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The flipped classroom: A survey of the research

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Recent advances in technology and in ideology have unlocked entirely new directions for education research. Mounting pressure from increasing tuition costs and free, online course offerings is opening discussion and catalyzing change in the physical classroom. The flipped classroom is at the center of this discussion. The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which employs asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem solving activities in the classroom. It represents a unique combination of learning theories once thought to be incompatible-active, problem-based learning activities founded upon a constructivist ideology and instructional lectures derived from direct instruction methods founded upon behaviorist principles. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of prior and ongoing research of the flipped classroom. Studies are characterized on several dimensions. Among others, these include the type of in-class and out-of-class activities, the measures used to evaluate the study, and methodological characteristics for each study. Results of this survey show that most studies conducted to date explore student perceptions and use single-group study designs. Reports of student perceptions of the flipped classroom are somewhat mixed, but are generally positive overall. Students tend to prefer in-person lectures to video lectures, but prefer interactive classroom activities over lectures. Anecdotal evidence suggests that student learning is improved for the flipped compared to traditional classroom. However, there is very little work investigating student learning outcomes objectively. We recommend for future work studies investigating of objective learning outcomes using controlled experimental or quasi-experimental designs. We also recommend that researchers carefully consider the theoretical framework used to guide the design of in-class activities.
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Paper ID #6219
The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research
Jacob Lowell Bishop, Utah State University
Jacob Bishop holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Mechanical Engineering. He is currently a graduate student
at Utah State University pursuing a Ph.D. in Engineering Education. His research interests are multi-
disciplinary. In educational research, his interests include model-eliciting activities, open online educa-
tion, educational data mining, and the flipped classroom. In quantitative methodology and psychometrics,
his interests focus on the use of latent variable models to analyze variability and change over time.
Dr. Matthew A Verleger, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach
Dr. Matthew Verleger is an assistant professor in Freshman Engineering at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical
University. He has a B.S. in Computer Engineering, a M.S. in Agricultural & Biological Engineering,
and a Ph.D. in Engineering Education, all from Purdue University. Prior to joining the Embry-Riddle
faculty, he spent two years as an assistant professor of Engineering Education at Utah State University.
His research interests include Model-Eliciting Activities, online learning, and the development of software
tools to facilitate student learning.
c
American Society for Engineering Education, 2013
The Flipped Classrom: A Survey
of the Research
Abstract
Recent advances in technology and in ideology have unlocked entirely new directions for educa-
tion research. Mounting pressure from increasing tuition costs and free, online course offerings
is opening discussion and catalyzing change in the physical classroom. The flipped classroom is
at the center of this discussion. The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which em-
ploys asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based
problem solving activities in the classroom. It represents a unique combination of learning theo-
ries once thought to be incompatible—active, problem-based learning activities founded upon a
constructivist ideology and instructional lectures derived from direct instruction methods founded
upon behaviorist principles.
This paper provides a comprehensive survey of prior and ongoing research of the flipped class-
room. Studies are characterized on several dimensions. Among others, these include the type of
in-class and out-of-class activities, the measures used to evaluate the study, and methodological
characteristics for each study. Results of this survey show that most studies conducted to date
explore student perceptions and use single-group study designs. Reports of student perceptions
of the flipped classroom are somewhat mixed, but are generally positive overall. Students tend
to prefer in-person lectures to video lectures, but prefer interactive classroom activities over lec-
tures. Anecdotal evidence suggests that student learning is improved for the flipped compared
to traditional classroom. However, there is very little work investigating student learning out-
comes objectively. We recommend for future work studies investigating of objective learning
outcomes using controlled experimental or quasi-experimental designs. We also recommend that
researchers carefully consider the theoretical framework used to guide the design of in-class ac-
tivities.
1 The Rise of the Flipped Classroom
There are two related movements that are combining to change the face of education. The first of
these is a technological movement. This technological movement has enabled the amplification
and duplication of information at an extremely low-cost. It started with the printing press in the
1400s, and has continued at an ever-increasing rate. The electronic telegraph came in the 1830s,
wireless radio in the late 1800s and early 1900s, television in the 1920s, computers in the 1940s,
the internet in the 1960s, and the world-wide web in the 1990s.
