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The antimicrobial activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast

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Abstract

The methanolic extract of Sambucus nigra L. berries was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial activities through the Agar Dilution Method. The extract of the elder berry inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC15156), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Also, growth of Candida albicans was, inhibited by crude extract of Sombacus nigra berries. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract ranged from 0.625-15 μg mL1. The phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of this medicinal plant revealed the presence of anthocyanin, vitamins A and C a well as a good source of calcium, iron and vitamin B6. It also contains sterols, tannins and essential oils and can readily be considered as a healthy food. However, more evidence is needed to really sustain any claim related to their medicinal values. The results of the present study suggest that Sambucus nigra L. can be used in treating diseases caused by the test organisms. It can also be used as a strong food preservative.

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... Kšonžeková (2015) suggests it is good for newborns because of its high anthocyanin content. Elderberry is used as a strong food preservative (Mohammadsadeghi, 2013). ...
... Elderberries probably produce most of their antimicrobial effects because they contain anthocyanins, a sub class of flavonoids that are polyphenols. Mohammadsadeghi (2013) says that … the phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of this medicinal plant revealed the presence of anthocyanin, vitamin A and C as well as a good source of calcium, iron and vitamin B6. It contains sterols, tannins and essential oils and can easily be considered healthy food. ...
... Another paper studied the antimicrobial effects of elderberry, but also found that it inhibits the yeast Candida albicans. This observation, too, is outside the scope of this paper (Mohammadsadeghi, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Elderberry extract from fruit and flowers appears to show some inhibitory effect against many microorganisms including those found as nosocomial pathogens (hospital “super-bugs”) e.g. MRSA; HIV; Mycoplasmae; IBV coronavirus (an envelope virus), and influenza (and its bacterial super-infections). These effects may be stronger in-vivo than in-vitro. The immunomodulatory effects of S. nigra have been investigated and appear to show that the plant would be likely to stimulate the immune systems of the weak or immune-compromised. It has also been investigated to see whether it would exacerbate or mitigate a cytokine storm, and does not seem to make one worse and might dampen it. Elderberry is also shown to have potential as an ingredient in a hospital disinfectant for which in-vitro trials are sufficient, and without effective disinfectants modern medicine will become impossible. The S. nigra inactivates two distinct envelope viruses and should be tested on Ebola, also an envelope virus, as it is likely that it may inactivate that too. It should also be tested on SARS and other novel coronaviruses such as COVID-19 which are all envelope viruses. Other species of Sambucus appear to have very similar properties including inhibiting coronaviruses. Elderberry seems to have potential as a useful medicine, particularly since there are reasons to believe resistance to it is unlikely to ever develop. It might be possible to use it in combination with leeks (Gallium porrum) which are also anti-viral. Elderberry has been shown to be effective against upper respiratory tract diseases including some Coronaviruses, and has potential against the current pandemic of Covid-19. Two case studies, included here, suggest it to be effective against Covid-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, and clinical trials are under way. In-vitro trials are planned to test it against other viral possible future pandemics.
... Indigenous people and herbalists use this herb as a medicinal plant. The flowers, leaves, stem bark, fruit, and root extracts of Sambucus nigra are used in cough, bronchitis, upper respiratory cold infection, and fever (Manganelli et al. 2005;Mohammadsadeghi et al. 2013;Harokopakis et al. 2006). Sambucus nigra fruits and flowers were used internally as a way of treating respiratory, digestive, gastrointestinal tract diseases, viral infection, influenza, and skin disorders in traditional Austrian medicines (Dawidowicz et al. 2006;Abuja et al. 1998;Veberic et al. 2009;Zakay-Rones et al. 1995;Hearst et al. 2010;Serkedjieva et al. 1990). ...
