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Peaches, nectarines, and plums are the most important stone fruit in the world, but little is known about their effect on human health. Over 100 genotypes of peaches and plums of a range of flesh colors (white, yellow, red) were analyzed for their total phenolics, carotenoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity. In general, the level of total phenolics was well correlated with the antioxidant activity. The levels changed dramatically among the stone fruit varieties examined indicating that varieties with improved levels of these phytochemicals could be developed. Selected plums and red fleshed peaches had equal or greater phenolics and antioxidant activity than blueberries. Antiproliferative assays with three breast cell lines indicated that peach and plum phytochemicals inhibited the cell proliferation for estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells but not the estrogen positive breast cancer MCF-7 line or the normal breast cell MCF-10A line. Proliferation studies with MBA-MD-435 cells and assays to measure the LDL oxidation inhibition activity with the extracts from 26 peach, nectarine and plum cultivars indicated a range of effectiveness. Although there is a strong correlation between total phenolic and antioxidant activity, there is no obvious linear relationship between either total phenolic content or total antioxidant activity with either bioactivity measured, suggesting that there are distinct mechanisms other than a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism that are responsible for these bioactivities.
Health Benefits of Peach, Nectarine and Plums
D.H. Byrne, G. Noratto
and L. Cisneros-Zevallos
Horticultural Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
W. Porter
Vet. Integrated Biosciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
M. Vizzotto
EMBRAPA Clima Temperado
Caixa Postal 403
Pelotas, RS
Keywords: phenolics, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, breast cancer, LDL oxidation
Peaches, nectarines, and plums are the most important stone fruit in the
world, but little is known about their effect on human health. Over 100 genotypes of
peaches and plums of a range of flesh colors (white, yellow, red) were analyzed for
their total phenolics, carotenoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity.
In general, the level of total phenolics was well correlated with the antioxidant
activity. The levels changed dramatically among the stone fruit varieties examined
indicating that varieties with improved levels of these phytochemicals could be
developed. Selected plums and red fleshed peaches had equal or greater phenolics
and antioxidant activity than blueberries. Antiproliferative assays with three breast
cell lines indicated that peach and plum phytochemicals inhibited the cell
proliferation for estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells but
not the estrogen positive breast cancer MCF-7 line or the normal breast cell MCF-
10A line. Proliferation studies with MBA-MD-435 cells and assays to measure the
LDL oxidation inhibition activity with the extracts from 26 peach, nectarine and
plum cultivars indicated a range of effectiveness. Although there is a strong
correlation between total phenolic and antioxidant activity, there is no obvious
linear relationship between either total phenolic content or total antioxidant activity
with either bioactivity measured, suggesting that there are distinct mechanisms
other than a reactive oxygen species scavenging mechanism that are responsible for
these bioactivities.
Fruits have long been promoted for their capacity in preventing various cancers
and age-related diseases (Prior and Cao, 2000; Wargovich, 2000). The phytochemicals
reported in Prunus include carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids (Weinert et al.,
1990; Senter and Callahan, 1991; Tourjee et al., 1998; Gil et al., 2002; Cevallos et al.,
2006). The antioxidant activity in both peaches and plums depends on the genotype
tested. Some papers have reported that blueberries have the highest antioxidant activity
among fruits; however, the levels found in plums and red-fleshed peaches overlap the
levels found in blueberries (Wang et al., 1996; Prior et al., 1998; Cevallos et al., 2006).
There is a good correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant
activity among peaches and plums (Cevallos et al., 2006; Gil et al., 2002; Vizzotto, 2005,
2007). Furthermore the contribution of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins to this
antioxidant activity is much more important than the contribution of Vitamin C or
carotenoids (Gil et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2003; Chun et al., 2003; Vizzotto, 2005).
There is evidence to suggest that phenolics and particularly anthocyanidins and
anthocyanins can inhibit chemical carcinogenesis (Edenharder et al., 1995; Yoshimoto et
al., 1999; Hagiwara et al., 2001; Hou, 2003). Phytochemical extracts of peach showed a
weak antiproliferative activity in vitro (Sun et al., 2002). Plums were reported to have a
high content of catechins (Pascual-Teresa et al., 2000), which suppress the growth and
induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer DU145 cells (Kampa et al., 2000; Chung et al.,
2001), breast cancer (Damianaki et al., 2000), and endothelial cell proliferation
Proc. IIn
IS on Human Health Effects of F&V
Ed.: B. Patil
Acta Hort. 841, ISHS 2009
(Sartippour et al., 2001).
