Int. J. of Computers, Communications & Control, ISSN 1841-9836, E-ISSN 1841-9844
Vol. VII (2012), No. 1 (March), pp. 147-162
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in
R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Subotica Tech-College of Applied Sciences
Serbia, 24000 Subotica, Marka Oreškovića 16
University of Novi Sad, Technical faculty "Mihajlo Pupin" Zrenjanin
Serbia, 23000 Zrenjanin, Djure Djakovica bb
Sanja Maravić Čisar
Subotica Tech-College of Applied Sciences
Serbia, 24000 Subotica, Marka Oreškovića 16
Abstract: This study intends to measure the impact of interactive animations
on the students’ performance. Two courses from Subotica Tech were included,
the subjects “ Analog and Digital Electronics” and “Microcontrollers”. The ex-
periment lasted over a period of tree years, and it involved the formation of
two groups in every academic. Both groups’ members participated in tradi-
tional frontal teaching, but the experimental group could use interactive Flash
animations built from selected parts of those courses as supplementary tool.
At the end of the semester, the exam marks were analyzed with a Two-Sample
T-Test. The results show that learning with properly created interactive ani-
mations could have positive eﬀects on most students’ academic performance.
Keywords: distance education and telelearning, improving classroom teach-
ing, interactive learning environments, simulations, media in education.
In the era of modernization in the teaching process, when the use of novel information tech-
nologies aims to achieve easier, faster and more eﬃcient knowledge transfer in education, the
application of interactive animations has become more and more important. The questions arises
as to what the reasons are which have made interactive animations a vital part of modern e-
curricula, and whether there is empirical evidence to support claims that using multimedia and
interactivity in e-curriculum has positive impact to cognitive development and academic achieve-
ment at students. In the ﬁrst part of this paper, authors analyze characteristics of the interactive
animations. The second part presents some research done with interactive animations developed
at Subotica Tech. The e-contents are compiled from selected parts of the course "Analog and
Digital Electronics" and "Microcontrollers" at Subotica Tech.
The thorough investigation by Sekular and Blake  into how students take in information,
how they learn pointed out that the learning process takes place primarily by way of sight, and
since it is the most vital of our senses, it is also the most highly-developed one. It enables a person
to gather information from one’s surroundings, analyze these and then decide how to process
based on the deduced data. In terms of teaching, it is by seeing that students will best grasp
a complicated string of steps as it helps transform a vague idea into an image in their brains.
⃝2006-2012 by CCC Publications
148 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Kraidy  started that, if the aim is to increase the amount of information to be processed by
students within a set time frame, then giving them visual information to work with will help
them reach this goal.
Graphical representations are deﬁned as visual aids that act as supplement to any other
textual information and will concentrate learners’ attention . Such representations will have
maximum eﬀect when accompanying some learning material that is (relatively) new to the learner
. This is especially the case with computer animation that is designed to aid long-term learning
in the form of focusing learners on certain objects in the beginning.
The research of Rieber  portrayed that abstractions connected with time transitions in a
process can be decreased by implementing animations to convey ideas and processes that change
over time. Dual-coding theory by Paivio,   oﬀers an explanation as to why graphics are so
eﬀective: retaining memory over a long time is made easier if a combination of verbal and visual
cues is used. This makes animations a distinctively signiﬁcant support of visualizing material
for long-term memorization. Animation and narration further support dual-coding .
What makes animations stand out is movement, as opposed to static, still images, and this
demonstrates the various relationships within and along a certain process. By Goldstein, Chance,
Hoisington and Buescher  movement will be remembered longer than static images. According
to Gordin and Pea  and also Brodie, Carpenter, Earnshaw, Gallop, Hubbold, Mumford,
Osland, Quarendon  visualization is a vital part in the acquisition of scientiﬁc topics, since
important relationships between concepts will be pointed out for learners.
It was demonstrated by research results that animations are more eﬀective learning tools
that static images, and this was further supported by lesson plans incorporating lectures as well
as diﬀerent learning inputs . Based on the dual-coding theory  it may be asserted that
learning will be the most eﬀective if there are lectures alongside animations, since they together
form a base of reference that will help learners fully understand the knowledge that was conveyed
through the animations. Lectures will cue the students, but actual studying happens through
the animations .
