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Interpreting Qualitative Data Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction

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Interpreting Qualitative Data Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction

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... Ethnomethodology gets at the norms, understandings and assumptions that are taken for granted by people in a setting because they are so deeply understood that people don't even think about why they do what they do (Patton, 2002). Silverman (1993) suggests, "Ethnomethodology attempts to understand 'folk' (ethno) 'methods' (methodology) for organizing the world. It locates these methods and the skills ('artful practices') through which people come to develop an understanding of each other and of social situations" (p. ...
... 244). Combining data sources to validate and crosscheck findings triangulates the data and increases validity as the strengths of one approach can compensate for the potential weaknesses of another (Silverman, 1993;Maxwell, 2005). ...
... 94). Accordingly, interviews provide a source for data triangulation and add validity (Silverman, 1993;Maxwell, 2005;Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Interviewing is an efficient and valid method of capturing and understanding someone's unique perspective and delving deeply into the phenomenon under study. ...
... They neglect the ideas of behaviours. They were equally important for understanding social norms, values and human interaction (Silverman 2006). This study has used an exploratory research design. ...
... The purpose of data management is to summarise the data with a description and explanation to answer the research questions (Silverman, 2006). This study was guided by the principles of the mixed-methods. ...
... Reliability refers to the degree to which an instrument yields the same result or consistent measurements repeatedly over time (Silverman, 2006). Reliability is also concerned with the consistency of the results, interpretations and claims (Silverman 2006). ...
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This study has focused on the family-level moral perception of dead/injured foreign labour migrants in selected four districts of Bagmati Province, Nepal. It is further related to socio-economic threats to their family and child education.
... The primary goal of this study was to identify the protective factors and processes that promote resilience from the child's point of view. A summative content qualitative analysis [18,19] based on a resilience framework was used to determine the feasibility of a draw-and-write technique in exploring protective factors that promote resilience in youth of color living in poverty [20]. Once identified, these factors could be the target of future interventions designed to produce resilience in youth of color living in poverty. ...
... A summative content analysis of the data allowed both a qualitative assessment of what was drawn and quantitative consideration of how often particular themes or categories appeared, and whether these patterns differed based on other factors such as gender and ethnicity [18,19]. A resiliency framework was used to identify factors that may have supported positive outcomes despite risks associated with low-income and/or marginalized minority status. ...
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Background Youth of color growing up in poverty face many challenges that children from more affluent families never experience. These children often reside in disadvantaged neighborhoods with substandard housing, inadequate medical care, and under resourced schools. This places these children at risk for poor academic achievement, school dropout, abuse and neglect, behavioral and socioemotional problems, and physical health problems. In spite of these risks, some children “beat the odds” and overcome the challenges and adversities in their external contexts. The paper reports the findings of a draw-and-write activity designed to learn the processes whereby protective factors promote resilience from a child’s point of view. Methods In this qualitative study, a draw-and-write activity was conducted with a convenience sample of 33 children, (23 females and 10 males of which 10 were Hmong, 11 were Middle Eastern, and 12 were African Americans) .The children were asked to make visual representations of resources (persons or things that, in their view, contribute to their wellbeing.) In depth interviews with a subset of 15 of the children was conducted to discuss the meaning of the images in their drawings. A summative content analysis of the visual and narrative data was performed using a resilience framework. Results Regardless of racial/ethnic background, parents, and especially mothers, were the main “person or thing” identified by these children living in poverty as helping them “make it thus far in life.” Ninety seven percent of the participants in this study described their parent(s) as nurturing and supportive, enabling them to overcome obstacles and adversities within their environment. Forty five percent of participants identified their mother as a key anchor in their life Fifty eight percent of the African American children indicated that their parent(s) encouraged education to escape poverty. Conclusion The findings support that families, particularly parents have the strongest influence on supporting the resilience process in a child. These findings were consistent across ethnicity and gender. Families, particularly parents, should be the target of future interventions designed to produce resilient behaviors in youth of color living in poverty.
... Soruların oluşturulması ve düzenlenmesi sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemleri ve özel yeteneklilerin eğitimi alanlarından iki uzmanın görüşleri alınarak dış geçerlik sağlanmıştır. Soruların araştırma amacına uygunluğunu kontrol etmek amacıyla (Silverman, 2015) katılımcı grubundan olmayan özel yetenekli çocuğu olan bir veli ve bir özel yetenekliler öğretmeni ile pilot görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Görüşmeler sonrasında anlaşılmayan sorularda düzenlemeler yapılmıştır. Ana görüşme sorularına açıklayıcı sorular eklenmiştir. ...
... In the process of forming and arranging the questions, external validity was ensured by taking the opinions of two experts from the fields of qualitative research methods and education of the gifted students. In order to check the suitability of the interview questions for the purpose of the study (Silverman, 2015), pilot interviews were conducted with a parent with a gifted child and a teacher of gifted children who were not from the participant group. After the interviews, adjustments were made to the questions that were vague or not clear. ...
... The interview data were analyzed using both inductive and deductive techniques. Silverman's (1993) inductive approach of finding themes and patterns occurred by coding in cycles and embedding opportunities for frequent reflection. Using this method, data were coded in a comprehensive manner to identify cross-references between the data and the evolving themes while memoing. ...
... To ensure transferability, thick, rich descriptions were utilized, and data saturation occurred prior to the completion of all 24 interviews (Patton, 2015). Dependability was addressed by evaluating the manner in which the themes represented the whole of the text (Silverman, 1993;Stake, 1995). Researchers ensured confirmability by validating themes in the early and late stages of the data analysis process (Miles et al., 2013). ...
... We drafted alternatives and additional prompts to be used if necessary depending upon responses (Robson and McCartan 2015). Making sure that all respondents are clear in their understanding of the questions posed and that their responses can be coded with as little uncertainly as possible are seen as central questions when considering reliability of this type of interview (Silverman 2006). To attend to this concern, the interview schedules were pilot tested on sample respondents to ensure that they were suitable and additionally provide training for the interviewer (Silverman 2015). ...
... Grouping, separation and reclassification of coded responses occurred until a stable set of what we refer to as themes were identified, and no further significant themes emerged. Although the analysis was guided by our research questions, we tried to remain open to what was written and said, in an attempt to avoid our predetermined framing that may have led to drawing unsupported inferences from the data (Silverman 2006). During the analytical process and development of the themes, we worked with all of the highlighted text from each theme to provide us with as rich and thick a description as possible (Creswell and Creswell 2018). ...
Article
This qualitative, questionnaire and interview-based study explores how pre-service physics teachers think about the role that mathematics plays in the teaching and learning of physics at university and school level and whether these views change during their pre-service teacher education. Many of the pre-service teachers were aware of the complex relationship between these two subjects at university level, noting that success in mathematics can often mask a lack of conceptual understanding in physics and that there can be a disconnect between the physics and mathematical aspects of undergraduate courses. At school level, many stressed the importance of a focus on conceptual understanding and that technical competence in mathematics lessons does not always transfer to physics lessons. Almost all the pre-service physics teachers changed their views during the year, often in response to their classroom experiences. As they became more attuned to the difficulties students faced with respect to the mathematical challenges involved in learning physics, many took a more pragmatic position that balanced the role of mathematics in physics with acceptance that they must respond to student needs. We suggest that these changing views can be framed in terms of two re-orientations . A disciplinary re-orientation where the role that mathematics plays in order to be successful in physics is reassessed, and a pedagogical re-orientation that attends to pragmatic, teaching considerations. We recommend that direct attention to the role of mathematics in school physics should be an integral part of pre-service physics teacher education in order to encourage these re-orientations.