As these technologies have been adopted, the ideas that have been spread through their channels
have enabled a second movement. Whereas the technological movement sought to overcome real
physical barriers to the free and open flow of information, this ideological movement seeks to
remove the artificial, man-made barriers. This is epitomized in the free software movement (see,
e.g., Stallman and Lessig[67]), although this movement is certainly not limited to software.
A good example of this can be seen from the encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica has been
continuously published for nearly 250 years[20] (since 1768). Although Encyclopedia Britan-
nica content has existed digitally since 1981, it was not until the advent of Wikipedia in 2001
that open access to encyclopedic content became available to users worldwide. Access to Ency-
clopedia Britannica remains restricted to a limited number of paid subscribers[21], but access to
Wikipedia is open, and the website receives over 2.7 billion US monthly page views[81]. Thus,
although the technology and digital content was available to enable free access to encyclopedic
content, ideological roadblocks prevented this from happening. It was not until these ideologies
had been overcome that humanity was empowered to create what has become the world’s largest,
most up-to-date encyclopedia[81].
In a similar way, we are beginning to see the combined effects of these two movements on higher
education. In the technological arena, research has made significant advances. Studies show that
video lectures (slightly) outperform in-person lectures[9], with interactive online videos doing
even better (Effect size=0.5)[83,51]. Online homework is just as effective as paper-and-pencil
homework[8,27] , and carefully developed intelligent tutoring systems have been shown to be just
as effective as human tutors[77]. Despite these advancements, adoption has been slow, as the de-
velopment of good educational systems can be prohibitively expensive. However, the correspond-
ing ideological movement is breaking down these financial barriers.
Ideologically, MIT took a significant step forward when it announced its OpenCourseWare (OCW)
initiative in 2001[53]. This opened access to information that had previously only been available
to students who paid university tuition, which is over $40,000/yr at MIT[54]. Continuing this
trend, MIT alum Salman Khan founded the Khan Academy in 2006, which has released a library
of over 3200 videos and 350 practice exercises 2012. The stated mission of the Khan Academy
is to provide “a free world-class education to anyone anywhere2012.” In the past year, this move-
ment has rapidly gained momentum. Inspired by Khan’s efforts, Stanford professors Sebastian
Thrun and Andrew Ng opened access to their online courses in Fall 2011. Thrun taught artificial
intelligence with Peter Norvig, attracting over 160,000 students to their free online course. Sub-
sequently, Thrun left the university and founded Udacity, which is now hosting 11 free courses[76].
With support from Stanford, Ng also started his own open online educational initiative, Cours-
era. Princeton, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Michigan have joined the
Coursera partnership, which has expanded its offerings to 42 courses[10]. MIT has also upgraded
its open educational initiative, and joined with Harvard in a $60 million dollar venture, edX[19].
EdX will, “offer Harvard and MIT classes online for free.
While online education is improving, expanding, and becoming openly available for free, univer-
sity tuition at brick-and-mortar schools is rapidly rising[56]. Tuition in the University of Califor-
nia system has nearly tripled since 2000[32]. Naturally, this is not being received well by univer-
sity students in California[2]. Likewise, students in Quebec are actively protesting planned tuition
hikes[13]. In resistance to planned tuition hikes, student protestors at Rutgers interrupted (on June
20, 2012) a board meeting to make their voices heard[36] . Adding fuel to the fire, results from a
recent study by Gillen et al.[31] indicate that undergraduate student tuition is used to subsidize re-
search. As a result, the natural question being asked by both students and educational institutions
is exactly what students are getting for their money. This is applying a certain pressure on phys-
ical academic institutions to improve and enhance the in-person educational experience of their
students.
Students are not the only ones demanding higher outcomes from educational institutions. There
is also increasing pressure from accreditation institutions. In particular, the Accreditation Board
for Engineering and Technology (ABET) specifies outcomes that university graduates in engi-
neering and technology must meet for their programs to be accredited[1]. Commonly referred to
as outcomes 3a-k, these criteria include, “an ability to communicate effectively,” and “an abil-
ity to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems,” as well as, “an ability to function on
multidisciplinary teams.” Many of these criterion are generally difficult to teach and assess effec-
tively with informative lectures and closed form questions.