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Gurez is situated along the Kishanganga river in Kashmir valley. It is remotely located but the most beautiful valley. Owing to connectivity problems, this valley has largely remained unexplored and thereby its various features have generally gone unnoticed. This beautiful valley harbors a diversity of the medicinal plants. These medicinal plants are not only used in traditional health care system for the treatment of various diseases but also provide an edge for socio-economic upliftment for households. The socio-economic profile of the people of this remote area depicts that these people live in underprivileged conditions. The medicinal plants indigenous to Gurez, like Bunium persicum, Achillea Millefolium, and Carum carvi besides others, have high commercial value and can be utilized as a source of income. These phytochemically rich plant species can contribute to the development of various formulations of herbal therapies. However, overexploitation of these plant species has caused a decline in the frequency of these species in the past few years. Planned cultivation, proper exploitation, and the commercialization of these medicinal plants can serve as a primary source of income to the people of this downtrodden community of Gurez, particularly marginalized farmers and landless poor people. These plants have the potential to broaden livelihood opportunities of these people by framing proper policy that can give topmost priority to proper exploration of these plants.
... Información química y farmacológica: Los compuestos más interesantes de la especie son los polifenoles, destacándose las antocianinas [342]. Han sido evidenciadas sus actividades, antimicrobiana [343], antioxidante [344], anticancerígena [345], antiinflamatoria [346] y antiviral [347]. ...
... Mohammadsadeghi et al., found also that methanolic extracts of Sambucus nigra berries, exhibited antimicrobial effects against several tested microorganisms [31]. The extract inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, and S. aureus. ...
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The concern in developing research on antimicrobial natural active ingredients from plant material is constantly growing nowadays, due to acquired resistance of pathogens to antibiotic products existing on the market. The aim of this study was the screening of the antibacterial activity of several medicinal plant extracts, namely licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Clear inhibition activity was observed for the ethanolic extracts of licorice against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus cereus, while the ethanolic extracts of elderberry inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli and P. fluorescens. The antibacterial evaluation was followed by the biochemical characterization in terms of quantitative determination of the total phenolic content, total flavonoids content. The results obtained revealed the fact that the selected plants, traditionally used in various forms in folk medicine, can be in the future a potential source of antimicrobial compounds.
... It can also be used as a strong food preservative (Mohammadsadeghi et al., 2013). Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations (Bratu et al., 2012). ...
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The paper presents the overall results and experimental details of the in vitro assessment of the elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract on the motility, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of bovine spermatozoa in different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 hours). Sambucus nigra is often used for medicinal purposes throughout the world. Modern research reveals that Sambucus nigra extracts may have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer and antioxidant properties, because of a high content of biologically active components. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 100, 50 and 1 μg/mL elderberry extract was lower in comparison with other samples. The experiment showed that the elderberry extract had a considerable in vitro effect on the sperm motility, vitality and oxidative profile. The ROS production as well as the CASA assessment proved that the optimal concentration of both extracts was 10 μg/mL in every time with statistically significant results. The MTT test showed a statistically significant increase of mitochondrial at all time periods with 10 μg/mL elderberry extract when compared to the control group. When lower concentrations of the elderberry extract were used (5 and 1 μg/mL), the mitochondrial activity was higher than in the control group but lower than in the group supplemented with 10 μg/mL of the extract. In these groups this indicator increased maximally after 24 h. The findings of the present study indicate that Sambucus nigra extract possesses activity promoting properties on bovine spermatozoa at 10 and 5 μg/mL.
... Dichos compuestos han sido descritos como los más probables agentes antimicrobianos en la familia Adoxaceae, de la cual hace parte S. nigra (36). Dos estudios han demostrado efectividad de esta planta como antiviral (37,38); también ha sido ensayado como antibacteriano siendo muy eficaz frente a S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (39). ...
