limit the spread of the disease. These measures determined outdoor activities and access to many forms of exercise. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical activity (PA) of the Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was designed using Google Forms services and distributed on social media platforms during the first two weeks of November 2020 to evaluate the exercise activity changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in the study population. In this research, we included those who perform any form of physical activity (n = 1103). The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 (IBM SPSS Corp, SPSS Statistics ver. 26, USA). The categorical variables were summarized as frequencies and proportions and were compared using the Chi-square. For all analyses, P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1103 out of 2,511 (43.9%) respondents who participated in the survey were physically exercising during the COVID-19 pandemic. 41.8% were exercising at an irregular frequency, while 21.5% were exercising daily, 16.8% were exercising three to five times a week, and 19.9% were exercising once or twice a week. Moreover, 282 (25.6%) respondents started doing some form of exercise during the pandemic. Those significantly were less than 18-year-old, male gender, were single, were non-smokers, and had a diploma or bachelor's degree in a health-related major. These changes in the level of exercise have been attributed by 57.8% of respondents to the health aspects where they realized the importance of exercising in strengthening the immune system against diseases, including COVID-19. Conclusion: The current study showed that lockdown, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, had a positive impact on the healthy lifestyle of the Jordanian population which was attributed to their feeling of the importance of sports practice on the immune system and the availability of time for those activities. However, the younger and individuals were more aware of the importance of these practices which highlights the importance of considering other age groups in future studies of healthy behaviors.
... It is very crucial for the doctor to encourage patients to get involved in good physical activities, thus decreasing stress. It has been found that physical activity has a role in stress management and also has an anxiolytic and antidepressant effect [25,26]. The patient should be encouraged to change their lifestyle and diet, which can be a significant factor for reducing stress in patients [27][28][29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been established that stress has a significant impact on metabolic function. Type 2 diabetes may be initiated by psychological and physical stress. The central and peripheral nervous systems are both involved in the neuroendocrine framework that underlies the underlying processes. The release of catecholamines and a rise in serum glucocorticoid concentrations caused by psychological stress enhance the requirement for insulin and insulin resistance. Experiencing persistent hyperglycemia in people with diabetes may be influenced by stress. Blood sugar levels may rise due to hormones being released in response to stress. Although this has adaptive significance in a healthy patient, in the long run, it can cause insulin resistance and lead to diabetes. Additionally, diabetes may cause abnormalities in the regulation of these stress hormones.
... Exercise is useful for stress management. (Jackson, 2013). Anger and depression are other negative emotions that were tested to be decreased after regular exercise. ...
Article
Full-text available
Middle school students are often affected by negative emotions, which significantly harm their physical and mental health. Physical exercise may be an effective form of relief. This study discusses the alleviating effect of basketball training on high school students' bad emotions. This study recruited 62 high school students and divided them into 2 groups. The control group didn’t do any basketball-related training, and the basketball training group did regular basketball training. We gather the statistics by sending out questionnaires about whether they are training or not and their anxiety score. The statistical results show that the anxiety level of the exercise group was significantly lower than that of the control group. This showed that basketball training is an effective way to relieve the bad emotions of high school students.
... Heart rate variability and measures of physical activity (motion, activity type, and heart rate) have been linked with stress in a number of prior studies [49], [61], [100]. In the present study, these measures were extracted from the Garmin Vivosmart 3, which also provided the number of steps taken and time spent being physically active. ...
Article
Given the widespread adverse outcomes of stress-exacerbated by the current pandemic-wearable sensing provides unique opportunities for automated stress tracking to inform well-being interventions. However, its success in the wild and at scale depends on the robustness and validity of automated stress inference, which is limited in current systems. In this work, we enumerate the properties of robustness and validity necessary for achieving viable automated stress inference using wearable sensors, and we underscore present challenges to constructing and evaluating these systems. Using these criteria as guiding principles, we present automated stress inference results from a large (N=606) in situ longitudinal wearable and contextual sensing study of information workers. Using a multimodal approach encompassing a wearable sensor, relative location tracking, smartphone usage, and environmental sensing, we trained regression models to predict daily self-reported perceived stress in a participant-independent fashion. Our models significantly outperformed baseline variants with shuffled stress scores and were consistent with small-to-moderate effects. Our findings highlight the performance disparity between robust and valid approaches to automated perceived stress inference and current approaches and suggest that further performance gains might require additional sensing modalities and enhanced contextual awareness than existing approaches.
... Physiological changes bought about as a result of exercise (e.g. increased endorphin levels) can lead to lower stress and anxiety (Mikkelsen et al., 2017;Jackson, 2013;Lopresti et al., 2013;DiLorenzo et al., 1999). Using competition to motivate behaviour change has been previously used for other health behaviours (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Around 400,000 working days per year are lost in the construction industry due to stress, depression or anxiety, but a large proportion of the industry – those primarily not based “on-site” – is not included in these statistics. Little research has been conducted in this group about their experiences of occupational stress. The authors explored how stress was experienced and managed by construction professionals and its perceived impact on health. Design/methodology/approach The authors interviewed 32 construction professionals in a British construction company, with varying levels of seniority and years in the industry. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed thematically. Findings Stress was viewed an inevitable and increasing part of the construction industry, exacerbated by recent economic challenges. Participants talked about a culture of stress and overwork but often felt unable to challenge it due to job insecurity. Senior management acknowledged stress was a problem within the industry and something that potentially threatened company productivity. Company-wide initiatives had been implemented to address stress levels (e.g. Mental Health First Aiders), but were criticised for ignoring underlying issues. Informal means of managing stress were identified, such as careful consideration of team dynamics, which allowed employees to form close bonds and using “banter” and camaraderie to relieve stress. However, the persistence of a macho male image meant some participants were reluctant to talk about their feelings at work. Participants described individual coping strategies, such as exercise, but these were hard to prioritise in challenging times. Originality/value There is growing recognition that health and well-being must be given greater priority in the construction industry. Industry pressures and competitive practices undermine efforts to improve staff well-being. Action must be taken at senior levels to address this conflict, while building on existing informal mechanisms of support and stress relief.
