Article

Medicinal properties of Malabar tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) DESR.]

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  • Vellore Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The parts of the plant Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr. commonly known as Malabar tamarind, have been used by many Asian countries in traditional medicine for treating intestinal parasites, constipation, cancer, piles, bowels complaints, rheumatism, edema, delayed menstruation, demulcent, bilious affections and other diseases. The root contains the xanthone called garbogiol. The bark of the stem contains benzophenones such as garcinol and isogarcinol. Malabar tamarind is shown to possess antioxidant, antihelmintic, anticattarhal, anti-cancer and antimicrobial activities. The rind of the fruit is the most extensively studied part of the plant. Hydroxycitric acid, the most abundant constituent of the fruit rind apart from the other constituents, has reported to be the active principle for many of its useful properties. The ethanol extract of the leaves and the fruit have been shown to possess invitro antihelmintic activity. This review paper describes the chemical compounds present in Malabar tamarind, their therapeutic applications and their occurrence in different parts of the plant.

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... 2. The decoction of Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit rind works against rheumatism and bowel complaints and also employed in veterinary medicine as a rinse for diseases of the mouth in cattle (Naveen and Krishnakumar 2013) 3. Garcinia indica is also used as a traditional home remedy in case of flatulence, heat strokes and infections (Elumalai and Chinna Eswaraiah 2011) 4. The crushed fruits of Garcinia pedunculata are taken during dysentery and young fruits are taken for jaundice (Kshetrimayum et al. 2007) 5. The plant parts of Garcinia cambogia have been used in Asian countries as a traditional medicine for treating intestinal parasites, constipation, cancer, piles, bowel complaints, rheumatism, delayed menstruation etc (Tharachand et al. 2013) 6. Traditionally the crushed extract of Garcinia dulcis fruits is used as an expectorant, cough relief and scurvy, while the crushed extract of roots is used to relief fever and as a detoxicant (Subcharean 1997) prevents the decrease in antioxidant activity induced by a cholesterol-supplemented diet in rats (Haruenkit et al. 2007). Siti Hawa Ali Hassan et al. (2013) suggested that the Garcinia parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and as an anti-Alzheimer agent. ...
... Hydroxycitric acid inhibits the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA, a key molecule which plays a vital role in energy storage as fat. The energy in turn diverted to the production of liver and muscle glycogen that slows down the production of cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides reducing fat production and storage (Tharachand et al. 2013). In a pilot study conducted by Preussa et al. (2004) on human population, HCA combined with niacin-bound chromium reduced body weight and BMI by 7.8% and 7.9% respectively. ...
Article
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Garcinia, an evergreen polygamous tree and shrub distributed in tropical Asia, Africa and Polynesia belong to the family Clusiaceae. This genus consists of several species which are widely used as a source of edible fruits, timber, resin, and other natural products, and are also utilized in the treatment of various ailments in Indian ayurveda. About 35 species are found in India, many of which are endemic and economically important with immense medicinal properties, and are a rich source of bioactive molecules including xanthones, flavonoids, benzophenones, lactones and phenolic acids. Species of Garcinia grow extensively in semi wild state, in the Western Ghats covering Maharashtra, Goa, coastal areas of Karnataka, Kerala, Nilgiri Hills, the evergreen forests of North East Hill region, West Bengal, Andaman Islands, Orissa, and Bihar among others. Garcinia is the source for a natural diet ingredient Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA) which is an anti-obesity compound. Most of the species also possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-ulcerogenic, cardioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant properties. However, lack of consciousness and awareness coupled with habitat destruction led to the genetic erosion of this forest resource, and many species are threatened which need to be conserved and further studied for its nutrient and phyto-pharmacological properties. This paper reviews the nutritional value, the phytochemical compounds, traditional uses and validated pharmacological properties of different Garcinia species.
... It flowers during the hot season and the fruits ripen during the rainy season. The fruits have been reported to be used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of aliments like delayed menstruation, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, dysentery, ulcer, rheumatism and heart complaints [7,8] . The sun-dried smoked rind ofthe fruit has beenextensively used for centuries throughout Kerala and Sri Lanka as a flavour condiment in fish curries and as preservative agent during curing of fish [9] . ...
Article
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Garcinia gummi-gutta is an evergreen medium sized tree of the family Clusiaceae with remarkable traditional value which has been indicated for the treatment of bowel complaints, rheumatism, intestinal parasites and also as a culinary and preservative agent for fish preparations in Southern India and Srilanka. The extract of dried fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta obtained through Soxhlet extraction using ethanol was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis along with in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity against common food borne pathogens. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the rind extract of the plant showed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, diterpenes and triterpenes. The plant extracts were evaluated for the antimicrobial activity by in vitro agar well-diffusion at a dose rate of 5mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 15mg/ml against the microbial strains namely Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenus and Salmonella tymphimurium. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed effective inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms in a dose dependant manner.
