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Abstract

Peaches, nectarines, and plums are the most important stone fruit in the world, but little is known about their effect on human health. Over 100 genotypes of peaches and plums of a range of flesh colors (white, yellow, red) were analyzed for their total phenolics, carotenoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity. In general, the level of total phenolics was well correlated with the antioxidant activity. The levels changed dramatically among the stone fruit varieties examined indicating that varieties with improved levels of these phytochemicals could be developed. Selected plums and red fleshed peaches had equal or greater phenolics and antioxidant activity than blueberries. Antiproliferative assays with three breast cell lines indicated that peach and plum phytochemicals inhibited the cell proliferation for estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells but not the estrogen positive breast cancer MCF-7 line or the normal breast cell MCF-10A line. Proliferation studies with MBA-MD-435 cells and assays to measure the LDL oxidation inhibition activity with the extracts from 26 peach, nectarine and plum cultivars indicated a range of effectiveness. Although there is a strong correlation between total phenolic and antioxidant activity, there is no obvious linear relationship between either total phenolic content or total antioxidant activity with either bioactivity measured, suggesting that there are distinct mechanisms other than a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism that are responsible for these bioactivities.
267
Health Benefits of Peach, Nectarine and Plums
D.H. Byrne, G. Noratto
and L. Cisneros-Zevallos
VFIC
Horticultural Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
USA
W. Porter
Vet. Integrated Biosciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
USA
M. Vizzotto
EMBRAPA Clima Temperado
Caixa Postal 403
Pelotas, RS
Brazil
Keywords: phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, breast cancer, LDL oxidation
Abstract
Peaches, nectarines, and plums are the most important stone fruit in the
world, but little is known about their effect on human health. Over 100 genotypes of
peaches and plums of a range of flesh colors (white, yellow, red) were analyzed for
their total phenolics, carotenoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity.
In general, the level of total phenolics was well correlated with the antioxidant
activity. The levels changed dramatically among the stone fruit varieties examined
indicating that varieties with improved levels of these phytochemicals could be
developed. Selected plums and red fleshed peaches had equal or greater phenolics
and antioxidant activity than blueberries. Antiproliferative assays with three breast
cell lines indicated that peach and plum phytochemicals inhibited the cell
proliferation for estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells but
not the estrogen positive breast cancer MCF-7 line or the normal breast cell MCF-
10A line. Proliferation studies with MBA-MD-435 cells and assays to measure the
LDL oxidation inhibition activity with the extracts from 26 peach, nectarine and
plum cultivars indicated a range of effectiveness. Although there is a strong
correlation between total phenolic and antioxidant activity, there is no obvious
linear relationship between either total phenolic content or total antioxidant activity
with either bioactivity measured, suggesting that there are distinct mechanisms
other than a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism that are responsible for
these bioactivities.
INTRODUCTION
Fruits have long been promoted for their capacity in preventing various cancers
and age-related diseases (Prior and Cao, 2000; Wargovich, 2000). The phytochemicals
reported in Prunus include carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids (Weinert et al.,
1990; Senter and Callahan, 1991; Tourjee et al., 1998; Gil et al., 2002; Cevallos et al.,
2006). The antioxidant activity in both peaches and plums depends on the genotype
tested. Some papers have reported that blueberries have the highest antioxidant activity
among fruits; however, the levels found in plums and red-fleshed peaches overlap the
levels found in blueberries (Wang et al., 1996; Prior et al., 1998; Cevallos et al., 2006).
There is a good correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant
activity among peaches and plums (Cevallos et al., 2006; Gil et al., 2002; Vizzotto, 2005,
2007). Furthermore the contribution of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins to this
antioxidant activity is much more important than the contribution of Vitamin C or
carotenoids (Gil et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2003; Chun et al., 2003; Vizzotto, 2005).
There is evidence to suggest that phenolics and particularly anthocyanidins and
anthocyanins can inhibit chemical carcinogenesis (Edenharder et al., 1995; Yoshimoto et
al., 1999; Hagiwara et al., 2001; Hou, 2003). Phytochemical extracts of peach showed a
weak antiproliferative activity in vitro (Sun et al., 2002). Plums were reported to have a
high content of catechins (Pascual-Teresa et al., 2000), which suppress the growth and
induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer DU145 cells (Kampa et al., 2000; Chung et al.,
2001), breast cancer (Damianaki et al., 2000), and endothelial cell proliferation
Proc. IIn
d
IS on Human Health Effects of F&V
Ed.: B. Patil
Acta Hort. 841, ISHS 2009
268
(Sartippour et al., 2001).
