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Antimicrobial efficacy of Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Alpinia officinarum extracts against some pathogenic microorganisms

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The use and search for antibiotics and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Three plants, used traditionally as medicine and as food additive in Saudi Arabia, were collected and extracted with either methanol or n-butanol. The used plants were Rheum palmatum, Curcuma longa and Alpinia officinarum. The plant extracts were screened for their inhibitory effects on seven bacterial and five fungal genera using agar well diffusion method. It was shown that methanol extract was more effective as compared to n-butanol extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extracts of the used plants ranged from 50 to 175 μg/ml. No toxicity was found using Artimia salina as test organism. Antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was recorded only for C. longa extract.

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... Apart from being used to aid maternal recovery after delivery, Curcuma longa rhizome is also used postpartum in baths and steam baths. Antibacterial activity is reported from extracts of the rhizome (Singh et al., 2002;Kim et al., 2005;Niamsa and Sittiwet, 2009;Naz et al., 2010;Aly and Gumgumjee, 2011) and rhizome essential oils (Negi et al., 1999;Singh and Jain, 2011), and antifungal activity from the rhizome (Martins et al., 2009;Aly and Gumgumjee, 2011) and essential oils (Singh and Jain, 2011). These activities could be beneficial when bathing in Curcuma longa-infused waters to reduce microbial infections and sepsis after delivery. ...
... Apart from being used to aid maternal recovery after delivery, Curcuma longa rhizome is also used postpartum in baths and steam baths. Antibacterial activity is reported from extracts of the rhizome (Singh et al., 2002;Kim et al., 2005;Niamsa and Sittiwet, 2009;Naz et al., 2010;Aly and Gumgumjee, 2011) and rhizome essential oils (Negi et al., 1999;Singh and Jain, 2011), and antifungal activity from the rhizome (Martins et al., 2009;Aly and Gumgumjee, 2011) and essential oils (Singh and Jain, 2011). These activities could be beneficial when bathing in Curcuma longa-infused waters to reduce microbial infections and sepsis after delivery. ...
Article
This is an extensive review of plants used traditionally for women's healthcare in Southeast Asia and surrounding countries. Medicinal plants have a significant role in women's healthcare in many rural areas of the world. Plants with numerous efficacious observations have historically been used as a starting point in the development of new drugs, and a large percentage of modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from medicinal plants. A review was conducted of all plant use mentioned specifically for female healthcare, such as medicine to increase fertility, induce menstruation or abortion, ease pregnancy and parturition, reduce menstrual bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage, alleviate menstrual, parturition and postpartum pain, increase or inhibit lactation, and treat mastitis and uterine prolapse, in 200 studies focusing on medicinal plant use, either general studies or studies focusing specifically on women's healthcare. Nearly 2000 different plant species are reported to be used in over 5000 combinations. Most common are Achyranthes aspera, Artemisia vulgaris, Blumea balsamifera, Carica papaya, Curcuma longa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Leonurus japonicus, Psidium guajava and Ricinus communis, and each of these species had been reported in more than 10 different scientific articles. This review provides a basis for traditional plant use in women's healthcare, and these species can be used as the starting point in the discovery of new drugs.
... The present study show the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of R. palmatum root extract both invtro and invivo. Aly and Nehad (2011) study the Antimicrobial efficacy of R. palmatum extracts against some pathogenic microorganisms. They found the inhibition zones that caused by R. palmatum extracts against E. coli, P. aeuroginosa, S. dysenteriae, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis and S. aureus reached to 20, 21, 20, 22, 17 and hibition zone diameters reached to 10, 11, 17, 19 and 24mm respectively [23]. ...
... Aly and Nehad (2011) study the Antimicrobial efficacy of R. palmatum extracts against some pathogenic microorganisms. They found the inhibition zones that caused by R. palmatum extracts against E. coli, P. aeuroginosa, S. dysenteriae, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis and S. aureus reached to 20, 21, 20, 22, 17 and hibition zone diameters reached to 10, 11, 17, 19 and 24mm respectively [23]. The mechanisms of extract that responsible for this antimicrobial activity against microorganisms depend on its compounds. ...