... This enabled the researcher to understand important themes to be included in the model of diversity and inclusion. Silverman (2001) highlights problems with content analysis as being that it reinforces a 'conceptual grid' of categories and potentially does not cater for items which do not fit into any of those categories, and that categories are applied without giving consideration to potentially hidden, potentially uncharacterised views. These problems did emerge as a challenge when addressing question 1 of the semi-structured interview, which was 'Name three things that drive your inclusion at work and 3 things that make you feel excluded at work'. ...
Thesis
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIVERSITY, INCLUSION AND PERFORMANCE AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN A CORPORATE SOUTH AFRICAN ORGANISATION A combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies was used to answer the following three questions: 1) What is the effect of demographic variables on diversity and inclusion? 2) Is there a relationship between diversity, inclusion and performance in corporate workplaces? 3) What are the components that drive diversity and inclusion in a corporate workplace in South Africa? The research was conducted in a division of a multinational corporation in South Africa. The quantitative analysis was run using the InclusionIndex™ survey to get a measurement of diversity and inclusion in the organisation. The qualitative methodology included semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Questions one and two were tested empirically using a combination of analysis of variance and structured equation modelling. Question three was answered using the consolidated findings of the quantitative and qualitative components of the InclusionIndex™ survey, the semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and insights from related literature. The research found that diversity and inclusion need to be driven at organisational, interpersonal and individual levels to achieve the benefits of a diverse and inclusive workforce. Components that are critical in order for the strategy to be successful at an organisation level are: ‘senior management’, ‘organisational belonging’, ‘dialogue’, ‘recruitment’, ‘promotion, progression and development’, and the ‘organisation climate’ created through HR processes and policies. At an interpersonal level, they are: ‘acceptance and respect’, ‘immediate manager engaging employees with dignity’, ‘trust and recognition’, ‘engagement in terms of empowered decision-making and access to information’, and finally, the ‘employee’s engagement with the company’s vision and values’. The individual component involves an individual’s ‘personality’, ‘locus of control’, ‘confidence’, ‘power’ and ‘self-esteem’. The structured equation models suggested that perception of diversity and inclusion is affected by an individual’s race, position in the company, the location the individual is based at, and department the individual works in at a confidence level of 95%. Analysis showed that while age and tenure did not produce statistically significant findings on the structured equation model (SEM), these groups showed a stronger relationship with inclusion than gender, sexual orientation, disability, and religion; which showed a non-significant relationship with inclusion when considering all the variables simultaneously. Further, individual performance was seen to be affected by individual perception of inclusion at a confidence level of 95%.
... Kedua, ada tiga paslon di Pilkada Sleman sehingga cukup mewakili kompleksitas pemilih daripada sekadar dua paslon saja.Dalam pengumpulan data, studi ini menggunakan dua jenis teknik. Pertama, diskusi kelompok terumpun atau FGD(Silverman, 2001; Al-Hamdi, Sakir, Suswanta, Atmojo, & David, 2020) dengan pihak terkait seperti KPU Kabupaten Sleman dan petugas KPPS yang berhasil diadakan pada 08 Mei 2021 di Perhitungan sampel studi ini adalah, bahwa populasi berjumlah 38.021 surat suara tidak sah pada Pilkada Kabupaten Sleman 2020. Adapaun margin of error sebesar 5%.Jadi, sample penelitian berjumlah 396 surat suara tidak sah yang tersebar di 396 TPS, 86 desa, dan 17 kecamatan.B. ...
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Salah satu isu yang sangat menarik dari kajian sistem kepemiluan yang akhir-akhir ini ramai diperbincangkan di kalangan praktisi pemilu maupun ilmuwan adalah surat suara tidak sah. Hal ini tidak terlepas pada faktor legitimasi demokrasi, dimana semakin rendah jumlah suara tidak sah maka semakin tinggi legitimasi demokrasi, pemilu, dan tentunya kandidat yang terpilih. Sebaliknya, semakin tinggi jumlah suara tidak sah, maka semakin rendah legitimasi demokrasi, pemilu termasuk para kandidat yang terpilih. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah metodologi penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Dalam pengumpulan data, studi ini menggunakan dua jenis teknik. Pertama, diskusi kelompok terumpun atau FGD (Focus Group Discusion) dengan pihak terkait seperti KPU (Komisi Pemilihan Umum) Kabupaten Sleman dan petugas KPPS. Kedua, teknik studi dokumentasi terhadap data fisik surat suara tidak sah yang digunakan sebagai sample penelitian ini. Dari penelusuran terhadap 396 sample surat suara tidak sah yang tersebar di 396 TPS, studi ini menemukan bahwa setidaknya ada lima varian utama surat suara tidak sah pada Pilkada Kabupaten Sleman tahun 2020. Adapun kelima varian tersebut yakni: varian coblos, varian coretan, varian sobek, varian tidak tercoblos dan lainnya. Setidaknya ada tiga faktor yang menyebabkan surat suara menjadi tidak sah, yaitu: faktor pemilih, faktor penyelenggara, dan faktor campuran.
... The synchronous focus groups were video recorded and transcribed for analysis. Non-verbal aspects were also noted as an aid in interpreting the data [72]. ...
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Background The prevention and treatment of chronic pain problems in breast cancer follow-up care require an adequate response from healthcare providers. Generally, this involves the uptake of evidence-based principles regarding pain management in everyday practice. However, despite the extensive literature on effective pain interventions, systematic and coordinated follow-up care is lacking for breast cancer survivors with pain problems in Flanders, Belgium. Objective This study aimed to gather insight into healthcare providers’ perceptions of pain prevention and treatment in breast cancer follow-up care, particularly with attention to the multilevel influences on pain follow-up. Methods We conducted four online focus groups with twenty-two healthcare providers from different disciplines such as oncologists, pharmacists, nurses, physiotherapists, and psychologists. Data analysis was guided by the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. This guide is inspired by the constant comparison method, based on Grounded Theory. Results The identified influencing factors were thematically grouped into four levels: at the level of the individual healthcare provider, in interaction with the patient, in interaction with colleagues, and at the context level. At each level, we distinguished factors related to healthcare providers’ perceptions such as awareness, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, experiences, and intentions. For example, because of a lack of knowledge and certain beliefs among healthcare providers, referral to other disciplines often does not happen in the context of pain. Conclusion This study points out the need to explore the prevention and treatment of chronic pain after breast cancer from a multidimensional point of view. This involves not only the characteristics of individual healthcare providers but is also inherently interactional and system-like in nature. This analysis provides opportunities for the development of interventions that target the influencing factors of prevention and treatment of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors.