Problem-based learning methods, however, can be much more effective at achieving these goals.
Felder and Brent[22] survey research indicating that problem-based learning methods can be used
to fulfill ABET 3a-k outcomes. However, adoption of problem-based learning is hindered by the
fact that the curriculum for engineering programs is already tightly packed. Cramming even more
into these programs may seem impossible. Although computer technology is to blame for at least
a portion of the uncomfortable situation in which educational institutions find themselves, it may
also form a key part of the solution. Since the stone age, man has used tools to improve the ef-
fectiveness and efficiency of his efforts. In modern industry, this is accomplished by automating
tasks that can be automated, and focusing human effort on those that cannot. Although group lec-
tures have been sharply criticized in a portion of the educational literature, there seems to be little
convincing evidence to support these criticisms. However, since video lectures are as effective
as in-person lectures at conveying basic information[9,51,83], the wisdom of using student and in-
structor time for live lectures is questionable. Rather, pre-recorded lectures can be assigned to
students as homework, leaving class time open for interactive learning activities—activities that
cannot be automated or computerized. This is the key concept behind what is becoming the new
buzzword in educational circles: the flipped classroom.
2 Buzz About the Flipped Classroom
There is a considerable amount of buzz in academic circles at all levels, focused around the flipped
classroom. These appear mainly as newspaper articles (particularly academically-oriented ones)
and online blogs. For a preliminary index into these, we have provided an list of 39 unique blog
posts or online news articles, which is given in a dedicated references section following the main
bibliography in this article. In addition to news articles and blog posts, there are also complete
websites starting to pop up, dedicated to promoting the flipped classroom ideology. Links to
these websites are given following the news articles and blog posts references section.
The online buzz is not only limited to promotional websites and informational articles. Several
organizations are beginning to market materials to help instructors who want to implement the
flipped model in their classroom. The main focus of these is to provide resources for making
screencasts and Khan Academy-style[46] instructional videos*1,2,3,6*. However, one*4* is even
even offering certifications*5* (and a t-shirt) for “Certified” flipped classroom instructors.
Table 1: Restricted definition of the flipped classroom.
Style Inside Class Outside Class
Traditional Lectures Practice Exercises & Problem Solving
Flipped Practice Exercises & Problem Solving Video Lectures
Table 2: Broader definition of the de-facto flipped classroom.
Inside Class Outside Class
Questions & Answers Video Lectures
Group-Based/Open-Ended Problem Solving Closed-Ended Quizzes & Practice Exercises
3 Defining the Flipped Classroom
Despite the buzz around the flipped classroom as an exciting new topic in educational research,
there is a lack of consensus on what exactly the flipped classroom is, and there is also a limited
amount of scholarly research on its effectiveness. First, we will attempt to define the flipped
classroom. Perhaps the simplest definition of the flipped, (or inverted) classroom is given by
Lage et al.[49]. “Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally taken place
inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa” (p.32). This flipping
is demonstrated1in Table 1. While this explanation captures the rationale for using the termi-
nology inverted or flipped, it does not adequately represent the practice of what researchers are
calling the flipped classroom. This definition would imply that the flipped classroom merely rep-
resents a re-ordering of classroom and at-home activities. In practice, however, this is not the
case[49,24,14,74,80,82].
Most research on the flipped classroom employs group-based interactive learning activities inside
the classroom, citing student-centered learning theories based on the works of Piaget 1967 and
Vygotsky[79]. The exact nature of these activities varies widely between studies. Similarly, there
is wide variation in what is being assigned as "homework". The flipped classroom label is most
often assigned to courses that use activities made up of asynchronous web-based video lectures
and closed-ended problems or quizzes. In many traditional courses, this represents all the instruc-
tion students ever get. Thus, the flipped classroom actually represents an expansion of the cur-
riculum, rather than a mere re-arrangement of activities. A simplified depiction of this is shown
in Table 2.