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The present study was conducted to find the correlation between the potential effects of Rheum palmatum root extract against the toxicity of A. fumigatus. 16 male rabbits were used and divided into four groups (each group contain 4 rabbits). Control group; infected group; infected group and treated with (50mg) root extract and infected group and treated with (100mg) root extract. MDA levels in infected rabbits show high significant increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal rabbits GSH and catalase levels in infected rabbits show significant decreased (P < 0.05) compared with normal rabbits. While, MDA, GSH and catalase levels in groups treated with root extract (50mg & 100mg) show non-significant changes (P < 0.05) compared with normal rabbits. It was concluded from this study that the Rheum palmatum root extract has potential effects against the toxicity of A. fumigatus.
... Crude methanolic and n-butanol extracts of R. palmatum were tested against seven bacterial genera. It was found that methanolic extract of R. palmatum does possess antibacterial properties against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, and Micrococcus roseus with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 to 175 µg/ml (Aly and Gumgumjee 2011). Indeed, the antibacterial effects of rhubarb have been ascribed to their capacity to inhibit the electron transport system in bacteria through multiple enzyme inhibitions in mitochondria (Chen and Chen 1987). ...
... Further, crude methanolic and n-butanol extracts of R. palmatum were tested against five fungal genera. It was found that methanolic extract of R. palmatum does possess antifungal properties against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and A. niger with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 to 175 µg/ml (Aly and Gumgumjee 2011). ...
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... Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the method described by Chand et al. (1994) and modified by Aly and Gumgumjee (2011). Each well of microtiter plate was filled with 175 ml of an exponentially growing culture ( £ 10 6 -10 7 CFU (colony-forming unit)/ml). ...
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A new eudesmane sesquiterpenoid, eudesma-4(15),7-diene-5,11-diol (1) along with the known trinor-sesquiterene, teuhetenone (2), and a seco-eudesmane sesquiterpene, chabrolidione B (3), have been isolated from the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the isolated metabolites were tested against several fungi, yeast and human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 1 and 3 showed a much better activity [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2.9 μM] than that of amphotericin B (MIC: 4.6 μM). Interestingly, compound 2, the least active antifungal compound, retained the high anticancer activity against MCF-7 (22 μM) in comparison with cisplatin (59 μM), which was determined by employing lactate dehydrogenase assay. Compounds 1-3 are recorded here for the first time from algal flora. The chemotaxonomic importance of the isolated metabolites was discussed.
... Toxicity of 1 and 2 was determined using the brine shrimp lethality test [11]. The antitumor activity against Ehrlich carcinoma and lymphoma cell lines was determined and the percentage of cell viability (LD 50 ) was calculated [12]. Each reading is the mean value of three replicates ± SD. ...
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Two new polyacetylenes (1 and 2), along with two known C-30 steroids (3 and 4) were identified from the Red Sea sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic measurements 1D (1H, 13C and DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR, UV, IR and MS. The new compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. 1 and 2 were active against multidrug- resistant bacteria with MICs ranged from 2.2 to 4.5 μM. No toxicity was recorded for the two tested compounds up to 5 μM using Artemia salina as a test organism. Compound 2 showed excellent antifungal activity against some pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans (MIC 2.2-2.5 μM) and antitumor activity against both Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and lymphocytic leukemia (LD50 5.0 μM).
... Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is a rhizomatous perennial plant with a large rootstock and thick leaf stalks that is distributed in western China, northern Tibet, and the Mongolian Plateau. Rhubarb is one of the most popular herbs used to treat indigestion and other disorders in Chinese medicine and has been reported to possess antibacterial and anti-proliferative activities (Kang et al. 2008;Aly and Gumgumjee 2011). Bodas et al. (2008) and García-González et al. (2008a, 2008b reported that rhubarb is a potentially useful additive to manipulate rumen fermentation, particularly to decrease methane production and the acetate : propionate ratio without substantially inhibiting degradation of substrates or total volatile fatty acid production. ...
... In Chinese medicine, it has been used as laxative, antiphlogistic, in the treatment of indigestion and other disorders. It has been reported to possess antibacterial and antiproliferative activity (Aly andGumgumjee 2011, Kang et al. 2008). In the present study, we report the green synthesis of stable bioactive AgNPs using an aqueous root extract of R. palmatum. ...