... Our interviews included 20 open-ended questions (discussion format), that worked to unpack the complexities of the broader Research Questions (above). Voice recorded interviews were transcribed to word processing software, coded for topical commonalities and deviant cases, and analysed utilising a social justice theory of change framework and descriptive narratives, presented below in our Findings (Creswell 2013;Klugman 2011;Reisman, Gienapp, and Stachowiak 2007;Silverman 2006). ...
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This narrative case study used semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and archival research to document the ongoing environmental injustices faced by the predominately Black residents of Ezra Prentice Homes, a public housing complex adjacent to the Port of Albany in the South End of Albany, New York. We highlighted the context of the relocation of minorities to this public housing complex for the construction of the Empire State Plaza, and impacts to residents from polluting port industrial activities and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using a social justice Theory of Change framework, we evaluated the diversity of outcomes and relevance of an innovative suite of advocacy tools employed by policy activists and discussed the factors constraining the resolution of continued environmental injustices. We observed a complex legacy of environmental racism, power struggles, and an ongoing mindset of expendability of marginalised public housing residents targeting this community for hosting locally unwanted land uses and delayed long-term solutions. While policy activists employed a diversity of advocacy tools instrumental in winning lawsuits, expanding their base of support, attracting media, and bringing widespread state and national visibility to the struggles and necessary solutions for protecting residents, this “middle coalition” facilitated successful yet temporary policy outcomes in terms of long-term protections for residents. This research fills an important gap in the environmental justice literature that explores the phenomenon of public housing complexes inappropriately sited adjacent to polluting port facilities. Future research is needed to better understand community risk perceptions related to public housing and long-term public policy responses.
... Source: Silverman (1993 research may call for a more fluid description of the processes. Ultimately, as qualitative researchers, we have choices and it is important to plan, implement, and articulate the processes for the good of our research and for the quality and reliability of research in general. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explore and examine the concept of rigor in qualitative research with a focus on the Asian context. We guide readers through considering the processes of qualitative research and reflecting on their own work, specifically regarding rigor. Through critical self-reflection, we suggest questions to consider to improve research practice.
... Textual analysis is particularly suitable for the purpose of the present study. As David (2006) points out, textual analysis is an excellent methodological tool for qualitative studies in which relatively large amounts of data are organized and categorized. In line with the earlier mentioned emphasis of the qualitative approach on meaning and interpretation, Jensen and Jankowski (1991) observe that these methods are useful for extracting meaning within data through the interpretation of single or multiple texts and aid in uncovering information pertaining to a given group or culture in terms of how they are represented in the selected films. ...
Thesis
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The issues of sex, gender and representation have garnered a lot of researchers’ attention and continue to be topics of global concern. Hollywood, Bollywood and Nollywood film industries stereotype women and place them under the ‘male gaze’ as identified by feminist theorists like Laura Mulvey. The objective of this thesis is to comparatively analyze how women are represented in Hollywood, Bollywood and Nollywood 2019 films that have women occupying the major roles based on their physical appearance, dialogue and the roles they play using textual analysis. The thesis is anchored on the objectification theory and the male gaze theory and concludes that there is a similitude in Hollywood and Bollywood in their positive representation of women even though supporting actresses only get passive roles while in Nollywood women are still objectified even when the supporting actresses get active roles. It is recommended that more female filmmakers should be supported off-screen especially in the Nollywood film industry who can paint positive images of women on-screen because this will greatly contribute to the elimination of gender disparity and the emancipation of women in the global sphere. This thesis identifies the female gaze, that is the opposition of the male gaze and the representation of men in films as a pertinent area that researchers should investigate.
... The research design of the present study rests partly on ethnographic fieldwork from 13 meetings of an interdisciplinary team (Silverman, 2006), and partly on interaction analysis (IA) (Jordan & Henderson, 1995) of specific episodes in these meetings. The data corpus, which was conducted from 2007-2009, consists of observations in the form of field notes and audiorecorded data from these meetings, as well as six interviews with participants, logs written by four of the teachers, responses to questionnaires, and document analysis (syllabi and policy documents). ...
Chapter
Some of the main goals that education strives to achieve are certification and socialization. To achieve these goals in the best interest of the individual and society is a demanding challenge for all involved. In what context is the certification going to be used? Into what society are those educated expected to socialize? Teacher education is at the heart of the discussion as it is responsible for educating teachers whose task it will be to certify and socialize a new generation into a society, the nature of which is, to a large extent, still unknown. The aim of the NAFOL Year Book 2012 is to contribute to research-based knowledge in teacher education. The anthology consists of contributions from lecturers, invited guest professors, key note speakers, and PhD students in some way connected to the national graduate school for teacher education NAFOL during 2012. The anthology is thought of as an innovation combining the characteristics of a yearbook of a journal and the characteristics of a conference anthology.
... This approach allows for exploration of lived experiences, reflections, perceptions and feelings of students in regard to understanding employability skills (Creswell, 2013). Silverman (2006) also suggests that one strength of qualitative research is "the ability to access directly what people actually do and perceived in real life" (p. 113). ...
Chapter
Employability skills are largely conceptualized by employers and scholars and less by students, especially international research students in non-Western institutions. This chapter contributes to the literature by examining perceptions of employability skills of international research students at a Malaysian research university. The analysis of 27 semi-structured interviews reveals that students perceive employability skills, such as research, teaching, technical and project management skills as vital for their career outcomes. Soft skills, such as communication skills (both written and oral), interpersonal skills, flexibility, problem-solving and career planning, and personal attributes such as self-confidence and flexibility are necessary ingredients for the development of the skills cited. The chapter concludes that employability skills should not be assumed as a generic list of skills but as contextual skills which are desired by international research students to cater for their various employment opportunities either in their home, host or third country.
... This method involves choosing the sample based on their characteristics to meet the specific purpose of the study (Wellington, 2000;Cohen et al., 2017). Participants were selected according to two criteria: purposiveness and accessibility (Silverman, 2001). The participants were 35 non-native male English language teachers, working for a Saudi Arabian university, at the English language institute in Saudi Arabia. ...
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This study reports the findings of a mixed method critical study of non-native university English language teachers’ perceptions about cultural values and traditions represented in North Star English course book (advanced level), published by Pearson. The sample consisted of 35 male teachers who had experienced teaching the course book under investigation used at an English language institute in one of a Saudi Arabian university. In this study, a combined dataset questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings revealed that the participants had a negative perception towards the cultural models and traditions represented in the course book. More specifically, they were not adequately designed to suit the Saudi cultural background, local cultural norms and traditions. Moreover, the participants indicated that the course book failed to embody the international cultures of English speakers. The study recommends adopting new cultural policies which consider incorporating both the local as well as international cultures and traditions of speakers of English.
... Content analysis is one of the methods used in cases where written and visual data density is high among the qualitative data analysis types (Silverman, 2001). This method aims to find Elif BEYHAN & Avni YILDIZ The Thematic and Methodological Tendency of the Articles Conducted with Teachers and Pre-Service Teachers about GeoGebra in Turkey: A Content Analysis appropriate concepts and relationships to explain the obtained data (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2011). ...