Article
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p>Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de las plantas Bauhinia sp., Sambucus nigra, Eichhornia crassipes y Taraxacum officinale frente a patógenos de importancia clínica. Método. La metodología incluyó la adquisición, secado, maceración, molienda, preparación de los extractos crudos etanólicos y concentración por rotaevaporación, análisis fitoquimico y se separaron las fracciones por cromatografía en capa fina. Las pruebas antimicrobianas se realizaron con diferentes concentraciones de los extractos según las indicaciones de Clinical and Laboratory Standars Institute. Los microorganismos utilizados fueron Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae con presencia de KPC, Providencia rettgeri con presencia de ESBLs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus β-lisina y Candida albicans. Resultados. Las cromatografías permitieron comprobar la presencia de flavonoides, terpenos, saponinas, fenoles, quinonas y alcaloides que han sido reportados con actividad antimicrobiana. En los ensayos de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se encontró que los extractos presentaban diversos grados de inhibición frente a los microrganismos de estudio, siendo el más eficaz los tallos de T. officinale. Conclusión. Se puede concluir que los extractos vegetales podrían ser una alternativa de tratamiento para infecciones nosocomiales.</p
... In the studies of Mohammadsadeghi, et al. and Hearst, et al., elderberry extracts exhibit strong antibacterial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria such us P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and B. cereus. It was also demonstrated that S. nigra inhibits the growth of the yeast C. albicans [108,109]. Our study on the antibacterial activity of the elderberry flower ethanolic extract against A. lannensis and A. bogorensis showed that the tested extract had the strongest activity against these strains. ...
Chapter
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It has long been shown that phytochemicals protect plants against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, but only relatively recently we have learnt that they are also critical in pro‐ tecting humans against diseases. A significant amount of medicinal plants is consumed by humans. As food‐related products, they additionally improve human health and general well‐being. This chapter deals with plant‐derived food preservatives. Particular attention has been paid to the following berry fruits: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea), as well as the following herbs and spices: peppermint (Mentha piperita), basil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyl‐ anicum) bark, cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as alternative sources of natural antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents with potential use in food indus‐ try. Moreover, we present an overview of the most recent information on the positive effect of bioactive compounds of these plants on human health. This chapter is a collec‐ tion of essential and valuable information for food producers willing to use plant‐derived bioactive substances for ensuring the microbiological safety of products.
... However, the role played by methanol extract in wound healing is probably the result of the synergistic effects of the constituents it contains. However, Mohammadsadeghi et al. (2013) found that the methanol extract of S. nigra berries displays strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract ranged from 0.625 to 5 μg mL -1 . ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. Result: An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). Conclusion: The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering a proper evaluation. Therefore, further studies should be aimed at isolating and identifying specific active substances from plant extracts, which could also reveal compounds with more valuable therapeutic properties. Furthermore, additional reliable clinical trials are needed to confirm those experiences encountered when using traditional medicines. A combination of traditional and modern knowledge could result in new wound-healing drugs with a significant reduction in unwanted side effects.
... Información química y farmacológica: Los compuestos más interesantes de la especie son los polifenoles, destacándose las antocianinas [342]. Han sido evidenciadas sus actividades, antimicrobiana [343], antioxidante [344], anticancerígena [345], antiinflamatoria [346] y antiviral [347]. ...
... The fruit is rich in carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, minerals, vitamins (A, B6 and C), essential oils, and is high in fiber [6,7]. Researchers have linked elderberry products to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-influenza, and antibacterial activities [3,[8][9][10][11][12][13]. Whereas little scientific research has been conducted on AE as compared to its close relative, the European elderberry (EE), Sambucus nigra (subsp. ...