2 Interactive Animations
One of the tendencies in education is the continually growing amount of learning content
which must be acquired by the student. Almost every generation’s curricula are extended by
a certain amount of new, updated or revised material. With this swelling of learning contents,
another issue arises, namely that the time which is intended for learning these amount of contents
is growing ever shorter for each subsequent generation. Besides that, students are no longer
interested in the foundations of some complex system, and how it is compiled, but rather, they
want to know how the system works and how it can be managed. In accordance with these
tendencies the educators have been searching for learning tools which can help the students
As animation are able to unambiguously portray changes over time (temporal changes), they
are extremely suitable for using them in process and procedure teaching. Animations are applied
to show dynamic content, and they reﬂect alterations in position (translation), as well as form
(transformation) which form the basis of learning this kind of topic .
Unlike static pictures, temporal changes are shown in animations directly (instead of indi-
rectly by some awkward auxiliary markings including arrows and motion lines). The application
of animations, as opposed to static graphics, makes these extra markings unnecessary, thus strip-
ping down the displays and making them attractive, lively and easily understandable . Fur-
thermore, there is no need for the learner to process these auxiliary markings and what changes
they try indicate. Interpreting the markings and the inferences may actually surpass the level
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 149
of graphical skills that the learner possesses. Yet with animations, these displays immediately
show all information concerning the changes, thus no extra mental depiction is required.
Learning can be facilitated by animations in two ways. On the one hand, their function is
to aﬀect the learner, raise their interest and keep up motivation. The entertainment industry
implements this same function in their animations. On the other hand, though, animations
also have the function to facilitate comprehension and memorization of a given content. The
knowledge-building process is thus supported and this cognitive function is essential to eﬀective
Superﬁcially, it may seem that animations are the perfect candidates to be applied in present-
ing dynamic content. Nevertheless, there is no unambiguous research evidence supporting this.
Some researchers have conducted comparisons of how eﬀective static and animated displays are
in education by using a number of content domains. Although there have been positive results
where animations have proven to be rather eﬀective, these results have been countered by other
investigations that have found no positive, and even negative eﬀects of using animations. On the
whole it is safe to say that animations are not by deﬁnition more eﬀective than static graphics.
Instead, the speciﬁc features of certain animations and their method of application is crucial in
what kind of eﬀect they will have on knowledge acquisition.
2.1 Do Animations Make Learning Faster?
Animations play an important role in computer-based learning environments. So far, however,
it has not been suﬃciently resolved under which conditions and in which respect animations do
actually lead to better learning outcome. Well-designed animations are likely to be a real asset to
the teacher. They will speed up the learning process and make it easier to grasp and memorize
the material. It especially comes in handy when the teacher is trying to explain a diﬃcult
subject. The question arises: Why is a subject perceived as diﬃcult? It may either be because it
requires a certain amount of imagination. For example, in our animations we visualized a clock
signals, a values and shapes of the input and output voltage signals, a states and changes of the
microcontroller internal registers etc. With the help of computer animations both the teaching
and learning process will be made less diﬃcult, it will take less time and it will be livelier.
However, what then explains the fact that sometimes animations are not educationally ef-
fective as one would expect them to be? A possible answer would be that students are unable
to "compute" the information seen in the animation adequately. If a complex subject is to be
presented with animation, it may result in an equally complex animation, thus leaving students
feeling overwhelmed. This is supported by the role of visual perception and cognition in human
information processing. The perceptual and cognitive systems of humans have their limits for
information processing. Once the presented animation reaches or oversteps the learners’ infor-
mation processing limits, the learning process may no longer be eﬀective. Also negative eﬀects
come forward if the new information being presented in animations is faster than the speed of
how fast the learner is capable of processing that eﬀectively.
Replacing current static graphics with animations without careful consideration is not likely
to result in improved learning; instead animations should be accompanied by textual explana-
tions, and let the learner have control over the speed of the animation. Such user-controllable
animations will enable learners to "customize" the animations by varying the playing speed and
direction, labels and audio commentary to suit their own personality. The controllable animation
can be realized with interactive animation. The interactivity within the animation could mean
the own playing speed and walk-through, diﬀerent amount of auxiliary explanations etc.
