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Rosehip fruits (Rosa canina L.) are rich of antioxidant compounds, especially Vitamin C. In this study different parts of the fruit (skin, seeds, and pappi) were extracted separately for determination of their content of Vitamin C. Theantioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated. The results show that the dog rose has a significantly large amount of Vitamin C, most of it being concentrated in the skin. High oil content is found in the seeds, so they can be used for oil production. It was also found that the pappi had a high calorific effect and might be used as a source of thermal energy.
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 49, 5, 2014, 451-454
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
Institute of Chemical Engineering,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
“Acad. G. Bonchev” str. , bl. 103
Soa 1113, Bulgaria
Rosehip fruits (Rosa canina L.) are rich of antioxidant compounds, especially Vitamin C. In this study different
parts of the fruit (skin, seeds, and pappi) were extracted separately for determination of their content of Vitamin C. The
antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated. The results show that the dog rose has a signicantly large amount
of Vitamin C, most of it being concentrated in the skin. High oil content is found in the seeds, so they can be used for oil
production. It was also found that the pappi had a high caloric effect and might be used as a source of thermal energy.
Keywords: rosa canina, extraction, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity.
Received 10 October 2013
Accepted 04 July 2014
Bulgaria is rich in medicinal plants, which are
natural sources of various bioactive substances and have
many useful medicinal qualities. Their health effects
are mainly due to antioxidant substances as ascorbats,
polyphenols, carotenoids, tocoferols [1]. Wild rose (Rosa
canina L.) is among the most popular and widely used
herbs worldwide. There is large empirical evidence for
its therapeutic effects. The high content of vitamins,
organic acids and avor dene it as a valuable dietary
supplement. The wild rose is a thorny shrub that ripens
in autumn with bright red fruits of spherical to elongated
form. This plant grows in different climates and latitudes.
In addition to Europe, it is commonly spread in Asia, Af-
rica and North America. The principal action of rosehip
is anti scurvy, diuretic and astringent [2].
A number of scientic studies have shown that the
wild rose fruit contains many antioxidant compounds
- phenolic acids, anthocyanins [3], avonoids [4], ca-
rotenoids [5, 6]. It belongs to the group of fruits with
highest content of ascorbic acid (up to 6 times more than
in oranges) [7, 8].
Previous studies have researched the whole rosehip
fruit. However, it consists of three different parts: skin,
seeds and pappi. There is a lack of information concern-
ing the content and distribution of valuable compounds
among its parts. Consequently, the aim of this work is
to examine separately the different parts of the fruit in
order to determine their antioxidant activity and their
content of a key component - vitamin C.
The rise of the share of recycled energy resources
for generation of heat and electricity is a general world
trend. So, an additional objective of this work is to assess
the possibility for using pappi as a material for produc-
tion of fuels pellets.
Plant material and preparation
The raw material is a dried ripe fruit of the rosehip
variety Plovdiv 1, vintage 2011. The fruits are crushed
Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 49, 5, 2014
before being separated into three fractions - skins, seeds
and pappi, and then milled to a particle size less than
2 mm.
Extraction procedure
The extraction is carried out by mixing the raw mate-
rial and the solvent in asks. The mass transfer process is
performed under continuous agitation using a magnetic
stirrer or a thermostatic shaker. An excess of solvent is
used in order to avoid solubility limitations in the liquid
phase. The extraction is carried out at a ratio of solvent/
plant material 10/1 at 100°C for 2 hours.
Vitamin C, 96 % ethanol, iodine and starch (Va-
lerus), DPPH (Sigma), methanol (99.9 % Lab Scan),
were used to determine the antioxidant activity and the
content of vitamin C.
Analytical methods
Vitamin C concentration was determined by the
method described in the European Pharmacopoeia [9]:
Titration with a solution of iodine 0,05 mol l-1 using
starch as an indicator.
The antioxidant capacity (AOC) was determined
by the DPPH method, which measures the degree of
neutralization of free radicals by measuring the color
change of a sample [10]. The measurement was made
by a spectrophotometer Helios β (Unicam, USA) at a
wave length of 517 nm [11].. AOC was expressed by the
factor IC 50 %, which corresponds to the concentration
of the extract resulting in 50 % inhibition of active radi-
cals. For determination of IC 50 % a series of solutions
was prepared by diluting the extract with the solvent.
By measuring their inhibition a graph was constructed
presenting extract concentration (ml l-1) versus inhibition
(%). From this graph the concentration corresponding
to 50 % inhibition, and corresponding to the factor IC
50 % was determined.