Reduced levels of cardiovascular disease is also associated with the consumption
of plant foods rich in flavonoids and other phenolic compounds which are obtained from
fruits and vegetables (Prior and Cao, 2000; Wargovich, 2000). In the development of
heart disease the prevention of oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be
particularly important (Steinberg, 1989). The results of LDL oxidation measurements in a
range of produce indicated that fruits were a better source of phenolic antioxidants than
vegetables (Vinson et al., 2001). Work with eight processing type (canning clingstone)
peaches indicated that their relative LDL oxidation inhibition capacity varied five-fold
among the varieties assayed (Chang et al., 2000) but nothing is known about the LDL
oxidation inhibition capacity of fresh market peach, nectarine, or plum cultivars.
Fruit of over 100 genotypes of peaches, nectarines, and plums including both
breeding lines and commercial varieties were obtained from packing houses or breeding
plots in California, Texas, and Georgia (Cevallos et al., 2006; Vizzotto et al., 2007). Upon
arrival in the lab at Texas A&M University, the fruit was visually inspected, the stones
removed, and tissue (flesh plus skin) samples were frozen at –80°C until analyzed. Six to
twelve fruits at the firm ripe stage were chosen from each genotype. Three replicates,
each using two to four fruits, were used and they were packaged separately.
Chemical Analyses
The total phenolics were extracted from five grams of frozen tissue (flesh plus
skin) homogenized with 25 ml of methanol in a conical screw-cap tube using a vortex
mixer. Phenolics were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Cevallos et al., 2006;
Vizzotto et al., 2007). The concentration of total phenolics was estimated from a
chlorogenic acid standard curve in terms of mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents. Total
anthocyanin content analysis was adapted from Fuleki and Francis (1968) by measuring
the absorbance of extracts at pH 1 (Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos, 2003) after
removing carotenoids with hexane. The anthocyanins were extracted from five grams of
frozen tissue (flesh plus skin) homogenized with 15 ml of 95% aqueous ethanol:1.5 N
HCl solution (85:15) in a conical screw-cap tube using a vortex mixer. Samples were
stored overnight at 4°C and then centrifuged for 15 min at 29,000 g at 2ºC (Vizzotto et
al., 2007). Anthocyanins are expressed as mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g
fresh or dry weight, using a molar extinction coefficient of 25 965 M-1 cm-1 and a
molecular weight of 449 g/mol (Abdel-Aal and Hucl, 1999). Antioxidant activity of the
phenolic extract was quantified by the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical
method (Brand-Williams et al., 1995). The antioxidant activity was estimated as
equivalents of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid, Sigma
Chemical Co., St Louis, MO) by comparison to a standard curve.
Cancer Cell Lines
Cell lines used in this study were obtained from the American Type Culture
Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). Three breast cell lines were used initially: MCF-7
(the estrogen-positive human breast cancer), MDA-MB-453 (estrogen-negative human
breast cancer), and MCF-10A (non-cancerous breast cell line). These are cultured in Petri
dishes using Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) at 37°C in a 5% CO2
atmosphere and supplemented differently depending on the cell line (see Vizzotto, 2005
for details). Methanolic extracts from the yellow fleshed peach ‘Rich Lady’ and the red
fleshed plum ‘Black Splendor’ were used for cell proliferation studies of all three cell
lines. The screening of antiproliferative activity of the extracts from 26 commercial
varieties of peach, nectarine, and plums was done only on the MDA-MB-435 cell line.
Cell Viability Assay
Antiproliferation was estimated in the presence (up to 1,000 mg chlorogenic acid
equiv./L) and absence of fruit extracts by using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-
diphenyltetrazolium bromide] or methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay (Mosmann, 1983)
based on its conversion to MTT-formazan and measured by optical density with a
spectophotometer at 555 excitation and 520 emission filters. The natural log of the
remaining concentration was calculated and plotted against the concentration (µg/ml of
total phenolics). The first-order rate constant (k) was used to calculate the IC50
(concentration needed to reduce proliferation in 50%) (Vizzotto et al., 2007).