... Xanthochymus induces apoptosis in cancer cells and shows antioxidant activity. The phenolic and flavonoids prevent human degenerative diseases (Patil, 2015) (Selvaraj, 2013). Garcinia stimulates body fat burning, helps to inhibit appetite and also promotes satiety. ...
Article
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Food is the principal human source of energy and nutrition. Traditional foods are functional in that it contains high amounts of dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, oligosaccharides, lignin, essential fatty acids, flavonoid, and miscellaneous phytochemicals, which exhibit a synergistic effect on health. Mirishodi is a Sri Lankan traditional spice soup traditionally prepared using herbs and spices such as coriander (Coriandrum sativum), garlic (Allium sativum), garcinia (Garcinia Cambogia), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), black pepper (Piper nigrum), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii), moringa (Moringa oleifera), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) that medicinally claimed for various ailments. Therefore the functional ingredients in mirishody play a key role in digestive function and use as medicines to prevent and treat disease, especially relating to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, some cancers, circulatory diseases, immune system, cholesterol, oxidative stress, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an attempt to compile the literatures on mirishodi, its ingredients, and to highlight its medicinal potential that has been underestimated.
... Followed by these observations, there has been a plethora of experiments on different models to test the anti obesity activity of HCA . HCA exhibited antiobesity activity by inhibiting the ATP-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, the building block for fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis (Tharachand et al., 2013, Downs et al., 2005. In human trails HCA significantly improved blood lipid profiles by reducing total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides levels significantly . ...
Book
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The plant kingdom represents an extraordinary reservoir of molecules, that can be beneficial to mankind in several ways and currently there is a worldwide interest in the use of natural products, particularly plant derived products. The Western Ghats, one among 36 global biodiversity hotspots, harbors one of the finest tropical forests in the world. A recent enumeration has identified nearly 7500 flowering plants in the Western Ghats, of which more than 1250 are endemic to the region. Literature review revealed that nearly 80% of the endemic flowering plants of the region are hitherto uninvestigated for their chemical constituents, bioactivities or potential utilities. Garcinia species are one among such least explored group of plants, represented by 9 species and 2 varieties in the Western Ghats, of which 7 species and 2 varieties are endemic to the region. The genus Garcinia is important as a source of edible fruits, edible fats like kokum butter, oleoresin and coloring agents, the much valued anti-obesity phytochemical hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and other bioactive compounds like biflavonoids and xanthones. Due to the diversity of natural products and the presence of high value compounds, several industrial sectors like pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, paint and food additives are centred around this potential group of trees. In south India, G. gummi-gutta and G. indica are cultivated for commercial extraction of a variety of products such as bioactive acids, nutraceuticals, fats and condiments. Literature review reveals that out of the nearly 250 Garcinia species, 120 species have so far been investigated for their chemical constituents. Garcinia species are found to be rich sources of structurally diverse secondary metabolites such as xanthones, benzophenones and biflavonoids, in addition to flavonoids, biphenyls, phloroglucinols, depsidones and triterpenoids as minor constituents. Though the Western Ghats has a rich diversity of Garcinia species, only a few species are exploited sustainably for their potential utilities. The rich floristic wealth can be harvested profitably by taking advantage of the developments in phytochemical analytical techniques. Phytochemistry, being an interdisciplinary subject linked to different disciplines, the present book also includes recent research activities in the fields such as botany, pharmacology and plant biotechnology of the genus. It is expected that the effort will open new vistas of knowledge and prove to be an excellent exposition of current research efforts in India in the field of Phytochemistry.
... Followed by these observations, there has been a plethora of experiments on different models to test the anti obesity activity of HCA (Majeed et al., 1994). HCA exhibited antiobesity activity by inhibiting the ATP-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, the building block for fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis (Tharachand et al., 2013, Downs et al., 2005. In human trails HCA significantly improved blood lipid profiles by reducing total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides levels significantly . ...
... Rind of the fruit also reduces blood cholesterol level. It is also possess antioxidant, anti-helmintic, anti-cancer and antimicrobial activity (Tharachand et al., 2013). ...
... Among the organic acids, HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the citrate cleavage enzyme, ATP-citrate lyase and this inhibitory effect leads to reduced rate of lipogenesis resulting in hypolipidemic effects [37]. Flavonoids, xanthones and benzophenones are metabolites having antioxidant properties [38]. It has been shown that administration of flavonoids isolated from G. cambogia fruit reduced lipid levels in rats fed with cholesterol-rich diet by decreasing lipogenesis and enhancing degradation of lipids [39]. ...