Besides the visualization of the curriculum, this kind of animation oﬀers another advantage:
the possibility of modeling and simulating systems. This means that knowledge acquisition can
150 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
take place also by changing the model’s parameters, or otherwise experimenting with the system.
So, when using interactive simulations besides the previously mentioned advantages, some new
ones can be deﬁned:
•The model oﬀers the possibility for analyzing and doing experiments with those systems,
which cannot be done in real life.
•The models enables studying of certain fast occurrences in a much slower mode, or time-
consuming events in a much shorter time span than in reality.
•The model makes it possible to focus on the vital characteristics of the learning content
•The model oﬀers the users the freedom of experimentation without any consequences.
2.2 The Advantages of Flash Animations
The developing environment provided by the packet Adobe Flash CS3 (and its prior versions)
was used by the authors as the tool of choice for creating these interactive animations. In a
simpliﬁed form, this software tool is an application for creating vector sketches and animation,
with the option of adding this interactive feature. Naturally, the Flash developing environment
oﬀers many more options, but it also includes very straight-forward ways of creating animations.
The fact that it is rather easy to create interactive animations is a crucial aspect, as in such a case
it is not a pre-requisite for the subject teacher to be highly educated in information technologies.
This type of animation can be used for presenting the material in theoretical classes, but also
for creating a fully electronic curriculum for consolidating the material previously taught in
practices, as well as for independent work outside the classes.
Practice shows that creating eﬀective interactive animations still requires the close coopera-
tion of the teacher and the expert for Flash technologies. Successful acceptance of the animations
by the students primarily depends on the course teacher. It is their task to determine the fol-
•Goals that are to be achieved with this animation,
•The content that is to be shown,
•Which elements of the learning material are to be represented statically (with an image),
and which will take the forms of animation or interactive animation (simulation),
•Guidelines (design of the outlook, which controls are to be used, the user’s options within
the system, etc.) based on which the application will be developed.
The task of the "Flash expert" is to realize the requirements of the teacher as best as pos-
sible. The programmability of the animation thus comes in really handy for the expert. When
developing the Flash application of the programs that may be used is Action Script (the current
version is 4), an object-oriented programming language. With the help of this language every
element of the animation (lines, colors, sound, etc.) can be controlled, calculations can be made
using the entered parameters, and ﬁnally, the results can be presented, and actually used to draw
new objects or their trajectories, as well as communicate with the server, among others.
It is safe to say there is no such task in creating an animation that an experienced Flash
programmer cannot solve. In fact, this is the real advantage of this tool, as it can meet all
the requirements irrespective of school age or learning material. Besides the listed advantages
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 151
of a Flash animation, it is also rather easy to distribute this application. There are two most
commonly used formats for saving this animations: the executive (*.EXE) format, which starts
in its in-built player; and the standard (*.SWF) format for playing in a web browser or in the
FlashPlayer player (it can be downloaded easily from the Internet). What is characteristic of
these two formats is the small ﬁle size, which is a vital factor when distributing the application
via the Internet. Another beneﬁt of the Flash animation is that it is a single ﬁle, there are no
separate sound ﬁles, and the images do not comprise a separate module. All this ensures that
there is no special installation procedure, only the ﬁle to be saved and started, which makes it
an accessible program for even the somewhat computer-wary users.
Besides the so-called technical advantages, with the use of adequate design techniques, the
Flash-type animation could gain further beneﬁts. One of those beneﬁts is the result of how a
Flash animation is developed: most often the parts of a Flash animation are drawn, and there
is little use of images from the real world. The advantage of drawing, i.e. of creating vector
objects for animation is that the drawn objects are represented in a simpler form, with less
detail than, for example, if they were shown in a bitmap format. This means once the educator
has abstracted the material for the students there is yet another simpliﬁcation of the learning
material. But there are other design techniques which could lead to more eﬀective learning
process, for example:
•Using the "Inserting and removing fragments" technique. The complexity and information
load of the animation interface can be regulated by inserting or removing objects or pieces
of information form it.