... According to Jackson (2013), consistent findings that people report feeling calmer This gap in the literature has not been addressed to the researcher's knowledge and has potentially led to discrepancies in academia in this conversation. However, Goldin et al. (2012) found that aerobic exercise was not as effective as mindfulness-based perceived stress reduction in managing stress in participants with social anxiety disorder. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Exercise has amassed much evidence as a significant buffer for stress,
... (see Fig. 1) Instead having the right amount of stress can create a balance situation and motivate individuals when they face stressful situations. Stress management can be obtained with several methods and techniques and is proved to have benefits for managing distress, such as yoga, mindfulness and meditation, CBT, and physical activities, and more others [9]- [12]. Although these methods establish benefits for stress management, they are not easily applicable in daily routines and some therapies without support or expert are not easily understandable. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Medical distress is a vicious cycle situation for both surgeons and patients and rules a significant negative impact on their quality of life. Surgeons often feel pressure from workload, exhausting operating shifts, yet their learning curve is gradual and empirical. Surgeons under stress perform less efficiently and are prone to make more mistakes during surgery. Moreover, the possibility of burnout among healthcare providers is increasing over the years. On the other side, patients generally have stress and anxiety because of their surgeries and treatment methods. Patients’ surgical anxiety is a stress factor with a potent negative emotion and can even become a permanent phobia. Literature proved that a stressed patient is a cause of surgical complication, which involves surgical outcome, safety, and recovery times. This work highlights the use of augmented reality (AR) for the case of medical distress. This chapter analyzes the operating room (OR) conditions and stress factors both for surgeons and patients in operative and non-operative scenarios and examines current approaches and AR applications for stress management. The results showed that AR-based stress management has the potential to overcome medical distress, improve surgical success, safety, and surgeons’ and patients’ well-being. However, we see that there are fewer studies about user studies and user interface design that has a huge role in the efficiency of these AR applications. In the long run, AR can positively impact society, the healthcare economy, and its efficiency and can provide mutual profit by reducing human errors and enhancing surgical performance and quality.KeywordsAugmented realityMedical distressPatientSurgeonMedical scenarioStress management
... Various studies have consistently reported that participants felt more relaxed after a 20-30 minutes aerobic workout and the relaxation lasted many hours thereafter. 29 Human and animal studies revealed physical activity facilitates optimal response to stress hormones and increases the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine that influence mood and behavior. 30 Arslan et al, 31 reported that depression was widespread among Turkish university students, negatively affecting their health-related QoL (HRQoL). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life (QoL) in college students. Methods: The participants comprised college students who led physically inactive lifestyles as revealed by their Medical Outcomes Study Form 36 (SF-36) scores, and with elevated scores of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) test. They were randomly allocated to two groups of 15 each: (a) the WBV group (male = 3, female = 12) and (b) the exercise group (male = 6, female = 9). The participants in the WBV group performed prescribed exercises while they stood on a vibrating platform whereas those in the exercise group performed the same exercises but without the vibrating platform. After four weeks of twice-a-week training, DASS and SF-36 were measured. The pre- and post-scores were compared between the groups. Results: Depression (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001), and stress (p < 0.001) were found to reduce significantly for the WBV group compared to the exercise group. There was also significant within-group improvement in all the components of SF-36 (p < 0.040). Conclusions: Exercising on the WBV platform may reduce depression, anxiety, and stress in college students and improve their overall QoL.
... Although the literature has extensively documented the beneficial effect of general physical activity in psychological stress at population level 14 , few studies address the relationship between physical activity and occupational stress. Considering the "physical activity paradox" previously mentioned, a broader understanding of the role of different domains of physical activity in occupational stress is warranted. ...
Article
To investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and occupational stress in different work environments. This systematic review, registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020214884), followed the PRISMA methodology. The search took place in October/2020 in the following databases: Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, MedLine/PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, Scielo and CINAHL. Keywords related to eligible participants (adults and workers), interventions (physical activity objectively measured), comparison (control group or baseline), outcome (stress), and study design (observational studies) were combined using Boolean terms. From 1,524 identified records, 12 articles were included, totaling 2,082 workers. 66.7% of the studies were carried out in Europe and 50.0% among health professionals. Blue collar workers (20.7% [n = 430]) and white collar workers (18.3% [n = 382]), medical resident (6.5% [n = 135]) and protection services (9.7% [n = 202]) were the predominant occupations. Physical activity was higher in blue-collar workers than in white-collar workers, and shift-working nurses were more active compared to non-shift workers and office workers. Increased mental workload was not associated with time spent on physical activities in most studies (10 [83.3%)]). Some studies showed that light physical activity was associated with higher levels of stress and moderate to vigorous physical activity was beneficial for reducing stress dimensions. In conclusion, most studies did not find an association between objectively measured physical activity and the level of stress in workers. Studies with robust methodologies and covering different groups of workers remain necessary.
... PA is a long-term lifestyle behavior that should be introduced at some capacity to all able children, adolescents, and adults. Using exercise as a stress management technique has shown to have preventative and treatment effects on perceived stress (26,32). Other than promoting positive mental health in college students (36), using PA to manage stress will also promote physical health, by decreasing the risk of many long term non-communicable diseases (3). ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological stress is a major concern in college students and can lead to negative mental and physical health outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological stress. Using exercise as a stress management technique has been shown to have a large effect in preventing and treating psychological stress. This study attempts to understand the gender differences between how using exercise as a stress management technique predicts perceived stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students completed an online survey to self-report their stress management techniques, perceived stress (PSS-10), grade point average (GPA) and demographics (age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity). Independent samples t-tests compared each PSS-10 item for those who did/not use exercise as a stress management technique for each gender. Separate linear regression models compared perceived stress levels in those who did/not use exercise as a stress management tool for each gender. GPA, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity were included as covariates. Data from 384 students were analyzed. Four PSS-10 items showed significant differences in women who did/not use exercise as a stress management technique. Women who used exercise as a stress management technique reported significantly lower levels of perceived stress compared to those women who did not (p < 0.05); while men showed no significant differences whether or not they used exercise as a stress management technique. University officials should recognize gender differences in stress among their students when creating programs/interventions to prevent and treat student psychological stress.
... This culture may benefit from changes in police academy training and holistic department-sponsored wellness (Blumberg et al., 2019;Kaplan et al., 2018). Research shows positive outcomes in departments that deploy conventional (such as paid physical training time) and non-conventional (yoga and meditation) mechanisms to bolster officer well-being (Isoard-Gautheur et al., 2019;Jackson, 2013;Kaplan et al., 2018). Police organizations should take a more holistic approach that facilitates the officers' effectiveness and ability to disconnect from work when they are off duty. ...
Article
Full-text available
Law enforcement is a stressful occupation with both work-related and socialrelated stressors. Too much stress can negatively affect behaviours, mental states, and job performance. Centralized police organizations limit officers’ individual autonomy, likely increasing stress. This study examined differences in occupational stress in two different European countries and one Middle East country. Participants were 351 male police officers from Serbia (n=130, age 36±8 yr), Russia (n=121, age 22±4 yr), and Lebanon (n=100, age 36±6 yr) who completed the 20-item Operational Police Stress Questionnaire in their own language. Items were averaged and interpreted as low (≤2.0), stress (2.1–3.4), and high stress (≥3.5). ANCOVA analyses using age as the covariate with Bonferroni post hoc analyses were used. A principle component analysis (PCA) was used to determine stress structure per country. Significant differences were found with lower occupational stress in Russian (p<0.001) and Lebanon (p=0.003) than Serbian officers. PCA factor patterns differed by country, with 6 found for Russian and Lebanese and 3 for Serbian officers. More work-related stressors were rated higher for the younger Russian officers, while more social-related stressors were rated higher for the older Serbian officers. Results suggest that it is vital to consider officers’ stress sources and overall stress levels.
... PA is a long-term lifestyle behavior that should be introduced at some capacity to all able children, adolescents, and adults. Using exercise as a stress management technique has shown to have preventative and treatment effects on perceived stress (26,32). Other than promoting positive mental health in college students (36), using PA to manage stress will also promote physical health, by decreasing the risk of many long term non-communicable diseases (3). ...