Measurement of the caloric value of the pappi
was conducted according to the methodology of the Bul-
garian State Standard using a calorimetric device [12].
Fractionation of the fruit
Table 1 shows the results for the mean percentage
of the various parts of the fruit.
According to the results, the seeds comprise the
majority of the fruit (by mass), followed by the skin.
The pappi mass is much less, but pappi is of low density
and has a larger volume.
Vitamin C content
A traditional preparation of infusions from rosehips
is by water boiling. The water is a suitable solvent for
our study because vitamin C is water soluble [13]. The
vitamin C concentration was measured in the obtained
extracts. The results are shown in Table 2.
The analyses show that vitamin C is unequally dis-
tributed in the different parts of the fruit. Highest is the
concentration in the skin. Signicantly lower (6 times) is
the concentration in the seeds. Pappi contain the lowest
quantity of vitamin C, more than ten times lower than
Table 1. Gravimetric analysis of a rosehip fruit.
% of the whole fruit
Vitamin C content
mg g
Whole fruit
Table 2. Vitamin C content in the different parts
of the fruit.
Wild rosehips
IC50% (ml l-1)
Whole fruit
Table 3. Antioxidant activity of extracts.
Silviya Georgieva, George Angelov, Stanislava Boyadzhieva
in the skin. For comparison, we give also data for the
vitamin C content of blackcurrant, which is about 1,5
mg per 1 g fruit [14].
Table 3 contains results for the antioxidant capacity
of the seeds and skins, which contain the majority of the
target component.
AOC is expressed by the factor IC 50 %, as de-
scribed above. A smaller value of this factor corresponds
to a higher antioxidant capacity, i.e. a smaller amount of
starting extract neutralizes a standard amount of DPPH.
According to Table 3, the skin extract shows the high-
est antioxidant activity followed by the total extract
of whole fruit. The seed extract is ten times weaker. A
comparison to a wild rosehip shows that the antioxidant
capacity of its analogous extract is more than two times
lower, i.e. the cultivar Plovdiv 1 has improved antioxi-
dant properties.
Another valuable product that can be obtained from
rosehip fruits is the oil. It is located in the seeds and
contains linolic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids [15],
making it suitable for use in medicine and cosmetics
[16]. In this study, the seeds were analyzed for oil con-
tent. They were milled and then extracted with hexane.
The results showed a signicant content of oil - 4.89 %.
Pappi are 6 % of the fruit (by mass), and may be
considered as a ballast component because they contain
a lean amount of bioactive substances. Recently an
increased interest in substitutes for fossil fuels is seen,
focused on increasing the share of recycled energy
resources for generation of heat and electricity. Cor-
respondingly, an additional purpose of this work is to
assess the possibility for using pappi as raw material
for production of energy through incineration. Their
caloric value was determined with a calorimetric de-
vice according to the method approved by the Bulgarian
Standard. The measured value of 4315 kcal kg-1 shows
that this is a valuable energy source, suitable for produc-
tion of fuel pellets. For comparison we point out that
the caloric value of the wood pellets is 4300 kcal kg-1.
Rosehip fruits were disintegrated in their parts (skin,
seeds, pappi), which were extracted separately in boiling
water. The extracts were analyzed for determination of
vitamin C content. It was found that the main amount
of vitamin C is located in the skin. The seeds contain
a signicant amount of oil, which can be extracted and
used for medical and cosmetic applications. Pappi can be
considered as a waste product from hips processing with
a high energy value, which can be used for production
of an alternative solid fuel.
It can be concluded that the rosehip fruits contain
signicant amounts of valuable bioactive substances.
Fractionation of the fruits for individual processing
of their parts can bring signicant economic benets,
since it allows to obtain products with a high antioxidant
capacity, additionally it provides an oil with a practical
application, and the waste is a highly caloric fuel.
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... Furthermore, Mihaylova et al. [54] reported the AA content could be influenced by the harvesting time, the method of extraction, and the solvent:plant material ratio. Moreover, Georgieva et al. [55] reported a significantly larger amount of vitamin C such as 110 mg/100 g. Table 6. ...
... The AC mixtures values increased with rosehip addition, mainly because of its high antioxidant activity (19.23 μg TE/g). A large body of literature emphasized the AC rosehip high content [7,50,55], and justify it mainly due to the presence of flavonoids, according to Selahvarzian et al. [50]. Moreover, carotenoids compounds have been also associated with antioxidant activity, due to their radical scavenging properties of singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals, being considered efficient ROS scavengers [56]. ...