We define the flipped classroom as an educational technique that consists of two parts: interactive
group learning activities inside the classroom, and direct computer-based individual instruction
outside the classroom. A graphic representation of this definition is shown in Figure 1. We re-
strict this definition to exclude designs that do not employ videos as an outside of the classroom
activity. While a broad conception of the flipped classroom may be useful, definitions that be-
come too broad suggest that assigning reading outside of class and having discussions in class
constitutes the flipped classroom. We reject these definitions2.
Figure 1: Flipped Classroom.
4 Theoretical Frameworks for the Flipped Classroom
Now that we have a working definition of the flipped classroom, we are ready to discuss the the-
oretical frameworks used to guide the design of in-class activities. The theoretical foundations
used for justifying the flipped classroom typically focus on reasons for not using classroom time
to deliver lectures. These stem from a large body of literature on student-centered learning, which
looks primarily to the theories of Piaget 1967 and Vygotsky 1978. Tudge and Winterhoff[75]
provide a detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between these two theories. Foot
and Howe[ 25] provide the background outlining connections leading to peer-assisted learning.
In particular, they point out that constructivism and collaborative learning stem from Piaget’s
theory of cognitive conflict, and that cooperative learning stems from Vygotsky’s zone of proxi-
mal development. Topping and Ehly[73] indicate that peer-assisted learning is an umbrella large
enough to accommodate both of these theories. Smith and MacGregor [66] claim that Lewin[50 ]
and Deutsch[15] were important influences in cooperative learning through their social inter-
dependence theories. Constructivism is considered the source for the theories problem-based
and active learning[34]. Kolb’s theory of experiential learning draws from Piaget, Dewey, and
Lewin. This then forms the basis of Kolb’s learning styles. Felder-Silverman 1988 learning styles
draw both from Kolb’s theory of learning styles and from Jung’s theory of psychological types.
Adapted and expanded from an initial diagram by Verleger[78], Figure 2 is useful in tracing the
progression and developmental relationship of different student-centered learning theories present
in the literature.
In addition to the relationship between these theories due to historical development, it is also pos-
sible to generate a Venn-diagram to show the complex relationship between these groups of the-
ories, shown in Figure 3. It is important to note that while learning styles serves as a justification
for differentiated learning activities, it does not necessarily provide a framework for how these
activities should be structured. This is why learning styles does not appear in Figure 3. A brief
overview of these student-centered learning theories and relevant literature is provided in the fol-
lowing (sub)sections.
Figure 2: Psycho-Educational Origins of Student-Centered Learning Theories
Figure 3: Venn diagram of several student-centered learning theories and methods.
4.1 Learning Styles
Learning styles theories posit that individuals have unique learning styles, and that matching
learning experiences with particular learning styles improves educational outcomes. There are
several strands within the learning styles literature, but extensive exploration of all of these is be-
yond the scope of the current work. We discuss only two. Depicted in Figure 2 are the origins of
the Kolb[ 47] learning style. Kolb identifies Lewin, Dewey, and Piaget as the sources from which
he derives his theory of experiential learning. Kolb’s own model of learning styles is then based
upon this theory. This model consists of a universal learning cycle and two embedded dimen-
sions, perception and processing. Kolb’s four learning styles are given by the permutations of
these two dimensions.
The learning styles theory of Felder and Silverman[23] is also noteworthy, as this was developed
specifically for use in engineering education. Felder and Silverman identify at least two sources
for the dimensions of their model, including Jung’s[42] (1933) theory of psychological types
and Kolb’s learning styles. This model consists of five dimensions, with two extremes for each
dimension—the permutation yields 32 learning styles. These dimensions include perception, in-
put, organization, processing, and understanding. Corresponding categories for teaching styles
are established along the dimensions of content, presentation, organization, student participation,
and perspective.
4.2 Peer-Assisted, Collaborative, and Cooperative Learning
Topping and Ehly[73] define peer assisted learning as, “the acquisition of knowledge and skill
through active helping and supporting among status equals or matched companions” (p.1). This
broad definition prepares us for the statement by Foot and Howe[25], “Taken together, the pro-
cesses [collaborative learning and peer tutoring] describe and seek to explain underpin virtually
all the [peer-assisted learning] techniques currently in educational practice” (p.28). Smith and
MacGregor[66] further explain, “cooperative learning represents the most carefully structured end
of the collaborative learning continuum” (p.15). Thus, while Figure 2 is useful for tracing the ori-
gins and influences of peer-assisted learning, it does not adequately represent the relationship of
this with other closely-related learning theories. Rather, the preceding statements lead to a rela-
tionship akin to the one given in Figure 3.