LDL Oxidation
Plasma was obtained from Fisher Scientific Int. (Winnipeg, MB., Canada) in
presence of 0.01% EDTA. LDL (1.019-1.063 g/L) was isolated by sequential density
ultracentrifugation according to Schonfeld (1983). Antioxidant activity upon LDL
oxidation was evaluated with the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay
(Chang et al., 2000; Frankel et al., 1992). Percent inhibition of the formation of
malonaldehyde was used as a parameter to compare antioxidant capacity. The sample
concentration that led to 50% inhibition, IC50, was used to compare the capacities of
different peach, nectarine, and plum extracts.
Among the selections and the California peach and nectarine varieties assayed in
this study, the total phenolics concentration ranged from ~45 to ~371 mg chlorogenic
acid/100 g fresh weight for the yellow and white fleshed peaches and nectarines, ~228 to
~1260 mg chlorogenic acid/ 100 g fresh weight for red fleshed peaches and ~380 to ~898
mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fresh weight for the plums (Fig. 1). Thus as previously
shown, there are significant differences in the total phenolics among peach, nectarine, and
plum varieties. Within these commercial varieties there is a 3-4 fold difference in total
phenolics among peach and nectarines and a two fold difference in total phenolics among
the plums. In addition, the general level of total phenolics among the plums and red
fleshed peaches is greater than that found in the yellow and white fleshed peach and
nectarine genotypes. The level of phenolics in the blueberry sample was comparable to
that measured in red fleshed peaches and selected plum cultivars.
The anthocyanin concentration among the white and yellow fleshed
peach/nectarine varieties was similar in both the selections and commercial cultivars
(~0.5 to ~10 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g fresh tissue) and as expected much higher in
all of the red fleshed peaches and plums (~45 to ~ 375 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g
fresh tissue) (Fig. 2). The content of anthocyanins in the blueberry sample was similar to
that found in some of the red fleshed peach and plum samples but was much higher than
that found in any of the white or yellow fleshed peaches, nectarines, or plum selections or
varieties (Fig. 2).
As was observed in previous studies (Cevallos et al., 2006; Vizzotto et al., 2007),
the total phenolics but not anthocyanin content was well correlated with antioxidant
activity (r = 0.79 to 0.96). The selections and varieties of peaches, nectarines, and plums
differed significantly in antioxidant activity (Fig. 3). The antioxidant activity seen in the
red fleshed peach selections and yellow and red fleshed plums was similar to that
measured in the blueberry and was higher than that seen among the white or yellow
fleshed peaches or nectarines. The antioxidant activity of a few of the white and yellow
fleshed peach and nectarine selections and varieties approached that of blueberry (Fig. 3).
In initial work the crude methanolic extracts from the yellow fleshed peach ‘Rich
Lady’ (RL) and of red fleshed plum ‘Black Splendor’ (BS) were evaluated for their
antiproliferative effects on estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and estrogen-independent MDA-
MB-435 breast cancer cells and one non-cancerous breast cell line MCF-10A. The results
showed that RL extract effectively inhibited the proliferation of the estrogen-independent
MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells as compared to either the non cancerous breast cells
MCF-10A or the estrogen dependent breast cancer cells MCF-7, respectively. In general,
BS extracts were less effective although they still affected the MDA-MB-435 cells to a
greater degree than the other breast cancer cells or the non-cancerous breast cells. Thus
subsequent screening was done with only the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-independent cell
Twenty-six commercial varieties were tested. The IC50 values found in peach,
nectarine, and plum extracts ranged from 110 mg/L to > 1200 mg/L, 230 to > 1200 mg/L
and 200 to 975 mg/L, respectively (Fig. 4). ‘Spring Snow’ and ‘Rich Lady’ showed
highest activity in suppressing the proliferation of MDA-MB-435 cells, with IC50 values
of about 110 and 150 mg/L, respectively.