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Cyanogenic glycosides (CNGs) are naturally occurring plant molecules (nitrogenous plant secondary metabolites) which consist of an aglycone and a sugar moiety. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is released from these compounds following enzymatic hydrolysis causing potential toxicity issues. The presence of CNGs in American elderberry (AE) fruit, Sambucus nigra (subsp. canadensis), is uncertain. A sensitive, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method was developed and optimized for accurate identification and quantification of the intact glycoside. A complimentary picrate paper test method was modified to determine the total cyanogenic potential (TCP). TCP analysis was performed using a camera-phone and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. A method validation was conducted and the developed methods were successfully applied to the assessment of TCP and quantification of intact CNGs in different tissues of AE samples. Results showed no quantifiable trace of CNGs in commercial AE juice. Levels of CNGs found in various fruit tissues of AE cultivars studied ranged from between 0.12 and 6.38 µg/g. In pressed juice samples, the concentration range measured was 0.29-2.36 µg/mL and in seeds the levels were 0.12-2.38 µg/g. TCP was highest in the stems and green berries. Concentration levels in all tissues were generally low and at a level that poses no threat to consumers of fresh and processed AE products.
... The contents of all tubes that showed no visible growth were cultured on Muller Hinton agar and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration that could not produce a single bacterial colony, and the MBC was defined as the lowest concentration of the extract at which 99.9% of the inoculated microorganisms were killed (13,14). ...
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Herbal compounds with antimicrobial effects are of major considerations because of increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of Melissa officinalis L, Plantago major L, Orobancha crenata Forsk, Phoenix dactylifera, Ziziphus mauritiana and Teucrium Polium seed extracts on some human pathogenic bacteria isolated from burn wounds. Disk-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were applied to assess the antibacterial activity of the extracts in comparison to the tetracycline, as a control antibiotic. The extract of the Orobancha crenata showed stonger antibacterial effects than the other herbal extracts on Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Kelebsiela ponomoni. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive one to the Ziziphus mauritiana nucleus extract compared to other herbs. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that extracts of some native plants of Iran can be appropriate alternative to the existing antibiotics, applicable for prevention of burn infections.
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Fruit and vegetable processing industry is one of the relevant generators of food by-products, which display limited commercial exploitation entailing economic and environmental problems. However, these by-products present a considerable amount of dietary fiber as well as bioactive compounds with important biological activities such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, the international scientific community has considered the incorporation of their extracts or powders to preserve or fortify food products an area of interest, mainly because nowadays consumers demand the production of safer and health-promoting foods. In the present review, several statistical and other relevant data concerning the increasing generation of fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are critically analyzed and presented. Next, a special focus is given to the chemical characterization and bioactivities (namely antioxidant and antimicrobial properties) of several FVB. Lastly, an in-depth review with recent studies (briefly compiled) about the incorporation of fruit and vegetable processing wastes in animal, dairy, beverages, and bakery products, among others is provided.
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Plants are incredibly significant in the lives of people around the world. People rely on plants to satisfy basic human needs like food, clothing, shelter, and health care. Because of a rising world population, increasing wages, and urbanization, these needs are growing rapidly. Of course, plants provide food directly and often feed livestock that is then eaten on their own. The value of plants is likely to become fairer among countries as world economies become more accessible and market-oriented through trade agreements such as those from the World Trade Organization. The socio-economic significance of such an understanding of plants is defined in this chapter by providing evidence of the multiple benefits of plant breeding in and beyond agriculture based on reproducible findings and scientific evidence for arable crops.
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Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de las plantas Bauhinia sp., Sambucus nigra, Eichhornia crassipes y Taraxacum officinale frente a patógenos de importancia clínica. Método. La metodología incluyó la adquisición, secado, maceración, molienda, preparación de los extractos crudos etanólicos y concentración por rotaevaporación, análisis fitoquimico y se separaron las fracciones por cromatografía en capa fina. Las pruebas antimicrobianas se realizaron con diferentes concentraciones de los extractos según las indicaciones de Clinical and Laboratory Standars Institute. Los microorganismos utilizados fueron Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae con presencia de KPC, Providencia rettgeri con presencia de ESBLs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (3-lisina y Candida albicans. Resultados. Las cromatografías permitieron comprobar la presencia de flavonoides, terpenos, saponinas, fenoles, quinonas y alcaloides que han sido reportados con actividad antimicrobiana. En los ensayos de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se encontró que los extractos presentaban diversos grados de inhibición frente a los microrganismos de estudio, siendo el más eficaz los tallos de T. officinale. Conclusión. Se puede concluir que los extractos vegetales podrían ser una alternativa de tratamiento para infecciones nosocomiales.