4.3 Cooperative Learning
Foot and Howe[25] describe cooperative learning as including three key parts: 1) Students work
in teams toward the attainment of some superordinate goal. 2) Labor is divided between team
members, such that each individual takes responsibility for a different sub-goal. 3) Individual
contributions are pooled into a composite product to ensure that the goal is reached.
Synthesizing the views of several theorists[38,64,62,57], Doolittle [18] notes that while there is not
perfect consensus on what constitutes cooperative learning, five factors are paramount: 1) Posi-
tive interdependence, 2) Face-to-face interaction, 3) Individual accountability, 4) Small group &
interpersonal skills, 5) Group self-evaluation.
A Meta-analysis of the effects of cooperative learning methods are given by Slavin[65], John-
son et al.[40], and Johnson et al. [41]. Of these, Johnson et al. [ 41] provide the most detail, ranking
specific cooperative learning methods by effectiveness. These have broad variation. The magni-
tude of effect sizes range from low (0.18) to high (0.85). The most effective of these is Learning
Together & Alone, which focuses on, “the integrated use of cooperative, competitive and indi-
vidualistic learning”[39]. In a more recent publication, Johnson and Johnson[39 ] give a dedicated
meta-analysis of this particular cooperative learning method.
4.4 Problem-Based Learning
Hmelo-Silver[37] lays out five goals of problem-based learning. These include helping students
develop 1) Flexible knowledge, 2) Effective problem-solving skills, 3) Self-directed learning
skills, 4) Effective collaboration skills, and 5) intrinsic motivation.
Barrows[ 4] describes six characteristics of problem-based learning, running somewhat parallel
to these goals: 1) Learning is Student-Centered. 2) Learning Occurs in Small Student Groups.
3) Teachers are Facilitators or Guides. 4) Problems Form the Organizing Focus and Stimulus for
Learning. 5) Problems are a vehicle for the development of clinical problem-solving skills. 6)
New information is acquired through self-directed learning.
Dochy et al.[16] and Gijbels et al.[30] both present meta-analytic results on the effectiveness of
problem-based learning (PBL). These indicate that the effect of PBL on skills is positive, while
its effect on knowledge is negative. Combined results indicate an overall negative effect for problem-
based learning. Gijbels et al. [ 30] recommend careful consideration of assessment methods in
measuring problem-based learning outcomes.
4.5 Active Learning
Prince[61] defines active learning broadly as, “any instructional method that engages students in
the learning process.” This definition is itself broad enough to include many traditional classroom
activities such as lectures (provided students are reflecting, taking notes, or asking questions).
However, in an effort to maintain contrast with traditional teacher-centered3approaches, these
methods are systematically dismissed by explicit exclusion. Thus, active learning acts as a super-
set for both peer-assisted and problem-based learning approaches. Prince also clarifies the rela-
tionship between these two, indicating that problem-based learning is, “always active and usually
(but not necessarily) collaborative or cooperative.” This leads to a revision of the previous dia-
gram, resulting in the relationship shown in Figure 3. The reviews of Prince[61] and Michael[52]
provide a broad sweep of the literature, highlighting evidence for active learning.
The importance of these (student-centered) learning theories to the flipped classroom cannot be
understated. Without these, the flipped classroom simply does not exist. As shown in Figure 1,
the flipped classroom is made up of two components: one component that requires human inter-
action (in-class activities), and a second component that is automated through the use of com-
puter technologies such as video lectures (outside activities). Obviously, the classroom compo-
nent is critical, and the student-centered learning theories just presented provide the philosophical
basis for the design of these activities. Unfortunately, some may overlook this fact and instead
conceptualize the flipped classroom based only on the presence (or absence) of computer technol-
ogy such as video lectures. This would be a mistake, since the pedagogical theory used to design
the in-class experience may ultimately be the determining factor in the success (or failure) of the
flipped classroom.