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Within the scope of the competencies that teacher candidates and teachers should have, the importance of using technology and being able to integrate technology into their lessons are increasing day by day. In this study, the articles, published in the field of mathematics education about GeoGebra and conducted with teachers and pre-service teachers in Turkey, are aimed to analyze both thematically and methodologically. By selecting a total of 54 articles, published between 2010-2020, were analyzed by content analysis method with purposeful sampling method. The articles were analyzed under seven headings: mathematical topic, genre, year of publication, method, sample profile, data collection tool, and data analysis method. When the findings were examined, it was clear that the articles, examined, were published mostly in 2016. In addition, it was observed that there are more studies designed within a specific mathematical subject, for example, geometry (triangles and Pythagoras), then mostly in the fields of mathematics courses at the university such as Calculus 1. On the other hand, while the case study method was preferred among the qualitative research approaches, the most used data collection tool was the interview. It was determined that the pre-service teachers composed of the majority group of the sample.
... In the third step, as the theoretical framework became more explicit, we compared it further with the literature to highlight similarities and differences with prior research, strengthening internal validity, and refining the constructs and relationships (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000;Eisenhardt, 1989;Silverman, 2001). On completion, we developed our emergent theoretical framework (Eisenhardt & Graebner, 2007), identifying three specific EO configurations that we label "generational clash", "family mirroring", and "evolutionary adaptation", characterized by common firm-and family-level factors that in combination lead to specific nuances. ...
Article
Studies analyzing the entrepreneurial orientation of family businesses compared to their nonfamily counterparts have contributed to spreading the myth that family firms are less entrepreneurially oriented. However, the distinctive aspects characterizing the entrepreneurial orientation of family firms have received less scholarly attention. Aiming to advance this literature stream, this study postulates that family businesses are neither more nor less entrepreneurially oriented than nonfamily firms but express their entrepreneurial orientation differently, even when manifesting a similar level of entrepreneurial orientation. Building on entrepreneurial orientation studies and adopting a family embeddedness perspective, our multi-case study of 10 small artisan family firms with a high entrepreneurial orientation shows that family firms express their entrepreneurial orientation according to a set of interplaying firm- and family-level factors. The relationship among these factors leads to three different entrepreneurial orientation configurations: generational clash, family mirroring, and evolutionary adaptation. Our study of these configurations and the underlying nuances provide novel contributions to the literature and several implications for practice.
... Interviews were fully transcribed and the data was organised and coded by the authors through the software MaxQDA according to a grid of categories that emerged during the data analysis. A thematic content analysis technique (Silverman, 2001;Tonkiss, 2006) was employed. This grid contained two main dimensions of analysisrecruitment strategies and mitigation strategieseach consisting of several categories organised by different themes of analysis. ...
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The paper analyses the influence of COVID-19 on Portuguese institutions' intake of international students and their responses to the pandemic. Two dimensions are considered: quantitative impact on international enrolments and higher education institu-tions' strategies for the recruitment and support of international students. The first dimension is analysed through national statistics and comparison of enrolments over the past five years. Then, the institutional strategies implemented to encourage recruitment of new international students and to support existing ones during the lockdown are explored. Statistics show that COVID-19 had a negative impact on international enrolments, although less severe than expected. Growth has continued, but at a much slower pace than in the past few years. The slowdown in growth was much more pronounced in polytechnics than in universities. Additionally, the measures implemented by Portuguese higher education institutions suggest that these have coped with COVID-19 as an opportunity to rethink and redefine strategies.
... Data from a Google form (questionnaire) was generated into a spread sheet which was in excel, Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics refers to numbers that are used to summarize and describe data (Patton, 2002;Silverman, 2001). In the quantitative part of the study, a mixture of descriptive statistics and graphs were used depending on the type of questions, for example structured questions were imputed into excel, which assisted in calculating percentages to generate different types of figures, bar charts and pie charts. ...
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This study examined student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning (CODeL) at the University of Namibia (UNAM) was established through a merger between the Centre for External Studies (CES) and the Centre for eLearning and Interactive Multimedia (CeLIM) in 2016 to provide and strengthen distance education in Namibia. However, one of the major challenges experienced by CODeL has been on support services which impacts on progress and completion of studies of students. The study adopted a mixed method approach to analyse student support services as a factor that impacts on distance students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The research questions for the study were: To what extent do student support services impact on distance student's progress and completion of studies? How effective are student support services to distance students at CODeL of the University of Namibia? This study also followed a case study research design to present a real-life situation and to provide a better insight pertaining to student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia. The data was collected from a sample size of 15 staff members at CODeL and 60 students. The findings of the study revealed that student viewed vacation school as extremely effective followed by administrative support. The study concluded that in-dead student support services impacts on students' progress and completion leading to delays in students' progress and completion of their studies. Students view on the types of student support services were that lecturer not turning up for classes during vacation school, short days for the vacation school and administrative support such as staff members not answering student's inquiries on time. The study recommends more attention should be given to student support services such as vacation school, administrative support and as they are the ones viewed by students as extremely effective.
... For det er lett å forveksle "erfaring" med "autentisitet" (jf. Silverman, 2001). Jeg opplevde helt klart at det var utfordrende å holde en analytisk distanse til fortellingene som utfoldet seg de gangene jeg oppfattet informanten som «oppriktig» eller «ekte». ...
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The Norwegian local journalism has gone through critical changes during the last years, due to digital transformation and economical decline. Journalists experience the tension between tradition and innovation. This thesis scrutinizes how local journalism actors experience their professional everyday life and their vocational role in a time of digital changes. It further explores which tensions the intersubjective experiences carry. Data from semi-structured interviews with 16 local journalists and editors forms the basis for the research, and the theoretical framework is everyday sociology, with emphasis on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Berger & Luckmann. Methodologically, the study follows a sociological phenomenological approach. The thesis shows how changed working conditions affect the perceived meaning of work, the professional understanding, the perception of audience and journalistic quality, as well as the significance of the community in local journalism. Through the concepts of “relevance system” and “relevance structures” the analyses show how ideal-typical “traditional anchored” and “digital oriented” local journalists divergently hierarchize perceived meaning, professional values and journalistic relevance. While the traditionalists emphasise a critical, demarcated and autonomic professional role, the digital oriented journalists underscore public-mindedness, service orientation and storytelling. In addition, the analyses reveal that the measurability of online readership leads to a diminished focus on locally framed journalism. Increased demands of work effort and efficiency cause a tension between desktop reporting and fieldwork. This change strains the proximity affordance, which traditionally has been the distinctiveness and strength of local journalism. Everyday working demands also lead to resignation and declined attachment among a large part of the journalists. In an overall perspective, the analyses point towards a tension between what is measurable – the quantified online readership, and what cannot be measured – the social significance of local journalism. The thesis suggests that the local mission of local journalism is weakened, that professional values are under pressure and that the news production is becoming more commercialized.