•Using the "Dimming fragments" technique. With this technique one can diﬀerentiate
between important parts of the animation and those which serve as additional information.
The dimmed elements look like as if they are melting into the background.
•Using background (blurred) animation to attract and keep user’s attention on the interface.
Also, in these projects the following design aspects were used:
•Minimize the number of visual elements, thus making it easy to follow the presented process.
•Minimal amount of lateral information used solely for presenting the essence as simply as
•" Data entry by keyboard was not incorporated. The reason for this is that the data entry
option does not always mean an advantage in the learning process: they may cause the
user to be preoccupied with trying to crash the application by entering invalid formats and
As a result of these design techniques, the system will show a straight-forward form, using
only the vital details, leading directly to a better and easier understanding of the model, and
the user cognitive load is kept on adequate (i.e. low) level.
Are these the only reasons why the animation should be used in teaching? No, they are not.
There are problems which occur in educational communication called information barriers, and
the Flash animation will yield some solutions to this problem. Some of these barriers can be
classiﬁed in the following way:
•perceptual barriers – each subject in the communication process feels and interprets events
occurring to them diﬀerently, depending on their psychological, cultural and social status,
152 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
•psychological barriers – the same word or event will have a diﬀerent meaning for diﬀerent
•social barriers – these barriers become apparent by the diﬀerent social statuses of the
subjects in the educational communication,
•cultural barriers – these arise in communication due to the diﬀerent cultural backgrounds
of the subjects participating in the communication process,
•semantic barriers – barriers of this type appear when interpreting written contents, speeches,
images, and other, thus the way the message is read will change the content itself,
•media barriers – this information barrier occurs when the there are diﬀerent communication
media used on educational communication. It is well-known fact that each carrier has their
own markings, which may be helpful as well as distracting in communication,
•physical barriers - informational barriers come up in educational communication when
transferring the message, i.e. in the channels of connection.
How and where do information barriers occur when there are PCs used in the teaching
process? Some of possible sources of problems are described below:
•experience shows that old programs which exclusively use the keyboard for interaction will
be accepted to a lesser extent due to the fact that using the keyboard is more complicated
than using the mouse,
•programs (simulations) designed using too much detail will be harder to accept because
ﬁrst the users have to make out what is on the screen and only then move on to the
explanation of the modeling system,
•if there are too many options for simulation set up, result saving, parameter input, etc,
where the users might ‘become disoriented’, then, according to Murphy ’s Law, they prob-
3 Practical Applications
The following section describes interactive animations which have been successfully in use as
an auxiliary teaching tool at Subotica Tech - College of Applied Sciences . Unfortunately,
the advantages of the animations as described before are diﬃcult to transfer to paper only with
the help of images. The applications have been designed as interactive tutorials for presenting
the functioning of some of the basic systems of analogue and digital electronics (Figure 1.) and
microcontrollers (Figure 9. and 10.). For the Microcontrollers course two e-contents (interactive
Flash simulation) were developed. They presents exercises for three out of fourteen lessons, but
these three lessons count as "diﬃcult", for example they cover the following themes: using the
microcontrollers built in timer/counter in diﬀerent modes, setting and using interrupts, com-
munication through serial port, controlling analog to digital signal (and vice versa) conversion
etc. The e-content for the Analogue and Digital Electronics there are altogether 19 simulations
classiﬁed into 5 groups/exercises. Through these simulations the students can practice approx-
imately about 40% of curriculum’s theory. For example, "Exercise 1" contains simulations on
the topics: Sources of alternating signals, Voltage splitter, Passive voltage adder, RC low-pass
ﬁlter, RC high-pass ﬁlter. Figure 1. shows the screenshot of Exercise 3 and the accompanying
simulation entitled "Pojačavač sa zajedničkim" (Common emitter ampliﬁer). The design of the
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 153
Figure 1: Representation of the exercise “Common emitter ampliﬁer”
application shown in this image is followed through in the rest of the simulations, as well: the
upper left corner contains the sketch of the system, below are the system parameters which can
be altered in the simulation, while the "oscilloscope" is situated in the right side of the screen,
showing the change of the signal over time. In this part of the application, by clicking on the
link labeled "Objašnjenje" (Explanation) the theoretical background comes up in text form.