5 Research on the Flipped Classroom
A search of the literature through June 2012 revealed 24 studies related to the flipped classroom.
A spreadsheet with a complete encoding of study features was created, including the publication
type, year of publication, course, educational institution, study type, sample size, measurement
instruments, theoretical framework, in-class activities, and out-of-class activities. A limited sub-
set of this information is listed in Table 3.
The combination of in-class and out-of-class activities was evaluated to determine whether the
study actually represented a flipped classroom. To meet the criterion, out-of-class activities must
include required video lectures; in-class activities must be required, and must involve interac-
tive learning activities—specifically, the primary in-class component could not be lectures. This
eliminated eleven studies. Some of these required students to read material before class, rather
than having it presented in an audiovisual format (e.g., Papadopoulos et al.[58], Papdopoulos and
Santiago-Román[59]), others maintained that either video lectures or in-class activities were op-
tional (e.g., Thomas and Philpot[72]). Of the remaining studies, all but two either formally or in-
formally examined student perceptions.
Despite differences among studies, general reports of student perceptions were relatively con-
sistent. Opinions tended to be positive, but there were invariably a few students who strongly
disliked the change. Students did tend to watch the videos when assigned, and even when they
were not. DeGrazia et al. [ 12] notes that students supplied with optional video lectures came to
class much better prepared than when they had been given textbook readings. This observation is
encouraging because although learning gains are high for information presented textually, Sap-
pington et al.[63] shows that college students don’t generally complete reading assignments. Nev-
ertheless, upon recommendation by students, many instructors instituted a required pre-class quiz
on the lecture material. This was touted as a highly successful practice. Students preferred live
in-person lectures to video lectures, but also liked interactive class time more than in-person lec-
tures[74]. Shorter, rather than longer videos were preferred[82] .
The two remaining results that both qualified as flipped classroom studies and examined student
performance are those by Moravec et al.[ 55] and Day and Foley[11 ]. Moravec et al.[55] modified
the presentation method for three lectures in an introductory biology course. Students were re-
quired to watch narrated PowerPoint videos and complete a worksheet before class time. In class,
students participated in alternating ten-minute mini-lectures and five to seven minute active learn-
ing exercises. This led to a performance increase of 21% on exam questions related to the topics
introduced outside class with videos. While these results are encouraging, there are several short-
comings to this study. First, in-class activities still carried a lecture component, even though time
was provided for interactive activities. Second, the duration of the treatment was very short, and
topics on both sides of the flipped topics were still taught with traditional methods. This leaves
Table 3: Published Studies of the Flipped Classroom
Study Class,
Primary Author
Grade
Level
In-Class
Activities
Out-of-Class
Activities
N,
Treatment
N,
Control
Instrument
Type
Test
Structure
Full Flip, Single-Group
Lage[48,49] Fr SGA VL 40 - O O-X
Kaner[44] U SGA VL - - O O-X
Bergmann[5,6] HS - - - - - -
Talbert[70] U SGA;Q VL 7 - O O-X
Gannod[28,29] Fr-Gr HW;SGA VL 20;160 IP - O X-X
Toto[74] Jr - VL;Q 74 - O X1-X2
Zappe[82] U SGA VL;Q 77 - O -XX
Demetry[14] U SGA VL;Q 125 - - -
Full Flip, Controlled
Day[11] So-Gr SGA VL;HW 28 18 O;P O-X
Foertsch[24] So-Jr SGA VL 415 234 O O-X
Partial Flip, Single-Group
Kellogg[45] U - CM - - - -
Warter-Perez[80] Fr-So L;SGA VL 25-30 - O X-X
Dollar[17] U SGA CM - - P X-X
Tan[71] Fr L;VL HW? 75 - O O-X
Baker[3 ] U SGA RA;CM - - - O-X
Bland[7] So-Jr HW HW - - O O-X
Franciszkowicz[26] Fr-So HW HW 1074 - O -XX
Partial Flip, Controlled
Thomas[72] U HW VL 405 275-668 P O-X
Stelzer[68] U L;SGA VL;CM 500+ 500+ O;P O-X
Moravec[55] Fr-So L;SGA VL 795 1310 O;P O-X
Strayer[69] U SGA CM 23 26 O O-X
Papadopoulos[58,59] U L? CM;HW 43 11 O;P X-X
Note. Grade Level: U = Undergraduate; Fr,So,Jr,Sr = First, Second, Third, and Fourth Year Undergraduate; HS = High
School. In-Class and Out-of-Class Activities: L = Lecture; VL = Video Lecture; HW = Homework; Q = Quizzes; SGA
= Small-Group Activities; CM = Computer Modules (text-based). Number of Participants: IP = In Progress. Instru-
ment Type: O = Subjective Opinion Survey or Informal Assessment; P = Objective Performance Test. Test Structure:
O-X = Post-Test Only; X-X = Matched Pretest-Posttest; X1-X2= Unmatched Pre- and Post Measures; -XX = Mid- and
Post- Semester Measures. Information for entries marked with - was missing or not available.