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Sambucus nigra L. i s a well well-known species with a wide range of medicinal properties. In this work, supercritical fluids extracts were obtained from fresh and dried elderberries of S. nigra L.: A (dried berries, ethanol absolute), B (dried berries, ethanol 96%), C (dried berries, ethanol 70%) and D (fresh berries, ethanol 96%). In vitro enzymatic activities of those extracts, antioxidant activity (AA) and preliminary safety assessment were evaluated. The most promising extracts were selected for encapsulation in polymeric nano particles (NPs). All extracts demonstrated low to moderate AA and they did not reveal any antimicrobial activity for the bacteria and yeasts tested. No toxic effect in Artemia salina model was observed. Due to the antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti anti-elastase activities, A and C extracts were successfully encapsulated into PLGA NPs. According to morphology analysis, empty PLGA NPs had a rounded irregular shape and seemed somewhat collapsed, while PLGA NPs loaded with extract A or C exhibited a spherical shape with a smooth surface. The encapsulation process produced a slight increase in the NPs’ size. Further studies will include the optimization of extract conditions to improve the yield of extraction as well as the in vivo evaluation of these nanocarriers.
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This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiadhesive activities of ethanol extracts from five edible plant parts: cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), licorice root (Glycyrrhiza radix), nettle leaves (Urtica dioica), green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis), and elderberry flowers (Sambucus nigra). The chemical constituents of the extracts were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry. Six strains of Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored noncarbonated mineral water were used. Bacterial adhesion to polystyrene as an attachment substrate in culture media supplemented with 10% plant extract was evaluated using luminometric measurement of the ATP extracted from adhered cells. The viability of the adhered and planktonic cells was assessed using the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. All tested crude extracts contained flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives), flavanols (catechin and derivatives), flavanones (glabrol, licorice glycoside A, and liquiritin), and phenolic acids (gallic, quinic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, and ferulic). The culture medium with 10% elderberry extract provided the least favorable environment for all tested bacterial strains. Extracts from green tea, cinnamon, and licorice also had significant inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the tested bacterial strains. This research suggests that the addition of selected edible plant extracts could improve the microbial stability of noncarbonated soft drinks
Thesis
In recent years, the scientific community has seen an increasing interest in the use of natural compounds in medicines, food supplements, cosmetics and dermatological products. An important example is Sambucus nigra L. whose flowers (elderflowers) and berries (elderberries) have been widely used in traditional medicine. The traditional use of elderflowers in the relief of early symptoms of common cold has been officially recognised by the European Union, where several products in the form of herbal tea, tincture or liquid extract, are available on the market. Elderberries have also been traditionally used in the form of herbal tea, syrup or juice. Nevertheless, no single herbal substance/herbal preparation is registered as medicine. In line with the need for comprehensive pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of S. nigra, namely its anti-inflammatory activity, one of the aims of this PhD thesis was to screen and characterize biological activities of S. nigra L. extracts obtained using different extraction methodologies. Then, to optimize the biological activity of the best extract (i.e. with high interest for therapeutic uses), different extract-loaded nanocarriers were prepared. Different materials were applied in this task such as polymeric and lipid-based materials. In this specific context, the purpose of using nanotechnology as strategy was to increase the stability of bioactive compounds and to modulate their release, creating a potential topical formulation. Due to the harvesting time of elderflowers and elderberries, in a first part of this PhD thesis, initial nanoencapsulation studies were performed using hyaluronic acid as model drug. Hyaluronic acid is commonly used through intraarticular administration for viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis and other inflammation disorders. Therefore, the first studies consisted of producing an characterising polymeric nanoparticles made of poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were prepared with