Below is a detailed description of the content and functions of the elements on the screen:
1. Links for transition to the next/other simulation within this exercise.
2. Sketch to be simulated. The parameters listed next to the components are changing de-
pending on values of the checkboxes under the sketch.
3. Representation of the shape of voltage signal at the input and output. Part of the image
marked with the arrow 3 shows the shape of output voltage, while the one marked 4 shows
the input voltage. These shapes of signals are constantly redrawn. The lighter point on
the line shows the current voltage value. The break in the line is the consequence of the
change in RC components on the sketch during the simulation.
4. Buttons for starting and stopping the simulation.
5. The button for calling up the background explanation for how the sketch functions.
6. The list of equations used for calculating the necessary parameters of the sketch and the
results of the calculation/estimation.
7. The return button leading to the introductory page where the exercises can be chosen.
8. Values of the sketch components. These parameters can be changed by choosing values
from the checkboxes. Each change has aﬀects the listing of calculated values based on
the new parameters and the change of signal shape at the output (“upper canal of the
The following image (Figure 2) shows the simulation “Decade counter” with the help of which
students can learn the logic of the synchronous counter.
All simulations in this application are entirely controlled by mouse. Changing the parameters
is done with the help of combo boxes and the predeﬁned values they contain. In this way the
154 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Figure 2: Representation of the exercise “Decade counter”
application is protected from irregular data. It is important to mention the following advantages
of these simulations:
•it is not necessary to really ‘create’ an electric circuit in order to see how it works,
•changing the components in the system only takes a few clicks in the checkbox,
•it is possible to show the state of important values in continuity, as done by an oscilloscope.
The following few paragraphs present some ActionScript (version 2) programming code, which
shows how one can input data from the combo box, calculate the output voltage, and draw the
form of voltage signal like it is done on a real oscilloscope. The combo box is presented as an
object on the main animation scene. The next ﬁgure shows a combo box, which is used for input
of predeﬁned resistor values:
Figure 3: Input option via combo box
The following code was attached to the combo box:
Figure 4: Source code for combo box’s onClipEvent event
When the user selects a value from the "r" combo box’s list, the code is executed . The ﬁrst
line of the code assigns the currently selected item’s label (currently it is a "50k" string) to the
’r1’ variable. The ’r1’ variable is the label in the scheme (see Figure 5, dashed line rectangle,
right from the R resistor). So changes in the values in the combo box are displayed also on the
scheme. The second line of the code assigns the value (numerical value: 50000) associated with
the item currently selected ("50k" string) to the "r" variable. The scheme has its own action
script code, which uses the "r" variable for calculating the new output value of the voltage.
Because this code changes several global variables, other movie clips on the scene which also use
those variables are aﬀected with it. In this way, for example the changes in the resistor value
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 155
Figure 5: Scheme of the RC low–pass ﬁlter
Figure 6: Source code attached to the RC low–pass ﬁlter schema
aﬀects the movie clip which represents the oscilloscope function, and the new form of the output
signal is displayed. Drawing the form of voltage signal on the oscilloscope is done by moving
a special movie clip on the coordinates which are determined in the code above. In the movie
clip which presents the current output value one yellow circle changes to a smaller and orange
colored circle. This animation of the movie clip with 4 picture out of 10 is presented in Figure
7. When drawing the output signal this movie clip is moving on the screen, and with its own
Figure 7: Movie clip of the oscilloscope drawing beam
animation the eﬀect preented on the Figure 8 is achieved. Figure 9 shows one of a series of
seven interactive simulations that are part of the e-curriculum which had been developed for
the Microcontrollers course. The simulations present the i8051 microcontroller’s timer/counter
hardware, the setting and use of interrupts, and the application of the special forms of the ADD
and MOV instructions.
Figure 10 presents one of the four interactive simulations created speciﬁcally for the Micro-
controllers course. The simulations refer to the practical use of the i8051 microcontroller.
4 Experiments and Analysis
For the purpose of this study the following research questions were speciﬁed: what is the
impact of interactivity of the animations on learning? The null hypothesis is deﬁned as follows:
Interactive animations have no signiﬁcant positive impacts on studying "Microcontroller"
and "Analog and Digital Electronics" courses.