Article
PURPOSE: Psychological stress is a major concern in college students, which can lead to negative health consequences, such as depression. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological stress throughout the United States population, especially affecting the college student population. Stress management techniques differ between individuals but participating in exercise has been shown to have a large effect in preventing and treating psychological stress. Psychological stress affects individuals differently based on demographics, especially gender. The purpose of this study is to understand possible gender differences between how using exercise as a stress management technique predicts perceived stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic in college students. METHODS: Students completed an online survey to self-report their stress management techniques, perceived stress (PSS-10) levels, grade point average (GPA) and demographics (age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity). Independent samples t-tests compared each PSS-10 item for those who did/not use exercise as a stress management technique for each gender. Separate linear regression models compared perceived stress levels in those who did/not use exercise as a stress management tool for each gender. GPA, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity were included as covariates. RESULTS: Data from 384 students were analyzed. Four PSS-10 items containing a sense of ‘control on life’ showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in women who did/not use exercise as a stress management technique. Women who used exercise as a stress management technique reported significantly lower levels of perceived stress compared to those women who did not (p < 0.05). Men who used exercise as a stress management technique showed no significant differences in perceived stress levels with those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: University officials should recognize gender differences in stress among their students when creating programs/interventions to prevent and treat student psychological stress. Especially with the COVID-19 pandemic, college students are at a higher risk of experiencing psychological stress, making it important to focus on the health and well-being of all students.
... Useful for recovering from stress can be regular moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise program, such as the recommendations of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week or 75 minutes of vigorousintensity aerobic exercise per week. Breaking the exercise into two 10-to 15-minute sessions, one before work and one at lunch time when possible, can help combat stress throughout the day (Jackson, E., 2013). ...
Book
Full-text available
Training and learning methodologies are changing in the field of social work, and there is an increase in the use of technology, best practice sharing and reflective practice. The EPSWRA project has collected and evaluated useful and practical approaches and techniques for two years across seven countries. The experience and knowledge gained over the project have been compiled into this guide, which seeks to capture and transmit some of the wisdom and progress made, as well as markers to what to avoid. The first part of the guide includes good practices for prevention and coping with burnout syndrome, as self-care techniques, supervision, time-management, professional networks and others. The second part describes good practices for empowerment of helping professionals in decision-making and their daily work, as volunteering, community engagement, collaboration and other.
... Skills related to paying attention to hunger and fullness cues also could have helped to better manage stress response to engage in problem eating behavior. Furthermore, Moving Forward encouraged increased exercise, which is known to reduce stress [38]. Past studies with women in the general population show women who practiced strategies taught during lifestyle interventions including problem solving skills, confrontive ways of coping with life's demands, relaxation techniques and others were more likely to succeed with weight loss maintenance [39][40][41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study examined whether stressful life events were associated with weight loss, central adiposity, and health behavior changes of African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) participating in a weight loss intervention.Methods We conducted a secondary-data analyses of Moving Forward, a weight loss efficacy trial for AABCS conducted in 2011–2014. Two-hundred forty-six eligible women were randomized to a 6-month interventionist-guided (IG) or self-guided (SG) weight loss intervention. Data was collected on height, weight, self-reported diet, and self-reported physical activity. Stress (e.g., financial, legal, employment, relationships, safety, prejudice) was measured using an abbreviated version of the Crisis in Family Systems (CRISYS) urban life stress measure. Generalized linear models stratified by group examined the degree to which stress was associated with weight loss or changes in central adiposity, physical activity, and diet during the intervention (Months 1–6) or maintenance (Months 7 to 12) phases.ResultsParticipants reported a median of 3.0 life stressors (range 0 to 22) mostly relating to relationships, safety concerns, and financial problems. In the IG group during the intervention phase, exposure to life stressors was not associated with weight loss (p = 0.15) or change in central adiposity (p = 0.69), physical activity (p = 0.15), or diet (p = 0.26). We found similar associations for the maintenance phase and in the SG group.Conclusion/ImplicationsDespite facing stress across a myriad of domains (e.g., relationships, safety, finances), AABCS were successful at initiating and maintaining behaviors to achieve weight loss, reductions in central adiposity, and behavioral changes. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted that include more strategies to address the challenges that AABCS face, to determine whether AABCS in particular might benefit from interventions that address barriers (e.g., stress management) to weight loss. Such strategies are critical for improving quality of life and lowering the risk of cancer recurrence.
... Adolescents may not have the time or motivation to exercise regularly, particularly during exam weeks when they may be concerned that spending time exercising will interfere with their grades. However, a "time-out" hypothesis suggests that stress and anxiety are reduced after exercise because it affords the individual a break from daily stressors (Breus and O'Connor, 1998) and that if an individual is using exercise as a "time out" from stressors, a short exercise session may prove just as effective as a long one (Jackson, 2013). In college aged women who reported that studying was their biggest stressor, exercising while taking a "time out" from the stressors had the greatest calming effect (Breus and O'Connor, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety and stress are prominent issues for the adolescent population. Physical activity is known to reduce symptoms of anxiety and stress; however, many adolescents lack the time or motivation to exercise regularly, particularly during stressful exam weeks. Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to make exercise more enjoyable and more engaging than exercise alone. We aimed to investigate the immediate effect of a 10-min dodgeball exercise session, with and without a VR headset, on self-reported stress, anxiety and cognitive performance in adolescents during times known to induce stress in high school, such as exam weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to a VR group (n = 16) where participants were immersed in a virtual dodgeball environment (exergame), or a dodgeball group (n = 14) which played a simple game of one-on-one dodgeball. Executive function was measured using the Trail Making Test (TMT) Parts A and B. Anxiety was self-reported on the Pediatric Anxiety Short Form 8a (PASF). Stress was self-reported on the Psychological Stress Experiences-Short Form 8a (PSES). Both groups significantly improved their TMT A and B performance and reduced stress and anxiety scores with effect size ranging from 0.59 to 1.2 (main effect of time p < 0.001 for all outcomes). There were no significant differences between groups and no time by group interaction for any outcome. A short bout of exercise, with or without VR, during stressful high school exam weeks was shown to be effective for immediate reduction of stress and anxiety and enhancement of cognitive function in a small sample of high school students. High schools looking to apply interventions to help their students manage anxiety and stress should consider encouraging them to take a “time-out” to exercise and play. The cost-effectiveness of exergames inside the school settings and implications for academic success should be investigated in future research.
... Not all methods of relaxation must be so formal. Informal methods of relaxation, such as an act as simple as spending time in nature (Ingulli & Lindbloom, 2013), taking relaxing baths or aromatherapy (Hur et al., 2014), or any type of exercise ( Jackson, 2013), can eventually promote parasympathetic responses. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic is enacting a heavy mental health toll on people around the world. This article provides evidence-based information and techniques to promote and foster mental and physical health for our patients and health care providers. The article 1) reviews common emotional reactions faced by patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) reviews how health care providers can help patients make sense of their experiences, and 3) teaches evidence-based skills that health care providers can use to support patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and care for themselves. The article provides tips and strategies that can be helpful in interacting with patients and supporting the well-being of health care providers. These strategies are based on empirically supported knowledge and skills drawn from literature on stress, coping, emotional management, chronic disease management, and behavior changes, and provides ways to discuss these tips with patients in applicable, understandable ways.