Reduced levels of cardiovascular disease is also associated with the consumption
of plant foods rich in flavonoids and other phenolic compounds which are obtained from
fruits and vegetables (Prior and Cao, 2000; Wargovich, 2000). In the development of
heart disease the prevention of oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be
particularly important (Steinberg, 1989). The results of LDL oxidation measurements in a
range of produce indicated that fruits were a better source of phenolic antioxidants than
vegetables (Vinson et al., 2001). Work with eight processing type (canning clingstone)
peaches indicated that their relative LDL oxidation inhibition capacity varied five-fold
among the varieties assayed (Chang et al., 2000) but nothing is known about the LDL
oxidation inhibition capacity of fresh market peach, nectarine, or plum cultivars.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fruit of over 100 genotypes of peaches, nectarines, and plums including both
breeding lines and commercial varieties were obtained from packing houses or breeding
plots in California, Texas, and Georgia (Cevallos et al., 2006; Vizzotto et al., 2007). Upon
arrival in the lab at Texas A&M University, the fruit was visually inspected, the stones
removed, and tissue (flesh plus skin) samples were frozen at –80°C until analyzed. Six to
twelve fruits at the firm ripe stage were chosen from each genotype. Three replicates,
each using two to four fruits, were used and they were packaged separately.
Chemical Analyses
The total phenolics were extracted from five grams of frozen tissue (flesh plus
skin) homogenized with 25 ml of methanol in a conical screw-cap tube using a vortex
mixer. Phenolics were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Cevallos et al., 2006;
Vizzotto et al., 2007). The concentration of total phenolics was estimated from a
chlorogenic acid standard curve in terms of mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents. Total
anthocyanin content analysis was adapted from Fuleki and Francis (1968) by measuring
the absorbance of extracts at pH 1 (Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos, 2003) after
removing carotenoids with hexane. The anthocyanins were extracted from five grams of
frozen tissue (flesh plus skin) homogenized with 15 ml of 95% aqueous ethanol:1.5 N
HCl solution (85:15) in a conical screw-cap tube using a vortex mixer. Samples were
stored overnight at 4°C and then centrifuged for 15 min at 29,000 g at 2ºC (Vizzotto et
al., 2007). Anthocyanins are expressed as mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g
fresh or dry weight, using a molar extinction coefficient of 25 965 M-1 cm-1 and a
molecular weight of 449 g/mol (Abdel-Aal and Hucl, 1999). Antioxidant activity of the
phenolic extract was quantified by the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical
method (Brand-Williams et al., 1995). The antioxidant activity was estimated as
equivalents of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid, Sigma
Chemical Co., St Louis, MO) by comparison to a standard curve.
Cancer Cell Lines
Cell lines used in this study were obtained from the American Type Culture
Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). Three breast cell lines were used initially: MCF-7
(the estrogen-positive human breast cancer), MDA-MB-453 (estrogen-negative human
breast cancer), and MCF-10A (non-cancerous breast cell line). These are cultured in Petri
dishes using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) at 37°C in a 5% CO2
atmosphere and supplemented differently depending on the cell line (see Vizzotto, 2005
for details). Methanolic extracts from the yellow fleshed peach ‘Rich Lady’ and the red
fleshed plum ‘Black Splendor’ were used for cell proliferation studies of all three cell
lines. The screening of antiproliferative activity of the extracts from 26 commercial
varieties of peach, nectarine, and plums was done only on the MDA-MB-435 cell line.
269
Cell Viability Assay
Antiproliferation was estimated in the presence (up to 1,000 mg chlorogenic acid
equiv./L) and absence of fruit extracts by using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-
diphenyltetrazolium bromide] or methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay (Mosmann, 1983)
based on its conversion to MTT-formazan and measured by optical density with a
spectophotometer at 555 excitation and 520 emission filters. The natural log of the
remaining concentration was calculated and plotted against the concentration (µg/ml of
total phenolics). The first-order rate constant (k) was used to calculate the IC50
(concentration needed to reduce proliferation in 50%) (Vizzotto et al., 2007).