156 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Figure 8: Appearance of the drawing beam in the oscilloscope movie clip
Figure 9: Representation of the exercise “Timer0 in mode 1”
Figure 10: Representation of the exercise “Microcontroller with A/D”
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 157
In order to obtain answers to the research questions, the authors compared the ﬁnal exam
score standard deviation at "Analog and Digital Electronics" and "Microcontrollers" courses
independently, where the animations were used as supplementary tools for learning and practicing
4.1 Participants and Data Collecting Method
The data acquisition was done at Subotica Tech - College of Applied Sciences over a three-
year period. It involved the second year students from two undergraduate programs the Electro-
technical Engineering major (EE) where these two courses were obligatory and the Computer
Science major (CS) where these courses were optional. The number of participants for the
ﬁrst course (Analog and Digital Electronics) over the period of 3 years is 441 students, 56 female
(12.7%) and 385 male (87.3%) students. The second course’s participants (Microcontrollers) were
the same students from EE major, and from the CS major there were some old students and some
new ones (those who did not select the ﬁrst course). The composition of this group was: 464
participants, 58 females (12.5%) and 406 males (87.5%) See Table 1. Most participants, 98.5%,
were between 18 and 20 years old; the remaining percentage is represented by a few students
whose age were between 20 and 30. In these 3 years at the beginning of the semesters (the ﬁrst
course was in the fall and the second in the spring semester), the students were divided in two
equal-sized groups, the control and the experimental group. The group members were chosen
randomly, and only one condition had to be satisﬁed for the experimental group members: to
have possibility of accessing the web application and the simulations from home. If this condition
was not satisﬁed, that student automatically becomes the member of control group.
After forming the groups accessing the web application was enabled only for the experimental
group. There was no additional motivation for the students. All participants visited face to face
(f2f) classes of these two courses, which were taught by the same lecturer presenting identical
material. This further strengthens the consistency of comparisons.
The web application collected the following data from the users:
1. How many time did he/she logged on to the system to use the e-content,
2. How many time did he/she spent using the particular simulation.
Students who logged on only few times and spent less time that the authors foresaw are
assumed to be not using the system in an adequate mode, and they are not taken as members of
the experimental group, so they were transferred to the control group (for details see Table 1).
Ineligibility meant that the number of loggings is less than half of the available exercises, and
the time spent in the system is less than 2 minutes per exercise
The authors took as null hypothesis that the two groups would have the same mark average
at both courses. The alternative hypothesis claims that the control group will achieve better
result at both courses. The data was analyzed with one-sided, t-test, assuming that the variances
of the two samples are diﬀerent. Because one course was in the fall semester and the second
one in the spring semester, the analysis was done twice a year at the end of the semesters and
independently for both courses.
158 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Courses 2007 school year 2008 school year 2009 school year
Electronics 61 83 72 80 69 76
Microelectronics 75 86 74 81 73 75
Table 1 –The number of participants in the groups
4.2 Student Survey
At the end of each semester and before the ﬁnal exam, the control group members were asked
to ﬁll out a questionnaire with 5 questions. From the answers (marks from 1 to 5 and comments)
the authors received feedback about generally how students were satisﬁed with simulation, how
did it help or not in the learning process and what would they like to see done in a diﬀerent way.
These data were collected in order to perform further improvement of the teaching materials in
the way that would lead to a widely accepted e-curriculum.
5 Results and Discussion
The t-test applied to our two sample groups (main and control group) allows us to compare
the means of the ﬁnal exam marks of both groups. The following table presents these values.
2007 Microcontrollers course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 75 121.9467 7.973 0.438 159 2.16
Controll group 86 139.3953 7.534
2008 Microcontrollers course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 71 105.098 7.887 0.420 144 2.06
Controll group 75 110.666 7.466
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 159
2009 Microcontrollers course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 73 99.780 8.054 0.375 146 1.93
Controll group 75 104.32 7.680
2007 Analog and Digital Electronics course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 61 57.147 8.540 0.457 142 2.48
Controll group 83 124.409 8.084
2008 Analog and Digital Electronics course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 72 110.611 8.139 0.451 150 2.18
Controll group 80 135.187 7.687
2009 Analog and Digital Electronics course
nSS Mean MeanE-MeanC df tobs
Experimental group 69 104.289 8.232 0.403 143 1.97
Controll group 76 110.776 7.829
Table 2 – Students’ score distribution
Where the notations in the table are:
•n - number of participants,
•SS - sum of squared deviates,
•MeanE/MeanC - mean for of experimental/controll group,
•df - degrees of freedom,
•tobs- observed values of t-distribution.
6 Conclusions and Future Works
The authors compared the observed value of t with the t from the table of critical values
that pertain to df > 140, and the results are shown in Table 3:
160 R. Pinter, D. Radosav, S.M. Cisar
Signiﬁcance of the Diﬀerence
between the Variances of the Two
M2007 t95%<tobs <t99% 1.98<2.16<2.61
M2008 t95%<tobs <t99% 1.98<2.06<2.61
M2009 tobs<t95% 1.93<1.98
AD2007 t95%<tobs <t99% 1.98<2.48<2.61
AD2008 t95%<tobs <t99% 1.98<2.18<2.61
AD2009 tobs<t99% 1.97<1.98
Table 3 – Signiﬁcance diﬀerences between two groups
From the presented data, the following conclusions can be drawn:
•In 4 cases out of 6 we can reject the null hypothesis, and we can say with probability
of 95%, that those experimental groups achieved better results on exam than the control
•In two cases there are no reasons to reject the null hypothesis.
The results show evidence that interactive simulation contents can be very eﬀective tools in the
learning process. It can deliver information in a very attractive way, which also can be advanta-
geous in assembling curricula for the students who have diﬀerent skill levels and learning styles.
Besides that, it can help learners to understand scientiﬁc topics, with presenting important con-
ceptual relationships. It is also important that simulations enable students to become acquainted
with the shown system and make changes in the parameters with no additional costs or risks.
But only well-designed animations may help to ease and shorten the learning process, and only
with them, through play and experimentation can the learning process become more interesting
 . The students’ answers from the questionnaires show that not every simulation is
accepted in the same manner. For example, the third e-content (Figure 10) was given lower
grades/worse comments than the other two. The reasons for this could be the themes which
were presented with the simulation, because it does not contain spectacular and experimenting
options. The design/the look of the animation also received worse marks from the students.
Some future researches should also investigate how eﬀective the interactive animations are when
the users have diﬀerent learning styles
Various researches focusing on the eﬀectiveness of learning with the help of visualization
point out that in order for the animation to be well accepted, by the    the following
have to be kept in mind :
•positive eﬀects in learning can only be achieved in topics that are dynamic in character,
•an exaggerated multitude of colors in the animation will have the exact opposite eﬀect,
•it is important for the application to contain an optimal amount of information.
Due to the lack of a standard in creating successful visual applications , experiences gained
from well-accepted electronic materials may serve as guidelines for deﬁning a methodology, which,
if applied in the design of animations and simulations, will lead to greater eﬀect and eﬃciency
in the learning process .
However, results also show that there is a tendency of decreasing the diﬀerence between
those learners who had used the animation and those who had not. Is this because there is
an increasing number of such and similar e-curricula available to students, and this kind of
Analyzing the Impact of Using Interactive Animations in Teaching 161
attractive multimedia presentations are no longer motivate students as they used to before; or
was is simply the case of students of the control group getting hold of the animations and using
them in their learning process. Unfortunately, the questionnaire ﬁlled in by the students at the
end of the semester failed to provide deﬁnitive answers to this question. The questionnaires show
that students were on the whole satisﬁed with the applications.
A number of studies indicate that the user’s performance is much better if the teaching
methods are matched to the user’s learning style . Designing the animation’s interface and
contents to match the students’ preferred learning style could lead to a more eﬀective learning
process. For example, according to the Felder–Silverman  learning style model, the animations
containing a lot of visual elements, such as pictures, diagrams, ﬂow charts etc. are preferred for
the visual learning proﬁle, while written and auditory explanations are eﬀective with the verbal
type of student. And to mention another example: students with an active proﬁle prefer the
simulation (interactive animation) which allows experimenting with the system parameters.
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