... The first results from social, economic, and political changes at state and global levels, stemming from the crisis of the welfare state and the spread of neoliberal concepts, (Savas, 2000). The second is the awakening of peripheral populations demanding social equality, contributing to the transition from a collective and national system of values to emphasis on the individual and his/her personal interests (Silverman, 2006). These developments led to the adoption of patterns of privatization, manifesting in a reduced role for the administration alongside increasing clout of social, private, and voluntary organizations (Savas, 2000). ...
... Therefore, the comparison of successful and unsuccessful players' perceptions of challenge, the orchestration of challenge and perceptions of social circumstances, presents a pertinent investigation for anyone interested in the elite sport context. In line with our pragmatic approach, qualitative research methods allowed for a deep examination of the player group's developmental experiences [47]. Qualitative research methods support authors to collect rich descriptive data, with an aim of producing a useful interpretation of a practical problem, rather than one that is absolute [48]. ...
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(1) Background: The pursuit of excellence is central to most development environments, and this is particularly the case in high-performance sport. Accordingly, we examined some mechanisms for development, focusing on the nature and impact of challenge in the experiences of more or less successful high-level rugby players. (2) Methods: Retrospective interviews were conducted with two groups of players. All had been successful on the development pathway (i.e., recruited to high level academies and selected as age group internationals). Only some had progressed to senior contracts and international selection, offering a basis for contrast. (3) Results: Data suggest the importance of negative experiences in the development of performers and performance. Importantly, however, the impact is dependent on both the skills of the individual and the style, timing and context of the challenge. (4) Conclusions: Negative experiences seemed to offer developmental opportunities wider than just learning to cope, at least for those who eventually succeeded. In short, progress was dependent on an interaction between individual skill, interpretation, context and social setting. The need for coaches and others to develop the appropriate attitudes and approach to challenge is a clear implication.
... Concerning the reliability of the interview, low-inference descriptors were used in order to establish reliability of the qualitative study (Le Compte and Goetz, 1982;Seale, 1999;Silverman, 2001). With regard to the validity of the interview, it was achieved by conducting a pilot study. ...
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This proceedings book is the offspring of the online national conference on “Reading and Writing with ICTs: Teachers’ and Learners’ Perceptions” that was held on 9/10 March 2022 at Badji Mokhtar University- Annaba- Algeria. This conference was part of a project accepted by the ministry of Higher education and scientific research (PRFU). Scholars from different corners of Algeria participated in the conference two days. Indeed, Information and communication technology (ICTs) is the marked print of this era. It is the digital age were smart phones, computers and internet are widely spread. With the outbreak of COVID 19, higher education opted for online learning as the only solution to save the learning process. Besides, in order to learn a language, reading and writing represent the two essential literacy skills that learners/teachers should focus on. After a blind double- review, twenty articles were accepted under three sections. The first is about “Developing the reading skill through ICTS: Teachers’ and Learners’ perceptions with six articles” with six articles. The second section on “Developing the writing skill through ICTS: Teachers’ and Learners’ perceptions” includes seven articles. The last section is on “ICTs and Language Learning” with seven articles. The proceedings book ends with a number of recommendations for a better use of ICTs in the educational context in Algeria.
... Interviewing provides a way of generating empirical data about the social world by asking people to talk about their lives, learning about people's feelings, and thoughts. The primary aim of interviews is to generate data which give an authentic insight into people's experiences (Silverman 1993). Through conversations with colonias' residents, the researcher was able to get immersed in the life of the public spaces of the colonias, and to learn about peoples experiences and feelings about these settings in relation to transformation. ...
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The importance of public spaces in contemporary cities has been acknowledged and studied from different points of view and approaches by researchers of urbanism. However, most studies have focused on public spaces designed and produced by professionals for elite and affluent populations. In contrast, very little attention has been paid to the development of public spaces in those self-made urban environments "the popular habitat" of the developing world. In Mexican cities, the popular habitat is known as Colonias Populares (people's neighbourhoods) in which the urban environment consolidates and integrates to the city by gradual improvement processes at different levels of the urban environment from household up to neighbourhood level and mainly through the initiatives and participation of inhabitants. Within these processes, public spaces also play a very important role within the processes of consolidation and integration into the formal urban fabric. Within this context, the purpose of this thesis is to examine the dynamics of public space transformation within the urban consolidation process of colonias populares. The research examines various public spaces presenting different stages of consolidation in the colonias populares of the city of Xalapa-Veracruz in southeast Mexico. The research focuses on (1)the social relations and interactions of popular dwellers and other actors within the production process of public spaces;(2) the spatial actions and activities that give place to the physical configuration of public spaces as well as paying attention to the physical nature of the public space produced; (3) the different strategies and activities that residents and different actors carry out to protect, maintain and control public spaces;(4) finally, it studies the use,the possible conflicts over usage, appropriation and the role of the actors' culture and activities developing the life of public spaces in the popular habitat. To achieve a holistic understanding, the research examines the dynamics of public space transformation following a socio-spatial-symbolic framework of analysis, in which the urban environment is examined through its social and physical processes of development and materialization as well as its social and spatial process of everyday usage. Moreover this approach includes a symbolic dimension taking into account that these processes take place because of the meanings and representations that popular dwellers construct about their surrounding environment which in turn influences processes of urban production and consumption.
... Next, in order to understand Islamic banks' perspective about what customers feel about their services and to better gauge consumers' preferences and attitudes, ten semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with middle and senior managers from different IB agencies. Given the relatively limited number of Islamic banks' agencies, the interviewed managers were selected based on purposive sampling (Silverman 2006). Seven male and four females participated, ranging in age from 30 to 45. ...
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While Islamic banking (IB) experienced a substantial growth in a number of Majority-Muslim countries (i.e., the Gulf Cooperation Council and Malaysia), their market share is still very narrow compared to conventional banks in others (i.e., Morocco). Prior studies have proposed numerous research models to explain the antecedents of IB adoption among users; still, conventional bank customers have not been frequently investigated. This paper aims to explore the determinants of behavioral intentions to use IB among non-users in a county where IB is still at an embryonic stage (i.e., Morocco). Based on an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach, IB users and non-users’ views were explored through focus groups, while in-depth interviews were administered to get insights from Moroccan Islamic Banks’ managers. The findings of the preliminary qualitative research were subsequently utilized in a quantitative study comprising an online self-administered questionnaire completed by 763 Moroccan conventional banks customers. Our findings suggest that knowledge, advertising, subjective norms and perceived complexity as key determinants of non-users’ attitude towards IB. We also confirmed perceived Sharia-compliance and Islamic religiosity as moderators in the relationship between attitude and behavioral intention to adopt IB, e.g. attitude towards IB is more likely to convert into a purchase intention for individuals with higher levels of Islamic religiosity. This research is among the first to evaluate the antecedents of behavioral intention towards Islamic banking among non-users. It outlines an alternative methodology of looking at consumer behavioral intention by focusing on the non-adopters’ segment. Ultimately, it presents an important contribution to the limited literature on consumers’ perceptions of IB in Morocco, where the operations of Islamic banks are still at an infancy stage.