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Wild Rose canina fruit represents a rich source of bioactive compounds such as minerals, phenolic compounds, vitamins, carotenoids, folate, and antioxidant activity that still needs to be further exploited. Thus, this study aimed to use wild Rosa canina fruit encapsulated powder with different biopolymers aiming to manufacture ready-to-eat products, such as corn extrudates. To achieve this goal, extrudate physicochemical characteristics, such as water content (xw), water activity (aw), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), swelling index (SWE), hygro-scopicity (Hy), expansion index (SEI), bulk density (b), porosity (), textural, optical; nutritional; and functional analysis (phenolic acids, flavonoids, ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids, vitamin C, carotenoids, folates, antioxidant activity, and minerals) were determined. Results highlighted that 4 and 8% addition of wild Rose canina fruit encapsulated powder could be successfully used in the corn extrudates, showing the positive influence on its nutritional and functional value. Strong positive Pearson correlations were identified between antioxidant capacity and total flavonoids, carot-enoids, folates, and vitamin C of mixtures and extrudates Minerals increased their amount during the extrusion process, reaching the highest values at an addition of 8% rosehip encapsulated with pea protein biopolymer. Furthermore, from the biopolymers used in the present study, pea protein powder exhibited the highest protection on the analyzed bioactive compounds against the extrusion process.
... Although the mechanism(s) by which the aqueous Rosehip fruit extraction can exert its anti-glycemic, anti-lipidemic antioxidant effect on the plasmatic liverrelated enzymes, total bilirubin, creatinine, TG, TC and other biochemical variables is not fully understood we postulate that vitamin C and its related family are acting as an antioxidant in the Rosa species. Georgieva and coauthors (2014) [57] who measured the content of vitamin C in different fractions of rosehip extracts. ...
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Abstract The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of D-galactose (DG) supplementation on plasma aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, albumin, urea, bilirubin, cholesterol, and triglyceride. We also investigated the effects of Rosehip (Rosa canina L) fruit extraction and endurance exercise training on DG-induced changes in the aforementioned variables in male rats. Eighty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 8 groups 1) Control Saline 2) Training Saline 3) Control D-galactose 4) Training D-galactose 5) Control Rosehip 6) Training Rosehip 7) Control combined group and 8) Training combined group. Animals received experiments on the base of groups’ names (eight weeks and five times per week). Seventy-two hours after the last training or control session plasma was collected. The results showed that endurance training significantly increased plasma albumin while reducing ALT and creatinine. Rosehip significantly reduced plasma AST, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride, and increased bilirubin. A combination of training and Rosehip causes an additive effect compared to each intervention alone on AST. The use of DG increased ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, cholesterol, and triglyceride, while decreasing albumin. The use of Rosehip in combination with DG was able to minimize DG-induced abnormal elevation on some variables. In conclusion, using a high dose of D-galactose solution or high galactose content foods could make a precondition background for the non-alcoholic fatty liver which could be attenuated by crud Rosehip extraction. Thus, it seems that the Rosehip can be considered a hepatoprotective herb.
... It functions as providing structure to the skin and strengthen the bones. It helps in maintaining the integrity of cartilage, which protects the joints because of its rubber like nature [1][2][3][4][5][6]. ...
This article is an examination of the therapeutic activity of collagen and rosehip extracts. The scientific development and subsequent activity of collagen continues to influence the researchers all over the globe today. This article examines the research done and published by researchers and scientists. Consideration of current trends and data in scientific queries demonstrates further therapeutic aspects of collagen and rosehip extracts. Collagen hydrolysate is known to alleviate pain in knee joints and provide other protective effects in osteoarthritis, research papers and review articles from the past were considered as the basis of this work. Researchers have carried out experiments and statistically proven the role of collagen hydrolysate in joint disorders and different ortho related disorders. Collagen hydrolysate can provide symptomatic relief to the patients with osteoarthritis and according to the in vitro studies it can also be considered as a potential Review Article Kwatra et al.; CJAST, 40(31): 36-66, 2021; Article no.CJAST.74137 37 candidate for its therapeutic properties. Clinical studies have indicated that collagen hydrolysate significantly reduces pain and disability. It also has various regenerating effects that can help restore the damaged cartilage. Component and chemo metric analysis of the rose hip was done and rosehip extracts were characterized to reveal their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties using enhanced cross-linking mechanism and High-performance liquid chromatography. Collagen and rosehip extracts are clinically proven beneficial for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, back pain, joint disorders, knee pain and post-ortho surgery conditions like pain and inflammation. A compilation of data is done in this article and explores options for therapeutic activity of hydrolysate for the treatment of osteoarthritis and other joint disorders and as a dietary supplement in athletes with activity-related joint pain. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of rosehip powder, identification and characterization of the active component GOPO and the assessment of rosehips based on the content of their biologically active compounds and rosehip extracts in ortho and ortho post-surgery
... The amount of efficient compounds varies in different parts of rose hip. Different parts of rose hip (seeds and peel) were separately examined in order to determine the amount of vitamin C. The results indicated that this plant contained a considerable amount of vitamin C, especially in the peel, while the seeds contained the greatest amount of oil (21). Schwager et al. compared the compounds of rose hips that contained seeds with seedless rose hips. ...