LDL Oxidation
Plasma was obtained from Fisher Scientific Int. (Winnipeg, MB., Canada) in
presence of 0.01% EDTA. LDL (1.019-1.063 g/L) was isolated by sequential density
ultracentrifugation according to Schonfeld (1983). Antioxidant activity upon LDL
oxidation was evaluated with the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay
(Chang et al., 2000; Frankel et al., 1992). Percent inhibition of the formation of
malonaldehyde was used as a parameter to compare antioxidant capacity. The sample
concentration that led to 50% inhibition, IC50, was used to compare the capacities of
different peach, nectarine, and plum extracts.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Among the selections and the California peach and nectarine varieties assayed in
this study, the total phenolics concentration ranged from ~45 to ~371 mg chlorogenic
acid/100 g fresh weight for the yellow and white fleshed peaches and nectarines, ~228 to
~1260 mg chlorogenic acid/ 100 g fresh weight for red fleshed peaches and ~380 to ~898
mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fresh weight for the plums (Fig. 1). Thus as previously
shown, there are significant differences in the total phenolics among peach, nectarine, and
plum varieties. Within these commercial varieties there is a 3-4 fold difference in total
phenolics among peach and nectarines and a two fold difference in total phenolics among
the plums. In addition, the general level of total phenolics among the plums and red
fleshed peaches is greater than that found in the yellow and white fleshed peach and
nectarine genotypes. The level of phenolics in the blueberry sample was comparable to
that measured in red fleshed peaches and selected plum cultivars.
The anthocyanin concentration among the white and yellow fleshed
peach/nectarine varieties was similar in both the selections and commercial cultivars
(~0.5 to ~10 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g fresh tissue) and as expected much higher in
all of the red fleshed peaches and plums (~45 to ~ 375 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g
fresh tissue) (Fig. 2). The content of anthocyanins in the blueberry sample was similar to
that found in some of the red fleshed peach and plum samples but was much higher than
that found in any of the white or yellow fleshed peaches, nectarines, or plum selections or
varieties (Fig. 2).
As was observed in previous studies (Cevallos et al., 2006; Vizzotto et al., 2007),
the total phenolics but not anthocyanin content was well correlated with antioxidant
activity (r = 0.79 to 0.96). The selections and varieties of peaches, nectarines, and plums
differed significantly in antioxidant activity (Fig. 3). The antioxidant activity seen in the
red fleshed peach selections and yellow and red fleshed plums was similar to that
measured in the blueberry and was higher than that seen among the white or yellow
fleshed peaches or nectarines. The antioxidant activity of a few of the white and yellow
fleshed peach and nectarine selections and varieties approached that of blueberry (Fig. 3).
In initial work the crude methanolic extracts from the yellow fleshed peach ‘Rich
Lady’ (RL) and of red fleshed plum ‘Black Splendor’ (BS) were evaluated for their
antiproliferative effects on estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and estrogen-independent MDA-
MB-435 breast cancer cells and one non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A. The results
showed that RL extract effectively inhibited the proliferation of the estrogen-independent
MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells as compared to either the non cancerous breast cells
270
MCF-10A or the estrogen dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7, respectively. In general,
BS extracts were less effective although they still affected the MDA-MB-435 cells to a
greater degree than the other breast cancer cells or the non-cancerous breast cells. Thus
subsequent screening was done with only the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-independent cell
line.
Twenty-six commercial varieties were tested. The IC50 values found in peach,
nectarine, and plum extracts ranged from 110 mg/L to > 1200 mg/L, 230 to > 1200 mg/L
and 200 to 975 mg/L, respectively (Fig. 4). ‘Spring Snow’ and ‘Rich Lady’ showed
highest activity in suppressing the proliferation of MDA-MB-435 cells, with IC50 values
of about 110 and 150 mg/L, respectively.
The IC50 value or the concentration of phenolic compounds that induces a 50%
inhibition of LDL oxidation were calculated for the California commercial stone fruit
varieties. The inhibition of human LDL oxidation in different peach varieties ranged from
~ 30-55%, in nectarines it ranged from ~ 0-50% and in plum varieties the inhibition of
human LDL oxidation ranged from ~ 20-50% (Fig. 4). This large variation in LDL
oxidation inhibition could be related to the type of phenolic compounds present in each
type of fruit variety studied. It is likely that the specific profiles influence the response.