Article
: The study investigated the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of : The phytochemical constituents, total polyphenol content and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were estimated in the : The analyses revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, sterols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins in GE. The total polyphenol content and FRAP of GE were 82.82±7.64 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 260.49±10.18 µM FRAP per gram of the GE. High-fat feeding elevated plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced HDL-C and blood antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase. Increase in total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and decrease in the total antioxidant status (TAS) were observed in plasma, liver and kidney of fat-fed rats. Administration of GE decreased food intake, plasma TC, TAG, non HDL-C, MDA, increased HDL-C and blood antioxidants GSH, GPx, catalase. GE also reduced TOS, OSI and elevated TAS in plasma and liver of fat-fed rats. Renal OSI was significantly reduced upon GE treatment. : Our study demonstrated that GE is effective in ameliorating high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.
... Kottayam and Ernakulam districts of Kerala are the famous regions for the cultivation and export of Malabar tamarind (Abraham et al. 2006). Its products such as fruit rind, resin, gum and seed oil play significant role in the economic development of countries such as Africa, India and Malaysia (Tharachand et al. 2013; Choppa et al. 2014). These trees can grow up to the height of 20 meters. ...
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In this work, the genetic relationship among twelve Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) ranged from 0.28 (OPA18) to 0.37 (OPA9) and Marker Index (MI) ranged between 3.61 (OPA12) and 5.93 (OPA3) among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49) between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions of G.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.
... The biological activities of these secondary metabolites include antimalarial, antiviral, cytotoxic, antioxidant and anticancer properties (Ito et al. 1998; Hay et al. 2004; Matsumoto et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2011). The fruits, leaves and roots of this plant have been explored (Tharachand et al. 2013). The preliminary in vitro anthelmintic activity of G. cambogia leaves and fruits have been reported by Mathew et al. (2011) and Rajendran et al. (2011). ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05) were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL) had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05) activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.
... (Clusiaceae), is native to Southeastern Asia. The fruit rind is commonly used as a food preservative, flavouring agent or food-bulking agent [1], and as a traditional remedy to treat constipation, piles, rheumatism, oedema, irregular menstruation and intestinal parasites in many Asian countries [2]. Earlier phytochemical reports on the plant led to the isolation of various organic acids [3], benzophenones [4] and xanthones [5] as major constituents and numerous scientific studies have indicated biological activity such as anti-obesity [6,7], hypolipidaemic [8] and anticancer activity [9] amongst numerous others. ...
Chapter
Species of the genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) have been used for centuries in different folk medicine for the treatment of several ailments, as well as food supplements. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated a rich depository of structurally diverse secondary metabolites with a wide array of biological activities. The present chapter summarizes the information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and antibacterial potential of the Garcinia genus against drug-sensitive and multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. A literature survey of the published information was collected from databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, SciFinder, Scopus, Web of Science, conference proceedings, books, M.Sc., and Ph.D. dissertations. Phytochemical studies showed that xanthones, benzophenones, and flavonoids as the main secondary metabolites. Pharmacological investigations with crude extracts and isolated compounds from G. kola, G. lucida, G. nobilis as well as other Garcinia species revealed a broad range of antibacterial activity against several drug-sensitive and MDR phenotypes. Among the isolated compounds, α-mangostin, a prenylated xanthone from G. mangostana was found to display the most potent antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria while (−)-hydroxycitric acid from some Garcinia fruits is utilized in the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-obesity agent. Thus, this review demonstrated that there are convincing in vitro studies confirming the traditional use of Garcinia species to treat bacterial infections. Furthermore, the reviewed data herein would be a valuable reference tool for future researchers seeking to explore the application potentials of Garcinia species for the development of antibacterial agents.
Chapter
Garcinia gummi-gutta plant is one of the medicinally important members of the Clusiaceae family plants. Different parts of the plant have different medicinal values. The epicarp of the fruit is usually used as a food-bulking agent and food preservative, and traditionally it is used to treat rheumatism, edema, constipation, and intestinal parasites. Trypsin inhibitors have immense applications in various pathophysiological conditions associated with cancer, pulmonary emphysema, muscular dysentery, arthritis, and pancreatitis. In the present investigation, the inhibitory effect of different solvent extracts (methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of G. gummi-gutta seeds against trypsin has been evaluated. The extracts of G. gummi-gutta seeds were prepared using three different solvents such as methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of phytocomponents. Among the three extracts, methanol extract showed maximum trypsin inhibition with IC50 value of 97.48 μg/ml with 82.11% inhibition followed by acetone extract with 72.64% of inhibition and ethyl aetate with 71.3% of inhibition. In addition, molecular docking study of phytocompounds identified in methanol extract against trypsin was determined. Molecular simulation data was generated for the analyzed phytocomponents, and binding energies were tabulated. Among all the phytocompounds subjected to molecular docking studies, adipic acid and 2,4-ditert-butylphenyl 5-hydroxypentanoate showed better binding energy.Key words G. cambogia Trypsin inhibitionProteaseGC-MSMolecular docking
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Caffeine, a natural stimulant, is known to be effective for weight loss. On this basis, we screened the arousal-inducing effect of five dietary supplements with a weight loss effect (Garcinia cambogia, Coleus forskohlii, Camellia sinensis L., Irvingia gabonensis, and Malus pumila M.), of which the G. cambogia peel extract (GC) showed a significant arousal-inducing effect in the pentobarbital-induced sleep test in mice. This characteristic of GC was further evaluated by analysis of electroencephalogram and electromyogram in C57L/6N mice, and it was compared to that of the positive control, caffeine. Administration of GC (1500 mg/kg) significantly increased wakefulness and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep, similar to that of caffeine (25 mg/kg), with GC and caffeine showing a significant increase in wakefulness at 2 and 6 h, respectively. Compared to that of caffeine, the shorter duration of efficacy of GC could be advantageous because of the lower possibility of sleep disturbance. Furthermore, the arousal-inducing effects of GC (1500 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) persisted throughout the chronic (3 weeks) administration study. This study, for the first time, revealed the arousal-inducing effect of GC. Our findings suggest that GC might be a promising natural stimulant with no side effects. In addition, it is preferential to take GC as a dietary supplement for weight loss during the daytime to avoid sleep disturbances owing to its arousal-inducing effect.