Article
In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by using aqueous root extracts of Rheum palmatum and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The nanoparticles were found to be in hexagonal and spherical shapes. The average particle size was found to be 121 ± 2 nm with zeta potential values of -21.6 mv by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of R. palmatum revealed 35 compounds. The synthesized AgNPs showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IC90 values of 15 μg/ml and IC50 values of 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. The protein leakage level was high and morphological changes occurred in bacteria treated with AgNPs.
... DMSO was used as a negative control and ampicillin as a positive control. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by modified method described by Chand et al [19] and Aly and Gumgumji [20]. 175 μL of an exponentially growing culture (x10 6 -10 7 CFU/mL) was delivered into each well of microtiter plate along with 20 μL solution of each concentration of the isolated compounds. ...
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Purpose: To evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the secondary metabolites of Lobophytum sp. Methods: Maceration with methanol: chloroform (1:1) was applied to extract the coral material. Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were employed for fractionation, isolation and elucidation of pure compounds. Antibacterial activities were performed by well diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Brine shrimp lethality test was employed to predict toxicity, while antitumor activity were tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Results: Four sesquiterpenes, one cembranoid type diterpenes and two steroids were isolated. 1 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against four tested bacteria (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. epidermis, and S. pneumonia) with MIC value of 15 μg/mL. Moreover, 1 showed high diameter zone of inhibition ranging from 16 - 18 mm against test bacteria. Compounds 4 and 5 displayed moderate antibacterial activity against all test bacteria with inhibition zone diameter (IZD) ranging from 11 – 15 mm and MIC values of 30 μg/mL. 2, 3, 6 and 7 exhibited weak antibacterial activity (IZD, 7 - 11 mm; MIC ≥ 30 μg/mL). In addition, only diterpene compound (4) showed high toxicity against A. Salina and antitumor activity against Erhlich carcinoma cells with the LD50 of 25 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals the strong antibacterial activity of sesquiterpene alismol (1) and the potential antibacterial and antitumor activity of cembranoid type diterpene, cembrene A (4).
... Above 400,000 species of system and it also enhances the mucin secretion in the flowering plants are known for having antimicrobial digestive tract. In classical literature several actions of activities.Spices have an extensive history of their use in turmeric have been specified like antibacterial, developing and advanced countries owing to their antithelmintic, anticancer, antiparasitic, antiseptic, tremendous antimicrobial and antifungal activities [3][4][5]. ...
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Turmeric " Curcuma longa " member of Zingiberaceae family is well known for its curative potential against diseases. Disease preventive role of turmeric and other plant foods is due to the bioactive components such as phenolic acids, tannins and flavonoids. For the current study, antioxidant activity of turmeric extracts was investigated against DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Proximate analysis and total phenolic contents of ethanol, methanol and water extracts of turmeric were also carried out. The total phenolic content (TPC) means related to three solvents at their different concentrations i.e. Ethanol (60%), Ethanol (80%), methanol (60%), methanol (80%) and aqueous extract were 678.76 mg GAE/ 100 g, 745.76 mg GAE/ 100 g, 523.87 mg GAE/ 100 g, 682.43 mg GAE/ 100 g and 496.76 mg GAE/ 100 g respectively. Free radical scavenging activities of three solvents of turmeric at their different concentrations i.e. Ethanol (60%), Ethanol (80%), methanol (60%), methanol (80%) and aqueous extract were 46.16%, 52.19%, 35.41%, 49.83% and 31.33% respectively. Results indicated that ethanolic extract showed better phenolic acids and DPPH scavenge activity than methanol and water extracts.Proximate composition showed that turmeric contained moisture (13.02%), crude protein (6.47%), crude fat (5.33%), crude fiber (4.80%), ash (3.49%) and NFE (69.89%).
... Turmeric extracts also showed significant antimicrobial activity measured by MIC assay. Growth of both gramnegative and gram positive bacteria were retarded by using concentrations of 20 to 90 µg/mL of turmeric extracts [49]. The antibacterial effect of turmeric, cinnamon and garlic was investigated by Mukhtar and Ghori [50]. ...