... Various techniques and methods have been employed for this purpose, including yoga and aerobic exercise, music, and exposure to nature. [7][8][9] In 1993, a lady by the name of Catherine Hettinger, who suffered from myasthenia gravis, created the prototype of the fidget-spinner as a means of bonding with her daughter. The palm-sized spinners consist of a ball bearing which sits in a three-pronged plastic device which can then be flicked and spun around. ...
... Prevention of COVID-19 infection is a priority in student-athletes. Acute and chronic exercise have long been accepted as a means for physiological and subjective stress reduction (Jackson, 2013;Ozano, 2008). Moderate regular exercise also helps to reduce the severity of infections and the number of symptom days and is associated with a lower influenza-associated mortality rate (Wackerhage et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
While the NCAA grapples with how to return to sport during the COVID-19 pandemic, knowledge of the current exercise habits and well-being of collegiate athletes can better inform strength and conditioning professionals how to adjust periodization plans for the coming year. As collegiate athletes attempt to train independently, there is an opportunity to survey the athletes who normally participate in organized strength and conditioning programs. This study aims to understand current independent exercise regimes and explore current well-being measures such as fatigue, sleep, mood, soreness, and stress. Coaches may be facing massive levels of detraining or potentially the rest and recovery desperately needed for a rejuvenated return to sport. In this study, 237 collegiate athletes (mean age = 19.75, SD = 1.18) completed an online survey measuring exercise participation and well-being. Exercise habits indicate a statistically (p < .05) and clinically significant increase in frequency (t(234) = 4.36, p = .000, ES = .32), intensity (t(235) = 5.31, p = .000, ES = .47), and duration (t(234) = 6.54, p = .000, ES = .47) of exercise sessions overtime during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine. Perceived psychological well-being also increased as time went on during quarantine with an improvement in fatigue (Z = 3.42, p = .001, ES = .22), sleep quality (Z = 4.59, p = .000, ES = .30), stress (Z = 6.53, p = .000, ES = .42), and mood (Z = 5.86, p = .000, ES = .38). It appears there was a potential adaptation to quarantine that improved athletes' exercise participation and perceived well-being but concerns for periodization strategies, motivation, and possibility of detraining remain for strength and conditioning professionals in the transition to the return to sport.
... It has also been reported that after 20 to 30 minutes of exercise, people tend to feel calmer for a few hours after the end of that activity. This is because physical activity alters hormonal and neurotransmitter responses, such as dopamine or serotonin, which have a strong effect on the mental state and the behavior of a person's behavior (Jackson, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through this research, it has been studied the relationship between personality traits and non-cognitive skills. The hypotheses of this study are that there is a positive correlation between a high level of extraversion and physical abilities, and there is a positive correlation between a high level of autonomy and musical abilities. The research was conducted through two research tools, the purpose of which was to identify and evaluate personality traits and non-cognitive skills. The group of participants consists of 120 people aged between 18 and 33 years. The study results attest the validity of the assumptions. In both cases, personality traits are a possible predictor of the development of non-cognitive skills, while the latter are a possible modeling factor for the personality.
... Exercise and self-esteem were consistently reported as being interrelated. The relationship between exercise frequency and stress was reviewed in results of (i) physical and perceived stress/hassles, (ii) the role of exercise in stress management, (iii) stress relief, (iv) the effects of stress on physical activity and exercise, the effectiveness of exercise interventions on coping with stress, etc. [18,[27][28][29][30][31][32]. Previous studies consistently reported the relationship between exercise and stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility that exercise participation can be an important factor in the pursuit of sustainable happiness. For this purpose, this study focused on the causal relationships among the frequency of exercise, self-esteem, stress, depression, school satisfaction and degree of happiness in elementary, junior high and high school students (n = 11,132) in South Korea. The data used for this study were collected in 2016 by the National Youth Policy Institute (NYPI) for the “UN convention on the rights of the child.” The results were as follows; firstly, the exercise frequency had a significant causal relationship with self-esteem, stress, school satisfaction and happiness but not with depression. However, it was found that exercise frequency had an indirect effect on depression through stress. In detail, exercise frequency could positively reduce stress, and less stress affects depression. Secondly, there were significant direct or indirect effects on self-esteem, stress, depression, degree of happiness and school satisfaction. Lastly, only depression did not affect school satisfaction and happiness.
... We found that the appearance of prenatal stress and anxiety symptoms was related to working status and exercise during pregnancy. Consistent with previous researches, exercise can reduce stress and anxiety and make people feel calm by changing physical mechanisms such as hormone secretion (Bahrke and Morgan, 1978;Jackson, 2013), and housewives or women who were not working during pregnancy had a higher risk of prenatal stress and anxiety than did those who kept working (Baum et al., 1986;Bodecs et al., 2013). Out of work may mean greater economic pressure, more family conflicts, lower socioeconomic status, more unhealthy behaviors (such as drinking and smoking), loneliness due to much unaccompanied leisure time, and the sense of attachment because of economic dependence, and all of these were associated with mental disorder (Bodecs et al., 2013;Raatikainen et al., 2006;Redinger et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prenatal mental disorders are associated with maternal and fetal adverse outcomes, while few studies have been performed in mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of maternal stress, anxiety and depression in early pregnancy and provide scientific basis for reducing prenatal mental disorders. Methods: Data were obtained from 1220 women with < 15 weeks gestation in a cohort study conducted in Chongqing, China. Prenatal stress, anxiety and depression were assessed using the pregnancy pressure scale, the Hamilton anxiety scale, and the self-rating depression scale, respectively. Results: The prevalence of prenatal stress, anxiety and depression in early pregnancy was 91.86%, 15.04% and 5.19%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for prenatal stress include housewife/unemployment, presence of anxiety and low- and moderate-level social support, besides, the protective factors were exercise, active smoking and no suggestion from parents. Housewife/unemployment, primiparity, presence of stress and depression and low-level social support were found to be associated with the development of anxiety symptoms, whereas exercise had a protective effect on it. Group-oriented personality, presence of anxiety, no suggestion from husband, low- and moderate-level family care, and low-level social support were risk factors for prenatal depression. Limitations: All participants were recruited from one region of China, and none of them have a history of cesarean section. Conclusion: Early screening and intervention may have great significance for reducing mental disorders of pregnant women, and the family and society support should be brought into the intervention as well.
... Also, it was reported that healthy participants who have participated in leisure-time activities and recreational sports decreased both anxiety and stress scores as well as cortisol and other stress hormones levels at rest. 24,25 Due to the research question and design of our study, we preferred to use a generic tool (SF-36) instead of HIV specific questionnaires like the MOS-HIV for evaluating quality of life. The validity and reliability of the SF-36 has been previously established in Persian language patients whereas this is not the case for the Persian version of the MOS-HIV tool. ...
Article
Context: Increasing physical activity and promoting healthy behaviors may play a key role in reducing the adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy and HIV. Objective: This study investigated the effects of an 8-week lifestyle modification program (LMP) on quality of life, anthropometric characteristics and CD4+T cell count of people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: Thirty PLWH taking ART were randomly assigned to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) (n=15) or standard care control (CON) group (n=15). All volunteers underwent body composition, CD4+T cell count measurement and quality of life assessments at the beginning and end of a two month experimental period. Results: At follow-up, we observed a significant increase in CD4+T cell count (117.52 cells/mm3; 95% CI, 36.59-198.45) and all subscales and total Quality of life score (Short-Form 36 (SF-36) in the LMP group. While we did not observe a significant change in body composition for the LMP group, we did observe a significant increase in body fat (1.75%; 95% CI, 0.15, 2.33) and a reduction in lean body mass (-1.26; 95% CI, -1.26, -2.39) for the CON group. Conclusion: A LMP can be safely used as an effective intervention for improving quality of life and immune competence of PLWH who lack time to participate in a structured exercise regimen. Keywords: HIV, Recreational activities, Quality of life, CD4+T count, Body composition.