The IC50 value or the concentration of phenolic compounds that induces a 50%
inhibition of LDL oxidation were calculated for the California commercial stone fruit
varieties. The inhibition of human LDL oxidation in different peach varieties ranged from
~ 30-55%, in nectarines it ranged from ~ 0-50% and in plum varieties the inhibition of
human LDL oxidation ranged from ~ 20-50% (Fig. 4). This large variation in LDL
oxidation inhibition could be related to the type of phenolic compounds present in each
type of fruit variety studied. It is likely that the specific profiles influence the response.
There is not a consistent relationship between the antiproliferative activity for
breast cancer cells, or LDL oxidation inhibition with total phenolics, antioxidant activity
or specific antioxidant activity. Since there is no apparent correlation, the antioxidant
properties of phenolic compounds from stone fruits are probably not the only mechanism
by which phenolics or other compounds inhibit these bioactive properties. Thus our
results confirm that selecting or screening varieties based solely on antioxidant activity is
misleading and does not represent the fruits’ ability for specific bioactivity (in this case
human LDL oxidation inhibition and antiproliferative activity towards breast cancer
cells). Thus it is important to screen varieties using the appropriate bioassays targeting the
specific bioactivity searched for. One big challenge is to find bioassays that are cost
This work is based upon worked supported by the Cooperative State Research
Education and Extension Service, US Department of Agriculture under 2005-34402-
16401, “Designing Foods For Health” through the Vegetable and Fruit Improvement
Center, Texas AgriLife Research.
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mg chlorogenic ac id/ 100 g fwt
Peach Plum
mg chlorogenic ac id/ 100 g fwt
Peach Nect. Plum
Fig. 1. Total phenolic content of peach, nectarine, and plum selections (right) and
California commercial varieties (left) as compared to blueberry. White, gray and
black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed fruit respectively.
mg cyanidin 3-gluco side/ 100 g fwt
Peach Plum
mg cyanidin 3-gly/100 g fwt
Peach Nect. Plum
Fig. 2. Total anthocyanin content of peach, nectarine, and plum selections (right) and
California commercial varieties (left) as compared to blueberry. White, gray and
black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed fruit respectively.
DPPH (ug Trolox/g fwt)
Peach Nect. Plum
Fig. 3. Total antioxidant activity (DDPH method) of peach, nectarine, and plum
selections (right) and California commercial varieties (left) as compared to
blueberry. White, gray and black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed
fruit respectively.
IC 50 value (mg c hl ac/L)
% inhibition of LDL oxidation
Peach Nect
Fig. 4. Inhibition of MBA-MD-435 breast cancer cell proliferation (right) and percent
inhibition of LDL oxidation (left) of California commercial peach, nectarine, and
plum varieties. White, gray and black bars indicate white, yellow, and red fleshed
fruit respectively.
Trolox equiv ug/g fresh tissue
Peach Plum
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... Sci. 2021, 22, 4437 2 of 17 in blueberries, and its antioxidant activity is best correlated with phenolic content among peach cultivars [3,6]. ...
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... Kim et al. (2003) measured values ranging from 174.0 to 375.0 mg GAE/100 g (only European plums), and Gil et al. (2002) measured values ranging from 42.0 to 109.2 mg GAE/100 g (only Japanese plums). These studies confirm the fact that the actual phenolic content and the content of the other substances differs depending on the cultivar, rootstock, nutrition and climatic phenomena (Blažek, Kneifl 2005). The cultivars 'Fertility' , 'SLE2014/2' , ' Aphrodite' , 'Burbank' , 'Santa Rosa' , 'SLE2014/1' , 'Shiro' , 'Black Amber' and 'Fortune' had a significantly higher TCP compared to ' Angeleno' (257.9 mg GAE/100 g). ...