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Meat and meat based products are becoming more prevalent all over the world. Fresh meat has an ideal configuration for the development of a huge variety of microorganisms that causes spoilage. Thus the application of any natural compound having pronounced antimicrobial activity may be beneficial for sustaining meat quality and prolonging its shelf-life. Curcumalonga belongs to Zingiberaceae family. The most imperative fraction of turmeric is named as curcuminoids. Among curcuminoids, Curcumin is mostly accountable for all biological activities of turmeric. Keeping in view the antimicrobial effect of turmeric, the present review will help the readers to understand antibacterial activity of different extracts of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on meat samples and their antimicrobial potential on various pathogens.
... The method of Chand et al. [13] modified by Aly and Gumgumjee [14] was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active factions against the tested bacteria and fungi. ...
Article
A new C-30 steroid, 3β-,5α-,6β-,11α-,20β-pentahydroxygorgosterol (1), and a new diterpenoid, xeniumbellal (2), along with three known aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenes, aromadendrene (3), palustrol (4) and viridiflorol (5), were isolated from the soft coral Xenia umbellata. Chemical structures were determined by analyzing their NMR and MS data. The antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the isolated compounds were examined. Both 1 and 2 showed moderate antibacterial activities, especially against the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC 0.22 and 0.28 mM, respectively); while 2 showed antitumor activity against a lymphoma cell line with LD50 0.57 mM and was nontoxic to Artemia salina at all tested concentrations up to about 4 mM.
... The toxic effect of different concentration of plant extracts was determined at the cell level using Artimia salina as the test organism [28] and the toxic compound must increase mortality up to 50% [29]. The antitumor activity of the six tested plants was determined against Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells which were supplied by the National Cancer institute, Egypt. ...
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Antibiotic resistance is increasing and dangerous problem resulting in a decrease in the used number and fully active antimicrobial agents available to treat infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Herbal medicines may be an alternative treatment options. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia against some pathogenic and MDR bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts were prepared. Out of the 6 plants tested, 5 showed antimicrobial activities against one or more of the tested genera using paper disc diffusion assay. The most active antimicrobial plants were the extract of Azadirachta indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger) Eucalptus globules, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lawsonia inermis with minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) values ranged from 50-150μg/ml. Lepidium sativium have very weak activity with MIC of ≥200 μg/ml. At 600μg/ml, no toxicity was recorded for all tested extracts except of A. indica extract that showed toxicity (% of mortality ≥50). No antitumor activities for the different plant extracts were recorded against Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. The biological activities may be due to some photochemical compounds including Anthocyanin, Butacyanin, Phytobutanins, Flavonoides, Stetoides and/or Saponins.
... Mean diameter of inhibition zone of three replicated plates was determined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of plant extract, antibiotics or the mixture of both for all tested bacteria were determined in 96 well ELISA trays by the methods described by Chand et al. (1994) [23] and was modified by Aly and GumgumJee (2011) [9]. Each well contained 175 µl of the bacterial suspension (4 × 10 6 CFU/ml), 20 µl the plant extract, or the solvent as control. ...
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Some medicinal plants are used traditionally in Saudi Arabia to treat many bacterial infections. Three plants, lemongrass (Oymbopogon citrates), lantana (Lantana cama-ra), and wild olive leaves (Olea europaea) were collected, identified, extracted with either hot water or organic solvents (methanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to investigate their antibacterial activities against E. coli. The methanol ex-tracts of lemongrass, lantana and olive showed the highest activities against Esherichia coil while aqueous extract exhibited the lowest activities. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the methanolic extract of the three tested plants were determined using agar well diffusion method against some bacterial pathogens, isolated from urine samples. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded for themethanolic extract of lemongrass against all tested bacteria, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeuroginosa, P. mirabilis, E. faecalis and S. aureus. The tested bacteria differed with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Lemongrass was the most active extract followed by lantana and wild olive extracts. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the methanolic extract of Lemongrass and some used antibiotics, Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol were determined usingfluorescein diacetate method. Synergistic effect of the methanolic extract of lemongrass with the previous antibiotics against the tested clinical bacterial isolates was determined and the Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) of different combination of the extract and the antibiotics were determined. FIC index (FICI) was calculated and it was ranged from 0.08 - 0.98. The interaction between the tested plant extract and the tested antibiotics was either synergistic or additive effects and no antagonistic effect was recorded. In conclusion, methanolic extract of lemongrass singly or in combination with some antibiotics can be used to treat pathogenic bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
... 3 Rhubarb is well-known for its strong biological activities such ascathartic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antiplatelet, antibacterial, anti-oxidative, and antimutagenic effects. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Rhubarb roots are used as oriental laxative medicine and an antipsoriatic drug, also used against diarrhea, as well as stomachic, antiemetic, hemorrhoids, measles, smallpox and cholagogue. 12,13 Rhubarb also showed the protective effect against liver injury and fatty liver. ...
