Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are regarded the most important bacteria concerning food fermentation, pharmaceutical and special dietary applications. The most commonly used strains of different LAB species in food including the genera of Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium are updated and described on taxonomy and description based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Diversity of LAB in different traditional fermented foods (especially dairy products, fermented vegetable food and meat-based food) is reviewed in this chapter. The LAB variable component and predominated species in different foods and the same food products in different places is introduced briefly. Specifically, the biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in silage is reviewed at the end of this chapter. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.