open the question of whether similar results would be achieved across all topics if the entire class
were flipped.
Day and Foley[ 11] conducted their study in a senior-level computer interaction course. They
taught concurrent experimental and comparison sections of the course, and matched sections
on topics, assignments, and time on task. Students in the experimental section watched narrated
PowerPoint videos outside of class, and participated in interactive learning activities inside class.
Students in the flipped environment scored significantly higher on all homework assignments,
projects, and tests.
In summary, of all the studies on the flipped classroom, there is only one (Day and Foley[ 11] ) that
has examined student performance throughout a semester. While the results from this study are
encouraging, this is not sufficient evidence to warrant generalization far beyond that situation.
Further, the solution was very specific, rather than being based on established principles to guide
adaptation. Thus, additional research is needed to examine the influence of flipped classroom
instruction on objective learning outcomes.
6 Future Directions for Research on the Flipped Classroom
We suggest that in order to ensure progress, future research on the flipped classroom should em-
ploy controlled studies that objectively examine student performance throughout a semester,
with both traditional and concept-inventory[35] style problems. Further, we recommend that re-
searchers employing the flipped classroom leverage the existing research and theoretical frame-
works to guide their use and design of in-class activities. As a side-note, we recommend that
researchers clearly describe the activities used for both in-class and out-of-class activities (this
was not always clear for studies we examined). The affordable state of recording technology and
ubiquity web-based dissemination tools make research on the flipped classroom both timely and
cost-effective.
References
To improve readability, the references for this paper are divided into five distinct sections. End-
notes are denoted without delimiters. The main article references are numbered inside square
brackets, while articles and blog posts promoting or discussing the flipped classroom are marked
with parenthesis. Complete websites dedicated to the flipped classroom are denoted with dashes,
and web resources for flipped classroom teachers are separated with asterisks.
References: Notes
1 Note that there are two other possible permutations of lecture and homework. Both may take place in class,
or both may take place outside class. These might be referred to as boarding school and independent study,
respectively.
2 We reject these definitions for two reasons. First, if too liberal a definition is used, it becomes impossible to
evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom. Second, students tend not to complete assigned readings.
Thus, the effectiveness of such a method will not tend to match our definition.
3 The label student-centered is carefully crafted for linguistic effect. This is much like the label pro-choice,
which is crafted to portray an opposite of anti-choice or pro-slavery. Correspondingly, the label pro-life
suggests an opposite of pro-death or anti-life. Educators do not typically self-identify as having a teacher-
centered or non-student focused teaching philosophy. Like its political counterpart, the educational debate is
both complex and highly polarizing.
References: Research on the Flipped Classrom
[1] Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology. Criteria for accrediting engineering programs effective
for evaluations during the 2010-2011 accreditation cycle, 2009.
[2] Nanette Asimov. Protests as UC regents seek to avoid tuition hike. San Francisco Chronicle, May 2012.
URL http://www.sfgate.com/education/article/Protests-as-UC-regents-seek-to-avoid-
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References: Websites Dedicated to the Flipped Classroom
-1- URL http://flippedclassroom.org/.