Article
Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) is considered one of the commonly used edible and medicinal plant. This work was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Rhubarb roots extract. Total tannin, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of ethanolic and water extracts as well as phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined in Rhubarb roots. The highest content of total tannin, phenolic and flavonoid were found in ethanolic extract. The major phenolic acids were benzoic and ferulic acids followed by vanillic acid, while the major flavonoid was narengine. The results indicated that the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found in ethanolic extract and highly correlated with phenolic content. The results of the current work indicated that ethanolic extract has the potential to be used as a natural anti- inflammatory and antioxidant.
... A disk impregnated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 2% was used as negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using microtiter plate following the method described by Chand et al. [27] and modified by Aly et al. [28]. Solution of fluorescein diacetate (0.2%, w/v) in acetone was added to the incubated bacterial cells and the resulting green color was measured at 490 nm. ...
Article
9-Fluorenone azine 2a and benzophenone azine 2b were synthesized, respectively, by treatment of 9-fluorenone hydrazone 1a or benzophenone hydrazone 1b with FeCl3 in chloroform. Ferrocenecarboxaldehyde 3 reacts with 1a or 1b, in ethanol, to furnish novel asymmetrical azine products 1-((ferrocenyl)methylene)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazine 3a or 1-((ferrocenyl)methylene)-2-(diphenylmethylene)hydrazine 3b, respectively. The compounds were characterized by IR,¹H, ¹³C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy, high resolution ESI⁺-MS or EI, and also by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (in the case of 2b and 3b). The contribution of the azine functional group (3a) in the LUMO orbital was justified by observing a red shift in the MLCT upon its protonation. The antimicrobial activities of 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b were determined against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in addition to Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using paper disc diffusion method. Moderate antibacterial activities were found for 3a and 3b while weak activities were recorded for 2a and 2b compared to Ampicillin, positive control. No antifungal or antitumor activities were found for all the tested compounds, except 3a which showed antitumor activity. Low toxicity was recorded for 3a and 3b using Artemia salina as test organism. Hence, the prepared products 3a and 3b can be used as antimicrobial agents due to their antibacterial activities and low cell toxicity.
... An aliquot of bacterium suspension was swabbed on agar plates (BHI-agar).Then, six holes were perforated in each plate and 100 µL of the same concentration of each plant extracts were poured in the hole. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and then the diameter of the growth inhibition around each hole was measured [24]. ...
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Background Nowadays, it is necessary to discover new and efficient antifungal or antimicrobial drugs because of increasing drug resistance organisms. Using medicinal plants for natural treatment of diseases caused by bacterial origin has mainly been considered. Objectives In this study, the impacts of antimicrobial medicinal plants extract were compared based on four bacteria in vitro. Methods In this experimental study, disc diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of selected plant extract elicited by two different solvent on S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteric. Data were analyzed with a statistical software program (SPSS 16). Results The hydro-alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) and water extract of Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) were the most active extracts screened for antimicrobial activities against different four bacteria as tested organisms. The diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 23 to 28 mm. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of plant extracts and commercial drug revealed that the size of inhibition zone of penicillin against Staphylococcus aureus bacterium was larger than the plant extracts. However, myrtle extract at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 30 mg/mL showed more powerful antibacterial activity compared to the other extracts and even penicillin. Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Nerium oleander (Oleander) and Glycyrihiza glabra (licorice) were found to have the least effect on the tested bacteria. Conclusions In the present study, plant extracts with different compounds showed antibacterial activity (especially myrtle and cinnamon). Hence, they can be used as new source for antibacterial substances.
