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Abstract

Rosehip fruits (Rosa canina L.) are rich of antioxidant compounds, especially Vitamin C. In this study different parts of the fruit (skin, seeds, and pappi) were extracted separately for determination of their content of Vitamin C. Theantioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated. The results show that the dog rose has a significantly large amount of Vitamin C, most of it being concentrated in the skin. High oil content is found in the seeds, so they can be used for oil production. It was also found that the pappi had a high calorific effect and might be used as a source of thermal energy.
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
451
Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 49, 5, 2014, 451-454
CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C
AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ROSEHIP EXTRACTS
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
Institute of Chemical Engineering,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
“Acad. G. Bonchev” str. , bl. 103
Soa 1113, Bulgaria
E-mail: silvya.sb@abv.bg
ABSTRACT
Rosehip fruits (Rosa canina L.) are rich of antioxidant compounds, especially Vitamin C. In this study different
parts of the fruit (skin, seeds, and pappi) were extracted separately for determination of their content of Vitamin C. The
antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated. The results show that the dog rose has a signicantly large amount
of Vitamin C, most of it being concentrated in the skin. High oil content is found in the seeds, so they can be used for oil
production. It was also found that the pappi had a high caloric effect and might be used as a source of thermal energy.
Keywords: rosa canina, extraction, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity.
Received 10 October 2013
Accepted 04 July 2014
INTRODUCTION
Bulgaria is rich in medicinal plants, which are
natural sources of various bioactive substances and have
many useful medicinal qualities. Their health effects
are mainly due to antioxidant substances as ascorbats,
polyphenols, carotenoids, tocoferols [1]. Wild rose (Rosa
canina L.) is among the most popular and widely used
herbs worldwide. There is large empirical evidence for
its therapeutic effects. The high content of vitamins,
organic acids and avor dene it as a valuable dietary
supplement. The wild rose is a thorny shrub that ripens
in autumn with bright red fruits of spherical to elongated
form. This plant grows in different climates and latitudes.
In addition to Europe, it is commonly spread in Asia, Af-
rica and North America. The principal action of rosehip
is anti scurvy, diuretic and astringent [2].
A number of scientic studies have shown that the
wild rose fruit contains many antioxidant compounds
- phenolic acids, anthocyanins [3], avonoids [4], ca-
rotenoids [5, 6]. It belongs to the group of fruits with
highest content of ascorbic acid (up to 6 times more than
in oranges) [7, 8].
Previous studies have researched the whole rosehip
fruit. However, it consists of three different parts: skin,
seeds and pappi. There is a lack of information concern-
ing the content and distribution of valuable compounds
among its parts. Consequently, the aim of this work is
to examine separately the different parts of the fruit in
order to determine their antioxidant activity and their
content of a key component - vitamin C.
The rise of the share of recycled energy resources
for generation of heat and electricity is a general world
trend. So, an additional objective of this work is to assess
the possibility for using pappi as a material for produc-
tion of fuels pellets.
EXPERIMENTAL
Plant material and preparation
The raw material is a dried ripe fruit of the rosehip
variety Plovdiv 1, vintage 2011. The fruits are crushed
Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 49, 5, 2014
452
before being separated into three fractions - skins, seeds
and pappi, and then milled to a particle size less than
2 mm.
Extraction procedure
The extraction is carried out by mixing the raw mate-
rial and the solvent in asks. The mass transfer process is
performed under continuous agitation using a magnetic
stirrer or a thermostatic shaker. An excess of solvent is
used in order to avoid solubility limitations in the liquid
phase. The extraction is carried out at a ratio of solvent/
plant material 10/1 at 100°C for 2 hours.
Chemicals
Vitamin C, 96 % ethanol, iodine and starch (Va-
lerus), DPPH (Sigma), methanol (99.9 % Lab Scan),
were used to determine the antioxidant activity and the
content of vitamin C.
Analytical methods
Vitamin C concentration was determined by the
method described in the European Pharmacopoeia [9]:
Titration with a solution of iodine 0,05 mol l-1 using
starch as an indicator.
The antioxidant capacity (AOC) was determined
by the DPPH method, which measures the degree of
neutralization of free radicals by measuring the color
change of a sample [10]. The measurement was made
by a spectrophotometer Helios β (Unicam, USA) at a
wave length of 517 nm [11].. AOC was expressed by the
factor IC 50 %, which corresponds to the concentration
of the extract resulting in 50 % inhibition of active radi-
cals. For determination of IC 50 % a series of solutions
was prepared by diluting the extract with the solvent.