There is not a consistent relationship between the antiproliferative activity for
breast cancer cells, or LDL oxidation inhibition with total phenolics, antioxidant activity
or specific antioxidant activity. Since there is no apparent correlation, the antioxidant
properties of phenolic compounds from stone fruits are probably not the only mechanism
by which phenolics or other compounds inhibit these bioactive properties. Thus our
results confirm that selecting or screening varieties based solely on antioxidant activity is
misleading and does not represent the fruits’ ability for specific bioactivity (in this case
human LDL oxidation inhibition and antiproliferative activity towards breast cancer
cells). Thus it is important to screen varieties using the appropriate bioassays targeting the
specific bioactivity searched for. One big challenge is to find bioassays that are cost
effective.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is based upon worked supported by the Cooperative State Research
Education and Extension Service, US Department of Agriculture under 2005-34402-
16401, “Designing Foods For Health” through the Vegetable and Fruit Improvement
Center, Texas AgriLife Research.
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Figurese
0
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Blueberr
y
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Peach Nect. Plum
Blueberr
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Fig. 1. Total phenolic content of peach, nectarine, and plum selections (right) and
California commercial varieties (left) as compared to blueberry. White, gray and
black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed fruit respectively.
0
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mg cyanidin 3-gly/100 g fwt
Peach Nect. Plum
Blueberr
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Fig. 2. Total anthocyanin content of peach, nectarine, and plum selections (right) and
California commercial varieties (left) as compared to blueberry. White, gray and
black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed fruit respectively.
273
0
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DPPH (ug Trolox/g fwt)
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Blueberr
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Fig. 3. Total antioxidant activity (DDPH method) of peach, nectarine, and plum
selections (right) and California commercial varieties (left) as compared to
blueberry. White, gray and black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed
fruit respectively.
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Fig. 4. Inhibition of MBA-MD-435 breast cancer cell proliferation (right) and percent
inhibition of LDL oxidation (left) of California commercial peach, nectarine, and
plum varieties. White, gray and black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed
fruit respectively.
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... Plums are widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and other industries. There are numerous health benefits related with plum consumption such as antidiabetic effects, cardio protection (Santhakumar, Kundur, Sabapathy, Stanley, & Singh, 2015), inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation (John et al., 2019;Byrne, Noratto, Cisneros-Zevallos, Porter, & Vizzotto, 2009) and prevention of LDL oxidation (Chai et al., 2012;Walkowiak-Tomczak, Regula, & Smidowicz, 2018). The biological activities of plum have been mainly attributed to its high phenolic compounds content (Traore et al., 2020). ...
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Plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl) is a rich source of phenolic compounds. However, the bound phenolics and its bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity remain unclear. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine: 1) phenolic profiles of plum, including both free and bound phenolic fractions, 2) bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in plum during simulated gastrointestinal digestions, 3) their antioxidant properties. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS with most epicatechin, neochlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in the free phenolics fraction, while catechin and epicatechin was the main compounds in the bound phenolics fraction. After the gastrointestinal digestion phase, the most bioaccessible phenolics were quercetin-pentoside (61.64%), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (43.26%), and naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (42.04%). The antioxidant capacity of both undigested plum and its digested fractions showed a positive correlation with the total phenolics, and with specific individual phenolic compounds such as neochlorogenic acid, epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in undigested plum whereas catechin, neochlorogenic acid, and epicatechin in digested one. The results confirm that bound fraction of plum contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the improving human health effects of plum.
... Kim et al. (2003) measured values ranging from 174.0 to 375.0 mg GAE/100 g (only European plums), and Gil et al. (2002) measured values ranging from 42.0 to 109.2 mg GAE/100 g (only Japanese plums). These studies confirm the fact that the actual phenolic content and the content of the other substances differs depending on the cultivar, rootstock, nutrition and climatic phenomena (Blažek, Kneifl 2005). The cultivars 'Fertility' , 'SLE2014/2' , ' Aphrodite' , 'Burbank' , 'Santa Rosa' , 'SLE2014/1' , 'Shiro' , 'Black Amber' and 'Fortune' had a significantly higher TCP compared to ' Angeleno' (257.9 mg GAE/100 g). ...
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This study included twenty-three samples of minor fruit species and twenty-three plum cultivars. First of all, the pomological properties of the plum cultivars were assessed, where the cultivar ‘Aphrodite’ was determined as the cultivar with the biggest fruits (56.6 g). The selected nutritional properties were subsequently determined in all forty-six samples. The highest value of the total soluble solids in the plums was 27.3 % in ‘Stanley’ (Prunus domestica) and 26.1 % in ‘Krasavica’ (Sorbus aucuparia) in the minor fruits; the highest total content of ascorbic acid in the plums was 83.3 mg/100 g in ‘Stanley’ (P. domestica) and 622.9 mg/100 g in ‘Krasavica’ (S. aucuparia) in the minor fruits; the highest total phenolic content in the plums was 429.8 mg GAE/100 g in ‘Fortune’ (Prunus salicina) and 45.3 mg GAE/100 g in the minor fruits and 983.9 mg GAE/100 g in ‘Vydubecký’ (Cornus mas); the highest total flavonoid content in the plums was 291.5 mg CE/100 g in ‘Fortune’ (P. salicina) and 544.7 mg CE/100 g in ‘Nero’ (Sorbus melanocarpa) in the minor fruits, and the highest total antioxidant activity in the plums was 809.5 mg TE/100 g in the hybrid ‘SLE2014/2’ (P. domestica × P. salicina) and 849.8 mg TE/100 g in ‘Amfora’ (Lonicera edulis) in the minor fruits.
... These compounds are reported to be important in the human diet because they can exert a protective effect against oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, certain kinds of cancerous tumors and diseases linked to aging [4][5][6][7]. Polyphenols showcase antioxidant properties that can combat oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and scavenge and reduce free-radicals implicit activity and total phenolic concentration in the fruit [8,31,32]. However, few studies have investigated the phenolic composition of red flesh (i.e., blood flesh) peaches [32]. ...
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The rising interest in beneficial health properties of polyphenol compounds in fruit initiated this investigation about biochemical composition in peach mesocarp/exocarp. Biochemical evaluation of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in relation to three flesh colors (white, yellow and red) and four flesh typologies (melting, non-melting, slow softening and stony hard) within six commercial cultivars and eight breeding selections of peach/nectarine in 2007. While in 2008, quality and sensorial analyses were conducted on only three commercial cultivars ('Big Top', 'Springcrest' and 'Ghiaccio 1'). The red flesh selection demonstrated the highest levels of phenolic compounds (in mesocarp/exocarp) and ascorbic acid. Total phenolic concentration was approximately threefold higher in the exocarp than the mesocarp across all accessions. Breeding selections generally reported higher levels of phenolics than commercial cultivars. Flesh textural typologies justified firmness differences at harvest, but minimally addressed variations in quality and phenolic compounds. Flesh pigmentation explained variation in the biochemical composition, with the red flesh accession characterized by an abundancy of phenolic compounds and a high potential for elevated antioxidant activity. Sensorial analyses ranked the cultivar with high soluble solids concentration:titratable acidity (SSC:TA) and reduced firmness the highest overall. Red flesh is a highly desirable trait for breeding programs aiming to improve consumption of peaches selected for nutraceutical properties.
... Peaches and plums extracts have been reported with antiproliferative effects in estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer cells but not in estrogen positive breast cancer line or the normal breast cell line [18,19,116,117]. Crude extracts and fractions rich in flavonoids for peach and plum [19] and hydroxycinnamic acids for peach [18] showed to be very effective against cell proliferation. ...
... However, the association signals for those traits were not strong due to the small population size utilized in a study on peach (Cao et al., 2016). For other important domestication traits, such as the polyphenol content in fruit, using association analysis for gene discovery is also an exciting process, because phenols are a major class of bioactive compounds responsible for health benefits (Sun et al., 2002) by reducing damage from oxidative stress (Byrne et al., 2009;Cantin et al., 2009a) and suppressing the growth and differentiation of human cancer cells (Lea et al., 2008). ...
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Crop evolution is a long‐term process involving selection by natural evolutionary forces and anthropogenic influences; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying the domestication and improvement of fruit crops have not been well studied to date. Here, we performed a population structure analysis in peach (Prunus persica) based on the genome‐wide resequencing of 418 accessions and confirmed the presence of an obvious domestication event during evolution. We identified 132 and 106 selective sweeps associated with domestication and improvement respectively. Analysis of their tissue‐specific expression patterns indicated that the up‐regulation of selection genes during domestication occurred mostly in fruit and seeds as opposed to other organs. However, during the improvement stage, more up‐regulated selection genes were identified in leaves and seeds than in the other organs. Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) using 4.24 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed 148 loci associated with 21 fruit domestication traits. Among these loci, three candidate genes were highly associated with fruit weight and the sorbitol and catechin content in fruit. We demonstrated that as the allele frequency of the SNPs associated with high polyphenol composition decreased during peach evolution, alleles associated with high sugar content increased significantly. This indicates that there is genetic potential for the breeding of more nutritious fruit with enhanced bioactive polyphenols without disturbing a harmonious sugar and acid balance by crossing with wild species. This study also describes the development of the genomic resources necessary for evolutionary research in peach and provides the large‐scale characterization of key agronomic traits in this crop species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Stone fruits are the most important group that is consumed worldwide. In the present time, everyone is concerned about the healthy lifestyle. In this time, importance of fruits in nutrition and their health benefits can't be left unrecognized. Stone fruits are the important source of compound that influences human health and prevent the occurrence of many diseases. They are rich in vitamins, minerals and are storehouse of energy. Secondary metabolites present in the fruit contribute to sensory attributes like taste, aroma and colour. Besides this, these compounds improve human health and nutrition. Stone fruits are rich in phytochemicals like carotenoids, vitamins, phenolic compounds, organic acids and volatiles. Phenolics, vitamins and carotenoids are known for their antioxidant properties. Further, they have a great role to play in antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this chapter, the information is presented about nutritional benefits of stone fruit crops, 254 Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits of Horticultural Crops their antioxidant properties and the potent functional food that exhibits several health promoting benefits.
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Nectarine powder is widely used in the industries of baking and confectionery. The production of nectarine powder can be made by several drying techniques such as spray, tray, drum, freeze, and foam mat. This study was aimed to optimize the parameters of the nectarine foaming process. Besides, hot air-assisted foam-mat drying of nectarine was carried out to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C) on drying kinetics, physicochemical and powder properties of nectarine powder. Factors studied were egg albumin concentration, carboxymethyl cellulose concentration, and whipping time that varied between 10 and 30% (by weight), 0.2–0.8% (by weight), and 3–5 min, respectively. Optimum conditions were determined as 30% of egg albumin, 0.8% carboxymethyl cellulose, and a whipping time of 5 min to get maximum foam expansion, high foam stability, and minimum foam density. The drying rate and effective moisture diffusivity of nectarine foam powder increased with increasing drying temperature. Carr Index and Hauser Ratio values were in the range of 32.31–47.00 and 1.48–2.00, respectively. Foamed nectarine powder dried at 70 °C had the lowest hygroscopicity value and the highest wettability value. No significant difference was found between the powders’ porosity ( p > 0.05). The powders produced at 50 °C resulted in higher total phenolic, vitamin C, and carotenoid content.
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Different cultivars of four Vaccinium species [Vaccinium corymbosum L (Highbush), Vaccinium ashei Reade (Rabbiteye), Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush), and Vaccinium myrtillus L (Bilberry)] were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC). The total antioxidant capacity of different berries studied ranged from a low of 13.9 to 45.9 micromole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh berry (63.2-282.3 micromole TE/g of dry matter) in different species and cultivars of Vaccinium. Brightwell and Tifblue cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries were harvested at 2 times, 49 days apart. Increased maturity at harvest increased the ORAC, the anthocyanin, and the total phenolic content. The growing location (Oregon vs Michigan vs New Jersey) did not affect ORAC, anthocyanin or total phenolic content of the cv. Jersey of highbush blueberries. A linear relationship existed between ORAC and anthocyanin (r(xy) = 0.77) or total phenolic (r(xy) = 0.92) content. In general, blueberries are one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients of the fresh fruits and vegetables we have studied.