... Relaxation techniques have been found to bring about a reduction in anxiety or depression and are considered helpful when included in training for stress management. However, these psychological e ects can also be obtained by physical movements like exercise (Jackson, 2013;Scully, Kremer, Meade, Graham, & Dudgeon, 1998;Petruzzello, Landers, Hat eld, Kubitz, & Salazar, 1991;Weinstein, Deuster, Francis, Beadling, & Kop, 2010). Numerous previous studies have revealed the e ectiveness of exercise in in uencing the mind along with the body (Mishra, Scherer, Geigle, Berlanstein, Topaloglu, Gotay, & Snyder, 2012). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the mood regulation effects induced by different types of exercise and music. In Study 1, 67 university students listened to music (lively and dynamic Fast Music: FM or calm and static Slow Music: SM) and in Study 2, 78 university students performed the chosen exercise (Dynamic Exercise: DE or Static Exercise: SE). The changes in their mood states after each task of 3 min were compared by using the vitality, stability, arousal, and pleasure scores of mood states in the Two-Dimensional Mood Scale (Sakairi, Nakatsuka, & Shimizu, 2013). Results indicated that pleasure scores increased significantly after all tasks. Increases in the vitality score, as activation effect, was confirmed to have occurred after listening to FM, and engaging in DE and SE. Furthermore, increase in the stability score, as relaxation effect, was exhibited after listening to SM and engaging in SE. These findings suggest that individuals can self-regulate their mood states by appropriately taking advantage of activation and relaxation effects of different types of music and exercises.
Article
During COVID‐19 stay‐at‐home orders (SaHOs), people faced drastic shifts in their work and home lives. These shifts, in combination with the temporary closure of gyms and fitness centers, led to exercise‐routine disruption. We conducted a survey to assess how people were affected by SaHOs in terms of exercise‐routine change, feelings about exercise, perceived physical and mental health, as well as exercise‐routine plans once SaHOs were lifted. In this article, we examine why affluent white American women exercised before and during COVID‐19 SaHOs. The article focuses on the role of pleasure and entertainment as key components of exercise practices for these women. We found that changes in motivation reveal that exercise regimens are part of contemporary vitality politics, or current cultural and subjective desires and abilities to manipulate and optimize biological human processes, that include both health and entertainment. Therefore, we argue that exercise is a meaningful cultural, entertainment, and biopolitical activity.
Article
Background Many studies show positive bidirectional associations between physical activity (PA) and sleep at the between-person level. There is an increased interest in investigating these associations at the within-person level. Few studies examined the effects of time-varying moderators on the within-person bidirectional associations between PA and sleep. This study aimed to examine the bidirectional within-person day-level associations between activity levels and self-reported sleep duration and explore the moderating effects of perceived stress on these day-level associations.Method Data from 158 women that included 7-day free-living monitoring over 4 measurement periods was analyzed using multilevel modeling to explore the moderating effects of daily stress on the bidirectional, within-person associations between activity levels and self-reported sleep duration. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated from a waist-worn accelerometer. Self-reported sleep duration and perceived stress were collected by ecological momentary assessment.ResultsNo significant within-person associations between MVPA minutes and self-reported sleep duration were found in either direction. However, engaging in more MVPA than one’s usual level was associated with longer sleep later that night when perceived stress was higher than usual (p = .04). Bidirectional negative within-person association between SB minutes and self-reported sleep duration was found (ps < .01). The negative association between SB and sleep duration later that night was stronger when perceived stress was lower than usual (p = .01).Conclusion Daily stress played an important role in the day-to-day associations between activity levels and sleep.
Article
Objectives Older adults who are physically active report lower levels of stress. Less is known about the links between physical activity and exposure and reactivity to stressful events in daily life. The current study examined within-person associations between actigraphy-assessed daily physical activity and exposure and affective reactivity to naturally occurring interpersonal stressors. Method Older adults (N = 180) from the Daily Experiences and Well-being Study completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) every 3 hours for 5-6 days where they reported negative affect throughout the day and interpersonal tensions at the end of the day. They also wore Actical accelerometers to capture physical activity. Results Older adults reported greater numbers of interpersonal stressors on days when they spent less time being sedentary and engaged in more light physical activity. On days when older adults experienced more interpersonal stressors, they reported higher levels of negative affect, but this association was attenuated when they were more physically active that day. Discussion Physical activity may bolster older adults’ capabilities to manage affective responses to interpersonal stressors in a more successful way. These findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity and stressful events in daily life and have implications for both physical and psychological well-being.
Article
Full-text available
With an objective to better understand differences in oral health related behavior and practices of working and non working, this study was conducted. Duration of the study was three months, from August 2021 to October 2021 and it was conducted in Department of Periodontics, Mansovar Dental College and Research Center, Bhopal (M.P.), India. A questionnaire based survey was conducted amongst 300 married female participants aged 18 years or more (111 working women and 189 non-working women). The samples were heterogeneous group from different occupation and economic status. None of the participants in the present study was found to have good oral hygiene and more than 50.0% of the patients were having poor oral hygiene. It is an observation which needs attention. It was hence concluded that the oral health related behavior of the working and non-working married woman differ significantly.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic presents many concerns, including stress. Physical activity (PA) can help decrease stress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress and PA levels of U.S. adults. Mixed-methods data were collected from adults (N = 464, 73.3% female, 87.5% white) examining levels of stress and PA, as well as changes in PA and various factors that impacted PA. A decrease in PA habits was reported by 55.3% during the lockdown period and by 48.6% currently when compared to pre-pandemic. Nearly half of participants (41.8%) met recommended PA guidelines, and experienced moderate levels of perceived stress. Significant differences in stress were found for those who indicated the pandemic altered current exercise compared to pre-pandemic (F(2,362) = 3.67, p = .026, η² = 0.020), and among stress levels for those who met both, one, or neither cardio or muscular strength PA guidelines (F(2,456) = 4.97, p = .007, η² = 0.021). Additionally, 225 participants provided open-ended responses; qualitative themes identified include change of exercise environment, increased or decreased frequency of PA, psychological changes, and change in PA intensity or type. During the pandemic, most respondents experienced changes in PA; decreases in PA were associated with loss of access to PA spaces during lockdown or psychological changes such as negative mood state or lack of motivation.