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Dog rose or Rosa canina L. is a perennial shrub that belongs to Rosacea family. It grows wild at the margin of forests, puddles of water, shrubberies and pastures. Rosa canina L. has been used for long years as a source of vitamins, medicinal supplements, and food throughout the world. It contains various vitamins (especially vitamin C) and other valuable compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. The medicinal properties of rose hip in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatism and common cold are discussed in this paper. Moreover, there are evidences about anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties of this medicinal plant that have been reviewed in this article.
The plant species belonging the genus Rosa (Rosaceae) are the perennial shrubs mostly distributed in Europe, North Africa, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocoo, West Asia. The fruits are called rose hips and are the pseudo fruits which are oval in shape. These fruits are rich in bioactive compounds including vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherol, phenolic acid, bioflavonoids, tannin, pectin, organic acids, amino acid, essential oil and unsaturated fatty acids which have great importance in human health. The fruits extracts exhibit different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidaemic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, gastroprotective and anti-cancer. The oil can be commercially produced from the rose hip especially from R. canina and R. rubiginosa which has the greater values in food and cosmetics industries. Various cosmeceuticals and herbal formulations are also available which contain rose hip oil or standardised rose hip powder. This chapter focuses on the scientific progress on the fruits of Rosa spp. related to nutritional and phytochemical composition and its potential in the nutraceutical market.
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The impact of some natural (taxifolin, rosemary oleoresin extract, dried rosemary) and synthetic (Frisheks-S, sodium erythorbate, ascorbic acid) an-tioxidants on the peroxidative processes in the lipid fraction of mechanically separated poultry meat, produced from raw materials stored up to 3 months, was examined. The degree of rancidity (TBARS), pH-value and haem iron content were determined. Taxifolin (120 mg kg -1) and rosemary oleoresin ex-tract (400 mg kg -1) reduced statistically significant TBARS content. Among the synthetic antioxidants Frisheks-S (5 g kg -1) developed the strongest in-hibitory effect towards peroxidative processes. Tested antioxidants accelerated significantly lipid peroxidation when mechanically separated poultry meat was produced by stored more than 1 month (-18 °C) raw materials. TBARS value in all tested groups was considerably bellow 3 mg kg -1.
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This study was done to evaluate the amount of phytochemicals (phenols and flavonoids) content, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics of the various extracts of the fruit of Rosa canina from Iran through various in vitro methods. Among the extracts, the methanol fraction with 11.58 μg/ml and 88.7% antioxidant activities in terms of IC50 values using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), respectively, was the most powerful ones. A study was done on the relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic and flavonoid content, indicating that extracts containing these compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties. According to the antibacterial activity of the various extracts, the methanol fraction was the most impressive extract against the available microorganism. Based on the strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities, the methanol fraction of R. canina fruit appears to be a potential herb and can be further explored as a functional medicinal plant for isolating the active ingredient(s), especially among flavonoids, along with animal studies in vivo.
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Abstract Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) fruit in different stages of proposed was used as a source of ascorbic acid. Two sample preparation methods for extracting ascorbic acid in dog rose fruit were evaluated. These methods used high performance of liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detecting of ascorbic acid, but differed in the preparation of sample (freezing and mild-temperature-drying procedure). Under optimized conditions, the freezing procedure demonstrated better results. The method was used to compare the amount of ascorbic acid in fully ripe, half-ripe and unripe dog rose samples. The results show that dog rose has the highest amount of ascorbic acid in its fully ripe maturity stage. In addition, the intra-day stability of ascorbic acid in standard solution, fully ripe dog rose extract and fully ripe dog rose intact fruit, was investigated. The results show that ascorbic acid has highest stability in untreated dog rose fruits. As a comparative study, orange sample was also analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. The results show that the amount of ascorbic acid in dog rose fruit (417 mg per 100 g) is about 6 times higher than that in orange sample (76 mg per 100 g).
