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Creativity and Development

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Abstract

This book explores the connections and tensions between creativity research and developmental psychology, two fields that have largely progressed independently of each other until now. Scholars in psychology investigated the emergence of new ideas, and the development of people and situations that bring them to completion. Findings are based on the observation that both creativity and development are processes that occur in complex systems, in which later stages or changes emerge from the prior state of the system. In the 1970s and 1980s, creativity researchers shifted their focus from personality traits to cognitive and social processes, and the co-authors of this volume are some of the influential figures in this transition. Readers will learn about the system activities resulting into three interconnected themes: the outcomes of creativity and development that emerge from dynamic undertakings, the interrelation between individual and social underpinnings, and the role of mediating artifacts and domains in development and creativity.

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... The development of creative practices in students encounters specific hurdles, even without the addition of technology. Sawyer et al.'s work indicates that young students may not possess the depth of domain knowledge to achieve creativity [18]; however, building and developing skills such as divergent thinking [21] and ideation [13] can provide an important foundation for being able to develop creativity as domain knowledge increases. One way this is currently addressed in schools is for students, scaffolded by the teacher, to engage in a designerly process of addressing an openended problem using prototyping technologies that can be embedded in everyday objects [4,20]. ...
... whether cables are disconnected, being able to see which program it is running -affect how 'readable' it is to the students and subvert their ability to consider design implications. This 'glitching' has the effect of reducing risk-taking that is necessary in a design process [18]. This can be seen in how Soren stops the others from interacting and playing with the device. ...
... Despite its benefits, creativity levels are dynamic during life and tend to suffer a first major oscillation around the age of 7 years old (Kogan, 1973;Sawyer et al., 2003;Spodek & Saracho, 2014). At this age, a tendency for creativity levels to decrease is reported to occur in a phenomenon named "creativity crisis" (Kim, 2011). ...
... Creative growth has different peaks over a lifespan, not being a steady-state or consistently increasing (Claxton, Pannells, & Rhoads, 2005;Dacey, 1989;Feldman, 1999;Kogan, 1973;Runco & Cayirdag, 2006;Sawyer, et al., 2003;Spodek & Saracho, 2014). One of the stages concerns the "creativity crisis" that occurs at the elementary school aged-children (Kim, 2011;Raina, 1982;Runco, 1999;Torrance, 1968). ...
Thesis
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Creativity is an ability with psychological and developmental benefits. Creative levels are dynamic and oscillate throughout life, with a first major decline occurring at the age of 7 years old. However, creativity is an ability that can be nurtured if trained, with evidence suggesting an increase in this ability with the use of validated creativity training. Yet, creativity training for young children (aged between 6-9 years old) appears scarce. Additionally, existing training interventions resemble test-like formats and lack playful dynamics that could engage children in creative practices over time. This PhD project aimed at contributing to creativity stimulation in children by proposing to use social robots as intervention tools, thus adding playful and interactive dynamics to the training. Towards this goal, we conducted three studies in schools, summer camps, and museums for children, that contributed to the design, fabrication, and experimental testing of a robot whose purpose was to re-balance creative levels. Study 1 (n = 140) aimed at testing the effect of existing activities with robots in creativity and provided initial evidence of the positive potential of robots for creativity training. Study 2 (n = 134) aimed at including children as co-designers of the robot, ensuring the robot’s design meets children’s needs and requirements. Study 3 (n = 130) investigated the effectiveness of this robot as a tool for creativity training, showing the potential of robots as creativity intervention tools. In sum, this PhD showed that robots can have a positive effect on boosting the creativity of children. This places social robots as promising tools for psychological interventions.
... Fostering student creativity is one of the fundamental objectives of today's education (Corrigan, 2010;Craft, 2003;Harris, 2016;Karp, 2017;Lin, 2011;Mhlolo, 2017;Niu, Zhou, & Zhou, 2017;Sawyer, 2011Sawyer, , 2012Sawyer et al., 2003;Singer, Sheffield, & Leikin, 2017;Sternberg & Lubart, 1996). To achieve this objective, it is not sufficient to put emphasis on creativity in curriculum and focus solely on students. ...
Article
The current study serves two main purposes: (1) proposing a framework suggesting several conditions that mathematics teachers should establish to increase student creativity, and (2) developing and validating a scale based on the framework, aimed at measuring to what extent mathematics teachers establish a learning environment for their students to foster creativity. The analysis benefited from Sternberg’s Investment Theory of Creativity and Cropley’s framework in addition to other studies on creativity when developing the scale. The participants consisted of two groups of mathematics teachers. Data from the first group (n = 423) were used for exploratory factor analysis. The second group (n = 410) were used for confirmatory factor analysis. Based on results of the exploratory factor analysis, 5 items were removed from the scale. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the trimmed scale. Based on these results, there is evidence that the scale can be employed confidently to measure different dimensions of creativity-fostering behaviors of mathematics teachers.
... In light of such constraints, it seems that the domains of creativity and innovation hold an inherent advantage, and are adaptable to the area of tourism crisis management. As creativity is a significant tool for the expansion of thought and conducts, and lies at the heart of the innovation process, it seems suitable to face the theoretical and applied facets of tourism crisis (Carayannis et al., 2003;De Bono, 1970;De Brabandere & Iny, 2015;Michalko, 2003;Sawyer et al., 2003). Innovation, though a vague notion, in essence, results in a new and improved state of affairs. ...
Article
This paper introduces the QC&IM (Quadratic Creativity & Innovation Model) for the mapping, development and implementation of creativity and innovation-oriented crisis management and mitigation solutions. The model is a four quadrants diagram of (1) ‘old school’; (2) ‘trial-and-error’; (3) ‘incremental’, and (4) ‘breakthrough’. Each represents a distinct case out of a two-axis grid of crisis thinking and crisis actions. A complementary, holistic schematic process of creativity- and innovation-based tourism crisis management follows. The paper outlines the model's methodological, theoretical, formulation, and evolution process. This is part of a qualitative integrated multi-layered study examining the Israeli 2nd Intifada security-induced tourism crisis (2000–2008) from the viewpoint of creativity and innovation. The aim was to evaluate the extent of creativity and innovation involved in crisis interventions and their implications, in efforts to mitigate what was considered, and still is, Israel's most catastrophic and prolonged security-induced tourism crisis. Findings reveal predominantly conservative and reactive conduct with a ‘lack of appetite’ for anything new. In terms of creativity- and innovation-based crisis response, minimal and sporadic implementation was evident. This paper contributes to the literature by a novel theoretic approach that combines three realms of knowledge: (1) creativity in tourism; (2) innovation in tourism, and (3) tourism crisis management. It also establishes a theoretical framework for creativity- and innovation-based evaluation criteria as the basis for the formulation of the QC&IM. In practice, destinations worldwide seeking alternative, new and ‘out-of-the-box’ solutions might benefit from implementing the model.
... Beghetto and Kaufman (2007) proposed the concept of mini-c not simply to create another framework of creativity, but they argued that everyone is creative, and that this creativity all starts in the mini-c, which in most cases can become littlec; in extra-ordinary cases little-c may then turn into Pro-c or Big-C but in other instances mini-c might never evolve. The proposal made by Beghetto and Kaufman (2007) was not an arbitrary classification but was based on solid empirical evidence (e.g., Baer and Kaufman 2005;Cohen 1989;Sawyer et al. 2003). The developmental trajectory of creativity (Beghetto 2014) According to Beghetto and Kaufman (2014) the Four C's model can help teachers understand the levels of creative expression most germane to the classroom environment (i.e. ...
... In introspektiven Studien, in denen sie über ihre eigene Kreativität nachdachten, identifizierten und benannten Alexander Bain, Hermann Helmholtz und Henri Poincaré Phasen (vgl. Sawyer et al. 2003). Hadamard (1945), ebenfalls über seine eigene Kreativität in der Mathematik reflektierend, identifizierte vier Phasen: Vorbereitung, Inkubation, Erleuchtung und Präzisierung. ...
Chapter
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Kreativität bringt zwar Vorteile, aber auch Nachteile. Die Generierung wirkungsvoller Neuheit birgt Risiken, nicht nur für die Menschen, die die Neuheit generieren, sondern auch für andere Menschen und/oder die Gesellschaft im Allgemeinen. Obwohl hinsichtlich Vorteile und Nachteile die Rolle von Produkten am offensichtlichsten ist, sind diese allen Ps inhärent. Solche Überlegungen werfen die Frage auf, ob, wann und wie die Kreativität überhaupt moralisch sein kann. Der Unterschied zwischen „wohlwollender“ und „böswilliger“ Kreativität kann anhand von der „Vorteils-Balance“ verdeutlicht werden: Wem kommt die Kreativität zugute und wen schadet sie? Wer erleidet wie viel Nachteil? Dieser Ansatz bietet eine neue Perspektive für Präventivmaßnahmen.
... Creativity levels are dynamic and are likely to change during life [11]. Therefore, despite its benefits, the first major oscillation in creative abilities occurs at the age of 7 years old [12][13][14] At this age, an intense tendency for creativity levels to decrease is reported to occur in a phenomenon named "creativity crisis" [15]. This decline has been associated with diverse factors, such as to the organization of traditional education systems and Day 2 Session 4: Human Behavior Analysis HRI '20, March 23-26, 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom conformity behaviors towards peers that children start to exhibited in this developmental stage [16,17]. ...
Conference Paper
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Creativity is an intrinsic human ability with multiple benefits across the lifespan. Despite its importance, societies not always are well equipped with contexts for creativity stimulation; as a consequence, a major decline in creative abilities occurs at the age of 7 years old. We investigated the effectiveness of using a robotic system named YOLO as an intervention tool to stimulate creativity in children. During the intervention, children used YOLO as a character for their stories and through the interaction with the robot, creative abilities were stimulated. Our study (n = 62) included 3 experimental conditions: i) YOLO displayed behaviors based on creativity techniques; ii) YOLO displayed behaviors based on creativity techniques plus social behaviors; iii) YOLO was turned off, not displaying any behaviors. We measured children’s creative abilities at pre- and post-testing and their creative process through behavior analysis. Results showed that the interaction with YOLO contributed to higher creativity levels in children, specifically contributing to the generation of more original ideas during story creation. This study shows the potential of using social robots as tools to empower intrinsic human abilities, such as the ability to be creative.
... Creativity levels are dynamic and are likely to change during life [11]. Therefore, despite its benefits, the first major oscillation in creative abilities occurs at the age of 7 years old [12][13][14] At this age, an intense tendency for creativity levels to decrease is reported to occur in a phenomenon named "creativity crisis" [15]. This decline has been associated with diverse factors, such as to the organization of traditional education systems and Day 2 Session 4: Human Behavior Analysis HRI '20, March 23-26, 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom conformity behaviors towards peers that children start to exhibited in this developmental stage [16,17]. ...
Conference Paper
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Creativity is at the core of what it means to be human. It is an intrinsic ability that we all have and influences our well-being self-expression throughout life. However, a decline in creativity abilities occurs in children around the age of 7 years old. Our work aims to contribute to a re-balance of creative levels using social robots. In this video, we describe YOLO, an autonomous robotic toy for children that fosters their creativity during play. This robot is envisioned to be used as a character during storytelling, promoting creative story-lines that might not emerge otherwise.
... Constantinides [26] highlights the importance of courses that are specifically designed to foster creativity in teachers, and also names creativity as an important skill in the process of language teaching. A number of studies have demonstrated the connection between learning and creativity [27][28][29][30]; however, there is still lack of agreement about whether creativity is present in schools. As Hennessey [31] stresses, studies are still needed that aim to establish a clear relation between creativity and learning. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of narrative creativity on the subject of written foreign languages in secondary school students. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was conducted with 117 students of 14-15 years of age in two secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain) with experimental and control groups. The tools used were a writing expression analysis tool designed by the authors and the Creative Imagination for Youngsters Test (Prueba de Imaginación Creativa para Jóvenes, PIC-J). The results showed that the participants of the experimental groups improved in terms of the originality and usage of variables of imaginary elements. We also found gender differences-in favor of female students-in the experimental groups in terms of foreign language improvement during the study. Finally, there was a slight interrelation of students with higher narrative creativity showing greater improvements in their written expression skills.
... Teachers were able to offer insights regarding students' actions in a social environment, interacting with technology, and how these interactions were hampering or encouraging learning in the ecology of the classroom. The teachers drew our attention to how parts of the system gave rise to students engaging in an emerging understanding (Sawyer et al., 2003) of both technology and problem solving strategies. ...
... This is most significant between kindergarten and grade 3 (Kim, 2011). Among the reasons for this are standardised testing (Lingard, 2010;Sawyer et al., 2003), the rigidities of learning schedules and the nature of classroom activities (Robinson, 2011). Because of this, it is essential to incorporate elements of creativity in course materials, especially at the earlier stages of learners' development, wherever possible. ...
... Although creativity researchers accepted the importance of acquiring knowledge as the preparation stage, internalizing substantial knowledge does not always result in creative ideas (Sawyer, 2003). There is controversy concerning the level of knowledge required to create new ideas in a certain domain. ...
Article
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As technologies advance and replace human labor in a variety of settings, we focus our attention on human creativity for generating new ideas. Business organizations, more than ever, recognize that they need employees who think creatively to maintain their competitive edge. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research assessing new ideas and influential factors in generating innovative ideas. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the creation of innovative ideas. We conducted two different types of workshops with 22 subjects and 23 subjects each. In the first workshop, subjects were asked to generate new business ideas through analogical thinking. As a result, half of the participants generated appropriate ideas, and three influential factors were determined: categorization skill, deliberation, and trial and error. The second workshop was designed to facilitate participants to enhance these three factors. As a result, 70% of the participants could generate appropriate ideas. By identifying influential factors, this paper suggests a procedure for designing an innovation workshop that enables the creation of appropriate ideas.
... In accordance with Feldman and Sawyer (2003) creativity is "a phenomenon that is successfully researched and understood at its high level, less frequently as exhibited by average people and children". At best, children can be given a secondary role, at the periphery of creative expression, and be acknowledged for their "low-range creativity" or students may achieve goals but without durable effect on their knowledge and skills (Morelock, Feldman & Sawyer). ...
... Indeed, it is our contention that, like autonomy, real human creativity requires some input and capacity for emotion. Another conceptualization of creativity involves a vibrant interplay between the mind and the world, with the mind constantly seeing new possibilities and pathways (Sawyer et al., 2003). This series of new possibilities is seemingly infinite. ...
Article
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It is becoming common for decisions with serious consequences to be made by automation. Therefore, it is important for counselors to consider the challenges of working with clients who are affected. If a high-consequence decision that leads to tragedy is made by a computer, does this change the counseling process? This article starts this discussion by investigating forgiveness therapy as it applies to computers. First, forgiving a human is qualitatively different from forgiving a computer. Next, examples of automated decisions are presented. Finally, the authors discuss issues that clients wishing to forgive a computer face, suggest interventions, and propose a research agenda.
... The further increase of additive-and-multiplicative answers between fifth and sixth grade may be due to the simultaneous gradual acquisition of other skills. For instance, flexibility (Diamond 2013), creativity (Sawyer et al. 2003), and metacognitive skills (Veenman et al. 2006) have been shown to develop throughout primary education. The gradual development of those more general skills may increasingly lead children to indicate all possibly correct solutions to multiple-choice problems throughout primary education. ...
Article
While previous studies mainly focused on children’s additive and multiplicative reasoning abilities, we studied third to sixth graders’ preference for additive or multiplicative relations. This was investigated by means of schematic problems that were open to both types of relations, namely arrow schemes containing three given numbers and a fourth missing one. In study 1, children had to fill out the missing number, while in study 2, children had to indicate all possibly correct answers among a set of given alternatives. Both studies explicitly showed the existence of a preference for additive relations in some children, while others preferred multiplicative relations. Mainly younger children preferred additive relations, whereas mainly children in upper primary education preferred multiplicative relations. Number ratios also impacted children’s preference, especially in fifth grade. Moreover, the results of study 2 provided evidence for the strength of children’s preference and showed that calculation skills do not coincide with preference, and hence, that preference and calculation skills are two distinct child characteristics. The results of both studies using these open problems resembled previous research results using classical multiplicative or additive word problems. This supports the hypothesis that children’s preferred type of relations may be at play in solving classical word problems as well—besides their abilities—and may hence be an additional factor explaining the mistakes that children make in those word problems. This research line thus seems promising for further research as well as educational practice. © 2017 Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
... There are two reasons: (1) it affects children's understanding and makes them confused and frustrated [61]; (2) the malfunction of TUIs hinders children's creative design and makes them feel hesitant and stressed. In other words, the incomprehensibility and unreliability of TUIs would make children become cautious and refuse to take risks [114], and even lose their courage to learn from failures and mistakes, which consequently limit their creativity [61,82]. Therefore, before inviting children to play with TUIs, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive and thoughtful test to fix those "glitches". ...
... These activities were strategically designed to elicit personally relevant responses from students in the target language. As Sawyer (2003) notes, creativity is a problem-solving process and creative activities not only challenge second language learners, they also allow them to connect with their second language. By providing learners the opportunity to think deeply, reflect, and make choices, creative tasks help to develop a student's particular L2 personality. ...
Article
Examining how creativity functions in regards to Japanese students’ English acquisition is a growing field of research. This descriptive practice article outlines the integration of a pioneering framework for creative expression within the Self-Access Center (SAC) of a private Japanese business university. The author provides an argument for the practical application of scaffolded, theory-based learning activities that promote creative development, increase learner engagement, and develop higher-order thinking skills. Example creative writing, reading, speaking, and listening activities are discussed.
Conference Paper
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One of the functions of creativity is to improve society. Creativity is a skill that can be trained and has proven benefits for the professional and personal development of individuals. Yet, a paradox exists: despite seeking individuals with a greater creative potential, society lacks systems that nurture the development of this skill. Technological advances arrive with the potential to develop solutions that support the development of creative skills. In this proposal, we introduce YOLO, a social robot that acts as a tool for developing creativity in children. YOLO resembles a robotic toy with a life of its own, developed specially for children, and envisioned to be used during playtime. YOLO can boost new ideas for children’s invented stories, by making use of minimalist behaviors that are meant for creativity expansion and social connectedness. We present the design and fabrication processes of YOLO, including examples of potential scenarios of use. With YOLO we aim to demonstrate a potential scenario in which autonomous robots can be used to promote social good.
Article
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The overall purpose of this article is to provide a convenient summary of empirical research on improvisation in general music education and thereby provide guidance to researchers and practitioners, using a systematic, narrative-review approach. By analysing 20 music education research articles, published from 2000–2015 in peer-reviewed journals, we firstly provide an overview of the key features and knowledge of existing research. Secondly we identify how improvisation has been characterized, conceptually before, thirdly, describing the implications of the literature for improvisation in practice. Our article reveals that improvisation tends to be an overlooked activity both in music education contexts and in music education research. Broadly speaking, music education research tends to characterise improvisation within two conceptual frameworks, which have different implications for implementation; ‘structured’, teacher-directed improvisation and ‘free’, child-directed improvisation. We conclude by arguing that music educational research on improvisation is an underdeveloped field and outline a number of questions to be addressed in future research.
Chapter
Organizational creativity is essential in the face of an unknown future. In this chapter, we inspect pertinent philosophical insights into the problems and paradoxes of creation and creativity. To this end, we take care not to strain the concept of paradox, which is somewhat devalued through inflation, and to replace it, in many cases, with the concepts of complementarity, recursiveness and supplementarity. Although we refer mostly to continental philosophy, we use, rather than philosophical approaches, a selection criterion that includes problems such as the necessity of imagination of the future and, therefore, of creativity as a way to cope with its uncertainty and unknowledgeability; the tension between freedom and constraint; Plato’s search paradox; Jon Elster’s states that are not (directly) intendable; and, not least, the problem of the emergence of organizational creativity as a capacity of corporate actors. We start, however, by considering the role of escalating contingency and the opposition of creation and destruction in (hyper-)modernity and the implied ambivalence of creativity, which is recognized but mostly neglected within creativity research.
Article
The 50 years anniversary of The Journal of Creative Behavior offers a festive occasion to reflect on the recent history of the field as well as look toward its future. From the standpoint of sociocultural psychology, I celebrate the growing importance of society and culture within creativity research. However, I also note an important distinction between “social inside” and “social outside” approaches. A truly culture-inclusive field would go beyond the view of culture as “container” and explore the ways in which sociocultural contexts actively participate in creativity. At the same time, it would examine how creative action, in turn, shapes society and culture, particularly at times of growing intolerance, nationalism, and inequality. A socially engaged agenda for creativity research is timely both conceptually and practically. Taken together, these two pillars could not only advance but also fundamentally transform our field, carrying it for the next 50 years and beyond.
Chapter
Ethnicity II simultaneously explores the roots and meeting of culture through the arts from the Chinese, Malay, Indian and Other (CMIO) communities. Singapore’s multi-racial setting has helped shaped a culture into one about understanding and tolerance, but we believe that our country can progress even further on that front. The project is a reflection of Singapore society as it is now and where we hope it will go. In Ethni-city II, we search for the one thing that is common to all our ethnicities – music – and in that process, break down the constructs around our different backgrounds and transcend into a single, harmonious coadunation (definition: united by growth). (Artistic Brief prepared by SA(仨) for the intended Ethni-city II repertoire programming)
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This study sought to explore whether creativity in undertaking activities such as free writing, telling a story, crafts, painting, drawing, or drama at age 7 is associated with a lower risk of social and behavioral maladjustment in children at the onset of adolescence. Data from 7558 7‐year‐olds who were socially and behaviorally “stable” at baseline were analyzed from the nationally representative National Child Development Study. Multinomial regression analyses showed associations between teacher‐rated creativity at age 7 and a lower relative risk of social and behavioral instability and maladjustment at age 11. Specifically, the associations were found between moderate and marked creativity and a lower risk of symptoms of internalizing behaviors (including depression and withdrawal), externalizing behaviors (such as restlessness) as well as a lower risk of various nervous symptoms of social and behavioral instability and maladjustment. Associations were independent of social, demographic, educational, parental, academic, and personality covariates, and robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. These results suggest that facilitating engagement with creative activities could be explored further as a way of reducing levels of instability and maladjustment at the onset of adolescence.
Research
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This paper reviews teachers’ attitudes towards creativity in the curriculum. Innovation skills are increasingly sought after and the understandings teachers hold regarding creativity development is crucial. What teachers do in classrooms is the most important component in creativity education but is often the neglected aspect in this consideration. This study examines the predispositions and attitudes which shape teachers’ work by analysing responses to a set of 24 statements distilled from a larger concourse of conversations on creativity in the curriculum. The study found that teachers’ understanding of cognitive strategies for innovation and an understanding of the most conducive social and academic environment were less strong than their knowledge about conative and affective factors. The study also found that standardised testing was perceived to be a major inhibitor of creative practice in the classroom.
Article
The need to control for writing or typing speed when assessing divergent-thinking performance has been recognized since the early ‘90s. An even longer tradition in divergent-thinking research has the issue of scoring the responses for quality. This research addressed both issues within structural equation modeling. Three dimensions of originality—uncommonness, remoteness, and cleverness—were used to derive an overall quality score. Mixed evidence was found in Study 1 for the direct effect of typing speed on fluency. In addition, indirect effects of typing speed via cognitive complexity on overall quality of ideas were uncovered but marginal in both Study 1 and Study 2. This indirect effect was also found for cleverness in Study 2. Another indirect effects of typing speed via fluency was found for cleverness and uncommonness. These findings indicate that controlling for typing speed is important in online divergent-thinking assessment. The inter-relations of various quality scores pertaining to the dimensions of uncommonness, remoteness, and cleverness were promising in terms of convergent validity. Important problems with respect to these scores were identified and discussed to guide future attempts to measure quality in DT.
Book
Kreativität wird in der Regel als positives Merkmal beschrieben, das Wachstum und Erneuerung bringt. Sie wird allerdings nicht nur im positiven Sinne eingesetzt: Viele Straftaten weisen ein hohes Maß an effektiver Neuheit auf, d.h. sie sind kreativ. Dieses Buch präsentiert die wichtigsten psychologischen Konzepte, die notwendig sind, um solche einfallsreiche und erfinderische Verbrechen zu analysieren: die 4Ps der Kreativität (Person, Produkt, Prozess und Leistungsdruck [engl.: Press]) und die Phasen der Kreativität. Diese Konzepte werden dann mittels zweier Fallbeispiele (Gaunerei, Terrorismus) konkretisiert und Vorschläge für ihren Einsatz gemacht, um kreative Kriminalität zu bekämpfen. Der Inhalt• Grundlegende Kreativitätskonzepte aus der Psychologie • Paradoxien der Kreativität • Kreativität und Kriminalität • Fallbeispiele: Betrug und Terrorismus • Gegenmaßnahmen Die Zielgruppen • Polizeikräfte, Strafverfolgungsbehörden • Forscherinnen und Forscher • Studierende der Rechtspsychologie und der Kriminologie • Interessierte Laien Die Autoren David Cropley ist Professor of Engineering Innovation an der Universität Südaustralien. Sein inhaltlicher Schwerpunkt ist Kreativität im Ingenieurswesen. Arthur Cropley ist Prof. der pädagogischen Psychologie (im Ruhestand) der Universität Hamburg. Sein Hauptinteresse gilt der Umsetzung von Ergebnissen der Kreativitätsforschung in die Praxis.
Article
Interest in youth purpose is growing among scholars around the world. With globalization, better understanding of life purposes in different countries becomes more important as this generation’s youth are influenced by ideas and events anywhere. This special issue contributes to this inclusive, worldwide frame of mind by showcasing work done outside the US on the development, functioning and moral import of purposes as personal ‘threads’ intertwined that contribute to a global ‘tapestry.’ This introduction provides frameworks for thinking about the articles that follow, including: (1) the constructs and characteristics that different countries associate with purpose; (2) reciprocal and mutually reinforcing interactions of cultures’ values, norms, institutions and morals as sources of purpose with purpose-pursuing individuals’ perceptions of opportunities to act for shared benefit; (3) cultures’ contributions to whether and how purpose contributes to youths’ development of moral momentum in their lives.
Article
In this paper I outline an answer to the following question: What are the abilities that make you the sort of subject who can learn, who can acquire new concepts, new skills? There are many traits that matter in providing an answer. But I want to suggest that the ability for creative and imaginative engagement with and sustenance of the playful patterns of our aesthetic experience is core. I identify a core sense of play that fills this role. Play's the thing that makes learning possible. The ability to imaginatively explore non concept-involving patterns to experience—the aesthetics of experience—is foundational for learning and should be at the heart of any serious pedagogy.
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This introduction explores the four main themes of the papers in this special issue: 1) ‘language, languaging and translanguaging’ 2) ‘mobility and space’ 3) ‘transcultural identities’ and 4) ‘institutional and individual constraints on creativity’, and discusses how engagement with these themes helps the authors to move beyond traditional notions of linguistic creativity and creative pedagogy to formulate new ways of imagining creativity in language learning based on encouraging learners to make use of the full range of their semiotic resources and social experiences when communicating.
Article
Over several decades, novel-and-appropriate has become established as the standard definition of creativity; while allowing for variations in the exact wording, the requirement that creativity requires external validation of value, utility, etc. is largely unchallenged. This functions well in high consensus fields in which value can be empirically verified. However, in low consensus fields such as the arts, value judgments are subjective, controversies abound, and it can take a long time to reach agreement. As a result, novel-and-appropriate needs to be revisited as a generalized definition. In its place, a successful definition should take into account that bringing something novel to life often requires taking the initiative long before there is external judgment of value or utility and, in low consensus fields, those external judgments can be a poor barometer. Synthesizing arguments by Simonton and Weisberg, the solution is to conduct separate analyses for personal production and public reception, and to remove utility from the definition of creativity. Advantages, risks, and implications of the recommended framework are discussed.
Article
Effective utility management focuses on implementing infrastructure management strategies, addressing financial viability, and optimizing operations. Allocating resources to renew critical infrastructure shifts them from optional budget items to mandatory expenditures. The well‐established management trio focused on budget–schedule–quality is evolving into a new paradigm of asset management–financial management–supply management.
Article
Creativity plays a central role in children’s development and well‐being, being considered a crucial skill to thrive in their personal and professional lives. Given its importance, researchers and educators highlighted the need to enhance creativity in individuals across the lifespan. However, it is crucial to understand how interventions and programs can promote creativity from an early age. The goal of this systematic review was to collect, summarize, and present evidence on research about nurturing creativity in children of elementary school age (5–13 years old), by systematically reviewing publications from 1950 to 2020, spanning 70 years of research. We additionally contributed to a classification system for characterizing creativity research by expanding on an existing coding scheme for creativity. This review resulted in the profiling of existing trainings that stimulate creativity in children. We discuss the results taking into account possible implications for practice and policymaking and future research directions in creativity research.
Article
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Creativity plays a major role in various musical contexts including composition, performance and education. Although numerous studies have revealed how creativity is involved in processes of listening, improvising and composing, relatively little is known about the particularities of transcultural creative processes in music. In this article, we aim to shed light on the creative musical processes underlying taqs¯ım performance in Arabic music. To that end, qualitative interviews have been conducted with three Berlin-based oud players from Syria. Results of a thematic content analysis show that taqs¯ım encompasses multiple components (e.g., a flexible form and dependency on maqam as well as tonal music) and serves various functions such as developing artistic individuality. Moreover, taqs¯ım is affected by interactions between tradition and novelty. We discuss the interview data within the cross-cultural experiential model of musical creativity developed by Hill (2018), offering a fresh approach to studying taqs¯ım which goes beyond established concepts such as the improvisation-composition continuum.
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The present paper reports data from an original qualitative study that investigates how music students reacted to novel remote teaching strategies that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. A population of twenty learners enrolled at an Italian conservatory responded to an open-ended survey, verbalising their recent learning experiences concerning three complementary aspects of their everyday practice: (i) how efficiently new remote education settings were implemented, (ii) what novel musical activities have been creatively developed with the help of technology, and (iii) how peer interaction was transformed by the lockdown period. By providing concrete examples, our participants offered insights into the benefits, challenges, and transformations this sudden pedagogical change has produced. Our findings show how different approaches to rehearsal and time management have emerged, in turn impacting on how students prioritise short-term and long-term goals, enhance their creative potential, and establish and renew interactions with peers.
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In this chapter, we present an integrative sociocultural model of imagination. From this perspective, imagination can be seen as a psychological process of temporary “uncoupling” from the ongoing, here-and-now, socially shared world. Although imagination is often private, it is deeply social and cultural in its nature, content, and outcomes. We will first identify some of the conditions which lead the mind disengage from the immediacy of action and become absorbed in reverie. These conditions include when the socially shared world becomes dull (leading to boredom), when there is anxiety about the future, and when the social world becomes overwhelming, for example, with major uncertainty. We then examine imagination as a psychological process. We show how it is nourished with a wide range of social and personal experiences, images, representations, which becomes the “stuff” that populates imagination. Finally, we examine the outcomes of imagination: eventually, as the person “recouples” with the ongoing socially shared reality, the outcomes of the imagination feed into understanding and action, potentially informing the trajectory of individuals or groups. In some cases, imagination can lead to surprising and unpredictable outcomes, which may be acknowledged or rejected by society, and thus, we argue, imagination feeds into creativity and even innovation. We highlight these dynamics and their variation along a series of analytical dimensions which conceptualize a wide range of phenomena; doing so leads us to distinguish imagination and creativity and also show the benefits of linking these two concepts together.
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This chapter discusses the definition, source, process, and measurement of creativity. The definition of creativity involves primarily novelty and appropriateness but is influenced by the quality, importance, and production history of a piece of work. In future research, the behavior of judges could be examined further to refine the definition of creativity. The source of creativity involves intelligence, knowledge, thinking styles, personality attributes, motivation, and the environment. These components work together to yield creative performance. Each component deserves further study, and the interaction of components especially needs to be explored. The chapter describes the creative process and the theoretical range of process models. The examination of the four-stage process model points to the need for more specification and development of creative process models in general. In particular, differences between the creative and routine problem-solving process need to be determined, and the use of intellectual abilities, knowledge, and other components of creativity need to be linked to the process in more detailed ways. The chapter also discusses creativity assessment methods. Each method has positive features, negative features, and room for improvement.
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This chapter presents a collection of theoretical and empirical arguments against the separation of testing from a theory of cognition. It describes a general model of cognition and presents some of its implications for individual differences. The chapter presents a number of experiments, which relate the model to the present tests of intelligence and considers the implications of these results for both psychometrics and cognitive psychology, indicating some directions for future research. The theoretical model used is the Distributed Memory model, which is representative of a class of models acceptable to the majority of experimental psychologists interested in cognition. The theoretical approach underlying the distributed memory model is that the brain can be thought of as a computing system, and that as such it has a physical and implied logical construction which is called its system architecture. The physical structures comprising the system architecture are exercised by control processes analogous to programs in an actual computer.
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The researchers describe a study that showed that an educational intervention based on the theory of successful intelligence improved school achievement, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments.
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An experiment was conducted directly to test the hypothesis that the ability to cope with relative novelty is a key aspect of intelligence. 50 subjects performed both novel and non-novel versions of a sentence-verification task. In the novel condition, subjects were presented with a counterfactual presupposition which they were to assume was true in verifying each of a set of subsequent statements. In the non-novel condition, the task was the same, but the presupposition to be assumed true was a factual one. We found that the difference score based on subtracting non-novel from novel response times, which controlled for non-novel aspects of the task, was significantly correlated with two of three fluid ability tests, thereby confirming our hypothesis.
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This paper elaborates the notion of mediated action through a comparison of group improvisational performance and the product‐oriented creative domains studied by psychology. Semiotically mediated interaction is central to both forms of creativity: in group improvisation, the interaction is parallel and simultaneous, communication between performers is mediated by musical or verbal symbolic structures, and is thus synchronies in product‐oriented creative domains, interaction between creating individuals is mediated by ostensible products in the domain, the interaction is over long time spans, and thus is historical or diachronic. After presenting a model of mediated action, six interactional dimensions of contrast are described which are characteristic of both synchronic and diachronic creative interaction. By demonstrating these processual parallels between synchronic and diachronic creativity, the model suggests that the study of performance has several implications for the broader study of creativity. The focus on processes of symbolic interaction represents an application of the mediated action concept to both product creativity and improvisational performance.
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Depending on whether creativity is studied by an economist, a sociologist, a psychologist, or some other social scientist, different terms—such as innovation or entrepreneurship‐are used to describe it. Therefore it is difficult to have a clear idea of what the boundaries of creativity research are, and what belongs to it. In this article a conceptual matrix is used to create a typology for creativity research, and it is applied to a sample of dissertations abstracts written in the last year for which complete documentation was available. The goals of the article are: (a) to provide a useful model for classifying studies in the field of creativity; (b) to provide an example of systematic library research on the topic; and (c) to show what the biases of different disciplines that study creativity are in terms of goals, methods, and perspectives.
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Over the last 30 years, the term discourse has spread throughout both the social sciences and the humanities. There is a widespread consensus that the current usage of the term 'discourse' originated with Foucault. This paper has three related goals: first, it demonstrates that the current usage of 'discourse' did not originate with Foucault, and in some ways contradicts his own limited technical usage. Second, an intellectual history is presented that explains where the term originated - in French and British theory of the 1960s and 1970s - and how it was propagated and transformed by Anglo-American cultural studies theorists. By extending this intellectual history through the 1990s, the paper documents how Anglo-American scholars increasingly began to attribute the concept to Foucault, and how this has contributed to two important misreadings of Foucault. In conclusion, this history is drawn upon to explore and clarify several competing usages of the term in contemporary cultural studies.
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Becker contrasts the work worlds of integrated professionals, mavericks, naive artists, and folk artists.
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Durkheim's epistemology, the argument for the social origins of the categories of the understanding, is his most important and most neglected argument. This argument has been confused with his sociology of knowledge, and Durkheim's overall position has been misunderstood as a consequence. The current popularity of a ''cultural'' or ''ideological'' interpretation of Durkheim is as much a misunderstanding of his position as the ''functional'' interpretation from which the current interpretations seek to rescue him. Durkheim articulated a sophisticated epistemology in the classical sense, a point that has been entirely missed.
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This article presents a unified model, the triarchic one, for the identification, instruction, and assessment of gifted children. The article considers why a unified model of identification, instruction, and assessment is important, and why this model should be broader than most of the models currently in use. Following a discussion regarding the use of the triarchic model as a potential one for such use, a program of identification, instruction, and assessment for gifted high school students learning psychology is described based upon the triarchic model. Data from an initial application of this program are introduced as well as claims demonstrating how the triarchic model can be applied in fields beyond psychology. Finally, conclusions are drawn to confirm that a broad unified model such as the triarchic one can be useful in the identification, instruction, and assessment of gifted children.
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This paper is an extended exploration of Mead's phrase the emergence of the novel. I describe and characterize emergent systems-complex dynamical systems that display behavior that cannot be predicted from a full and complete description of the component units of the system. Emergence has become an influential concept in contemporary cognitive science [A. Clark (1997) Being there, Cambridge: MIT Press], complexity theory [W. Bechtel & R.C. Richardson (1993) Discovering complexity, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press], artificial life [R.A. Brooks & P. Maes (Eds) (1994) