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Sensory and storage properties of instant kunun zaki: a non -alcoholic fermented sorghum beverage supplemented with mango mesocarp flour.

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... Primary raw materials used for production include cereal-grains, herbs, calyces, fruits, water and sugar. Examples of TBs include; Kunun zaki (KZ), and Zobo drink (ZD) (Muhammad and Umar, 2007;Sengev et al. 2010; Mohammed 2013). Housewives are into the business of the production of TBs to generate income for the family. ...
... TBs are gaining acceptance due to affordability. Most people consume TBs for nourishment, quenching thirst, especially in homes, restaurants, primary schools, secondary schools, tertiary institutions and joints where soft drinks are sold (Muhammad and Umar, 2007;Mohammed and Okereke, 2008;Sengev et al. 2010). TBs are also consumed to grace occasions such as 'Ideil Fitr' (i.e. ...
... hough, if KZ is produced from Sorghum it is regarded as a sweet Sorghum beverage; also if it is produced from Maize kernel it is called sweet Maize beverage; and if it is produced from Millet it could be referred to as sweet Millet beverage; while a combination of any of the two grains is only called KZ meaning 'sweet beverage' in 'Hausa' language (Sengev et. al 2010;Onuorah, 2011). These sweet beverages are produced and serve chilled to consumers (Muhammad and Umar, 2007;Alobo et al. 2009;Onuorah, 2011). This is the reason during the winter period sell and consumption of TBs drastically drops; although, some consumers still patronize TBs during the Harmattan (i.e. winter season) (Alobo et al. 2009). ...
... Primary raw materials used for production include cereal-grains, herbs, calyces, fruits, water and sugar. Examples of TBs include; Kunun zaki (KZ), and Zobo drink (ZD) (Muhammad and Umar, 2007;Sengev et al. 2010;Mohammed 2013). Housewives are into the business of the production of TBs to generate income for the family. ...
... TBs are gaining acceptance due to affordability. Most people consume TBs for nourishment, quenching thirst, especially in homes, restaurants, primary schools, secondary schools, tertiary institutions and joints where soft drinks are sold (Muhammad and Umar, 2007;Mohammed and Okereke, 2008;Sengev et al. 2010). TBs are also consumed to grace occasions such as 'Ideil Fitr' (i.e. ...
... Table 2 presents the demonstrations of primary raw materials and unit operations in the production of the two selected TBs. Table 1: List of selected traditional non-alcoholic beverages produced and sold in Nigeria Local name English name Region of Mohammed, 2005;Sengev et al. 2010; Mohammed 2013). Table 2 presents the processing steps employed in the production of TBs including wet- cleaning, steeping, milling, cooking (in the case of 'Kunun zaki'), extracting (in the case of 'Zobo' drink), sieving, sweetening and chilling at 5°C (Mohammed,1997;Mohammed, 2005;Onuorah, 2011;Mohammed 2013). ...
... The nutrient content and microbiological properties of kununzaki have been reported (Gaffa et al., 2002b). Sengev et al. (2010) reported that supplementation of instant kunun-zaki with mango mesocarp flour improved its sensory attributes. ...
... The formulation was carried out using the method of Sengev et al. (2010). Malted sorghum flour (10%), unmalted sorghum flour and mango mesocarp flour of varying proportions were blended to obtain composite flour (Table 1). ...
... Badifu et al. (2005) reported that supplementing wheat bread with mango mesocarp flour improved its sensory attributes. Sengev et al. (2010) also reported that supplementing sorghum flour with mango mesocarp flour improved the sensory attributes of instant kunun-zaki. The preference for the taste and flavour of the blends increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with increase in percentage of mango mesocarp flour. ...
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Instant Kunun-zaki, a fermented non-alcoholic sorghum beverage, was prepared by mixing different per cent blend ratios of unmalted sorghum flour: mango mesocarp flour (90:0, 75:15, 70:20, 65:25, and 60:30) with 10% malted sorghum. Proximate compositions, chemical and functional properties of the blends were analyzed. Addition of mango mesocarp flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the ash (1.31 to 1.75%), crude fibre (2.57 to 3.39%) and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) the energy content (368.21 to 354.67 kcal/100 g) of the blends. The β-carotene content also increased from 95.65 to 139.13 μg/100 g with increased mango mesocarp flour. Hygroscopicity increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 6.10 to 10.28% while viscosity of the blends decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 1715 to 1195.46 cP. Mango mesocarp flour addition increased the ash, crude fibre and introduced β-carotene into the product.
... The formulation ofinstant beverage mix was done using the method outlined by Sengev et al. (2010) [58] . For the present study black rice flour (Oryza sativa L. indica), germinated lentil flour (Lens culinaris), sweet potato flour(Ipomoea batatas) and black mulberry powder(Morusnigra) of varying proportion were blended to obtain Five test sample namely TS1,TS2, TS3,TS4 and TS5 for each formulation as shown in Table 1. ...
... The formulation ofinstant beverage mix was done using the method outlined by Sengev et al. (2010) [58] . For the present study black rice flour (Oryza sativa L. indica), germinated lentil flour (Lens culinaris), sweet potato flour(Ipomoea batatas) and black mulberry powder(Morusnigra) of varying proportion were blended to obtain Five test sample namely TS1,TS2, TS3,TS4 and TS5 for each formulation as shown in Table 1. ...
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The present investigation was undertaken to develop Burma black rice Based Instant Beverage Mix (BBIBM)using Burma black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), lentil (Lens culinaris), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and mulberry (Morus nigra) flour, and evaluated its chemical and functional properties. Developed Burma black rice based instant beverage mix had a moisture content of 10.25g/100gat par with the permissible limit recommended by Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2011,the crude protein content of 14.34±0.08g/100gm, crude fat content of 3.10±0.2 g/100gm, crude fibre content of 11.34±0.22 g/100gm, total mineral content of 2.43±0.02 g/100gm, total carbohydrate content of 58.54±1.33 g/100gm and energy value of 319.42 ±0.9kcal at par with commercially available health drink powder (56g/100g of carbohydrate and 335kcal of energy). It has good functional properties with water holding capacity of 63±2.3%water/100g,bulk density of 0.67±0.07g/cm 3 ,tapped density of 0.81±0.01g/cm 3, flowabilityof 17.28±1.2% at par with Carr's compressibility index (16-20%), cohesiveness of 1.2±0.1 at par with Husnar ratio (1.19 to 1.25), dispersibility of 62.71±1.82%, Hygroscopicity of 66.46±1.42%, viscosity of 5.75±0.46cP and wettability of 55.00± 2.83 sec. The developed Burma black rice based instant beverage mixis rich in nutrient and had excellent functional characteristics indicating a quality product for consumer acceptability.
... The schematic diagram of making the fermented millet flour can be seen in Figure 2, which followed the method described by Sengev, Ingbian, and Gernah [29] with slight modifications. Whole (pearl) millet grains have been sorted and cleaned to remove unwanted materials, and subsequently, thoroughly washed with running tap water. ...
... The schematic diagram of making the fermented millet flour (Sources: Sengev et al.[29]). ...
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A fermented millet flour called “Ibyer” traditionally available in Nigeria is increasingly being enhanced with ginger powder, which its quality characteristics to our best knowledge appears not yet reported. To supplement existing information, therefore, the microbiological (which involved bacteria and fungi counts), pasting (which involved peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, set back, peak time, and pasting temperature), proximate (which involved moisture, ash, crude fat, fibre, protein, as well as carbohydrates), and sensory (which involved appearance, aroma, mouth-feel, consistency, taste, and overall acceptability) properties of fermented millet “ibyer” beverage enhanced with ginger powder were investigated. The major experimental stages included assembly of millet flour and ginger powder, preparation of blend formulation, making of “ibyer” beverage blends, and laboratory analysis. The blend involved fermented millet flour (FMF) decreasing, and ginger powder (GP) increasing, by proportions. Results showed noticeable microbiological, pasting, proximate, and sensory differences between blend samples and control. Compared to control, the blend samples obtained reduced bacterial and fungal counts, with increased peak, trough, final, set back viscosities, peak time, and pasting temperature, as well as moisture, ash, crude fat, crude fibre, and crude protein contents, but yet, with decreased sensory appearance, aroma, mouthfeel, taste and overall acceptability.
... The method described by Sengev et al. [14] was used with slight modi ications for the production of millet lour. Pearl millet lour was prepared as shown in igure 1. ...
... Flow chart for the production of millet fl our. Source: Sengev, et al.[14] ...
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A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
... The method described by [18] was used with slight modifications for the production of millet flour. Pearl millet flour was prepared as shown in (Figure 1). ...
... Flow chart for the production of millet flour Source:[18]. ...
... Fermentation of sorghum flour was carried out using the method of Sengev et al. [11] with modification. The milled sorghum flour was divided into two equal parts. ...
... The method described by Sengev et al. [11] was adopted with modification. Five kilograms (5kg) of partially ripe mango fruits, Chul kpev (a local variety) (pH=3.8, ...
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The moisture adsorption and thermodynamic properties of sorghum-based complementary foods were investigated. Non-fermented and fermented sorghum, crayfish, Mango mesocarp and fluted pumpkin leaf powders were blended in the ratios of 91.06% non-fermented sorghum: 0.17% mango mesocarp: 8.77% fish (NFSMC), 91.06% fermented sorghum: 0.17% mango mesocarp: 8.77% fish (FSMC), 91.04% non-fermented sorghum: 0.19% fluted pumpkin: 8.77% fish (NFSPC) and 91.04% fermented sorghum: 0.19% fluted pumpkin: 8.77% fish (FSPC). The sample formulations were done based on 16% protein using material balance. Established procedures were used for sample preparation and analyses. The equilibrium moisture contents (EMCs) generated through static gravimetric method was fitted with Guggenheim-AndersondeBoer (GAB) model by polynomial regression analysis. The moisture adsorption isotherms of the samples exhibited sigmoidal shape (Type II). The enthalpy of monolayer ranged from 50.34 to 60.75kJ/mol, multilayer ranged from 43.83 to 45.89kJ/mol and bulk water ranged from 42.98 to 44.20kJ/mol. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content, the entropy of adsorption of NFSMC, FSMC and FSPC decreased as the moisture content increased. The isokinetic temperature ranged from 326.51 to 603.33K while the harmonic mean temperature was 297.78K. The adsorption process was enthalpy driven. Therefore, NFSMC, FSMC and NFSPC are recommended for their relatively lower moisture content. Keywords: Sorghum, Fermentation, Crayfish, Isosteric Heat, Entropy, Water Activity
... The flour was sieved using a laboratory test sieve of 0.5mm aperture. Solid State Fermented of Sorghum Flour: Fermentation of sorghum flour was carried out using the method of Sengev et al. (2010) with modification. The milled sorghum flour was divided into two equal parts. ...
... The method of Sengev et al. (2010) was adopted with modification. Five kilograms of partially ripe mango fruits, chul kpev (a local variety) (pH = 3.8, Brix = 7.0, Refractive Index = 1.34) were sorted, washed, peeled and the mesocarp was manually sliced to an average thickness of 2.5mm. ...
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This study investigated the effect of natural fermentation on the vitamins, amino acid and the quality of protein of sorghum-based complementary foods. Samples were formulated based on 16% protein to satisfy the nutrient requirement of preschool children to obtain non-fermented sorghum/mango mesocarp/crayfish (NFSMF), non-fermented sorghum/fluted pumpkin leaf/fish (NFSPF), fermented sorghum/ mango mesocarp/crayfish (FSMF) and fermented sorghum/ fluted pumpkin leaf /crayfish (FSPF). The vitamins, amino acids and growth study parameters were examined using standard procedures. Vitamin A (193.50-322.10μ/100g), B 12 (0.48 – 0.54mg/100g) and D (0.42 – 0.93mg/100g) increased significantly (p< 0.05) with fermentation, both for samples containing mango mesocarp and fluted pumpkin powders while retinol equivalent decreased with fermentation. All the samples met the essential amino acids requirement as recommended by WHO/FAO/UNU pattern 2007. All the essential amino acids increased significantly with fermentation. NFSMF and NFSPF exhibited higher growth response when fed to rats compared to FSMF and FSPF. Sample NFSMF gave better protein efficiency ratio (PER) (2.48) and net protein ratio (NPR) (4.12) followed by NFSPF, FSMF and FSPF. Among all the samples, NFSMF gave the best PER result.