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This study included twenty-three samples of minor fruit species and twenty-three plum cultivars. First of all, the pomological properties of the plum cultivars were assessed, where the cultivar ‘Aphrodite’ was determined as the cultivar with the biggest fruits (56.6 g). The selected nutritional properties were subsequently determined in all forty-six samples. The highest value of the total soluble solids in the plums was 27.3 % in ‘Stanley’ (Prunus domestica) and 26.1 % in ‘Krasavica’ (Sorbus aucuparia) in the minor fruits; the highest total content of ascorbic acid in the plums was 83.3 mg/100 g in ‘Stanley’ (P. domestica) and 622.9 mg/100 g in ‘Krasavica’ (S. aucuparia) in the minor fruits; the highest total phenolic content in the plums was 429.8 mg GAE/100 g in ‘Fortune’ (Prunus salicina) and 45.3 mg GAE/100 g in the minor fruits and 983.9 mg GAE/100 g in ‘Vydubecký’ (Cornus mas); the highest total flavonoid content in the plums was 291.5 mg CE/100 g in ‘Fortune’ (P. salicina) and 544.7 mg CE/100 g in ‘Nero’ (Sorbus melanocarpa) in the minor fruits, and the highest total antioxidant activity in the plums was 809.5 mg TE/100 g in the hybrid ‘SLE2014/2’ (P. domestica × P. salicina) and 849.8 mg TE/100 g in ‘Amfora’ (Lonicera edulis) in the minor fruits.
... These compounds are reported to be important in the human diet because they can exert a protective effect against oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, certain kinds of cancerous tumors and diseases linked to aging [4][5][6][7]. Polyphenols showcase antioxidant properties that can combat oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and scavenge and reduce free-radicals implicit activity and total phenolic concentration in the fruit [8,31,32]. However, few studies have investigated the phenolic composition of red flesh (i.e., blood flesh) peaches [32]. ...
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The rising interest in beneficial health properties of polyphenol compounds in fruit initiated this investigation about biochemical composition in peach mesocarp/exocarp. Biochemical evaluation of phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in relation to three flesh colors (white, yellow and red) and four flesh typologies (melting, non-melting, slow softening and stony hard) within six commercial cultivars and eight breeding selections of peach/nectarine in 2007. While in 2008, quality and sensorial analyses were conducted on only three commercial cultivars ('Big Top', 'Springcrest' and 'Ghiaccio 1'). The red flesh selection demonstrated the highest levels of phenolic compounds (in mesocarp/exocarp) and ascorbic acid. Total phenolic concentration was approximately threefold higher in the exocarp than the mesocarp across all accessions. Breeding selections generally reported higher levels of phenolics than commercial cultivars. Flesh textural typologies justified firmness differences at harvest, but minimally addressed variations in quality and phenolic compounds. Flesh pigmentation explained variation in the biochemical composition, with the red flesh accession characterized by an abundancy of phenolic compounds and a high potential for elevated antioxidant activity. Sensorial analyses ranked the cultivar with high soluble solids concentration:titratable acidity (SSC:TA) and reduced firmness the highest overall. Red flesh is a highly desirable trait for breeding programs aiming to improve consumption of peaches selected for nutraceutical properties.
... Peaches and plums extracts have been reported with antiproliferative effects in estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer cells but not in estrogen positive breast cancer line or the normal breast cell line [18,19,116,117]. Crude extracts and fractions rich in flavonoids for peach and plum [19] and hydroxycinnamic acids for peach [18] showed to be very effective against cell proliferation. ...
... However, the association signals for those traits were not strong due to the small population size utilized in a study on peach (Cao et al., 2016). For other important domestication traits, such as the polyphenol content in fruit, using association analysis for gene discovery is also an exciting process, because phenols are a major class of bioactive compounds responsible for health benefits (Sun et al., 2002) by reducing damage from oxidative stress (Byrne et al., 2009;Cantin et al., 2009a) and suppressing the growth and differentiation of human cancer cells (Lea et al., 2008). ...