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Background: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using medicinal plant extract is an emerging area of research due to their applicability in nanomedicines. Methods: In this study, aqueous extracts prepared from fruit-pericarps of two Garcinia species, G. indica (GI) and G. cambogia (GC) fruits which are important medicinally and commercially have been utilized for the synthesis of AuNPs. Various analytical techniques were utilized to characterize the synthesized AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were investigated for their biological properties such as antioxidant activity using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH model, cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (breast) cancer cell line, and antibacterial activity against two bacterial strains viz. B. subtilis and E. coli. Results: The absorption peak of the AuNPs is observed at 541 nm using UV–Visible spectroscopy. The high resolution – scanning electron microscopy images showed spherical with a triangular shape AuNPs and their average sizes were ranging from 2 – 10 nm and it was found to be in good agreement with the particle size of 8 – 11 nm determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that water-soluble biomolecules from the aqueous extracts of the Garcinia species played a crucial role in the formation of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs exhibited considerable cytotoxicity with IC50 values 34.55 µg/ml (GI) and 35.69 µg/ml (GC) against the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Furthermore, synthesized AuNPs also demonstrated significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties comparable to the standards used. Conclusion: AuNPs have been synthesized using a simple green approach. The synthesized AuNPs demonstrated promising cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.
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Momordica charantia (MC) or locally known as peria katak is widely known for its various medicinal value. However, the bitter taste of MC maybe undesirable for some people. The purpose of this study was to conduct a sensory test to assess the palatability and acceptability of MC juice mixture among the consumers. In the experiment, the MC raw juice and green apple were obtained and mixed together with different volume ratio which were Sample 297 (25:75), Sample 981 (50:50), Sample 706 (75:25) and Sample 333 (100:0). Then the juice mixtures were evaluated by 30 panelists. Each of the panelist was given a questionnaire sheet and required to give evaluation based on smell, flavor, bitterness for each sample. Sensory analysis was performed for each sample by using the hedonic scale method. Based on the hedonic scales, the overall mean hedonic scores for Sample 706 and Sample 333 were 3.27±1.82 and 1.78±2.47, respectively, which were considered as “dislike moderately” and “dislike extremely”. While for Sample 297 and Sample 981, there was no significant differences found for the overall mean hedonic scores, smell and flavor (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation shows that the MC-green apple juices percentage ratio of 25:75, 50:50 were considered acceptable among in terms of smell, flavor, bitterness among the panelist.
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Garcinia binucao (Blanco) Choisy as a synonym name for very important species of the genus Garcinia which spread all over wetland world in Southeast Asia as original niche, and Africa. It has useful medicinal chemicals like hydroxycitric acid (HCA), garcinol, benzophenones, xanthones, and bifalvnoids. Its represent an ancient nutraceuticales source of oil and fats and traditional medicinal plants as gambogic acid and also pigmentation agent. Recently, Garcinia have attracted scientific curiosities for anti-obesity studies.
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The genus Garcinia belonging to the Clusiaceae family consists of more than 250 species and is traditionally used for diseases such as dysentery, rheumatism, and inflammation; as an antiparasitic or antimicrobial medication; or as food and flavoring. The genus is native to many countries around the tropical region. Phytochemical analyses have identified the presence of α‐mangostin, γ‐mangostin, hydroxycitric acid, guttiferone A, garcinol, morelloflavone, atroviridin, xanthochymol, kolaviron, and 7‐epiclusianones, among other compounds. These compounds may improve health by their antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐obesity, and antiproliferative actions. Metabolic syndrome involves increased oxidative stress and chronic low‐grade inflammation to produce conditions including hypertension, hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, changes in the plasma lipid profile, and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease, thereby increasing the risk of stroke, diabetes, and heart disease. This chapter will discuss the potential of the bioactive compounds found in Garcinia species as treatments for metabolic syndrome.