... The coding results were then adjusted based on their responses. In addition, to ensure the research findings were free from the subjectivity of the coder, peer debriefing was conducted by a Ph.D. student working on ECE to check that the codes and themes were grounded in the empirical data and the analysis had been done appropriately [55]. Finally, the second and third authors took the role of inquiry auditors to provide oral and written feedback on the coding results to ensure the data collection and analysis processes were sufficiently rigorous for a case study inquiry. ...
Preprint
Micro-level language policy and planning (LPP) primarily concerns local actors' decision-making on matters in relation to language(s) and its users. Despite a growing body of literature focusing on micro language planning in educational settings, there is a scarcity of research examining early childhood education settings such as micro-level LPP context for young English language learners. By adopting a case study approach, the present study examined the educators' enactment of agency in micro-planning the English language education policy (LEP) in one Chinese kindergarten and the associated factors shaping their agency. Our study revealed that the sustainable implementation of the kindergarten English LEP depended on the principal, native English-speaking teachers, and the Chinese assistant teachers' different degrees of agency. Also, the research findings indicated an array of contextual and individual factors nested in a hierarchical structure that facilitated, guided, and constrained the educators' agency in a role-and circumstance-dependent manner. This study contributes to the pertinent literature by casting nuanced light on the different educators' contributions to the micro-level LPP against a national policy that does not endorse early-year English language education.
... Geçerlik ve güvenirlik, inandırıcılığı sağlama açısından araştırmalarda en sık kullanılan iki ölçüttür. Bu bağlamda araştırmacıların kullanılan veri toplama araçları ile araştırma deseninin geçerliğini ve güvenirliğini test etmeleri ve sonuçları okuyuculara rapor etmeleri beklenir (Merriam, 2009;Silverman, 2015). Ancak geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları nicel ve nitel araştırmalarda farklılık göstermekte ve bu bağlamda alanyazında farklı kavramlarla ifade edilebilmektedir (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). ...
Research
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In the research, Experience-Based Cyclical Curriculum, which is based on Dewey's views of experience and focuses on learners’ experiences, was designed, implemented and evaluated. The design-based research applied in the study consists of "exploration", "design", "implementation" and "evaluation" stages.
... In addition to the interview transcripts, the researcher took notes during the interviews as a form of complementary data collection. The notes included a description of the physical setting of the interview, emergent themes (Muswazi & Nhamo, 2013) and the interviewer's observations of the participants' behavior for example the body language (Silverman, 1993). Notes taken during an interview can help an interviewer formulate new interview questions (Patton, 2002). ...
... In addition to the interview transcripts, the researcher took notes during the interviews as a form of complementary data collection. The notes included a description of the physical setting of the interview, emergent themes (Muswazi & Nhamo, 2013) and the interviewer's observations of the participants' behavior for example the body language (Silverman, 1993). Notes taken during an interview can help an interviewer formulate new interview questions (Patton, 2002). ...
... From a social constructivist perspective, focus groups appeal to me as a vehicle to triangulate data; they offer a more dynamic facet (collaborative and interactive), whilst I can swap the role of questioner held during the interviews with that of the facilitator cum moderator (Silverman, 2006) to mediate potential power imbalance, without consciously influencing the outcome. Purposive selection of respondents (Devers & Frankel, 2000) is based on the premise that they are mostly involved and in the know about the matter in hand (Greenbaum, 1998) and it has been achieved with the involvement of the gatekeeper (Staff I). ...
Thesis
Thinking about change in a Thinking School: Conceptualising whole school change in the context of an English secondary school This thesis examines a qualitative case study of whole school change based on the perceived experiences of members of a Staff Drive Team and a Student Drive Team in a coeducational selective secondary school. The Staff and Student Drive Teams are a special feature of Thinking Schools, tasked with driving whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning that encourages an intentional, explicit, and long-term commitment to the process of teaching and learning for, of, and about thinking. This study seeks a further understanding of whole school change through a systems theory perspective by considering the role of practices, processes and structures involved, as well as their interrelationships. The philosophical underpinnings of this research encompass constructivist principles from an interpretive relativist position. The case study draws on two non-participant observations, two initial focus groups, 16 semi-structured interviews and two final focus groups as primary data sources combined with contextual secondary information from three school development plans, ten agendas of Drive Teams meetings and three Thinking School accreditation reports. The semi-structured interviews are analysed adopting Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with Content analysis (CA) employed for the rest of the data. An integrated theoretical and analytical framework is developed to interpret the findings, drawing from previous research on whole school change (Thomson, 2010) based on systems theory with influences from systems thinking (Senge, 1990) and ecological development (Bonfenbrenner, 1979) and subject to autopoietic connotations. This research concludes that initial struggles with resistance to whole school change were reframed and translated into openness to change achieved through systems thinking. The findings indicate that the Student and Staff Drive Teams experienced the whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning as ongoing systemic change and as a multiple-loop, multi-layered learning process supported by risk taking, reflection, teams interrelations, non-negotiable whole school change, common values and language, and continuous learning. From this case study, a ‘petal’ model of whole school change is proposed as meriting further attention.
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The education policy instruments and numeric data modifying communication within social systems: The consequences of knowing and ignorance in adult education policy Numeric data has become an integral part of education policy instruments in Europe. Moreover, in the work of governments and policy making, numeric data use is increasing as digital transformation is proceeding and is producing increasing amounts of calculable data. In Finland, far-reaching and wide-ranging conclusions are constantly made based on knowledge transmitted by using numeric data associated with education practice. However, while the country’s education administration is widely based on digital data utilization, the production and use of numeric data are rarely highlighted as elements of education dynamics. Moreover, the multifaceted adult education field challenges the process of reassembling education into numerals, counts and statistical presentations, although these tasks appear to be conceivable in formal education contexts. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on exploring numeric data, its origins and inferences in adult education. Specifically, it examines numeric data and its linkages to adult education policy instruments. While observing numeric data’s usages and interpretations, the research aims at indicating how these knowledge formation processes affect decision-making and equal educational opportunities. This dissertation summarizes the results of four empirical research articles that focus on linkages between adult education policy instruments, governance and numeric data.
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Deutschland ist ein wichtiges Zielland für Migranten aus der ganzen Welt. Sie reisen über illegale Wege oder als Asylbewerber, Saisonarbeiter, Touristen oder Studenten ein. Obwohl der Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt beschränkt ist, schätzen Experten, dass in Deutschland zur Zeit knapp eine Million Migranten beschäftigt sind. Viele von ihnen arbeiten zu Bedingungen unterhalb der Norm basierend auf der Grundannahme eines beiderseitig vorteilhaften Vertrags mit ihren Arbeitgebern. Wie diese Studie jedoch zeigen möchte, werden Täuschung, Drohungen, Missbrauch, Betrug und Nötigung im großen Stil angewandt, um die Wanderarbeitnehmer zur Unterordnung zu zwingen und somit die Gewinnmargen zu erhöhen. Dies ist meistens in arbeitsintensiven Wirtschaftssektoren der Fall, die einem immer stärkeren Wettbewerb auf den Weltmärkten ausgesetzt sind.
Chapter
Theology's journey with qualitative research has been a long contested one. Qualitative research takes the cultural and societal context of the specific context and participants seriously. This chapter includes the author's journey as female African theologian into practical theology as theological discipline. Bennett et al.'s use of personal narratives to explore and share their journeys into practical theology and how these journeys inform the way in which they do practical theology today is important here. The field of practical theology is not only an interesting and dynamically evolving discipline within the science of theology, but it is also a science that is already part of the life of Christian faith communities and every person who actively participates in these communities. African theology reflects on how all Africans learn and construct knowledge and enables all research production from Africa by Africans.
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Germany is an important destination country for migrant workers from all over the world. They enter the country through clandestine channels or as asylum seekers, seasonal labour migrants, visitors or students. Although access to the labour market is restricted, experts estimate that roughly one million migrants are currently employed in Germany. Many of them work under sub-standard conditions on the basis of mutually beneficial agreements made with their employers. However, as this study aims to demonstrate, deception, threats, abuse, fraud and coercion are widely used to force migrant workers into submission and thus increase profit margins. This is most often the case in those labourintensive economic sectors that are encountering ever more competition on global markets.
Article
Learning with technology is increasingly understood to be a social process involving unique and telling discourses. An emerging research agenda has resulted, investigating the links between ‘talk’ and student technological practices but is yet to include home-education. Preliminary evidence exists of a relationship between particular types of ‘talk’ and success with particular online activities, namely online search. This may prove especially pertinent to home-educators who report that their most prolific online activities are those reliant upon search engines like Google. This paper presents select findings from a study into online search and the associated discursive practices among early primary students and their parent-educators in Australia. Data from observations, tests and interviews with five home-educating families were analysed recursively using a system guided by Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate: which discursive practices are privileged in these sites during online search; the extent to which these practices contribute to relations of power and the extent to which these practices are found alongside effective online search. Findings revealed a prevalence of inequitable discursive practices, those that either inhibited the equal conversational power of speakers or which naturalised inequitable power relations more generally. These discursive practices were found alongside ineffective online searches. Notwithstanding, participants continued to speak positively about search engines and their educational power. This rhetoric-reality gap is theorized in the paper as the work of dominant ideologies surrounding technology in education. Findings can assist the growing number of home-educators and their students to use online search more effectively. Insights regarding links between discursive practice and search practice may also help ensure that discourse helps to maximise the educational benefits associated with online search.
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The present study examines the language of leading characters from selected Pakistani dramas to investigate the projection of women and the linguistic features employed that lead to gender inequality. Fairclough's three-dimensional model of "Critical Discourse Analysis" (1989) provides the theoretical underpinning to the present study. The study uses a qualitative research design, where the researchers have collected a sample of 15 episodes from 3 selected Pakistani dramas by systematic sampling design proposed by Sekaran & Bougie (2016). The sample chosen is "relevance sampling" based on the recognised contribution to the central research questions (Krippendorff, 2018). The selected dialogues of main female and male characters and the employed linguistic features are classified into eight categories after consultation with previous literature and based on the themes in these episodes. Selected data is analysed by applying a three-dimensional CDA model. Results based on analysis are congruent with previous findings and conclude that Pakistani dramas project women's pejorative image and represent features that lead to gender inequality. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Suppression of certain groups by rhetorical manoeuvring, including and excluding certain news and portrayal of women on media, has always been an active vigour in Pakistani society. Isanovi (2006) indicates that with the advancement of mass media and modern information technology, women's projection and representation are confiscated. Women are represented often by
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İnsanlar farklı özellikleri ile dünyaya gelirler. Bu farklı özellikler, gelişimin bilişsel, fiziksel, sosyal ve duygusal gibi alanlarında olabilmektedir. Bu noktada yapılabileceklerin başında özel eğitime gereksinim duyan bireylerin eğitim sürecine katkıda bulunmak, bu bireyleri birey olarak kabul edebilmek ve olumsuzluklarından ziyade olumlu yönlerine odaklanmak olacaktır. Özel eğitim süreci; başta özel eğitim öğretmeni olmak üzere, aile, okul idaresi, sınıf ortamı, okul ortamı, kullanılan yöntem ve teknikler, materyal, toplumun katkısı, hukuk kuralları gibi birçok boyutu içine alan geniş bir süreçtir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, özel eğitim sürecinde en büyük paydaşlardan biri olan özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin, zihinsel yetersizliği olan çocukların eğitim sürecindeki deneyimlerinin olgu olarak incelenmesidir. Dolayısıyla özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin görüşlerine dayanarak, zihinsel yetersizliği olan çocukların eğitim ve öğretimleri süreci hakkındaki önemli faktörleri belirlemek ve bu sürecin öğretmene olan etkisini incelemek çalışmanın hedefi olarak belirlenmiştir Özel eğitim öğretmenlerinin bu süreçle ilgili görüşleri, sorun yaşadıkları alanlar ve sürecin kendilerine etkilerinin tespiti araştırmanın önemi olarak görülmektedir. Araştırmada nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomonoloji kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2021 -2022 eğitim – öğretim yılında MEB’e bağlı eğitim kurumlarında görev yapmakta olan 47 özel eğitim öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veriler yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formları kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Görüşme formunda bulunan her bir soru ayrı bir kategori olarak ele alınmış ve öğretmen cevapları incelenerek cevaplar temalara ayrılmıştır. Verilerin analizi içerik analizi yöntemi ile yapılmıştır. Temalar ve detaylar bulgularda verilmiştir.
Article
El empleo doméstico y de cuidados se ha consolidado como uno de los principales nichos de empleo femenino migrante en España. Las investigaciones realizadas remarcan la notoria precariedad material a la que está expuesta su fuerza de trabajo. No obstante, la producción científica en torno a la violencia cotidiana que atravesaría las relaciones en este nicho de trabajo es mucho más escasa. A través de un estudio cualitativo que recoge la experiencia profesional de empleadas de hogar migrantes, se han explorado múltiples experiencias de violencia. Estas vivencias manifiestan la persistencia de un modelo relacional profundamente asimétrico, atravesado por diversos ejes de desigualdad y poder. Un estatus administrativo irregular, junto con unas condiciones de asentamiento precarias, han sido aquellas contingencias en las que se ha manifestado con mayor rotundidad la exposición a la violencia entre las mujeres entrevistadas.
Thesis
Cette étude explore l'impact de la RSE sur la performance globale des entreprises (PGE). Pour atteindre son objectif, la thèse mobilise la théorie des parties prenantes, la théorie sociologique et morale et la théorie du leadership et adopte une approche interdisciplinaire holistique en se concentrant sur l'ampleur, la portée et le contexte de l'adoption de la RSE. En outre, la recherche est basée sur une approche mixte et son analyse s'appuie sur 31 réponses d'entreprises marocaines cotées à la Bourse de Casablanca, à l'aide d'un questionnaire pour l’analyse quantitative et de 33 entretiens semi-structurés pour l’analyse qualitative. Les résultats révèlent que les pratiques de RSE ont un impact positif sur la performance globale des entreprises. Les motivations principales des entreprises qui adoptent de telles pratiques restent la rentabilité, la compétitivité et la légitimité, la prise en compte de l'environnement, le développement durable et le développement économique et social. Tous ses aspects sont ressentis comme une source de compétitivité, d'innovation et d'opportunités de différenciation. L'étude montre également que ces concepts ont une corrélation positive avec la performance globale des entreprises et que leur inclusion dans les stratégies des entreprises étudiées gagne en popularité. Toutefois, l'accent mis sur la communication et le marketing pour mettre en évidence les pratiques de RSE peut être interprété comme une tentative de ces entreprises de convaincre, ou même d'induire en erreur, les parties prenantes afin de gagner leur confiance. La légitimité de cette tentative repose sur le respect des meilleures pratiques sociales (en termes de recrutement, de formation et de conditions de travail, réduction de la pauvreté, etc.) et environnementales (respect de l'environnement, préservation de la biodiversité, réduction des risques d'intoxication, etc.) ce qui en retour devrait accroître la performance globale et la légitimité de l'organisation.
Thesis
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4th Industrial revolution is on the verge of us transforming and speeding up digitalization in all aspects, whether food delivery, inventory supplies, accounting, logistics, banking, or any other sector. This revolutionary technology has changed everyone’s routine working ecosystem. Emerging applications or systems have disrupted all features of our lives, starting from visual, audio, physical and even human thought processes through different tech ideas. Further, it’s evident that the processing power of a smartphone has beaten the initial supercomputers. Robotics, Automation, Artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, Machine Learning and Mechatronics, are no longer just in the books or in the testing phase. Recently, technocrats encountered “Sofia” “full-fledge human-robot”, a latest-generation humanoid with fantastic AI. A similar concept is applicable for Book-keeping and Accounting functions, the financial data recordings. Accountants are keep applying the traditional matching concept of the double entry-based process for above five hundred years. Ironically, technology &electronic platforms are now driving big business houses like AWS, Google, Citi Bank, Microsoft, Facebook, AMEX, Citi, etc. Nevertheless, still financial entries, data recording, tabulating, and reporting are using the same conservative format. This research highlights possibilities for advancing the current double to Triple Accounting Entry system (TAE) system, the extension of existing Debit & Credit based accounting entries through the application of Distributed ledger type of technology “DLT”. The research was conducted on the footprints led by the development of blockchain and virtual currencies like Bitcoin. The researcher has reviewed several literature sources but found very few studies on the topic. The research encompasses a combination of previous academic work, reviews of professionals, tracks of big audit firms, comments of international accounting setting bodies, changes in tax rules to accommodate digital trading channels and financial reporting standards requirement by regulators.
Thesis
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Since the 1960s, social science research has distinguished technological from natural disasters. Empirical evidence on disaster-related stress, social impacts of disasters, and risk has advanced our understanding of natural and technological disasters. However, there remains a critical need for synthesis of key concepts to advance theoretical development. This dissertation explores the capacity of social capital theory to integrate important conceptual elements of technological disaster research. Focusing on the community of Cordova in Prince William Sound, Alaska, this research examines persistent social impacts of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). Employing a mixed-method approach to explore relationships between social capital and existing technological disaster concepts, I analyze primary qualitative data collected through in-depth personal interviews and participant-observation, as well as extant quantitative data on social and psychological impacts of the EVOS. This analysis reviews different conceptualizations of social capital, highlighting issues related to the following concepts: (1) the ecological-symbolic perspective; (2) renewable resource community; (3) recreancy; (4) collective trauma; (5) corrosive community; (6) lifestyle and lifescape change; (7) ontological security; and (8) secondary disasters. Research findings suggest that social capital theory integrates existing research on technological disasters. Findings also suggest that the EVOS initiated a social capital loss spiral, hindering Cordova’s ability to take effective collective action to address local social and economic issues. Social capital loss spirals are related to: (1) individual stress and collective trauma, (2) a corrosive community, and (3) changes in lifestyle and lifescape. Although Cordovans do not attribute all of the community’s ills to the EVOS, narratives described how initial social impacts depleted stores of social capital that have yet to recover. From this perspective, diminished social capital is a secondary disaster. Communities experiencing technological disasters can employ social capital theory to enhance recovery by focusing on efforts to rebuild trust, associations, and norms of reciprocity. Conceptualizing social impacts using language of social capital theory can: (1) reduce stigma; (2) enhance survivors’ beliefs about their ability to do something to restore social capital; and (3) improve opportunities for broader public support and policy change. Finally, social capital theory holds promise for natural disaster research.
Article
The National Society of Genetic Counselors' policies recognize the value of diversity in the profession. Yet North American genetic counselors are very homogeneous with respect to self‐identified disabilities. One step towards diversifying the profession is understanding the experiences of genetic counselors who have disabilities. This is the first study to specifically explore academic and professional experiences of genetic counselors who self‐identify as having a disability and their perceptions of whether/how their disability has played a role in their experiences. Participants were recruited through an online screening survey sent via NSGC and American Board of Genetic Counseling e‐blasts. Twenty‐four respondents who met eligibility criteria and provided contact information participated in individual semi‐structured phone interviews. Questions explored challenges and supports, interactions with others, and effects of disability on career development. Inductive analysis yielded three themes: Disability Affects Career Choices, Disability Poses Unique Career Supports and Challenges, and Disability Affects Professional Functioning in Various Ways, and seven domains (major topics within themes). Experiences included, among others, counselors must balance their disability (e.g., management, treatment) with work and/or academic demands; they desire open communication around disability and accommodation needs; disability enhances their ability to empathize with patients; countertransference is prevalent; positive and negative interactions, respectively, contribute to feelings of inclusion and exclusion; a clinicalized healthcare culture views persons with disabilities as symptoms and not individuals, and subtle stigma and discrimination exist and is perceived as possibly worse for counselors whose disabilities are not visible. Understanding academic and professional experiences of genetic counselors with disabilities and efforts to improve access and supports may promote a more inclusive environment and help to diversify the profession.
Article
Článek popisuje historii sborů pro občanské záležitosti v české části bývalého Československa v 50. až 80. letech 20 století. Využity byly dva hlavní datové zdroje. Prvním byl hloubkové rozhovory s pohřebními profesionály, někdy zároveň členy sborů pro občanské záležitosti, kteří realizovali pohřební obřady ve sledovaném období. Druhým byly příručky pro pohřební profesionály a civilní pohřební řečníky o pohřebních proslovech a náležité formě občanských (socialistických) pohřebních obřadů. Autorka ukazuje, že členové sborů pro občanské záležitosti aktivně utvářeli nové formy obřadů a sbory pro občanské záležitosti hrály ústřední roli v rozšiřování občanských pohřbů na území dnešní České republiky. Sbory byly hierarchicky uspořádané a centrálně organizované a v jejich aktivitě byly ohromné regionální rozdíly. Na konci 70. let a v 80. letech 20. století byly aktivnější na Moravě, tedy tam, kde byly počty občanských pohřbů nižší, a proto tam byla potřeba pro jejich propagaci silnější.
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