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Crop evolution is a long‐term process involving selection by natural evolutionary forces and anthropogenic influences; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying the domestication and improvement of fruit crops have not been well studied to date. Here, we performed a population structure analysis in peach (Prunus persica) based on the genome‐wide resequencing of 418 accessions and confirmed the presence of an obvious domestication event during evolution. We identified 132 and 106 selective sweeps associated with domestication and improvement respectively. Analysis of their tissue‐specific expression patterns indicated that the up‐regulation of selection genes during domestication occurred mostly in fruit and seeds as opposed to other organs. However, during the improvement stage, more up‐regulated selection genes were identified in leaves and seeds than in the other organs. Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) using 4.24 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed 148 loci associated with 21 fruit domestication traits. Among these loci, three candidate genes were highly associated with fruit weight and the sorbitol and catechin content in fruit. We demonstrated that as the allele frequency of the SNPs associated with high polyphenol composition decreased during peach evolution, alleles associated with high sugar content increased significantly. This indicates that there is genetic potential for the breeding of more nutritious fruit with enhanced bioactive polyphenols without disturbing a harmonious sugar and acid balance by crossing with wild species. This study also describes the development of the genomic resources necessary for evolutionary research in peach and provides the large‐scale characterization of key agronomic traits in this crop species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Stone fruits are the most important group that is consumed worldwide. In the present time, everyone is concerned about the healthy lifestyle. In this time, importance of fruits in nutrition and their health benefits can't be left unrecognized. Stone fruits are the important source of compound that influences human health and prevent the occurrence of many diseases. They are rich in vitamins, minerals and are storehouse of energy. Secondary metabolites present in the fruit contribute to sensory attributes like taste, aroma and colour. Besides this, these compounds improve human health and nutrition. Stone fruits are rich in phytochemicals like carotenoids, vitamins, phenolic compounds, organic acids and volatiles. Phenolics, vitamins and carotenoids are known for their antioxidant properties. Further, they have a great role to play in antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this chapter, the information is presented about nutritional benefits of stone fruit crops, 254 Antioxidant Properties and Health Benefits of Horticultural Crops their antioxidant properties and the potent functional food that exhibits several health promoting benefits.
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The Greeks and the Romans knew that certain fruits that had entered the Mediterranean world were Persian in origin or came via Persia. The most famous of these were pistachio, peaches, pomegranates, grapes, figs, and dates. The Global Burden of Disease Study has demonstrated that 49% of deaths are related to unhealthy diet, including deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consuming vegetables, fruits, nuts, and whole grains may be inversely related to the risk of NCDs. Moreover, substantial experimental studies have supported the protective role of fruits, nuts, and vegetables against risk of NCDs. Bioactive fruits and nuts produced and used in Iran are peaches, pistachios, pomegranates, walnuts, figs, grapes, and dates. These foods have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer. These foods can prevent CVDs and diabetes mellitus by decreasing body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose. Other mechanisms of beneficial effects include protection of vascular endothelial function, inhibiting platelet function, alleviating ischemia or reperfusion injury, suppressing thrombosis, reducing oxidative stress, and attenuating inflammation. The present review summarizes the results about the effects of pistachios, pomegranates, and peaches on various risk factors for CVDs.
Nectarine powder is widely used in the industries of baking and confectionery. The production of nectarine powder can be made by several drying techniques such as spray, tray, drum, freeze, and foam mat. This study was aimed to optimize the parameters of the nectarine foaming process. Besides, hot air-assisted foam-mat drying of nectarine was carried out to evaluate the effect of different temperatures (50, 60, and 70 °C) on drying kinetics, physicochemical and powder properties of nectarine powder. Factors studied were egg albumin concentration, carboxymethyl cellulose concentration, and whipping time that varied between 10 and 30% (by weight), 0.2–0.8% (by weight), and 3–5 min, respectively. Optimum conditions were determined as 30% of egg albumin, 0.8% carboxymethyl cellulose, and a whipping time of 5 min to get maximum foam expansion, high foam stability, and minimum foam density. The drying rate and effective moisture diffusivity of nectarine foam powder increased with increasing drying temperature. Carr Index and Hauser Ratio values were in the range of 32.31–47.00 and 1.48–2.00, respectively. Foamed nectarine powder dried at 70 °C had the lowest hygroscopicity value and the highest wettability value. No significant difference was found between the powders’ porosity ( p > 0.05). The powders produced at 50 °C resulted in higher total phenolic, vitamin C, and carotenoid content.
The variability in fresh and processed fruit flesh color of six clingstone processing peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] genotypes was measured using CIELAB color variables. The genotypes were selected based on the relative fruit concentrations of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. Significant (p < 0.0001) differences were found among the genotypes for the L*, a*, and b* color variables of fresh and processed fruit. Mean color change during processing, as measured by ΔE(LAB), was greatest for 'Ross' and least for 'Hesse'. A plot of the first two principal components (PCs) obtained from PC analysis of the L*, a*, and b* variables for fresh and processed fruit revealed three clusters of genotypes that match groupings based on the relative concentrations in fresh fruit of carotenoid pigments. Path analysis showed that variation in β-cryptoxanthin concentration was more precisely determined from color data than β-carotene concentration. Chemical names used: β-β-carotene (β-carotene), (3R)-β-β-caroten-3-ol (β-cryptoxanthin).