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Background The antibacterial activity of 21 nm TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and particles modified with Garcinia zeylanica (G. zeylanica) against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in the presence and absence of light. Results Surface modification of TiO2 NPs with the adsorption of G. zeylanica extract, causes to shift the absorption edge of TiO2 NPs to higher wavelength. TiO2 NPs, G. zeylanica pericarp extract showed significant bactericidal activity which was further enhanced in contact with the TiO2 modified G. zeylanica extract. Conclusions The antimicrobial activity was enhanced in the presence of TiO2 NPs modified with G. zeylanica and with longer contact time.
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Introduction: due to the significant increase in the obesity rate in recent years, public health has been facing in many countries of the world, one of the major problems caused by this disease. Because of this, natural products arise, herbal, to assist in the treatment of obesity due to their safer effects. Among these, stands out the extract obtained from dried fruits of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), which has been studied and used as a natural supplement for weight loss. Objective: to investigate the GC administration as a coadjuvant factor in the treatment of obesity regarding to its effectiveness, way of action, recommended daily amount, side effects and contraindications, as a way of food and nutritional security for the population. Methodology: literature review. There were consulted the database of LILACS-BIREME data, SciELO and MEDLINE and there were selected scientific articles published in English, Portuguese and Spanish, between the period of 2007 and 2014 that conducted studies involving the administration of the GC as a way of treatment for obesity. The descriptors used for research articles in the databases were the following: Garcinia Cambogia in Portuguese, and in English the terms used were "Garcinia Cambogia", "weight loss and obesity", and "Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)"; this last one is not a descriptor indexed in Decs, but given the importance of this term for the search, it was adopted as a keyword. Thirty-four articles were identified, but only 21 were related to the objectives of this study. The first analysis of the articles was conducted by the title and then by the summary. In addition, 17 references were included because of their relevance to the study. Results: in some analyzed works, there was observed that the GC showed positive effects on weight loss process, appetite reduction, body fat percentage, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose levels, lipogenesis process, while others had no effect. Conclusion: studies suggest positive results about the effectiveness of the GC on the weight loss process. However, the ideal dosage has not been well established yet. There is little evidence of adverse effects and signs of protective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. Therefore, it becomes necessary to carry out further studies to confirm the efficacy of this phytotherapy in the weight loss process.
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Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. γ-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 μg/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being α-mangostin at 7.5 μg/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of α-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially α-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents.
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Whether garcinol, the active component of Garcinia indica, can modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a cytokine currently in phase II clinical trial, was investigated. We found that garcinol potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells as indicated by intracellular esterase activity, DNA strand breaks, accumulation of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine, mitochondrial activity, and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. We found that garcinol, independent of the cell type, induced both of the TRAIL receptors, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5. Garcinol neither induced the receptors on normal cells nor sensitized them to TRAIL. Deletion of DR5 or DR4 by small interfering RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by TRAIL and garcinol. In addition, garcinol downregulated various cell survival proteins including survivin, bcl-2, XIAP, and cFLIP, and induced bid cleavage, bax, and cytochrome c release. Induction of death receptors by garcinol was found to be independent of modulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein, p53, bax, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase. The effect of garcinol was mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species, in as much as induction of both death receptors, modulation of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, and potentiation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis were abolished by N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. Interestingly, garcinol also converted TRAIL-resistant cells into TRAIL-sensitive cells. Overall, our results indicate that garcinol can potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 856-68. (c)2010 AACR.
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There are thirteen endemic species belonging to the genus Garcinia in New Caledonia. Among them, G. virgata is an evergreen tree mainly growing in the rain forests of this island. Fractionation of the cyclohexane extract of the stem bark of this plant produced the known benzophenones guttiferone E and xanthochymol, together with two new guttiferone analogues, namely guttiferones I and J. The structures of these benzophenones were mainly elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compounds and were weakly cytotoxic on the KB cell line with IC50 values of 4.70 and 5.0 microg/mL respectively.
Article
Spectrophotometric determination of hydroxy citric acid (HCA) present in Garcinia cambogia fruit is proposed here. This method is based upon, the colour complex formation (λmax: 467 nm) between hydroxy citric acid and sodium meta vanadate.
Article
A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of organic acids in commercial samples of Garcinia cambogia extracts. The major organic acid in commercially available extracts of Garcinia cambogia has been found to be (-) hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 51–55%. Tartaric, citric, and malic acids are present in small quantities and have been detected by using 6 mM sulfuric acid as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm.This method is shown to estimate accurately (-) hydroxycitric acid in the samples of Garcinia cambogia extracts. Thus, the method is ideally suited for rapid routine analysis of commercial Garcinia cambogia extracts.
Article
A new xanthone, 3,4-dihydro-8,10,12-trihydroxy-2,2-dimethylpyrano[2,3-b]xanthen-11(2H)-one or butyraxanthone E (1), along with the known compounds 30-epi-cambogin (2), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (3) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (4) were isolated from the roots of Pentadesma butyracea. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and comparison with published data. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated against Drosophila S2 cells and two human cancer cell lines, THP-1 (leukemia) and HCT116 (colon cancer). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate antiproliferative activity against Drosophila S2 cells and the HCT116 cell line, respectively. Compound 2 was active against Drosophila S2 cells.
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Three new tetracyclic polyisoprenylated xanthones, named oxy-guttiferones M, K2, and 1, along with oxy-guttiferone K and guttiferone M, have been isolated from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR spectroscopic experiments. The absolute configurations of oxy-guttiferone K, taken as a model of tetracyclic xanthones, and guttiferone M, as a model of polyisoprenylated benzophenones, have been determined by comparison of their experimentally measured circular dichroism (CD) curves with the TDDFT-predicted curves. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Six derivatives of guttiferone-A (LFQM-79, 80, 81, 82, 113 and 114) were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic or pathogenic fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 09548), Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030), Candida krusei (ATCC 6258), Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 69548), Candida tropicalis (ATCC 750), Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 90012), Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum gypseum and also against the opportunistic and pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 25933). The antimicrobial activities of derivatives were compared with guttiferone-A and they presented to be more potent than the original molecule and sometimes greater than standard drugs established in therapeutics. The current study showed that derivatives of guttiferone-A possess potent antimicrobial activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, which reveal these new molecules as promising new drug prototype candidates, with innovative structural pattern.
Article
Two new polyisoprenylated benzophenones, 32-hydroxy-ent-guttiferone M (1) and 6-epi-guttiferone J (2), along with seven known compounds, 6-epi-clusianone (3), guttiferone A (4), xanthochymol (5), guttiferone E (6), isoxanthochymol (7), (+)-volkensiflavone (8), and (+)-morelloflavone (9), were identified from the seeds and rinds of Rheedia edulis. Compounds 1-3 and 5-9 have been isolated and identified from this species for the first time. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated mainly by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by comparison of their experimental optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism measurements with those values predicted by DFT calculations. Compound 1 showed significant antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays, whereas compound 2 was inactive.
Article
Garcinol (camboginol) from the fruit rind of Guttiferae species shows anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that garcinol potently interferes with 5-lipoxygenase (EC 7.13.11.34) and microsomal prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 (EC 5.3.99.3), enzymes that play pivotal roles in inflammation and tumorigenesis. In cell-free assays, garcinol inhibited the activity of purified 5-lipoxygenase and blocked the mPGES-1-mediated conversion of PGH2 to PGE2 with IC50 values of 0.1 and 0.3 microM, respectively. Garcinol suppressed 5-lipoxygenase product formation also in intact human neutrophils and reduced PGE2 formation in interleukin-1beta-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells as well as in human whole blood stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, garcinol interfered with isolated cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (EC 1.14.99.1, IC50 = 12 microM) and with the formation of COX-1-derived 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid and thromboxane B2 in human platelets. In contrast, neither Ca2+-ionophore (A23187)-induced arachidonic acid release in neutrophils nor COX-2 activity in A549 cells or whole blood, measured as formation of 6-keto PGF1alpha, or isolated human recombinant COX-2 were significantly affected by garcinol (< or = 30 microM). Together, the high potency of garcinol to selectively suppress PGE2 synthesis and 5-lipoxygenase product formation provides a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects of garcinol and rationalizes its therapeutic use.
Article
In this study, six major xanthones, isolated and identified from Halenia elliptica were investigated for their vasodilatory actions in isolated rat coronary artery. The xanthones, including 1-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethoxy-xanthone (HM-1), 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,7-tetramethoxy-xanthone (HM-2), 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxy-xanthone (HM-3), 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxy-xanthone (HM-4), 1,5-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy-xanthone (HM-5) and 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy-xanthone (HM-7) caused vasodilation in the coronary artery pre-contracted with 1 microM 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), with EC(50) values ranging from 1.4+/-0.1 microM (HM-1) to 6.6+/-1.4 microM (HM-2). The EC(50) values of the other xanthones were between those of HM-1 and HM-2. Removal of endothelium of the coronary artery led to decreases in the vasorelaxant effects of HM-1, HM-7 but not HM-2, HM-3, HM-4 and HM-5. Our results showed that xanthones isolated from Halenia elliptica are vasoactive substances which exhibit either endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent mechanisms in rat coronary artery. The potency and mechanism(s) of the vasorelaxant effects of these xanthones may be relevant to the structure-activity differences in the level and the position of the substituent groups with the primary xanthone structure.
Article
We have investigated the in vitro inhibition of papain, trypsin, and cathepsins B and G by five benzophenone-type compounds, three natural ones isolated from Garcinia brasiliensis and two synthetic derivatives. The activities of pentaprenylated trihydroxy-substituted benzophenone guttiferone A (1) on all assayed enzymes were approximately 2-69 folds higher than that manifested by mono-hydroxylated tetraprenylated and triprenylated compounds epiclusianone (2) and garciniaphenone (3), respectively, the other natural benzophenones that also inhibited significantly the four enzymes. Differently, the synthetic derivatives 2,2',4-trihydroxybenzophenone (4) and diphenylmethanone (5) have inhibited weakly the studied proteases. Furthermore, compound 1 has bonded preferentially to cathepsin G, once its IC(50) value (2.7+/-0.1 microM) on such peptidase is quite similar to that of the classical inhibitor of serine proteases, chymostatin (2.1+/-0.1 microM). Interesting structure-activity relationships (SARs) were confirmed by flexible docking simulations, likewise the potential usefulness of natural compound 1 as antitumoral drug is strengthened by our results concerning the antiproteolytic activity.
Article
Organic acids in fresh leaves, fruits, and dried rinds of Garcinia cowa (G. cowa) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fresh leaves, fruits, and dried rinds were extracted with water at 120 degrees C for 20-30 min under 15 lbs/in(2) pressure. Also, dried rinds were extracted with solvents (acetone and methanol) using a Soxhlet extractor at 60 degrees C for 8 h each. The samples were injected to HPLC under gradient elution with 0.01 M phosphoric acid and methanol with a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min using UV detection at 210 nm. The major organic acid was found to be (-)-hydroxycitric acid present in leaves, fruits, and rinds to the extent of 1.7, 2.3, and 12.7%, respectively. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid lactone, and oxalic and citric acids are present in leaves, fruits, and rinds in minor quantities. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids from G. cowa.
Article
1. The activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme declines in alloxan-diabetes. 2. The administration of insulin elevates the activity of the enzyme in livers of normal and diabetic animals. Diets high in glucose or fructose elevate the activity of citrate-cleavage enzyme in normal animals, whereas only the diet high in fructose does so in diabetic animals. These observations parallel the effects of insulin, glucose and fructose on fatty acid synthesis in normal and diabetic animals. The effect of fructose is brought into play more rapidly and is larger than the effect of glucose. 3. With one exception acetate thiokinase shows similar changes at a lower level of activity. 4. The results indicate that insulin acts by increasing glucose utilization, and not by exerting a direct effect on citrate-cleavage enzyme or acetate thiokinase.
Article
We investigated changes of gene expression in livers of rats treated with carcinogens and tumor promoters using a novel three-dimensional microarray system developed by Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., to assess the feasibility of predicting modifying effects on hepatocarcinogenesis on the basis of changes in the patterns. For this purpose, two genotoxic carcinogens, two nongenotoxic carcinogens (promoters) and seven candidate chemopreventive agents were examined. Six-week-old male F344 rats were treated for 2 weeks with the 11 chemicals (0.05% phenobarbital, 0.3% clofibrate, 0.01% N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 0.01% 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 1% catechol, 1% caffeic acid, 0.05% nobiletin, 0.05% garcinol, 0.05% auraptene, 0.05% zermbone and 0.05% 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA). Test chemicals were mixed in food with the exception of DEN, which was administered in drinking water. RNAs from liver were then analyzed using two kinds of customized microarrays (PamChip(\xa8) microarray A spotted for 28 genes of drug-metabolizing enzymes in duplicate, and PamChip microarray B spotted for 131 genes which are known to be up- or down-regulated in hepatocarcinoma cells). Hybridization and subsequent analysis were usually completed within 2 h and the data obtained were highly reproducible. Carcinogens were classified into genotoxic and nongenotoxic substances by clustering analysis. We could also divide test chemicals into carcinogens and chemopreventive agents from their effects on gene expression. In this study, we have thus shown that it is feasible to predict the modifying effects of chemicals on the basis of changes of gene expression patterns after only 2 weeks of exposure, using our novel three-dimensional microarrays.
Article
The antimalarial activity of 22 xanthones against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated. Natural caloxanthone C (1), demethylcalabaxanthone (2), calothwaitesixanthone (3), calozeyloxanthone (4), dombakinaxanthone (5), macluraxanthone (6), and 6-deoxy-gamma-mangostin (7) were isolated from Calophyllum caledonicum. 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (8), pancixanthone A (9), isocudraniaxanthone B (10), isocudraniaxanthone A (11), 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (12) and 1,4,5-trihydroxyxanthone (13) were isolated from Garcinia vieillardii. Moreover, synthetic compounds (14-22) are analogues or intermediates of xanthones purified from Calophyllum caledonicum (Oger J.M., Morel C., Helesbeux J.J., Litaudon M., Seraphin D., Dartiguelongue C., Larcher G., Richomme P., Duval O. 2003. First 2-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-3-Enyl substituted xanthones isolated from Plants: structure elucidation, synthesis and antifungal activity. Natural Product Research 17(3), 195-199; Helesbeux J.J., Duval O., Dartiguelongue C., Seraphin D., Oger J.M., Richomme P., 2004. Synthesis of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl substituted coumarins and xanthones as natural products. Application of the Schenck ene reaction of singlet oxygen with ortho-prenylphenol precursors. Tetrahedron 60(10), 2293-2300). The relationship between antimalarial activity and molecular structure of xanthones has also been explored. The most potent xanthones (2), (3) and (7) (IC50 = c.a. 1.0 microg/mL) are 1,3,7 trioxygenated and prenylated on the positions 2 and 8.
Article
Dietary phytochemicals can inhibit the development of certain types of tumors. We here investigated the effects of nobiletin (Nob), garcinol (Gar), auraptene (Aur), beta-cryptoxanthin- and hesperidine-rich pulp (CHRP) and 1,1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) on hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat medium-term liver bioassay, and also examined their influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis and cell invasion of rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, MH1C1 and HepG2, respectively. While there were no obvious suppressive effects on the development of putative preneoplastic liver lesions, inhibition of hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation was evident in the Nob group. Nob also caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified a set of genes specifically regulated by Nob, and these are likely to be involved in the observed growth suppression of HCC cells. These results suggest that phytochemicals might have chemopreventive potential in late stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Article
Liver X receptors (LXR) have been implicated in cholesterol homeostasis. Agonists of LXR are expected to increase cholesterol efflux, lower LDL, and raise HDL levels. Screening of a natural product library of plant extracts using a LXR-SPA binding assay and bioassay-guided fractionation of the bark and stem extract of Garcinia humilis led to the discovery of a new polyisoprenylated benzophenone named guttiferone I (1). The IC(50) value for this compound in the LXRalpha-SPA binding assay was 3.4 muM. Details of the isolation, structure elucidation, and ligand binding activity of 1 are described.
Article
The tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa produce hydroxycitric acid (HCA), of which the absolute configurations are (2S,3S) and (2S,3R), respectively. (2S,3S)-HCA is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, which is involved in fatty acid synthesis. (2S,3R)-HCA inhibits pancreatic alpha-amylase and intestinal alpha-glucosidase, leading to a reduction in carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, we review current knowledge on the structure, biological occurrence, and physiological properties of HCA. The availability of HCA is limited by the restricted habitat of its source plants and the difficulty of stereoselective organic synthesis. Hence, in our recent study, thousands of microbial strains were screened and finally two bacterial strains were, for the first time, found to produce trace amounts of HCA. The HCA variants produced were the Hibiscus-type (2S,3R) enantiomer. Subsequent genome shuffling rapidly generated a mutant population with improved HCA yield relative to the parent strain of bacteria. These bacteria are a potential alternative source of natural HCA.
Article
In light of the wide range of biological activities of garcinol and with the aim of exploring some of them, we carried out its isolation from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia L. (Guttiferae). Surprisingly, the fruits were also found to contain guttiferones I, J, and K, compounds never reported in G. cambogia, along with three new compounds, namely, guttiferone M (1), guttiferone N (2), and the oxidized derivative of guttiferone K (6). Oxy-guttiferone K (6) is the first example of tetracyclic xanthone derived from the oxidation of a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from natural source. The natural formation of oxy-guttiferone K is in agreement with the previously described cyclization of garcinol by DPPH.
Article
Eight prenylated xanthones, bannaxanthones A-H (1-8), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia xipshuanbannaensis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated using the MTT method. The results showed that xanthones with an unsaturated prenyl group had stronger cytotoxic activity against cancer cells, whereas those with hydroxylated prenyl groups had none.
Collection and characterization of Malabar tamarind
  • Z Abraham
  • Malik S K Rao
  • G E Narayanan
Abraham Z, Malik S.K, Rao G.E, Narayanan S.L and Biju S.L, Collection and characterization of Malabar tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.], Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53, 2006, 401-406.
  • V Peres
  • T J Nagem
  • F Oliveira
Peres V, Nagem T. J, Oliveira F. F, Tetraoxygenated naturally occurring xanthones, Phytochemistry, 55(7), 2000, 683-710.
  • O Andersen
  • K R Markham
  • Flavonoids Chemsitry
Andersen O. M and Markham K. R, Flavonoids Chemsitry, Biochemistry and Applications, CRC press, Taylor & Francis group, 2006, 37-142.