Chapter
The term Biomechanics can be interpreted as, studying how the human body, especially the human foot, moves within the earth’s gravitational settings. The locomotive displacement of the lower limbs resulting in the forward movement of the body is termed as gait. Human gait is significantly affected by the kinetic and kinematic factors of various individual segments of the rest of the body. Therefore, the healthcare sector gives substantial importance to changes in the gait pattern that could result from irregularities in the body that are not directly caused by musculoskeletal degradation. The study of plantar pressure distribution is an important research area to approach motor issues related to diabetes, podiatry, and rehabilitative sciences. Foot sensor technologies are comparatively easier to use and implement than sensing and measurement of the gait patterns. Foot sensors have also been proved effective in diagnosis and treatment. Several peer-reviewed publications related to the investigation of foot biomechanics and plantar pressure analysis over the last decade have enhanced research and development in the areas of both medicine and engineering. However, there is still a lack of a standardized method of measurement of the plantar pressure distribution. This review attempts to summarize the clinical importance of plantar pressure estimation and analyse the strengths and inadequacies of recent sensor technologies concerning diagnosis and assessment, in terms of proficiency in design and end-user suitability. We propose the promotion of simple, lightweight, and user-friendly sensor modules and orthoses without overlooking important aspects of the mechanical design to ensure efficient control.KeywordsFoot biomechanicsPlantar pressureGaitOrthosesSensor modulesPlantar loading
Article
Physically-active adults are more likely to consume alcohol, but this association may vary if adults also use other substances (i.e., tobacco and/or cannabis), which could increase substance-use related harms. This study examined whether tobacco and/or cannabis use moderated the associations between physical activity, odds of drinking and alcohol drinks/week. We used cross-sectional 2005–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (United States of America). Physical activity was assessed using device-based and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity hours/week. Individuals were categorized into one of four (poly)substance use categories, no tobacco/no cannabis, tobacco, cannabis, or tobacco/cannabis use. Regression models examined substance use as a moderator of the association between physical activity and the odds of drinking versus not drinking and alcohol drinks/week among light/moderate/heavy drinkers (≥12 drinks/year). Using cannabis or tobacco weakened the significant positive associations between total physical activity and self-reported recreational MVPA hours/week on odds of drinking (ORs = 0.978 and 0.967, respectively), such that the effect was negative or null when using cannabis or tobacco, respectively. Greater total physical activity and device-based MVPA hours/week was associated with consuming greater drinks/week (IRRs = 1.003 and 1.035, respectively). Using tobacco weakened the association between device-based MVPA and alcohol drinks/week (IRR = 0.934, 95% CI: [0.888, 0.982]). Cannabis and tobacco use weakened the association between physical activity and alcohol use. The positive association between physical activity and alcohol use may be limited to single substance users of alcohol and could reflect shared reasons for engaging in these behaviors, such as stress management or social motives.
Article
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased cardiovascular risk, and fatigue is a major subjective complaint. Sedentary lifestyle has been shown to have negative health impacts in cardiovascular and rheumatic disease, though exercise has not traditionally been incorporated into routine therapy recommendations. Regular exercise in SLE may improve difficult to treat Type 2 symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, stress, and quality of life. Insufficient counseling on exercise by physicians is a notable barrier for SLE patients to engage in physical activity. Aerobic exercise regimens are more commonly studied, and have been shown to improve cardiovascular health in SLE. Exercise may improve some inflammatory markers, though does not definitively affect SLE clinical disease activity. Physical activity should be recommended to improve quality of life and cardiovascular health in patients with SLE. Developing clearer guidelines for exercise regimens in a patient-centered manner is warranted, especially given diverse phenotypes of SLE patients and varying degrees of physical limitations.
Article
Full-text available
Мета. Оцінка взаємозв’язку нейродинамічних властивостей з рівнем ефективності психічної саморегуляції й адаптивності у спортсменів-велосипедистів. Методи. Діагностування нейродинамічних властивостей за допомогою комплексу «Діагност-1»; тестування оцінки психоемоційного стану, рівня стресу, ефективності психічної саморегуляції й адаптивності. Результати. Виявлено превалювання респондентів з високим і середнім рівнем саморегуляції і адаптивності, переважанням парасимпатотонії. Більшість обстежених спортсменів – стенічні, врівноважені, не мають ознак перевтоми, емоційної напруженості і внутрішньоособистісних конфліктів. У обстежених спортсменів більш виражене трофотропне домінування (переважання парасимпатичної регуляції) у функціонуванні вегетативної нервової системи. Висновки. Специфічними психофізіологічними маркерами психічної саморегуляції й адаптивності спортсменів-велосипедистів можна вважати показники функціональної рухливості нервових процесів у режимі зворотного зв’язку, а маркерами стресостійкості та емоційної стійкості – показник динамічності нервових процесів
Article
Full-text available
La période de l’adolescence est une phase de développement du corps humain au cours de laquelle l’individu est soumis à de grands changements non seulement physiques mais aussi psychologiques ; ces changements sont reconnus pour être une source de stress. Dans cette recherche, la littérature, les sources, les signes et les symptômes du stress ainsi que les effets négatifs de ce dernier sur le comportement, la concentration et les émotions des adolescents seront passés en revue. Ensuite, nous allons observer comment les adolescents réagissent à des situations qu’ils perçoivent comme « stressantes », plus précisément la situation d’une épreuve écrite. Plusieurs recherches effectuées par des pairs ont démontré que l’activité physique exerce une influence positive sur l’individu soumis au stress au niveau physiologique, psychologique et émotionnel. Nous avons donc décidé de tester les effets bénéfiques de l’activité physique dans le cadre scolaire. Une série d’exercices à réaliser avant une évaluation écrite a été proposée à un groupe d’adolescents. Les jeunes se trouvent quotidiennement sous l’influence de facteurs de stress internes2 et externes. Au cours cette recherche, il a été constaté qu’avec trois minutes d’activité avant un test écrit, les élèves amélioraient leur note finale. L’exercice physique a donc influencé positivement la fonction cognitive des adolescents dans une situation qui est perçue comme génératrice de stress. Cette stratégie pourrait donc être proposée dans les écoles afin d’aider les élèves à gérer le stress, à mieux se concentrer, et à augmenter la confiance en soi. The period of adolescence is a developmental phase of the human body during which the individual is subjected to great changes not only physical but also psychological; these changes are known to be a source of stress. In this research, the literature, sources, signs and symptoms of stress as well as the negative effects of stress on adolescent behavior, concentration and emotions will be reviewed. Next, we will observe how adolescents respond to situations they perceive as "stressful", specifically the situation of a written test. Several peer-reviewed studies have shown that physical activity has a positive influence on the individual under stress at the physiological, psychological and emotional levels. We therefore decided to test the beneficial effects of physical activity in a school setting. A series of exercises to be performed before a written evaluation was proposed to a group of adolescents. The young people are under the influence of internal2 and external stressors on a daily basis. During this research, it was found that three minutes of activity before a written test improved the students' final grade. Thus, physical exercise positively influenced the cognitive function of adolescents in a situation that is perceived as stressful. This strategy could therefore be offered in schools to help students manage stress, improve concentration, and increase self-confidence.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aim: COVID-19 as a infectious disease more than the past showed that physical exercise as immunological and physiological effects is necessary for human being. In this review study, we assessed the physiological and immunological effects of exercise training with considering to the COVID-19 and introduced exercise models in inside and outside the house. materials and methods: In this study, a review of all databases, including ISI Web of Science, Scopus, ISC, PubMed, Google Scholar Learners, Noor, related articles were examined. Also, in the article search process, the keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, Exercise and coronavirus, sports activity and immune system, high-intensity exercise activity and immune system were used. Ethical considerations: Ethical principles have been observed in writing the article. Result: The coronavirus (Covid 19) has recently become one of the most dangerous causes of death in the world. Research has shown that moderate-intensity exercise can help boost immune system function. On the other hand, it has been shown that high-intensity exercise can have negative effects on the immune system, which can be a bad strategy in reducing the function of the immune system and increasing the risk of infectious diseases. But according to existing research, doing sports outside the home is still not recommended, and doing sports at home is still a very important strategy. Conclusion: Due to the onset of the second wave of the corona virus in the world, it is recommended to continue to work at home in accordance with hygienic protocols (maintaining humidity and cleanliness of the environment) and the appropriate intensity and duration.