Fruits and vegetables in the daily diet have been strongly associated with reduced risk for the major forms of cancer afflicting high-risk countries such as the United States. In populations across the world where intake of these foods is high, the prevalence of the most common cancers is lower. Basic research into the mechanisms that explain how fruits and vegetables provide cancer prevention goes well beyond the notion that these foods provide only a rich source of dietary fiber. Some components of fruits and vegetables are certainly strong antioxidants and function to modify the metabolic activation and detoxification/disposition of carcinogens, or even influence processes that alter the course of the tumor cell. Further research will continue to pinpoint the active and cancer-preventive elements of the diet. Current research should provide a dietary prescription for the next decade, and influence the development of designer produce enriched in the cancer prevention attributes provided by nature.
SUMMARY— The method developed consists of extracting the anthocyanins with ethanol-1.5N hydrochloric acid (85:15) and measuring the O.D. of the extract, diluted with the extracting solvent, at 535 nm. The total anthocyanin content was calculated in absolute quantities with the aid of the extinction coefficients established for the four major cranberry anthocyanins dissolved in the alcoholic solvent system.
Quantities of condensed tannins and the major monomeric phenols were maximum between the first and second swell of fruit growth in six melting flesh peach cultivars. Quantities of tannins were higher and vanillin-proanthocyanidin ratios were lower in low quality, astringent fruit than in white or yellow flesh, commercial quality fruit. Major monomeric phenols in all cultivars were chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, catechin, and epicatechin. Quantities of these compounds varied by cultivar and also were greater in the low quality, astringent fruit between the first and second swell of growth.
Polyphenolic phytochemical extractions of six cultivars of plums (Beltsville Elite B70197, Cacak Best, French Damson, Long John, Stanley, Yugoslavian Elite T101) and Gala apples were performed using 80% aqueous methanol with ultrasound assistance and extracts were analyzed for total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of various cultivars of plums were in a range of 174 to 375 mg/100 g, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), on a fresh weight basis. Total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 118 to 237 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g fresh weight. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids in Gala apples were 118±1.4 mg GAE and 62.0±6.9 mg CE per 100 g fresh sample weight, respectively. The stable radical chromogen, ABTS•−, commonly employed for the antioxidant activity measurement, was used to evaluate antioxidant capacity of plums and apples. The total antioxidant capacities, expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), of fresh plums ranged from 266 to 559 mg/100 g. The order of total antioxidant capacity among different plum cultivars was as follows: Beltsville Elite B70197>Cacak Best⩾French Damson>Yugoslavian Elite T101>Long John>Stanley. The total antioxidant capacity of fresh Gala apple was 205±5.6 mg VCEAC/100 g. There was a good correlation between total phenolics or flavonoids contents and VCEAC at the high level of P<0.001. Dietary polyphenolics from plums may supply substantial antioxidants, which may provide health-promoting advantages to the consumer.
Different cultivars of four Vaccinium species [Vaccinium corymbosum L (Highbush), Vaccinium ashei Reade (Rabbiteye), Vaccinium angustifolium (Lowbush), and Vaccinium myrtillus L (Bilberry)] were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC). The total antioxidant capacity of different berries studied ranged from a low of 13.9 to 45.9 micromole Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh berry (63.2-282.3 micromole TE/g of dry matter) in different species and cultivars of Vaccinium. Brightwell and Tifblue cultivars of rabbiteye blueberries were harvested at 2 times, 49 days apart. Increased maturity at harvest increased the ORAC, the anthocyanin, and the total phenolic content. The growing location (Oregon vs Michigan vs New Jersey) did not affect ORAC, anthocyanin or total phenolic content of the cv. Jersey of highbush blueberries. A linear relationship existed between ORAC and anthocyanin (r(xy) = 0.77) or total phenolic (r(xy) = 0.92) content. In general, blueberries are one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients of the fresh fruits and vegetables we have studied.