Beyond the composition of the usual macronutrients and micronutrients, it is important to provide information on the composition of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of foods, particularly of wild species to regain them for nowadays' dietary habits. Many greens are known as excellent sources of natural antioxidants, and consumption of fresh plants in the diet may contribute to the daily antioxidant intake. In the present study five leafy wild greens traditionally consumed (Borago officinalis, Montia fontana, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Rumex acetosella, Rumex induratus) were studied in order to document macronutrient, micronutrient and non-nutrient composition. R. induratus revealed the highest levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, flavonoids, and one of the highest antioxidant activity expressed as DPPH scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, and TBARS formation inhibition. R. nasturtium-aquaticum showed the healthier PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios, and B. officinalis proved to be a source of γ-linolenic acid and other fatty acids from n-6 series that are precursors of mediators of the inflammatory response. The nutritional characteristics and antioxidant potential of these wild greens require reconsideration of their role in traditional as well as in contemporary diets. Furthermore, their extracts might find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases, as functional food formulations.
A dose-dependent inhibitory effect of wheat, alfalfa and ginkgo biloba (EGb) extracts on TBARS production was measured. The half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of the tested antioxidants were 2.7±0.2, 1.3±0.1, and 0.20±0.02 mg/ml for wheat, alfalfa and EGb extracts, respectively. Lipid radicals combined with the spin trap POBN resulted in adducts that gave a characteristic EPR spectrum. The IC50 of the tested antioxidants on lipid radical content, were 12.4±0.2, 7.7±0.3, and 1.20±0.06 mg/ml for wheat, alfalfa and EGb extracts, respectively. Rat liver microsomes in the presence of DMPO, NADPH and iron-citrate generate an EPR spectra with characteristics of the DMPO-OH spin adduct. The basic system, without the addition of any scavenger showed an area of 3.5 AU/mg protein. The areas in the presence of 1.5 mg/ml EGb, 4 mg/ml wheat or alfalfa, were of 1.7±0.2, 3.4±0.3, and 3.6±0.2 AU/mg protein, respectively. O2− generation rate by the microsomes exposed to EGb extract was decreased by 40%, as compared to the rate measured in microsomes incubated in the absence of the extract. However, the supplementation of rat liver microsomes with either wheat or alfalfa extracts did not affect microsomal generation of O2−. Iron reduction rate was not affected by the addition of any of the tested extracts. The data presented here showed that EGb extracts were able to limit lipid peroxidation and scavenge lipid radicals in rat liver microsomes more efficiently than alfalfa and wheat bran extracts. Moreover, wheat and alfalfa extracts were not able to inhibit O2− and ·OH generation by biological membranes, suggesting that their potentiality to be successfully used in human health in the treatment of diseases involving free radical and oxidative damage are not as promising as that for the use of EGb extracts.
Rosehip seed oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2 at various operating conditions to optimize extraction process. The effect of extraction conditions on the fatty acids composition in the oil was also observed. The extraction conditions were as follows: pressures (P) of 150, 300 and 450 bar, temperatures (T) of 40, 60 and 80 oC, and CO2 flow rate (F) of 2, 3 and 4 mL/min. A full 33 factorial design coupled with statistical and graphical analysis of the results, by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to optimize variables in the process of rosehip seed oil extraction with SC-CO2. The experimental result showed that the seed oil extracted mainly contained linoleic acid (C18:2) as the most abundant followed by linolenic (C18:3), palmitic (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0); and the extraction conditions influenced the fatty acids composition. The analysis of experimental design for process optimization results demonstrates that temperature and pressure were to be the influential variables on the extraction yield of seed oil. Furthermore, the apparent solubility of oil in SC-CO2 was also determined from the experimental data and correlated using empirical equations for further model developing.
An important field of research today is the control of ‘redox’ status with the properties of food and food components. Natural antioxidants present in the diet increase the resistance toward oxidative damages and they may have a substantial impact on human health.Dietary antioxidants such as ascorbates, tocopherols and carotenoids are well known and there is a surplus of publications related to their role in health. Plant phenols have not been completely studied because of the complexity of their chemical nature and the extended occurrence in plant materials.Extensively studied sources of natural antioxidants are fruits and vegetables, seeds, cereals, berries, wine, tea, onion bulbs, olive oil and aromatic plants. Attempts are also made to identify and evaluate antioxidants in agricultural by-products, ethnic and traditional products, herbal teas, cold pressed seed oils, exudates resins, hydrolysis products, not evaluated fruits and edible leaves and other raw materials rich in antioxidant phenols that have nutritional importance and/or the potential for applications in the promotion of health and prevention against damages caused by radicals.