-2- URL http://flippedclassroom.com/.
-3- URL http://flipped-learning.com/.
-4- URL http://flippedhighschool.com/.
-5- URL http://www.techsmith.com/flipped-classroom.html.
References: Web Resources for Flipped Classroom Teachers
*1* URL http://www.showme.com/.
*2* URL http://www.educreations.com/.
*3* URL http://www.knowmia.com/.
*4* URL http://www.sophia.org/.
*5* URL http://www.sophia.org/flipped-classroom/flipped-classroom-certification.
*6* URL http://ed.ted.com/.
... Topical Research -Flexible learning environments (Bishop & Verleger, 2013) Research-based mathematical practices (NCTM, 2014) -The flipped model classroom as a teaching strategy (Stratton, 2020) Personal interests and goals -understand how students adapt to a new teaching and learning model Why do I want to do this study? -to understand my teaching using the flipped model classroom through the lens of student experiences and researcher reflection ...
... This study brought to light the experiences of advanced 8th Grade mathematics students had with this different model of teaching and learning with the goal of providing opportunities for students to take ownership and be actively engaged in mathematical activities. Throughout this study, students shared in learning responsibilities, were challenged through engaging learning activities, and constructed their own knowledge through collaboration with their peers which was supported by a teacher and researcher constructivist worldview described by Casas (2011) multiple studies that were found that focused on a survey of the research (Bishop & Verleger, 2013;Cheng et al., 2018;Deng, 2019;Lencastre et al., 2020;Talan & Batdi, 2020;. Three studies directly focused on the middle school level (Lee, 2018;Wei et al., 2020;Winter, 2017). ...
... Similarly, Lencastre and colleagues (2020) found, through their review of literature, that there was a lack of research on the flipped model classroom for K-12 classrooms. Through Bishop and Verleger's (2013) previous research on the flipped model, they recommended that more research be done that includes a clear description of in-class student activities, as they did not find that to be clear in all studies they examined. Similarly, Zainuddin and co-authors (2019) suggested that future research look to how adding a gaming component to the classroom environment would affect further student growth. ...
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In professional training programs, how to help learners fully understand the contexts and problem-solving procedure in the workplace is a crucial and challenging issue. Due to the advancements of computer and multimedia technology, many professional training programs have applied technology to provide richer learning content. Blended learning is a learning approach combining online and physical courses. In the blended learning mode, learners can not only learn through multimedia teaching materials, but also interact and practice with teachers and students in online and physical classrooms. However, the conventional blended learning (C-BL) mode mainly presents teaching content through online videos and physical courses. In such a learning environment with one-way information transmission and without experience, it is not easy for most learners to experience the actual situations encountered in the professional training process, which affects their judgment and actual handling performance. In order to tackle this problem, this research adopted spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) technology and applied it in a general registered nurse (RN) training program via a blended learning mode. To verify the effects of this teaching approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in a RN training program in a large-scale hospital. The experimental group employed the SVVR-BL mode while the control group employed the C-BL mode. The results indicated that the SVVR-BL mode could not only improve learners' learning achievement, but also enhance their problem-solving tendency, meta-cognition tendency, and classroom engagement. The practical skills test results in the workplace further implied that, compared to the learners who adopted the C-BL mode, learners who adopted the SVVR-BL mode had better judgment, analysis, and overall performance of the handling process when encountering practical problems. As a result, SVVR-BL not only helped learners gain knowledge and improve their higher order thinking, but also assisted them in applying what they had learned to solve real problems. This result can serve as an important reference for SVVR-BL studies and the design of professional training programs in the future.
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In today's complex world, simply knowing how to use tools and knowledge in a single domain is not sufficient to remain competitive as either individuals or companies. People must also learn to apply tools and knowledge in new domains and different situations. Industry specialists report that people at every organizational level must be creative and flexible problem solvers (Lynton, 1989). This requires the ability to apply experience and a definition knowledge to address novel problems. Consequently, learning to think critically, to analyse and synthesize information to solve technical, social, economic, political, and scientific problems, and to work productively in groups are crucial skills for successful and fulfilling participation in our modern, competitive society.