and without hyaluronic acid. The inclusion of hyaluronic acid was achieved with an efficiency higher than 70%, but resulted in a marked particle size increase. Particles revealed an in vitro sustained release profile and in vitro cell compatibility, as well as a risk of haemolysis less than 1%, ensuring their safety. In vivo antiinflammatory studies showed a higher inhibition for hyaluronic acid-loaded PLGA particles when compared to hyaluronic acid suspension (78% versus 60%). Results were not so different from the positive control, clearly suggesting that this formulation may be a promising alternative to the current hyaluronic acid injectable dosage form. Having characterised the intended particulate carrier, different extraction methods were studied to obtain the S. nigra extracts from elderflowers and elderberries. For this purpose, fresh flowers, and fresh and dried berries were considered, resulting in eighteen S. nigra extracts. Several parameters were considered for selecting the extraction method, i.e. yield of extraction, type of solvent, flavonoid content and biological activity of the resultant extracts (antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, collagenase, elastase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition). The most promising extracts were characterized for in vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory activity and cytotoxicity (skin and monocytic cells). The most promising extracts were those obtained from fresh flowers using ultrasounds method with methanol. Specifically, these extracts showed results similar to positive controls, particularly the antioxidant activity (75 ± 2%), collagenase inhibition (94 ± 1%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (97 ± 3%). Nevertheless, extracts of fresh flowers using ultrasounds/ethanol presented higher collagenase inhibition (88 ± 3%) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (102 ± 2%). Cytotoxicity testing confirmed their safety. The second aim of the present PhD thesis was to optimize the activity of the resultant methanolic extracts through encapsulation in different types of nanocarriers: polymeric nanoparticles based on PLGA and poly-Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) and lipid-based nanoparticles (ethosomes). The so obtained nanoparticulate formulations were analysed in terms of particle size and morphology, physicochemical stability over the time, extract encapsulation efficiency, release profile and biological activities (e.g., anti-inflammatory activity, collagenase inhibition, antioxidant activity). Small and well-defined polymeric nanoparticles and ethosomes were prepared. The highest encapsulation efficiency (76%) was found in PLGA nanoparticles. The same happened for the anti-inflammatory activity (60.7 ± 9.0%). On the other hand, ethosomes presented a very promising value of collagenase inhibition. At the end, this thesis validates and supports the scientific evidence of potential uses of S. nigra as a therapeutic agent, in the case of polymeric nanoparticles, or as cosmetic ingredient, in the case of ethosomes. However, further studies should be carried out, hopefully attracting interest from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
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RESUMEN Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) es una cepa bacteriana resistente a una gran variedad de antibióticos, incluidos los carbapenems y la vancomicina. Actualmente se cuenta con muy pocas opciones terapéuticas para el tratamiento de la infección por SARM, por lo tanto el enfoque hacia las plantas como fuente de moléculas con acción antibacteriana es una buena opción para investigar posibles compuestos activos. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de extractos metanólicos y diclorometánicos de plantas (reportadas por la población rural de Soracá-Colombia como tratamiento empírico para las infecciones) contra SARM. Métodos: Estudio experimental en el cual se aplicaron 16 tratamientos (extractos) a una cepa de SARM. Los extractos provinieron de siete plantas y se obtuvieron por medio de extracción continua con solventes (metanol y diclorometano) usando Soxhlet. El método de microdilución en caldo fue usado para determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de los extractos, realizando inicialmente un tamizaje a una concentración de 10 mg/mL y luego hallando la CMI de los extractos que tuvieron actividad a tal concentración. La inhibición se verificó por lectura visual después de aplicar 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT). Resultados: De los 16 extractos probados, seis inhibieron al SARM en concentración de 10 mg/mL. Tales extractos tuvieron efecto a una CMI de 1,25 mg/mL. Conclusión: Los seis extractos de las plantas que tuvieron acción inhibitoria frente a SARM son fuentes potenciales de moléculas que deben ser estudiadas más a fondo con el fin de aportar al estudio de posibles alternativas contra la resistencia bacteriana.
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