Chapter
Objective: to determine the Association between physical activity level to mental fatigue in college students. Method: total of 40 students participated in this study, a self-reporting questionnaire was given to all respondents. The study was observational study to find out the relationship between physical activity and mental fatigue in students. Result: Spearman nonparametric test was conducted to analyze the correlation between physical activity and mental fatigue. Result analysis showed (r = 0.600; p = 0.001) a strong association between physical activity and mental fatigue. Conclusion: there is association between level of physical activity and mental fatigue. The result will help students to prevent and cope with mental fatigue with moderate physical activity in the future.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to reveal the psychological impact of those employees who were stranded and forced to work from home during the Covid19 pandemic in Malaysia. The paper deliberates on the challenges the respondents faced during the unexpected movement control order imposed on the country in early 2020. A social survey was
Article
Full-text available
This behaviour is related to obtaining and consuming food. It is a complex behaviour in the present day to day life that is regulated by many mechanisms like external factors such as food availability and quality, as well as by internal factors including sex, age, circadian rhythms and most importantly, the hormonal status related to energy homeostasis [1]. The understanding of the physiological basis of feeding behaviour regulation is particularly important, as in affluent societies, obesity has become a widespread problem [2]. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Since hypothalamus is the centre for controlling feeding behaviour, a study has proved the role of hypothalamus in feeding behaviour and is mainly under the control of leptin and insulin [3-5]. Several hypothalamic neuropeptides such as Agouti-Related Protein (AgRP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) have been shown to be potent feeding stimulants, whereas Pre Opio-Melanocortins (POMC) and Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) have been shown to suppress as done for the other food intake [6].
Article
The Threat Appraisal and Coping Theory suggest that when facing life stressors, individuals may perceive that they are powerless to change them, which may prompt “maladaptive coping” deviant behaviors. The present study examined the relationship between 5 types of deviant behavior and perceived powerlessness, and whether powerlessness served as a mediator between life stressors and deviance. Money stress and powerlessness increased risk for watching porn, cross-dressing, hoarding, and medication misuse. Work stress and powerlessness significantly increased risk for watching porn, cross-dressing, and medication misuse. Family stress and powerlessness increased risk for watching porn, cross-dressing, disordered eating, hoarding, and medication misuse.
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the athletic movement skill between elite Under 18 (U18) Australian football (AF) and senior Australian Football League (AFL) players. The U18 sample (n = 13; 17.7 ± 0.6 y) were representatives of an elite talent development program. The AFL players were classified accordingly; Group 1 (1-4 AFL seasons; n = 20; 21.2 ± 1.9 y) and Group 2 (> 5 AFL seasons; n = 14; 26.3 ± 2.6 y). Participants performed an athletic movement skill assessment, inclusive of five foundational movements. Each movement was scored across three assessment points using a three point scale. Total score for each movement (maximum of nine) and overall score (maximum of 63) were used as criterions. MANOVA tested the effect of developmental group (3 levels) on the criterions. Receiver operating curves were built to examine the discriminant capability of the overall score. A significant effect of developmental group was noted, with the U18 sample having a lower mean total score for four of the five movements. Overall scores of 49/63 and 50/63 discriminated the elite U18 sample from Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. U18 players may have less developed athletic movement skills when compared to their senior AFL counterparts.
Article
Full-text available
Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included "stress", "exercise", and "physical activity". A rating scale (0-9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work-family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher-quality prospective research (≥7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Stress can facilitate disease processes and causes strain on the health care budgets. It is responsible or involved in many human ailments of our time, such as cardiovascular illnesses, particularly related to the psychosocial stressors of daily life, including work. Besides pharmacological or clinical medical treatment options, behavioral stress reduction is much-needed. These latter approaches rely on an endogenous healing potential via life-style modification. Hence, research has suggested different ways and approaches to self-treat stress or buffer against stressors and their impacts. These self-care-centred approaches are sometimes referred to as mind-body medicine or multi-factorial stress management strategies. They consist of various cognitive behavioral techniques, as well as relaxation exercises and nutritional counselling. However, a critical and consistent element of modern effective stress reduction strategies are exercise practices. With regard to underlying neurobiological mechanisms of stress relief, reward and motivation circuitries that are imbedded in the limbic regions of the brain are responsible for the autoregulatory and endogenous processing of stress. Exercise techniques clearly have an impact upon these systems. Thereby, physical activities have a potential to increase mood, i.e., decrease psychological distress by pleasure induction. For doing so, neurobiological signalling molecules such as endogenous morphine and coupled nitric oxide pathways get activated and finely tuned. Evolutionarily, the various activities and autoregulatory pathways are linked together, which can also be demonstrated by the fact that dopamine is endogenously converted into morphine which itself leads to enhanced nitric oxide release by activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase enzymes. These molecules and mechanisms are clearly stress-reducing.
Article
Full-text available
b>Objective : This systematic review aimed to critically appraise published clinical trials designed to assess the effect of Tai Chi on psychosocial well-being. Data Sources : Databases searched included MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, HEALT, PsycINFO, CISCOM, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Library, and dissertations and conference proceedings from inception to August 2008. Review Methods : Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria (i.e. English publications of randomized controlled trials with Tai Chi as an intervention and psychological well-being as an outcome measure), of which eight were high quality trials. The psychosocial outcomes measured included anxiety (eight studies), depression (eight studies), mood (four studies), stress (two studies), general mental health three studies), anger, positive and negative effect, self-esteem, life satisfaction, social interaction and self-rated health (one study each). Results : Tai Chi intervention was found to have a significant effect in 13 studies, especially in the management of depression and anxiety. Although the results seemed to suggest Tai Chi is effective, they should be interpreted cautiously as the quality of the trials varied substantially. Furthermore, significant findings were shown in only six high quality studies. Moreover, significant between group differences after Tai Chi intervention was demonstrated in only one high quality study (the other three significant results were observed in non-high quality studies). Two high quality studies in fact found no significant Tai Chi effects. Conclusion : It is still premature to make any conclusive remarks on the effect of Tai Chi on psychosocial well-being.<br /
Article
Full-text available
This study compared acute (15 min) yoga posture and guided meditation practice, performed seated in a typical office workspace, on physiological and psychological markers of stress. Twenty participants (39.6 ± 9.5 yr) completed three conditions: yoga, meditation, and control (i.e., usual work) separated by ≥24 hrs. Yoga and meditation significantly reduced perceived stress versus control, and this effect was maintained postintervention. Yoga increased heart rate while meditation reduced heart rate versus control (P < 0.05). Respiration rate was reduced during yoga and meditation versus control (P < 0.05). Domains of heart rate variability (e.g., SDNN and Total Power) were significantly reduced during control versus yoga and meditation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced secondary to meditation versus control only (P < 0.05). Physiological adaptations generally regressed toward baseline postintervention. In conclusion, yoga postures or meditation performed in the office can acutely improve several physiological and psychological markers of stress. These effects may be at least partially mediated by reduced respiration rate.