... Curcumin from turmeric was renowned for its antibacterial activity through disruption of ion channels across the bacterial cell wall. A concentration of 20μg/ml to 90μg/ml has been proven operative against various gram positive and gram negative bacterial species (Aly and Gumgumjee, 2011). Turmeric has reported to have a 92.3% antioxidant activity, depictive of its protective attributes and potential to reduce the risk for chronic diseases like cardiovascular and cancer (He et al., 2015) In the present study, the antimicrobial potential of turmeric was confirmed by using the disc diffusion and the agar well method, against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. ...
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Turmeric, a recognized spice, is known for miscellaneous health benefits in addition to culinary uses. In this study, in vitro evaluation of turmeric ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts were mediated by disc diffusion, agar well method and phytochemical analysis. Purification of curcumin from turmeric was assisted by silica gel, TLC and HPLC for evaluation of its antioxidant and DNA protection activity. The sensitivity of alcoholic extracts against bacterial species differed, yet Staphylococcus aureus sub sp. Aureus and Bacillus subtilis both exhibited pronounced inhibition in disc diffusion and agar well method respectively. Overall, the crude ethanol extract of turmeric has an enhanced inhibitory effect on the growth of different bacterial species with a mean of 9.4±1.00 mm compared to 8.8±0.58 mm in case of crude methanol extract. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, saponnins, tannins and phenols. Purification of curcumin through HPLC gave the main peak with 55% of acetonitrile at a retention time of 61- 65 minutes. Lower concentration of purified curcumin has protective effects on human DNA but increased concentrations instigate damaging effects. Its percentage scavenging ability was highest (91.84%) at 45 μg and per unit increase in the concentration prompted 6 units increase in percentage inhibition with a linear regression, R2= 0.914. All these traits boost its significance in herbal medicine with varied antimicrobial and pharmacological activities.
... Among them, Rheum palmatum L. (Rhubarb) is widely applied as a kind of purgative medicine in China [8]. In the last few years, studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory [9] and antimicrobial efficacies of Rhubarb [10]. As a main active component in Rhubarb, 3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (emodin) confers an anti-inflammatory activity to animal models against multiple types of inflammations, for instance, arthritis [11], lung inflammation [12] and acute pancreatitis [13]. ...
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Background/aim: Pressure ulcers are a disastrous health issue in which inflammation is involved. Emodin possesses biological properties in inflammation. Our study investigated functions of emodin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HaCaT cells. Methods: LPS was used to induce cell inflammation. MTT and flow cytometry were applied for cell viability and apoptosis assays, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic proteins were detected by western blot. Similarly, inflammatory factors and signalling related proteins were also determined by western blot. Results: Emodin increased cell viability and diminished apoptosis in LPS-treated HaCaT cells. Moreover, cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9 were all downregulated by emodin. Furthermore, inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, Cox-2 and iNOS were inhibited by emodin in LPS-treated cells. In addition, emodin decreased phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα and the level of PTEN while enhanced phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT. Importantly, emodin increased expression of miR-21 suppressed by LPS and miR-21 downregulation negated the protective functions of emodin. Conclusions: Emodin promoted cell growth presented by increasing viability and blocking apoptosis process with inflammation inhibition. The protective activity of emodin was mediated by miR-21 up-regulation.
... In vitro inhibitory activity of two major compounds (rhein, and aloe-emodin) isolated from R. palmatum were evaluated against Saprolegnia mycelial growth and spore germination (Yao et al., 2017). Aly and Gumgumjee (2011) tropicalis, Candida neoformans, Alernaria solani, Fusarium oxosporium, and Aspergillus niger). The five hydroxyanthraquinones (HAQs) inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and the sequence of growth inhibition of five compounds are as follows: rhein > emodin > aloe-emodin > chrysophanol > physicion (Wang et al., 2010). ...
... The lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined according to the report. 37 3. Results and discussion ...
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The idea of preparing different ratios of (anatase/rutile) TiO2 mixture has been performed by using microwave assisted sol-gel method and by applying particular concentrations of titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a single source precursor (SSP) with a constant concentration of nitric acid that has been used as structure directing agent. The effect of TiO2 composition ratio of anatase to rutile on physicochemical and photocatalytic properties has been studied. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the prepared samples have been studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS); respectively. In addition, the chemical group functions have been determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The characterization results showed that the crystallite sizes were found to be in the range of 30 -70 nm and also revealed the different crystalline phases ratio of anatase and rutile depending on the concentrations of Ti precursor. The photocatalytic degradation of synthesized samples has been evaluated with crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) solutions under UV light ‎irradiation. The results confirmed that the TiO2 sample containing 81.65 wt% anatase exhibited a high photoactivity on organic dyes degradation. The inhibitory effects of the tested synthesized samples of TiO2 nanoparticles have been determined against different multidrug resistant gram-positive and negative bacterial pathogens. The most active sample was the one with the highest ratio of anatase.