... Kunun-zaki is a Hausa word meaning sweet beverage (Sengev et al., 2010). It is a traditional cereal based non-alcoholic fermented beverage, mostly consumed in the northern part of Nigeria. ...
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Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Nigeria, hitting the people in the savannah zones the hardest. This has accounted for child mortality and blindness. Therefore, there is a need to develop vitamin A rich food that is affordable and appealing to consumers. Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) (Ipomoea batatas) is a variety of sweet potato now emerging as an important root crop with the possibility of tackling the problem of vitamin A deficiency. In this study, the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of Kunun-zaki, a non-alcoholic beverage sweetened with OFSP syrup, was compared to the same beverage sweetened with sugar and sugar syrup (100 mL/10 g of sweetener). The result of the physicochemical properties showed that the kunun-zaki samples were not significantly different in their pH and total titratable acidity; with values ranging from 3.93 to 4.0 and from 0.18 to 0.20 g/100 mL, respectively. The kunun-zaki samples were however significantly different in their obrix content. The OFSP sweetened sample recorded the highest obrix value of 15.20o, followed by the sugar sweetened kunun-zaki sample (13.30o) and the sugar syrup sweetened kunun-zaki (11.63o). The result of the sensory analysis showed that the sample sweetened with OFSP syrup had the best sensory attributes. The OFSP sweetened sample also had the best evaluated sensory attributes (colour, flavour, texture, and overall acceptability). The result of this study showed that Kunun-zaki sweetened with OFSP syrup was highly acceptable and could therefore serve as a dietary means of alleviating vitamin A deficiency, especially in the northern part of Nigeria where the local beverage is mostly consumed.
... The method of Sengev et al. [13] was adopted with slight modification. Five kilograms of ripe mango fruits were sorted, washed, peeled and the mesocarp was manually sliced to an average thickness of 2.0mm. ...
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This study was a result of the need for utilization of local raw materials for food production and diversification as well as an attempt to reduce the rising cost of wheat imports. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from sweet potato and mango mesocarp composite flours. Sweet potato tubers and partially ripe mango fruits were processed into flours. Cookies were prepared from blends of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 sweet potato flour (SPF) to mango mesocarp flour (MMF), with cookies prepared from 100% sweet potato flour (SPF) and 100% wheat flour (WF) serving as control and standard respectively. Thereafter, all the cookie samples were subjected to chemical, physical and sensory analyses using standard methods. The moisture, fat, fibre, ash, energy values as well as beta carotene contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the level of substitution increased. The standard recorded the highest protein value with the control having the least value. However, the control had highest value in terms of carbohydrate. The crude protein increased significantly (p < 0.05) between the blends with increasing levels of mango mesocarp flour. Conversely, the carbohydrates content decreased as substitution levels increased. The diameter and spread ratio of the cookies decreased with increased substitution levels while the thickness increased. Cookies prepared from whole sweet potato flour were rated higher in terms of colour (8.1), crispiness (8.8), flavour (7.9), texture (7.2), taste (7.1) and overall acceptability (8.5) followed by cookies from whole wheat flour. Preference for the cookies decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the percentage of mango mesocarp flour (MMF) increased. Cookies from 60% SPF: 40% MMF had the least acceptability, though they had the highest β – carotene content. Generally, cookies produced from 100% SPF and the blends had good nutritional value except for protein which decreased with increasing levels of substitution with MMF.
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