Article
Full-text available
This article defines stress and related concepts and reviews their historical development. The notion of a stress system as the effector of the stress syndrome is suggested, and its physiologic and pathophysiologic manifestations are described. A new perspective on human disease states associated with dysregulation of the stress system is provided. Published original articles from human and animal studies and selected reviews. Literature was surveyed utilizing MEDLINE and the Index Medicus. Original articles from the basic science and human literature consisted entirely of controlled studies based on verified methodologies and, with the exception of the most recent studies, replicated by more than one laboratory. Many of the basic science and clinical studies had been conducted in our own laboratories and clinical research units. Reviews cited were written by acknowledged leaders in the fields of neurobiology, endocrinology, and behavior. Independent extraction and cross-referencing by the authors. Stress and related concepts can be traced as far back as written science and medicine. The stress system coordinates the generalized stress response, which takes place when a stressor of any kind exceeds a threshold. The main components of the stress system are the corticotropin-releasing hormone and locus ceruleus-norepinephrine/autonomic systems and their peripheral effectors, the pituitary-adrenal axis, and the limbs of the autonomic system. Activation of the stress system leads to behavioral and peripheral changes that improve the ability of the organism to adjust homeostasis and increase its chances for survival. There has been an exponential increase in knowledge regarding the interactions among the components of the stress system and between the stress system and other brain elements involved in the regulation of emotion, cognitive function, and behavior, as well as with the axes responsible for reproduction, growth, and immunity. This new knowledge has allowed association of stress system dysfunction, characterized by sustained hyperactivity and/or hypoactivity, to various pathophysiologic states that cut across the traditional boundaries of medical disciplines. These include a range of psychiatric, endocrine, and inflammatory disorders and/or susceptibility to such disorders. We hope that knowledge from apparently disparate fields of science and medicine integrated into a working theoretical framework will allow generation and testing of new hypotheses on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of, and therapy for, a variety of human illnesses reflecting systematic alterations in the principal effectors of the generalized stress response. We predict that pharmacologic agents capable of altering the central apparatus that governs the stress response will be useful in the treatment of many of these illnesses.
Article
GREENWOOD, B. N. and M. FLESHNER. Exercise, stress resistance, and central serotonergic systems. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 140-149, 2011. Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure.
Article
One purpose was to test the hypothesis that anxiety reductions following exercise are caused by a "time out" from daily cares and worries, and the second purpose was to document the magnitude of the change in state anxiety after exercise in high trait anxious females. Anxious women (N = 14) completed four randomly ordered conditions: Exercise Only, 20 min of cycling (40% of VO2peak) followed by 20 min of recovery; Study Only, 40 min of studying while sitting on a cycle ergometer; Exercise/Study, 20 min of cycling (40% of VO2peak) while studying followed by 20 min of studying while sitting on the cycle ergometer; and Control, sitting quietly on an ergometer for 40 min. State anxiety was assessed before and after each condition. State anxiety was reduced following the Exercise Only condition (mean raw change score +/- 95% confidence interval (CI) of 4.3 +/- 3.5; t = 2.3, P = 0.04, d = 0.52). The 95% CI did not include zero after adjusting for precondition anxiety scores (adjusted change +/- 95% CI of 3.3 +/- 3.2). Because the reduction in state anxiety following exercise was blocked in the Exercise/Study condition (t = -0.05, P = 0.97, d = 0.01) and the associated CIs included zero (unadjusted 0.1 +/- 3.4, adjusted 0.8 +/- 3.2), the findings support the hypothesis that anxiety reductions following exercise occur because exercise affords individuals a time out from daily worries.
Article
The study objective was to determine the health and quality-of-life effects of moderate-intensity exercise among older women family caregivers. This 12-month randomized controlled trial involved a volunteer sample of 100 women aged 49 to 82 years who were sedentary, free of cardiovascular disease, and caring for a relative with dementia. Participants were randomized to 12 months of home-based, telephone-supervised, moderate-intensity exercise training or to an attention-control (nutrition education) program. Exercise consisted of four 30- to 40-minute endurance exercise sessions (brisk walking) prescribed per week at 60% to 75% of heart rate reserve based on peak treadmill exercise heart rate. Main outcomes were stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity levels, rated sleep quality, and reported psychological distress. Compared with nutrition participants (NU), exercise participants (EX) showed significant improvements in the following: total energy expenditure (baseline and post-test means [SD] for EX = 1.4 [1.9] and 2.2 [2.2] kcal/kg/day; for NU = 1.2 [1.7] and 1.2 [1.6] kcal/kg/day; p <.02); stress-induced blood pressure reactivity (baseline and post-test systolic blood pressure reactivity values for EX = 21.6 [12.3] and 12.4 [11.2] mm Hg; for NU = 17.9 [10.2] and 17.7 [13.8] mm Hg; p <.024); and sleep quality (p <.05). NU showed significant improvements in percentages of total calories from fats and saturated fats relative to EX (p values <.01). Both groups reported improvements in psychological distress. Conclusions. Family caregivers can benefit from initiating a regular moderate-intensity exercise program in terms of reductions in stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and improvements in rated sleep quality.
Article
Forty-five (22 women) sedentary young (18-30 years old) nonsmoking normotensive volunteers engaged in either 6 weeks of aerobic training (AT), weight training (WT), or a no-treatment (NT) condition to determine whether AT lowers systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and rate-pressure product (RPP) during rest, psychological stress, and recovery periods. Estimated VO(2)max increased for the AT (32.1+/-1.1 to 38.4+/-1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). A smaller increase for the WT (30.5+/-1.1 to 33.8+/-1.0) was likely due to increased leg strength, and VO(2)max did not change for the NT (32.5+/-1.1 to 32.9+/-1.0). Heart rate and RPP levels were lower during psychological stress and recovery after training for AT relative to the WT and NT. Overall SBP was also lower in the AT relative to the NT but not the WT. In conclusion, aerobic training lowered cardiovascular activity levels during psychological stress and recovery in healthy young adults, implying a protective role against age-related increases in coronary heart disease for individuals who adopt aerobic exercise early in life and maintain the behavior across the life span.
Article
We performed a meta-regression analysis of 73 studies that examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness mitigates cardiovascular responses during and after acute laboratory stress in humans. The cumulative evidence indicates that fitness is related to slightly greater reactivity, but better recovery. However, effects varied according to several study features and were smallest in the better controlled studies. Fitness did not mitigate integrated stress responses such as heart rate and blood pressure, which were the focus of most of the studies we reviewed. Nonetheless, potentially important areas, particularly hemodynamic and vascular responses, have been understudied. Women, racial/ethnic groups, and cardiovascular patients were underrepresented. Randomized controlled trials, including naturalistic studies of real-life responses, are needed to clarify whether a change in fitness alters putative stress mechanisms linked with cardiovascular health.