... Turmeric is active against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and many pathogenic bacterial strains due to the phenolic compounds [52]. Growth of both Gram -ve and Gram +ve bacteria were inhibited in the presence of turmeric extracts of 20 to 90 µg/mL [53]. Antibacterial activity of ethanol and hexane extracts of turmeric and curcuminoids was studied against 24 strains of pathogenic bacteria, which were isolated from chicken and shrimp. ...
... The antibacterial activity was tested on Muller-Hinton agar using agar diffusion well test [70]. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined in a 96 well ELISA tray [71,72] using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) (5 μL; 0.25% w/v in acetone) as indicator. The green colour due to FDA hydrolysis was measured at 490 nm using an ELISA tray reader. ...
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Direct effects of sunlight irradiation on the photochemical degradation of diclofenac (DCF) has been investigated in coastal Saudi Arabia (Jeddah) under controlled field conditions. Indirect effects from processes like sensitization and photocatalysis were excluded for this study. Photodecomposition of DCF under natural sunlight is essentially identical during summer and winter but slowed down considerably under cloudy conditions. 9H-Carbazole-1-acetic acid (D1) and 8-chloro-9H-carbazole-1-acetic acid (D2) were the main transformation products. When exposed to sunlight under the same conditions, the former acid reacted more slowly than DCF, the latter more rapidly. DCF exhibits antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, the carbazoles do not, and both DCF and the carbazoles are nontoxic to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Only 9H-carbazole-1-acidic acid expresses antitumor activity against the Lymphoma cell line and Lewis lung carcinoma (LD50 = 0.044 and 0.066 mM, respectively). A new quantitative analytical method was adopted and validated for simultaneous ultra-trace quantification of DCF, D1, and D2 in contaminated surface waters from the Saudi coast of the eastern Red Sea. The analytical method involved solid-phase extraction (on HLB – hydrophilic – lipophilic balanced phases) followed by liquid-chromatographic separation and tandem mass-spectrometric detection and quantification. DCF was found in the concentration up to 26.9 ng/L. Both D1 and D2 were detected at relatively low concentration ranges (up to 3.3 ng/L and 1.9, respectively).
... Extracts of C. longa were examined for their antifungal activity against F. solani, P. infestans, F. oxysporum, A. alternata, and P. debaryanum. The results revealed that the extracts had variable antifungal activity as shown in and Gumgumjee (2011) stated that methanol extract of C. longa was more effective as compared to n-butanol extract against five fungal genera using agar well diffusion method, and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extract ranged from 50 to175 μg mL -1 . The extracts of C. longa with ethanol, which has close polarity to methanol, showed antifungal activity against several fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, F. moniliforme, Penicillium digitatum, and Trichophyton longifusus (Khattak et al., 2005;Kumar et al., 2011). ...
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The insecticidal and antifungal activities of Curcuma longa L. rhizome extracts and two isolated compounds, namely, ar-turmerone and curcumin, were evaluated. Rhizomes of C. longa were extracted with n-hexane, methylene chloride, methanol and water, successively. Hexane, methylene chloride, and methanol extracts exhibited remarkable insecticidal activity against the larvae of Culex pipiens. The LC 50 values were 5.28, 5.82, and 6.44 mg L-1 , respectively, after 48 h. In contrary, the extracts exhibited weak toxic effect on the third instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. The LC 50 values of water, methylene chloride, and hexane extracts were 495.9, 565.7 and 709.7 mg L-1 , respectively after 48 hours. On the other hand, the extracts showed variable antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium debaryanum, Phytophthora infestans, Fusarium solani and Alternaria alternata. Methanol extract had the highest antifungal activity among the tested extracts with EC 50 values of 159.8, 242.7, and 322.2 mg L-1 on P. infestans, F. solani and A. alternata, respectively. Two compounds, namely, ar-turmerone and curcumin were isolated from methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of C. longa rhizomes and their chemical structures were identified by using spectroscopic analysis. Ar-Turmerone had moderate toxicity against C. pipiens larvae. The LC 50 values were 158.5 and 117.6 mg L-1 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. In addition, ar-turmerone showed moderate antifungal activity against P. infestans (EC 50 = 588.9 mg L-1) and weak activity against F. solani (EC 50 = 820.6 mg L-1). Curcumin caused 51.1 and 54.32% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum and P. infestans at 250 mg L-1 , respectively.