By measuring their inhibition a graph was constructed
presenting extract concentration (ml l-1) versus inhibition
(%). From this graph the concentration corresponding
to 50 % inhibition, and corresponding to the factor IC
50 % was determined.
Measurement of the caloric value of the pappi
was conducted according to the methodology of the Bul-
garian State Standard using a calorimetric device [12].
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Fractionation of the fruit
Table 1 shows the results for the mean percentage
of the various parts of the fruit.
According to the results, the seeds comprise the
majority of the fruit (by mass), followed by the skin.
The pappi mass is much less, but pappi is of low density
and has a larger volume.
Vitamin C content
A traditional preparation of infusions from rosehips
is by water boiling. The water is a suitable solvent for
our study because vitamin C is water soluble [13]. The
vitamin C concentration was measured in the obtained
extracts. The results are shown in Table 2.
The analyses show that vitamin C is unequally dis-
tributed in the different parts of the fruit. Highest is the
concentration in the skin. Signicantly lower (6 times) is
the concentration in the seeds. Pappi contain the lowest
quantity of vitamin C, more than ten times lower than
Table 1. Gravimetric analysis of a rosehip fruit.
Fraction
% of the whole fruit
Skins
36,5
Seeds
57,6
Pappi
5,9
Fraction
Vitamin C content
mg g
-1
Whole fruit
1,1
Skins
2.3
Seeds
0,4
Pappi
0,2
Table 2. Vitamin C content in the different parts
of the fruit.
Wild rosehips
Fraction
IC50% (ml l-1)
Whole fruit
5,78
Skins
NA
Seeds
NA
Table 3. Antioxidant activity of extracts.
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
453
in the skin. For comparison, we give also data for the
vitamin C content of blackcurrant, which is about 1,5
mg per 1 g fruit [14].
Table 3 contains results for the antioxidant capacity
of the seeds and skins, which contain the majority of the
target component.
AOC is expressed by the factor IC 50 %, as de-
scribed above. A smaller value of this factor corresponds
to a higher antioxidant capacity, i.e. a smaller amount of
starting extract neutralizes a standard amount of DPPH.
According to Table 3, the skin extract shows the high-
est antioxidant activity followed by the total extract
of whole fruit. The seed extract is ten times weaker. A
comparison to a wild rosehip shows that the antioxidant
capacity of its analogous extract is more than two times
lower, i.e. the cultivar Plovdiv 1 has improved antioxi-
dant properties.
Another valuable product that can be obtained from
rosehip fruits is the oil. It is located in the seeds and
contains linolic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids [15],
making it suitable for use in medicine and cosmetics
[16]. In this study, the seeds were analyzed for oil con-
tent. They were milled and then extracted with hexane.
The results showed a signicant content of oil - 4.89 %.
Pappi are 6 % of the fruit (by mass), and may be
considered as a ballast component because they contain
a lean amount of bioactive substances. Recently an
increased interest in substitutes for fossil fuels is seen,
focused on increasing the share of recycled energy
resources for generation of heat and electricity. Cor-
respondingly, an additional purpose of this work is to
assess the possibility for using pappi as raw material
for production of energy through incineration. Their
caloric value was determined with a calorimetric de-
vice according to the method approved by the Bulgarian
Standard. The measured value of 4315 kcal kg-1 shows
that this is a valuable energy source, suitable for produc-
tion of fuel pellets. For comparison we point out that
the caloric value of the wood pellets is 4300 kcal kg-1.
CONCLUSIONS
Rosehip fruits were disintegrated in their parts (skin,
seeds, pappi), which were extracted separately in boiling
water. The extracts were analyzed for determination of
vitamin C content. It was found that the main amount
of vitamin C is located in the skin. The seeds contain
a signicant amount of oil, which can be extracted and
used for medical and cosmetic applications. Pappi can be
considered as a waste product from hips processing with
a high energy value, which can be used for production
of an alternative solid fuel.
It can be concluded that the rosehip fruits contain
signicant amounts of valuable bioactive substances.
Fractionation of the fruits for individual processing
of their parts can bring signicant economic benets,
since it allows to obtain products with a high antioxidant
capacity, additionally it provides an oil with a practical
application, and the waste is a highly caloric fuel.
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