Article

The Social Psychology of Organizations

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... But essential are the spontaneous behaviors that meet the demands of unforeseen contingencies. Katz andKahn (1966 and1978), working within an open-system model of organization in their social psychological analysis, drew attention to the qualitatively different classes of behaviors essential to organizational effectiveness. Organizations require patterns of dependable and predictable behavior from their participants, behavior that is roughly synonymous with the roles prescribed for them by the formal structure. ...
... But essential are the spontaneous behaviors that meet the demands of unforeseen contingencies. Katz andKahn (1966 and1978), working within an open-system model of organization in their social psychological analysis, drew attention to the qualitatively different classes of behaviors essential to organizational effectiveness. Organizations require patterns of dependable and predictable behavior from their participants, behavior that is roughly synonymous with the roles prescribed for them by the formal structure. ...
... It is now commonly accepted that an essential condition of organizational effectiveness is a willingness to participate-to 'go above and beyond' the formal specifications of the prescribed roles (Barnard, 1938;Katz andKhan, 1966 and1978;and Organ, 1990). Importance of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Enhancing Customer Service Indicators: A Review ...
Article
Though ample research has been conducted on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) in the recent past, the relationship between OCBs and customer service indicators has probably not been studied in the Indian context. The study of this relationship attains greater importance since OCB is a discretionary kind of behavior which is not dependent on formal reward systems of the organization, and leads to customer citizenship behavior.
... Grupurile ca sisteme sociale deschise Katz ºi Kahn (1978), precum ºi Ellis ºi Fisher (1994), prezintã modul în care teoria generalã a sistemelor deschise poate fi aplicatã la studiul grupurilor. Grupul este considerat ca un sistem social ºi prin excelenþã sistemele sociale sunt sisteme deschise (Katz, Kahn, 1978;Ellis, Fisher, 1994). Un sistem deschis preia resurse din mediul extern (input-uri) ºi le transformã prin intemediul unor procese specifice în output-uri. ...
... Feedback-ul este un element central de adaptare într-un sistem deschis. În concluzie, conform acestei perspective teoretice, orice model de eficienþã a grupului ar trebui sã conþinã o analizã a input-urilor, proceselor, output-urilor ºi procesului de feedback (Katz, Kahn, 1978;Ellis, Fisher, 1996;Hinsz, Tindale, Volrath, 1997). Cele mai multe dintre modelele clasice ale eficienþei echipelor de lucru ºi a grupurilor organizaþionale (Gladstein, 1984;Hackman, 1987;McGrath, 1984) s-au bazat pe aceastã abordare teoreticã a sistemelor deschise. ...
... O caracteristicã a sistemelor sociale deschise este aceea cã ele sunt capabile de automenþinere datoritã entropiei negative generate prin procesele care transformã input-urile în output-uri. Un sistem deschis (grup) poate achiziþiona input-uri care sunt mai complexe decât output-urile generate, iar o parte a input-urilor astfel achiziþionate vor fi folosite pentru a reduce entropia (un element central pentru funcþionarea oricãrui sistem) ºi a o transforma în entropie negativã, care va permite în cele din urmã sistemului sã supravieþuiascã (Katz, Kahn, 1978;Ellis, Fisher, 1996). ...
Article
Deindividualization - the psychological process through which individuals transgress social norms when they cannot be identified - was revealed by several experimental studies. Most of these studies explored the contextual factors (such as darkness, wearing masks or uniforms) and structural factors (i.e. the place occupied by the individual in a large group) that favor the process of deindividualization. However, few experiments concentrated on the individual factors influencing the process, although reality shows that different individuals react differently, based on their personal characteristics, even when they find themselves in the same deindividualizing situation. This study proposes an experimental design that explores the role that shame (as an individual factor) plays in explaining the process of deindividualization. In order to measure subjects’ disposition to feel shame (35 students from the Faculty of Sociology, University of Bucharest) we used the Behavior Self-Evaluation Test, an adaptation of the TOSCA – A Scale, elaborated by June Price Tangney et al. in 1991. During the experiment, the subjects were invited to participate in an action involving a shame generating situation, and were asked to name the conditions under which they agree to participate. Our study is the first application of the TOSCA Scale in Romania and offers one of the few researches of the deindividualization process that start from individual factors. The study is part of the research project "The social emotions: shame and guilt in the Romanian public space after December 1989" coordinated by Professor Septimiu Chelcea, PhD.
... By communicating ethical guidelines, managers can focus employees' attention on and create awareness about ethical issues that tend to get lost amid frequent messages from various stakeholders about improving performance or the bottom line (Brown et al. 2005;Treviño et al. 2003). In line with role theory (Graen 1976;Katz and Kahn 1978), we contend that, by communicating ethical guidelines, managers can shape organizational norms and standards regarding ethical conduct (Feldman 1984) and, thereby, improve employee work decisions. ...
... Role theory provides important insights into why and how communication of ethical guidelines may influence employee behavior. The theory suggests that employee behavior, in large part, is shaped by employee beliefs about what others consider appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a particular role (Katz and Kahn 1978). These expectations are communicated to the focal employee by members in their role set, particularly by their manager (Graen 1976). ...
... These expectations are communicated to the focal employee by members in their role set, particularly by their manager (Graen 1976). Katz and Kahn (1978) suggest that communications of role expectations are not just informational; they are deliberate attempts to influence an employee's attitudes and gain conformity. Moreover, role expectations are not limited to duties specified in the job description, but also include preferences for specific behaviors, e.g., what the employee should do and avoid and how they should conduct themselves while they interact with others inside and outside the organization (Katz and Kahn 1978). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article contributes to our understanding of how communication of ethical guidelines by managers may reduce the likelihood of employee unethical behavior. We conduct two vignette experiments to assess the impact of communicating two types of ethical guidelines—general and specific. The second study employs mixed methods experimental design, collecting qualitative data during the experiment. We find that communicating ethical guidelines by managers reduces the likelihood of unethical behavior, but contrary to our hypothesis and prior literature, we observe that general ethical guidelines are more effective than specific ethical guidelines. We conduct thematic coding of open-ended qualitative responses and integrate the findings of qualitative analysis with the quantitative analyses to provide insights into the counter-hypothetical finding. With specific guidelines, we observe that participants use specific details to negate or rationalize ethical concerns, and with general guidelines, participants recognize ethical concerns and are less likely to downplay them. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for research on ethical leadership.
... In the mid of 1960's, Katz (1964) also introduced and addressed the OCB as supra-role behaviour. The supra-role behaviour can be defined as non-prescribed behaviour or behaviours that are not required in advance for a given job (Katz & Kahn, 1966). This behaviour is vital to ensure the smooth function in any organization but this behaviour is not prescribed as usual notion of task performance stated in formal job description (Katz & Kahn, 1966). ...
... The supra-role behaviour can be defined as non-prescribed behaviour or behaviours that are not required in advance for a given job (Katz & Kahn, 1966). This behaviour is vital to ensure the smooth function in any organization but this behaviour is not prescribed as usual notion of task performance stated in formal job description (Katz & Kahn, 1966). Bateman and Organ (1983) stated that this behaviour "lubricates the social machinery of the organization" (p. ...
... 588). For instance: assisting and helping co-workers to solve problematic job-related issues, ensuring workplace cleanliness, helping co-workers with heavy workloads, conserving organization resources and tolerating the inevitable temporary impositions of work without complaining (Bateman & Organ, 1983;Katz & Kahn, 1966). Conversely, Organ and his colleagues re-operationalised and named the concept as OCB instead of supra-role behaviour which was previously conceived by Katz (1964) (Bateman & Organ, 1983;Smith, Organ & Near, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between dimensionality of teacher self-efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour amongst teachers at government school, Malaysia. Teacher self-efficacy is comprised of personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy. A research issue is highlighted and discussed in detail and thoroughly. A theoretical background for both construct: efficacy theory and organisational citizenship behaviour have been systematically and clearly discussed. Both constructs are also found to be significantly contributed to the school achievement positively. The conceptual framework is also developed based on past empirical arguments. Numerous contributions are pointed out and adequate justification is provided. Past studies revealed and confirmed the relationship between personal teaching efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour as well as between general teaching efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour. Hypothesis is formulated that used to achieve research objective.
... That is, to the extent that a more stringent employment protection regime indicates a within-country mindset in favour of labour rights, an acquirer with a more conservative ideology that emphasizes personal accountability and greater tolerance of inequality would be deemed a poorer fit. In particular, we integrate the role theory perspective at the organizational and individual levels of analysis (Biddle, 1986;Hage & Marwell, 1968;Katz & Kahn, 1966, 1978Marwell & Hage, 1970), to suggest that the mismatch between an acquiring organization's political 1 / ideology and local employment regulations systems may lend itself to perceptions of corporate hypocrisy. We theorize the effects of such mismatch on employee attitudes and behavioural outcomes to understand the mechanisms through which such processes can hinder integration efforts. ...
... We show how role theory provides an overarching, integrative framework for understanding cross-border M&As, and in particular its influence on employee behaviour. Table 5.1 summarizes the three streams of work which we draw on: (1) organizational role theory (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964;Katz & Kahn, 1966), (2) cognitive role theory (Burke, 1991;DiMaggio, 1997;Moreno, 1934;Stryker, 1991), and (3) sensemaking (embedded within symbolic interactionist role theory) (Blumer, 1962;Mead, 1934;Stryker, 1987;Stryker & Statham, 1985). ...
Chapter
This chapter draws on an institutional perspective to suggest that in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), a (mis)alignment between the characteristics of the acquiring organization, (in particular, the acquirer-organization’s political ideology) and the institutional environment of the host country (employment regulations, in particular), has an effect on employee outcomes as a consequence of the M&A process. Prior research on cross-border M&As tends to adopt an overtly economic, or cultural, approach, to explain the outcomes of cross-border M&As. Research in corporate governance and other cognate fields, however, shows the fruitfulness of a multi-level processual lens to understand the impact of these deals on organizations. This conceptual chapter therefore aims to extend this body of work by drawing on the role theory perspective to theorize how employees may be affected by cross-border M&As and illuminates the consequences of this mismatch at different levels of the organization.
... 13. Our company provide services at the appointed time (Katz and Kahn 1978) Senior Leadership SL1 14. Our supervisor regularly discusses with us about our future career plans (Rafiq and Ahmed 1993) SL2 15. ...
... Table 4 indicates the discriminant validity in this study. The empirical results show that the square roots of AVE are more than the correlation of the latent variables; therefore, all indicators are valid (Katz and Kahn 1978). These results support all requirements of first-order reliability and convergent validity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the mediation effect of motivation (MO) between internal marketing (IM) and service innovation (SI) using a hierarchical model. It adopts Bahman Group Corp of the automobile industry in Iran as a case study. This paper aims to examine the effect of internal marketing (IM) on service innovation (SI) by the mediation effect of motivation (MO). It develops a theoretical hierarchical multi-component model and analyses through a two-step approach of higher-order model by using PLS on 171 clean data. This research uses a survey method to collect data from the employees of Bahman Group Corp. The results indicate that motivation (MO) has a partial mediation effect between internal marketing (IM) and service innovation (SI). This study illustrates that internal communication (IC) and a New Organizational Delivery system (NOD) have the most substantial effect on internal marketing (IM) and service innovation (SI). Moreover, this research highlights to the service-based organisation to pay more attention to enhance internal marketing dimensions, especially in terms of service innovation to improve competitiveness. The results recommend further studies to examine the correlation between each indicator. The findings conclude with two main contributions and managerial implication to the research area that impactful to the subject of study.
... Why the focus on teamwork design as the target of collective ownership? Even though there are many potential targets of ownership (e.g., workspace, information) around which a collective sense of ownership could attach, scholars (Katz & Kahn, 1978;Peng & Pierce, 2015) have positioned the job (i.e., the work that a team is called upon to perform) as the foundation of organizational life for the majority of employees as it is that organizational experience which is their most proximal experience encountered throughout each and every work day. More specifically, the level of teamwork complexity (TWC) and the degree of team self-management (TS-M) are central in defining the nature and character of work that work teams are called upon to perform (Campion, Papper, & Medsker, 1996;Hackman, 1987;Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006). ...
... In both instances experienced control failed to mediate the teamwork design-J-CPO relationship. In sum and response to our research question, these findings suggest that teamwork design, the foundation of organizational life for the majority of work team members (Katz & Kahn, 1978), may contribute to the emergence of J-CPO through two of the three route variables. ...
Article
As work teams have increasingly become the cornerstone of the post bureaucratic organization, there have been calls for a greater understanding of collective thought and action. Such understanding is deemed important for the design and management of teamwork. Theory suggests that feelings of ownership manifest themselves at the collective level, and positively affect team performance effectiveness. This study illuminates the role played by teamwork complexity and team self-management in the emergence of the psychological processes that are associated with the manifestation of job-focused collective psychological ownership (CPO). In addition, employment of serial mediation suggests that both teamwork dimensions put employees on two routes (intimate knowing of and the collective investment of the team members' selves into the job) that lead to the emergence of a collective sense of ownership, and together these two route variables and CPO sequentially mediated a positive relationship between teamwork design and team performance effectiveness.
... 324). As main antecedents, the following authors stand out: Gronn (2008) likewise recognizes the significance of a stream of additional research, such as Mary Parker Follett's (1942Follett's ( /2003) work on reciprocal influence; Benne & Sheats' (1948) investigation into the diffusion of leadership functions within groups; Gibb's (1954) research on leadership; French & Snyder's (1959) and Dahl's (1961) analysis of the distribution of power and influence; Becker & Useem's (1942) and Etzioni's (1965) work on dual leadership; Kerr & Jermier's (1978) investigation into substitutes for leadership; Katz & Kahn's (1978) analyses sharing leadership; and Schein (1988) on the functions of leadership. In addition to these sources, Harris (2009) cites the research of Festinger et al. (1950) and Heinicke & Bales' (1953) on informal leadership in groups and teams; Barnard's (1968) work on the functions of the executive and the informal organization; Manz & Sims' (1986) social learning theory ;Hutchins' (1995) investigation of distributed cognition and 'lateral agency'; Louis & Marks' (1998) analyses of professional learning communities; and Wheatley's (1999) work on complexity and systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
García-Carreño, I., V. (2021). Distributed Leadership: A Bibliometric Analysis Using Scopus Database (1981-2020). The European Educational Researcher, 2(6), 227-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31757/euer.426 Distributed Leadership is a conceptual and analytical approach to understanding leadership that is focused on interactions between leaders and those they lead with the goal of driving instructional improvement and improving student outcomes by developing high-quality teaching and an educational culture that enables all students to thrive. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art research available on distributed leadership. As new social and educational demands emerge, leadership responses need to be reformed at all school levels to ensure a school’s ability to provide a high-quality education. These transformations must be promoted from within each school center. The author describes and covers a deep review of the literature between 1981 and 2020. The source data for this research, (321articles), is derived from SCOPUS, Biblometrix Studio, and VOSviewer. The terms and their clusters were illustrated on graphs, and density maps were utilized. General recommendations are provided and challenges are identified for the incorporation of DL changes into the management of schools. The findings show that the literature refers explicitly to DL, wherein there are a number of interesting insights provided by theoretical articles. A conclusion is given with recommendations for further multidisciplinary research at the intersection of the fields in order to show the holistic landscape of this field.
... In general, norms reflect the "expectations about behavior or its results that are at least partially shared by a social group" (Homburg and Pflesser, 2000, p. 450). According to Katz and Kahn (1978), behaviors are driven by ". . . the norms prescribing and sanctioning these behaviors and the values in which the norms are embedded" (p. 43). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to facilitate the understanding of brand building among owners/managers of SMEs by highlighting the relationships among the multidimensionality of brand orientation, brand-building behavior and brand identity. Design/methodology/approach In addressing the research issue, the study uses responses from 158 domesticated SMEs in North Macedonia, afterwards relying on structural equation modeling to test the research propositions. Findings This study validates brand orientation as a multidimensional term that is underlined by brand artefacts, norms and values. This study also validates the assumptions that brand orientation, brand-building behavior and brand identity are significantly related. Research limitations/implications While it is possible that our evidence base is limited to the context studied, the research findings nevertheless contribute primarily to the emergent scholarship on SMEs' brand building. Practical implications This study has practical consequences for SMEs' brand building. More specifically, it enriches the understanding of the interrelationships between brand orientation, brand-building behavior and brand identity. Originality/value This study provides an advanced perspective of brand orientation as a complex phenomenon and further provides understanding of its relations to brand-building behavior and brand identity of the domesticated SMEs.
... Inspirado nos conceitos de "vontade de cooperar" (Barnard, 1938) e "comportamentos espontâneos" (Katz, 1964;Katz & Kahn, 1966), o pesquisador Dennis Organ cunhou o termo "comportamento cidadão organizacional" para definir "comportamentos individuais discricionários, não reconhecidos direta ou explicitamente pelo sistema formal de recompensa e que, no conjunto, promovem o funcionamento eficaz da organização" (Organ, 1988, p. 4, tradução nossa). Ao expandir os olhares para contextos e ambientes organizacionais específicos, como organizações educacionais, percebe-se que ainda há poucos estudos que abordam esses comportamentos, restringindo ao ensino superior um número de investigações ainda menor, mesmo havendo indicativos relevantes de sua importância nessa área. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the impostor phenomenon (IP) and the academic behavior of stricto sensu postgraduate students in business area courses. Discussing the relationship between psychological variables and student academic behavior is a topic of interest as empirical evidence indicates that these variables affect the environment in which scientific research is developed. It is important to look for elements that help in understanding the IP in order to reduce its impacts on the performance, behavior, and feelings of students. Postgraduate students enrolled in stricto sensu courses may be refusing opportunities to advance in their professional careers and adopting behaviors that are discordant with those desired by universities because they feel like impostors in terms of their abilities. Besides the relevance of the relationships analyzed, this research also uses the Meurer and Costa Scale of Academic Behaviors - Stricto Sensu (MCSAB-SS), which can measure academic behaviors displayed in Brazilian postgraduate courses, enabling the development of new investigations into the topic. The population includes postgraduates enrolled in 2018 in academic master’s, professional master’s, and academic doctorate courses in administration, accounting, and economics, known as the business area. The data collection was operationalized via a survey carried out online, which obtained 1,816 valid participations. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and the Spearman’s correlation. Higher levels of impostor feelings are positively associated with displays of counterproductive academic behaviors and are mostly negatively associated with academic citizenship behaviors. After identifying the IP in students, actions to minimize these feelings can be implemented, given that postgraduate students with the IP may not be engaging in the activities that permeate stricto sensu, thus damaging the climate and culture of cooperation needed in academia.
... Bateman & Organ, 1983;Smith, Organ, & T Near, 1983), is defined as an "individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organisation" (Organ, 1988 p.4). This definition draws on Chester Barnard's concept (Barnard, 1938) of the "willingness to cooperate," and Daniel Katz's (Katz, 1964;Katz & Kahn, 1966) distinction between dependable role performance and "innovative and spontaneous behaviours." ...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is the teacher behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system. The factors found to be determining Teachers’ OCB are different, hinging on country-culture specific nature. Research studies in the sphere of Teachers’ OCB have heretofore been overlooked in Sri Lanka and other similar Asian countries. Hence, this study aims at exploring the degree of prevalence of teacher OCB and its dominant determinants among the teachers in Sri Lanka. The study draws on in-depth qualitative data from interviews and the participants included a convenience sample of teachers and principals employed in secondary schools. The data were analysed deductively using content analysis method. The findings reveal that the teachers’ propensity to perform OCB - towards students, school and their colleagues - is on the decline. The determinants, such as work-family conflict, perceived organizational support, teacher values, teachers’ self-efficacy, student behaviour patterns, and teachers’ pupil control ideologies, seem to be dominant attributing to the low levels of teachers’ OCB.
... Jafari and Bidarian (2012) highlighted this by underlining that responsible, committed, brave, and wise workers are deemed to be one of the most basic factors of the success of organizations. In this regard, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, which were first defined as extra-role behaviors by Katz & Kahn (1978) have been a focus of interest in recent years. However, as mentioned in the introductory chapter, the term OCB was introduced by Organ et al. (1988) in the sense that it is perceived today. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate how English as a foreign language (EFL) instructors at a foundation university view their teacher identity and organizational citizenship behaviors. To this end, a qualitative case study design was utilized. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews and classroom observations. During the two-month data collection period, 28 individual interviews and three focus- group interviews were carried out with nine instructors and one manager. Observations at the research site were documented through the researcher’s field notes. Interview data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were organized regularly in separate files and analyzed using the qualitative software program MAXQDA. In the data analysis process, the data were read and re-read for coding and themes were generated. The findings revealed the teachers’ positioning at societal and organizational levels. In particular, the teachers underscored the value attached to them as professionals and the extent of their professional autonomy in the organization and society. With regard to their professional identities, the participants described how they worked within an organizational climate characterized by professional inaction. Furthermore, the teachers reported that their OCBs towards students and colleagues were relatively higher in comparison to those towards the organization. Overall, the participants’ personal and professional identities were found to influence their construction of an organizational role identity which is closely related to their utilization of discretionary behaviors in the organization.
... 62 When provided with conflicting demands and signals about what tasks should be completed in a given role, employees are forced to engage in role negotiation 63,64 due to the role ambiguity about expectations. 65,66 When possible, it seems that employees will try to spend time on the roles that offer the greatest personal benefit. This concept gets back to Kahn's 67 original conceptualization of engagement to bring more of one's self to work. ...
Article
The topic of employee engagement has received tremendous attention. With this large body of work has come numerous definitions, varied measurement systems and diverse employee-based interventions designed to improve engagement. In this article, we suggest that a variant on this work, employee engagement intent, can provide a useful framework for research and practice. Through a review of the evolution of employee engagement, we utilize two unique concepts that have emerged over time. One is that employee engagement is about the individual employee bringing more of himself or herself to work, and the second is that engagement initiatives are focused on encouraging employees to engage in behaviors that go above and beyond the core job at work. To help unify these two concepts and provide a theoretical basis for studying intent, we tap into role theory and specifically five roles at work. Intent is defined as the degree to which employees engage in non–core job roles to bring more of themselves to work (for personal interest) while also helping meet company-specific objectives. We use the model of engagement intent to suggest specific interventions that should help organizations interested in improving individual and business performance through intentional engagement programs.
... Among the three fishers, one took on the role of captain, and the other two the role of crew. The duties of each role were specified based on Katz and Kahn (1966) summary of the role requirements that a leader must meet (i.e., task requirement and maintenance requirement). In this way, the captain was described as being responsible for team management, and she/he had the right to redistribute the group's final payoff. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exploring the possibility of self-governance of common-pool resources has received increasing attention in the literature. In echoing to this issue, the current study attempts to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on individuals’ environmentally responsible behavior, and to examine the role of leadership in managing resource deterioration in a small group. An ocean fishing experimental task, with different climate conditions and resource regeneration rates, was used to simulate a commons dilemma. Moreover, the role that participants played was manipulated. The results show a dissociation effect of the two ecological conditions: A low regeneration rate of fishery resources prevented participants from exploiting the fish stocks, whereas a deteriorated climate condition encouraged participants to overfish. Moreover, the results show that, when the regeneration rate of fishery resources was lower, the deteriorated climate condition led the crews to restrain themselves less than the neutral climate condition. The deteriorated climate condition led the captains to maintain the same high level of self-restraint as the neutral climate condition. In summary, the findings of the present study suggest that the assumption of a leadership position encourages people to protect common-pool resources, especially under critical situations. This study contributes to our understanding of the feasibility of self-governance of common-pool resources in small groups.
... Therefore, although the "leaders' side" of the charismatic attribution process may be composed of both the CEO's persona and vision Misangyi 2006, Khurana 2002), we give a central position to the latter. As Shamir (1995, p. 28) and others (e.g., House et al. 1991, Katz andKahn 1978) have argued, language describing the leader's vision and mission "is the main medium of communication and influence in" distal charismatic effects. Indeed, its potential influence on analyst judgments is particularly acute, as organizational Downloaded from informs.org by [104.39.55.20] on 05 February 2015, at 12:49 . ...
... Д. Кац и Р. Кан подкрепят тази теория, като твърдят, че организационното поведение е изградено от предписващите и санкциониращи го норми и ценности, в които нормите са обхванати. Ценностите са погенерализирани идеологически обяснения от нормите, които имат по-висока степен на конкретика и на значимост по отношение на актуалното поведение (Katz, Kahn, 1987). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Процесът по формиране на организационна култура започва от създаването на компанията. Поради функциите, които изпълнява, а именно на вътрешна интеграция и външна адаптация, тя има жизненоважна роля за оцеляването и развитието на всяка организация. Сама по себе си тя не е необходимото и достатъчно условие да се постигне бизнес ефективност и печалба, защото в контекста, в който функционират организациите има външни и вътрешни фактори, оказващи влияние. Поради тази причина е необходимо типът култура да се адаптира спрямо периода от жизнения цикъл на компанията. Предизвикателствата пред новостартиралите организации (до шестата година от създаването) са многобройни: те са в процес на изграждане на организационна култура, структура, работни практики и формализирани модели на вътрешногрупова комуникация, дефиниране на общи организационни цели, разпределение на отговорности. Статистиката е изключително негативна: от стартиралите през 2014 г. американски компании, само 56% са били все още активни през 2018 г. (според US Bureau of Labor), а над 90% от стартиращите компании се провалят (Marmer, Herrmann, Dogrultan & Berman, 2011), докато броят им и икономическото им значение растат всяка година: увеличение от 322% в рамките на 10 години и общи икономически принос от $2.3 трилиона само за периода 2015 - 2017 година. Глобално направената инвестиция в новостартирали компании през 2017 г. е $140 милиарда (според международния доклад "Startup Genome"). Данни за България липсват. Сред топ 5 причини защо компаниите се провалят се оказват фактори като “създаване на неподходящ екип”, “липса на фокусирана стратегия, отговорност и мотивация, умение за адаптация спрямо промените на средата”. Всичко това се влияе, създава и/ли управлява чрез организационната култура. Именно затова е важно да се анализира профила на организационната култура, да се потърсят връзките между нея и феномени като групова ефективност на компаниите. При евентуално установяване на такава каузалност, новостартиралите компании биха имали практически насоки за развитие и в този смисъл, контрол над успеха си. Изследване на формирането на организационна култура и групова ефективност при новостартиращи компании в България досега не е провеждано. Успехът на тези компании би означавал създаване на работни места и нови, често пъти иновативни продукти. Просперитетът на новостартиращите компании би оказал положителен ефект не само върху икономическия растеж на България, а и върху нейния цялостен имидж, което е силна мотивация за провеждането на това изследване. Дисертационният труд съдържа две теоретични глави, които разглеждат организационната култура, груповата ефективност и други фактори, които се допуска, че си взаимодействат, а именно груповата ефикасност и професионалния стрес. Направено е емпирично изследване сред български и американски новостартиращи компании. В заключение и на база анализ на получените от него резултати, са изведени препоръки, които стартъпите могат да приложат, за да постигнат организационен успех.
... Początkowo Kahn skupił się na doprecyzowaniu obustronnej zależności pomiędzy pełnioną rolą a jej kształtowaniem (Katz, Kahn, 1978;van Maanen, Schein, 1979). Następnie zauważył, że ludzie przyjmują właściwe dla siebie role w pracy, a następnie wracają do domów, w których także pełnią określone role. ...
Article
Full-text available
p>Badanie rozpoczęto od założenia, że człowiek może wykorzystywać w różnym stopniu swoje uwarunkowania psychofizyczne: emocjonalne, poznawcze i behawioralne (aktywność). Czynniki te kształtują osobiste zaangażowanie i zachowanie ludzi oraz oddziałują zarówno na doświadczenia własne, jak i na funkcjonowanie w roli zawodowej. Badania przeprowadzono wśród 380 losowo wybranych nauczycieli szkół podstawowych z terenów wschodniego Mazowsza, północnej Lubelszczyzny oraz południowego Podlasia (teren ściany wschodniej). Analizy posłużyły do określenia korelacji pomiędzy oczekiwaną finansową gratyfikacją za pracę a zaangażowaniem zawodowym nauczyciela. W artykule przeanalizowano cztery rodzaje zaangażowania: emocjonalne, poznawcze, dydaktyczne i administracyjne, i skorelowano je z oczekiwaną przez nauczycieli gratyfikacją finansową za pracę zawodową. Na podstawie współczynnika korelacji gamma Goodmana i Kruskala (ϱ = 0,676; p < 0,001) oraz testu rang rho-Spearmana (γ = 0,650; p < 0,001) można wykazać, że siła związku pomiędzy zmiennymi jest wysoka, istotna statystycznie i dwustronna na poziomie 0,01. Stwierdzono, że ambiwalentny stosunek nauczyciela do wynagrodzenia generuje niższy poziom jego zaangażowania. Im wyższy jest poziom oczekiwań finansowych za wykonywaną pracę, tym wyższy stopień angażowania się w działalność zawodową nauczyciela ze szkoły podstawowej.</p
... OCB refers to employees who are motivated to work, keep on working and perform additional tasks (Organ 1988). This behavior reflects the willingness of individuals to go above and beyond the prescribed role requirements and exceeds an employee's job description (Katz and Kahn 1966;Organ 1988). Given the focus on behavior and performances related to military identity, we believe that measuring behaviors directed at the individual is therefore most relevant. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on military role identity by assessing the relations between demographic variables and warrior and peacekeeper role identities and by examining the potential influence of these role identities on self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a cross-national sample. A questionnaire was distributed to military members in four participating countries: Belgium, Estonia, Canada and the Netherlands ( n = 831). The findings show that demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, marital status and unit) are related to military role identity, and that military role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB. In particular, multiple regression analyses demonstrate that peacekeeper role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB, whereas warrior role identity only predicts organizational commitment and OCB, and further, that peacekeeper role identity is a stronger predictor of the outcome variables measured. The theoretical and practical implications, including providing commanders with information to assess their units’ mindsets, and mechanisms to improve self-esteem, commitment, OCB, are discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study and its potential for future research are described.
... Este tipo de comunicación ha tenido como fin último contribuir al desarrollo de vínculos sólidos entre las organizaciones y sus grupos de interés para lograr un impacto en sus resultados. Desde sus inicios, entendida únicamente en el ámbito interno, se reconocía que lo que buscaba la comunicación era lograr el entendimiento a partir del intercambio de información (Redding;Sanborn, 1964;Katz;Kahn, 1966), además del desarrollo de habilidades de comunicación (Zelko; Dance, 1965; Huseman; Logue; Freshley, 1977). En la década de 1970de , Lesikar (1972 fue quien aportó en primera instancia la visión de que la comunicación en una organización era más que la comunicación interna, y que también implicaba la comunicación externa y la comunicación personal. ...
... Weick's usage (1987: 112-113) of the term "requisite variety" sheds light on the complexity in the communicative act itself: face-to-face communication is highly complex, while talking over the phone is less, because of the loss of information. Argote and McGrath (1993: 333) problematize the central question of this thesis, how diversity in an organization is handled, in an antagonism inherent of open systems (Katz and Kahn 1978). The system needs to extract energy from its parts, and this extraction explains the conflict of centralization vs. decentralization of management, the process standardization vs. specialization (Argote and McGrath, 1993: 335). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is seen as key to enhance the services of the technology department of a multinational medical technology company. But in the innovation life-cycle creativity is restricted to be able to form a company-wide consensus. The research question of the paper is, how and why is creativity restricted? The author is a consultant and software developer at the company under study. As a participant, he collected data through ethnographic observation and writing descriptive field notes. In a second step, the data were coded to be aggregated into categories. Through Grounded Theory, the restriction of creativity is explained. The paper stresses the importance of establishing a meta-communication about implicit power structures in company-wide discourse that appears neutral to the observer, because of the contextualization as an objectively best strategy.
... Deze lijkt te verwijzen naar het concept van de informele organisatie. De informele organisatie is het patroon van sociale structuren dat spontaan tot stand komt en in stand wordt gehouden in de context van een formele organisatie (Katz & Kahn, 1966;Mullins, 2002 ...
Article
Full-text available
Gelet op de betekenis van gedragswetenschappelijke factoren op de prestaties en de strategische ontwikkeling van de onderneming, en daarmee het in-control zijn van de onderneming, is het terecht dat controllers, accountants en auditors in hun werk aandacht besteden aan die gedragswetenschappelijke factoren. Echter, de wijze waarop de genoemde beroepsgroepen omgaan met gedragswetenschappelijk factoren roept vraagtekens op. In het artikel wordt kort uiteengezet wat de hoofdlijnen zijn van de bodies of knowledge van de voor de genoemde professionals relevante specialisaties organizational behavior en administrative behavior. Vervolgens wordt aan de hand van een van de belangrijkste tekstboeken op het gebied van management control geïllustreerd dat daarin op een onzorgvuldige en onjuiste wijze gebruik wordt gemaakt van inzichten uit de organizational behavior. Omdat auteurs over soft controls ook naar dat tekstboek verwijzen roept dit ook een aantal vragen op over soft controls. Daarna wordt aan de hand van Bower’s bottom- up resource allocation process aangetoond dat Bower daarin weliswaar juist gebruik gemaakt van een centraal model uit de organizational behavior, het Interactionist Perspective Model, maar dat praktijkmensen, bestuurders, CFO’s, controllers, daaraan voorbij gaan met als gevolg dat Bower’s model niet werkt, alhoewel goed opgezet gezien vanuit organizational behavior. Als vierde element in dit artikel wordt aan de hand van waardenprogramma’s uiteengezet dat daarin essentiële zaken als resistence to control en resistance through distance over het hoofd worden gezien, met averechtse effecten met betrekking tot beïnvloeding van gedrag van de leden van de organisatie als gevolg; de wijze waarop verzuimd wordt goed gebruik te maken van de inzichten vanuit het vakgebied organizational behavior roept risico’s op. Het artikel besluit met de conclusie dat controllers, accountants en auditors, gelet op de norm van evidence based management van de primaire literatuur over organizational behavior en administrative behavior gebruik zullen moeten maken en zullen moeten afzien van de idee van soft controls.
... Organizational members do not exist in a social vacuum (Katz & Kahn, 1978): Instead, our affective states and emotions, cognitions and motivations, and, ultimately, our overt behaviour are dependent on our current surrounding environment and previous experiences. As a result, organizational members have been described as complex adaptive systems that dynamically change over time and evolve as they interact with one another and the embedding context they find themselves in Kozlowski & Ilgen, 2006;Ramos-Villagrasa, Marques-Quinteiro, Navarro, & Rico, 2018). ...
Article
Despite the growing consensus that the majority of psychological phenomena at work are temporally embedded and highly dynamic, existing research is often based on simplified theoretical and methodological models, which take limited account of process dynamics and especially non-linear growth trajectories. In this paper, we highlight the potentials of using recurrence quantifications analysis (RQA) and an extension of RQA – cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) – for researching process dynamics in organizations. (C)RQA is a powerful technique that can be used to both visualize and quantify time-series data such as repeated measurements of psychological states or sequentially coded dyadic and team interactions. To illustrate the manifold opportunities of (C)RQA, we present three application examples focusing on individuals as systems, dyads as systems, and teams as systems. Specifically, we highlight how (C)RQA can be applied to individual diary data, to leader-follower communication dynamics observed during annual appraisal interviews, and to high-density coded team interactions observed during organizational meetings. We discuss the strengths and limitations of (C)RQA and provide recommendations for researchers interested in using the method.
Preprint
Full-text available
The monograph examines the impact of various dimensions of social capital on cooperation. It also aims to identify and explain the effects of performance orientation and learning orientation on the elements of social capital. A research model was based on goal orientation and social capital theory. A critical literature review on cooperation, social capital, and goal orientation was conducted, and the foundation for research was built. Findings suggest there is a positive impact of learning orientation on social capital. However, there is no significant influence of performance orientation on any element of social capital. Furthermore, the study confirms the value of social capital in explaining cooperation. Along with these findings, the integration of goal orientation theory and social capital theory in the cooperation context is a significant contribution to the research.
Article
This research explored the relationship between environmental stimuli and tourist experiences by considering the mediating impact of arousal level. Designed around the arousal theory of environmental psychology, this framework suggests that novel environmental stimuli create optimal arousal levels and lead to optimal performance. An on-site survey was distributed to tourists at Hu Li Shan Fortress in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, which is a smart tourism destination recognized by the Chinese government. Completed self-administered questionnaires were obtained from 372 respondents who had used the smart facilities. The findings through the SEM (structural equation modeling) method revealed that physical and psychological stimuli had positive effects on arousal levels and tourist experiences and arousal level was a moderator between environmental stimuli and tourist experiences. Thus, destinations should offer optimal environmental stimuli to tourists by increasing smart facilities and services and continuously updating them.
Article
Full-text available
The research in this article investigates the experience of role conflict that social workers face when dealing with the issue of legal capacity of persons with disabilities. Persons with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities are denied their legal capacity in many countries. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities of the United Nations obliges states to recognize or restore full legal capacity to all persons regardless of their ability. The study was set in Lithuania, one of the many countries where social workers are required by the Convention to advocate for people’s right to legal capacity and support its exercise. Yet laws and ongoing procedures typically assume social workers to be aides in the denial of legal capacity. A qualitative study of practicing social workers in Lithuania confirmed the existence and sources of role conflict. Despite their professional identity, social workers maintained some of their cultural biases that were incompatible with recognition of clients’ legal capacity. The findings imply that documented role conflict can spur efforts at changing public perceptions and including awareness of rights of persons with disabilities and cultural barriers in professional education.
Chapter
Full-text available
The article aims to give an account of the everyday practices of sharing and understand how the inhabitants in Sofielund’s Collective House (SoKo) in Malmö, Sweden, articulate and demonstrate belonging in relation to their housing. Interviews and observations were carried out during November and December of 2017, together with an online survey, to gather data for an analysis. The study contributes to the understanding of how collective housing might act as an enabler in fulfilling certain human needs, such as belonging, or avoiding feelings of loneliness, by looking at the dweller’s points of view. I analyze the collective housing as a stage where the relationships are cultivated anew and the community that is achieved through the process functions as a relational ground for collaborative lifestyle thus creating a motion, like a circle that reinforces itself. Last, but not least, Sofielund’s Collective House serves as an example, that for a certain group to organise and realise housing on their own terms in a city is possible.
Article
Existing nonprofit advocacy literature has overwhelmingly focused on explaining what factors affect nonprofit participation in policy advocacy, while paying little attention to examine the effectiveness of such advocacy efforts. This study aims to address this limitation through asking a research question: what brings about effective nonprofit advocacy? Based on a multidimensional framework of effectiveness, this study applies a configurational approach of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in theory building to identify the causal configurations and their elements leading to effective advocacy. The results of fuzzy set QCA (fsQCA) analysis confirm two propositions: first, the configuration or combination of multiple conditions, including organizational attributes, institutional environment, strategies and tactics, generates effective nonprofit advocacy. Second, there are equifinal multiple causal configurations that result in the same degree of advocacy effectiveness. This study contributes to the literature with a fresh theoretical perspective and a novel methodology to understand nonprofit advocacy effectiveness. It also has significant practical implications for nonprofit leaders to more effectively advocate policy change.
Article
Full-text available
Human Resource Management Practices have been defined as systems that are intended to give assurance to the successful administration of the human capital within an organization. It expected to motivate, attract and retain those employees with competencies to enable the organization to stand tall among its competitors. This competitive advantage has been affected by the employee's behavior individually and collectively. Employees are expected to behave in an ethical manner to win the trust of customers and stakeholders. This ethical behavior which has been described as those employee behaviors which are consistent with the requirements or expectations of stakeholders. Employee behavior can also be affected by the work climate available to them. This work climate if ethical can shape the ethicality of individual and collective employees conduct within the organization. Ethical work climate have been defined as those social environment which are consciously perceived by the employees and stakeholders of the organization. Organizations have attempted to use so many ways to manage the behavior of their employees. These practices include paying attention to values that can change the beliefs and actions of employees such as developing codes of ethics for compliance. However developing an ethical work climate which can change or shape employee ethical behaviors and subsequently result in improved employee performance is a key concern HRM and therefore need to take an active role developing ethical work climate which every member of the organization may view to be promoting the ethical values required by the organization. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTİCES Scholars have attempted to give meaning to HRM practices in so many ways. Schuler and Jackson (1987) defined HRM practices as those systems that motivates, engages, retains and develops employees, guaranteeing the successful administration of the organization and its members ensuring the organization's survival. Besides Delery and Doty (1996) defined HRM practices as those internal and regular practices and policies aimed at implementing and ensuring that a firm's human capital promote the realization of its business objectives. Human resource management practices according to Minbaeva (2005) are practices used by organizations to manage their human resources by developing specific competencies of their employees that are specific to the firm, which produce group relation and generate organizational knowledge that sustains competitive advantage. From these definitions, we can describe Human Resource Management practices as those activities that relate to specific practices and formal policies that are aimed at developing, motivating, attracting, and retaining employees who secure the successful running and support of the organization. HR should be responsible for creating an organization's ethical direction by fostering and promoting the development of such ethical behaviors and those activities which individual organizations need from their employees in order to achieve its objectives with integrity and honesty Minbaeva (2005). Scholars have developed a number of approaches to handle Human Resource Management issues. These approaches include best practices or the universal approach (for example Huselid, 1995); Strategic HRM practices approach (for example Delery & Doty, 1996); configuration approach (Wright & McMahan, 1992). Contingency approach (Dyer, 1985; Schuler, 1989). Studies have indicated that Human Resource Management practices which were linked to organizational ethical behavior focused on best practice approach since most ethical practices as addressed by most ethical theories like utilitarianism, virtue theories and deontological theories are easy to generalize to a larger population. A review of the Human
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a comprehensive literature review on the research and theoretical framework of leadership. The author illuminates the historical foundation of leadership theories and then clarifies modern leadership approaches. After a brief introduction on leadership and its definition, the paper mentions the trait theories, summarizes the still predominant behavioral approaches, gives insights about the contingency theories and finally touches the latest contemporary leadership theories. The overall aim of the paper is to give a brief understanding of how effective leadership can be achieved throughout the organization by exploring many different theories of leadership, and to present leadership as a basic way of achieving individual and organizational goals. The paper is hoped to be an important resource for the academics and researchers who would like to study on the leadership field.
Article
Full-text available
The business architecture, whose integral part is an organizational and management company structure, will be playing more important role in the future while pursuing its business goals. As a matter of fact, the organization and management of business processes that constitute its organizational and management structure demonstrate significant changes as a result of the changeable business environment. These issues are discussed in this article. The testing data set 381 SMEs (from which 114 were micro-enterprises, 141 small-scaled enterprises and 126 mid-scale enterprises, including without limitations enterprises from South Bohemian Region) analyzed applied organizational and management structures in separate scale categories of enterprises including degrees and stages of management. Pearson’s chi-squared test was used as a statistical method; p-value was employed to test zero and alternative hypotheses. SMEs manifested a transition from linear and line-staff structures to matrix and functional ones; mid-scale enterprises used strategic business units. Microenterprises and partly small-scale enterprises employed degree of management, mid-scale 3 and more degrees of management. The conclusion of the article specifies the estimated development of the organizational architecture in SMEs in the Czech Republic in relation to expected changes in the external business environment in particular.
Article
Full-text available
Job crafting, or proactive changes that individuals make in their job design, can influence and be influenced by coworkers. Although considerable research has emerged on this topic, overall, the way job crafting is responded to by coworkers has received little theoretical attention. The goal of this article is to develop a model that allows for a better understanding of job crafting in interdependent contexts. Drawing on attribution and social information theories, we propose that when job crafting has a negative or positive impact on coworkers, coworkers will make an attribution about the crafter’s prosocial motive. This attribution in turn influences whether coworkers respond in an antagonistic or a supportive way toward job crafters. Ultimately, coworkers’ reactions shape the experienced affective work outcomes of job crafters. We also theorize the factors that moderate coworkers’ reactions to job crafting behaviors and the job crafter’s susceptibility to coworker influence.
Chapter
Full-text available
İnsanlar yerleşik hayata geçtikleri dönemden itibaren, yerleşim alanlarını geliştirerek daha yaşanabilir mekânlar oluşturma çabası içerisinde olmuşlardır. Benzer çabaların örgütlü bir hal alması ve giderek gelişmesi sonucunda günümüzde devlet ve çeşitli kamu kurumları ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu kurumlardan en uzun soluklu ve kesintisizi olanı şüphesiz devlettir. Ancak bir kamu örgütlenmesi olan yerel yönetimler de devlet organizasyonu kadar uzun ve köklü bir geçmişe sahiptir. Kökeni komün yerleşim alanlarına dayanan yerel yönetim örgütlenmesi bugün itibariyle milyonlarca insanın yaşadığı metropol kent büyüklüğüne kadar genişlemiştir. Yerel yönetim kurumlarının, içinde barındırdığı nüfus, kapladığı coğrafi alan ve toplum hayatında gördüğü işlevler düşünüldüğünde yerel yönetim örgütlenmesi olmaksızın bir kamu yönetimi teşkilatından bahsedebilmek artık mümkün değildir. Yerel yönetim örgütlenmesi tüm gelişim serüveni içerisinde sosyal, ekonomik, siyasi ve hukuki birtakım gerekliliklerden beslenirken, diğer taraftan çeşitli sosyal teoriler tarafından da desteklenmiştir. Gererek klasik ve neoliberal yaklaşım gerekse de sosyalizm, Klasik Marksizm ve muhafazakârlık gibi sosyal teoriler ve bu teorilerin önemli savunucuları tarafından hep olumlu görüşler alarak gerekliliklerine vurgu yapılmıştır. Bu süreçte yerel yönetimler için “yerel devlet” betimlemesi kullanarak yerel yönetimlere karşı önemli bir reddiye içinde bulunan tek görüş Neomarksist teori olmuştur. Ancak günümüzde yerel yönetim kuruluşları bulunmayan tek bir ülke dahi bulunmamaktadır. Çalışmadaki temel anlayış, yerel yönetimlerin varlığı ve gerekliliğini yerel yönetimlerin (sürekli) gelişimi temelinde aramaktır. Çalışmada ayrıca yerel yönetimlerin çeşitli sosyal teorilerden aldığı destek/karşıtlık ve bu teorilere mensup önemli düşünürlerin görüşlerinde ortaya çıkan savunma/reddiye üzerinden bulduğu değer ile birleştirerek bir analizde bulunulmaktadır
Article
Full-text available
The article is devoted to quite relevant issues today, which are discussed at different levels of research in the field of management psychology, namely, the development of psychological profiling algorithms based on the analysis of activity in social networks, in order to solve organizational problems, in particular in order to solve problems HR sectors such as recruiting. The article, in a rather lapidary, but at the same time, sufficient form to represent a wide audience, shows that the relevance of this problem is due not only to objective prerequisites (development of digital technologies, insufficient, in modern conditions, the effectiveness of traditional methods of personnel assessment, etc. n.), but also by direct request of business representatives and top managers of large companies. The program of socio-psychological research is fully presented, which allows to identify and verify diagnostic criteria for creating a profile of labor motivation for candidates for vacant posts and employees of the organization, based on the analysis of accounts in social networks. Criteria and results of their preliminary verification are described.
Article
Full-text available
Coworkers are a source of mixed emotions yet research on emotional ambivalence—i.e., the co-existing and intertwining positive and negative feelings toward a subject—toward peers in work groups is scarce. We draw from the literature on competitive dynamics in peer relationships to explore how women and men’s emotional ambivalence is elicited by the presence of a “tall poppy,” a peer who disproportionately and visibly performs better relative to his or her peers. Informed by role congruity theory, we assert that men are socialized into peer relationships that embrace competition and camaraderie, so men tend to exhibit emotional ambivalence toward peers regardless of whether the focal coworker is a “tall poppy.” By contrast, women are socialized into a gender role that emphasizes harmony and equality so the presence of a “tall poppy” violates the female gender role, thereby eliciting more emotional ambivalence compared to when women work with equally matched peers. Experiencing emotional ambivalence then results in attempts to relationally distance oneself from the source of mixed emotions (e.g., ostracism, withdrawal). Two experimental studies—a behavioral laboratory study with students and an online experiment with working adults—both provided full support for these theorized relationships.
Article
Full-text available
The article characterizes the existing practice of the leadership qualities development of senior executives of public authorities in Ukraine and identifies the problems of ensuring its effectiveness. The necessity of applying the concept of systemic (contextual) leadership in the conditions of existing challenges for public administration taking into account the results of empirical studies of foreign experts, is substantiated. The basic characteristics of the individual-centric and system-oriented approaches to the development of systemic leaders of public authorities are determined. The expediency of using the tool «The Search for Leadership: An Organizational Perspective», developed by experts of the Institute of Systemic Leadership (UK), was substantiated. The algorithm for formation and implementation of in-service training programs aimed at the development of systemic leadership based on individual-centric and system-oriented approaches is proposed. The role of general directorates and modernized personnel management departments of the public authorities in ensuring their implementation is determined.
Article
Ecosystems have recently emerged as a visible stream in organization and management research. The ecosystem concept promises a broader, systems view of organizational and technological phenomena beyond traditional firm, value chain or network boundaries. However, adopting an ecosystem approach presents a range of methodological challenges for researchers, including how to set boundaries for the ecosystems, as well as how to examine their structure and relationships, as well as to explain the inherent dynamics and co-evolution. Based upon on a complex adaptive systems lens, this study proposes a theoretically grounded but pragmatic approach to address these challenges. The proposed methodological framework facilitates exploration of the conceptual, structural and temporal dimensions of ecosystem research design. An illustrative example is also included to showcase the framework's applicability.
Article
Full-text available
Involvement in transnational organizations is an understudied aspect of next-generation transnationalism, the cross-border connections maintained by individuals born and/or raised in countries of settlement. Exploration of institutional accessibility—the existence or nonexistence of barriers to next-generation inclusion—across a nonrepresentative sample of Mexican and Salvadoran transnational political and philanthropic groups operating in California and Washington, DC, shows how it can facilitate next-generation involvement in cross-border organizations. Accessibility is judged in terms of four main indicators: resource constraints, outreach strategies, involvement in U.S. political arenas, and pervasive institutional cultures. La participación en organizaciones transnacionales es un aspecto poco estudiado del transnacionalismo de la próxima generación, las conexiones transfronterizas mantenidas por individuos nacidos y / o criados en países de asentamiento. La exploración de la accesibilidad institucional—la existencia o inexistencia de barreras para la inclusión de la próxima generación—a través de una muestra no representativa de grupos políticos y filantrópicos transnacionales mexicanos y salvadoreños que operan en California y Washington, DC, muestra cómo puede facilitar la participación de la próxima generación en organizaciones transfronterizas. La accesibilidad se juzga en términos de cuatro indicadores principales: limitaciones de recursos, estrategias de publicidad y reclutamiento, participación en los ámbitos políticos de los EE. UU. y culturas institucionales generalizadas.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of individual innovative behaviours on the role conflict and Role ambiguity of workers and the mediating role of Conflict with Co-Workers in this effect. The sample of the study was comprised of 387 participants chosen from among the workers of public and private health sector active in Mersin Province with Simple Random Sampling method. Data were obtained with face to face survey method. When analysing data obtained in the study, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (AMOS and SPSS) was used. Within this framework, when determining the relations between the variables, statistical methods of correlation analysis, hierarchic regression analysis and Sobel test were used. As a result of the research, it was found that innovative behaviour affects role conflict positively and conflict with co-workers has a mediating effect in this relationship. However, no meaningful relationship was found between innovative behaviour and role ambiguity. That the study revealed individual innovative behaviours in organizations may have positive results as well as negative results and they may affect role conflict and conflict with co-workers positively is one of the most important findings of this study. BİREYSEL YENİLİKÇİ DAVRANIŞLARIN; ROL ÇATIŞMASI VE ROL BELİRSİZLİĞİNE ETKİSİNDE ÇALIŞMA ARKADAŞLARI İLE ÇATIŞMANIN ARACILIK ROLÜ ÖZ: Bu çalışmanın amacı bireysel yenilikçi davranışların çalışanların rol çatışması ve rol belirsizliğine etkisi ve bu etkide çalışma arkadaşları ile çatışmanın aracılık rolünün tespit edilmesidir. Araştırmanın örneklemini, Mersin ilinde faaliyet gösteren kamu ve özel sağlık sektörü çalışanlarının arasından basit tesadüfî yöntem ile seçilen 387 katılımcı oluşturmuştur. Veriler yüz yüze anket yöntemiyle elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilen verilerin analizinde Sosyal Bilimler için İstatistik Paketi kullanılmıştır (AMOS ve SPSS). Bu çerçevede, değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin belirlenmesinde korelasyon analizi, hiyerarşik regresyon analizi ve Sobel testi istatistiksel yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; yenilikçi davranışın rol çatışmasını pozitif yönde etkilediği ve çalışma arkadaşları ile çatışmanın bu ilişkide aracılık etkisinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ancak bireysel yenilikçi davranış ile rol belirsizliği arasında anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilememiştir.
Article
Organizational learning is widely seen as a particularly valuable form of change, driven by professionals closest to the work of the agency and all its challenges. However, the growing literature on this process identifies a large and varied set of requisites for learning. The object here is to survey these requisites and show how they are the many guises of a few basic learning processes, and in doing so distinguish the conditions that stimulate or initiate learning from those that support it. Although all of the paths to learning can be encouraged, the stimuli have been less appreciated for their particular role.
Chapter
Das Erfolgsrezept sind gesunde Mitarbeiter und eine aktivierende Führung. Personalerhalt und Personalführung beeinflussen Effizienz und Effektivität der Personalarbeit in der Wertkette von der Planung über Entwicklung bis zur Freisetzung. Je anspruchsvoller und flexibler Personalsituationen werden, desto wichtiger sind gesunde Mitarbeiter und eine aktivierende Führung. Im Bereich der Personalführung hilft psychologische Kompetenz, den Herausforderungen der modernen Arbeitswelt aus Sicht der Führungsrolle angemessen zu begegnen, denn Führung wandelt sich von einer technokratischen Funktion zur Menschenführung. Im Bereich des Personalerhalts gewinnt die psychische Gesundheit als Erfolgsfaktor an Relevanz in einer flexibilisierten und hochverdichteten Arbeitswelt. Gesunde Führung verknüpft diese Ansprüche, denn Personalerhalt ist eine Führungsaufgabe. In diesem Kapitel werden diese Unterstützungsprozesse im Hinblick auf Ziele, Funktionen und Herangehensweisen vorgestellt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt in einer wirtschaftspsychologischen Modellierung, um die Erfolgsmaße einer aktivierenden Führung in einer gesunden Organisation zu bestimmen.
Article
Full-text available
This study traces the formative application of systems theory to public relations and its consideration as a promising paradigm framework for the field, through a rich array of critical perspectives, and more recent analyses that examine public relations as a social phenomenon. The principles of grounded theory are applied to the selection and assessment of a representative sample of academic literature published between 1975 and 2016. A categorization framework emerges from the thematic analysis of the data that re-evaluates the historical application of systems theory. Two main insights emerge from the study. First, even in cases where a specific systems theory is not directly invoked, systems concepts are evident throughout the data of this period. Second, although systems theory has been applied extensively in the analyses of the organization, and more lately in the analyses of the impacts of public relations on the social world as a whole, analysis of the individual as a system actor as a central unit of analysis was not apparent in the data. Accordingly, a reflection on the individual as a system actor is undertaken, along with an updated visual model of the public relations system. Concluding remarks summarize the case for the ongoing relevance of systems theory to public relations research, practice, and education.
Article
Full-text available
sszefoglaló Háttér és célkitűzések: Tanulmányunkban a szervezetipolgár-viselkedés jelenségét járjuk körül. A szervezetipolgár-viselkedés kifejezés alatt olyan viselkedéseket értünk, amelyek elvégzése nem kötelező, elmaradása nem büntethető, ugyanakkor a szervezet hatékonyságát növelik. Tanulmányunk fő célkitűzése, hogy összegyűjtésük azok a tényezőket, amelyek a szervezetipolgár-viselkedésekhez vezetnek, valamint, hogy megmutassuk ezeknek a visel-kedéseknek a következményeit. Módszer: A tanulmány első részében a szervezetipolgár-viselkedés fogalmi meghatáro-zásával foglalkozunk. Bemutatjuk, hogy milyen viselkedések tartoznak ide, és hogy mi a különbség a szerepen belüli és a szerepen túli viselkedések között. Ezt követően sorra vesszük azokat az egyéni, csoport-, és szervezeti szintű változókat, amelyek szervezetipol-gár-viselkedésekhez vezethetnek. Elsősorban metaanalízisekre hagyatkozva bemutatjuk, hogy milyen következményei vannak a szervezetipolgár-viselkedéseknek akár az egyénre,
Article
Full-text available
This article is part of the fields of public management and management control. Its objective is to shed light on the management control function in local public administrations. In this perspective, an analysis of the role of the territorial management controller based on academic literature and previous research is presented. Then, a quantitative empirical study on management control in major intermunicipal entities is presented: it identifies four types of territorial management controller, namely the strategist, partner, advisor and analyst. The role of each type of territorial management controller is then specified, this role appearing to be linked in particular to the scope of competences and the number of partners of the intermunicipality in question.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.