... The antibacterial activity was tested on Muller-Hinton agar using agar diffusion well test [70]. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined in a 96 well ELISA tray [71,72] using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) (5 μL; 0.25% w/v in acetone) as indicator. The green colour due to FDA hydrolysis was measured at 490 nm using an ELISA tray reader. ...
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Direct effects of sunlight irradiation on the photochemical degradation of diclofenac (DCF) has been investigated in coastal Saudi Arabia (Jeddah) under controlled field conditions. Indirect effects from processes like sensitization and photocatalysis were excluded for this study. Photodecomposition of DCF under natural sunlight is essentially identical during summer and winter but slowed down considerably under cloudy conditions. 9H-Carbazole-1-acetic acid (D1) and 8-chloro-9H-carbazole-1-acetic acid (D2) were the main transformation products. When exposed to sunlight under the same conditions, the former acid reacted more slowly than DCF, the latter more rapidly. DCF exhibits anti-bacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, the carbazoles do not, and both DCF and the carbazoles are non-toxic to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Only 9H-carbazole-1-acidic acid expresses antitumor activity against the Lymphoma cell line and Lewis lung carcinoma (LD50 = 0.044 and 0.066 mM, respectively). A new quantitative analytical method was adopted and validated for simultaneous ultra-trace quantification of DCF, D1, and D2 in contaminated surface waters from the Saudi coast of the eastern Red Sea. The analytical method involved solid-phase extraction (on HLB-hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced phases) followed by liquid-chromatographic separation and tandem mass-spectrometric detection and quantification. DCF was found in the concentration up to 26.9 ng/L. Both D1 and D2 were detected at relatively low concentration ranges (up to 3.3 ng/L and 1.9, respectively).
... The biologically active phytochemicals are flavonoids (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, and catechin), anthocyanins (cyaniding 3glucoside and cyaniding 3-rutinoside), stilbene (desoxyrhapontigenin and trans-rhapontigenin), and anthraquinones (emodin, physcion, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, and rhein). Ethnomedicinal properties of rheum ribes are laxative, antioxidative, analgestic, antidiabetic, antimutagenic, ascathartic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antiplatelet, diarrhea, measles, cholagogue, stomachic, smallpox, hemorrhoids, antiemetic, and antipsoriatic [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. In this research study, anticancer MCF-7, antiinflammatory, and Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) and GC-MS analysis are analyzed. ...
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In this study, GC-MS analysis has shown that whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) comprises of 21 compounds which exhibited anticancer (MCF-7) activity having IC 50 value of 36.01± 0.26. MTT assay (MCF-7), Oxidative Burst assay using chemiluminescence technique, and B-Hatching techniques were the methods used for anticancer MCF-7, anti-inflammatory, and Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). GC-MS was used for structural elucidation. Whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR), whole plant n-hexane fraction of rheum ribes (WHFRR), and whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) were inactive against anticancer (MCF-7) cell line. Whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR), whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) and whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) showed anti-inflammatory activity on ROS having IC 50 value of 23.2±1.9, 24.2±2.7 and 12.0±0.6. Whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) showed Brine Shrimp Lethality with LD50 693.302 while whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR) and whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) showed high lethality at highest concentration. This study revealed that whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) exhibited significant anticancer (MCF-7) activity. In the near future, the constituent of whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) can be the alternative drug against MCF-7 cell line with least toxicity and side effects.
... DMSO was used as negative control while 0.1% solution of CuSO4 was used as positive control. The percentages of surviving or dead larvae were determined after 8 hr and lethal dose (LD50) was determined according to Meyer et al. (1982) and Aly & Gumgumjee (2011). ...
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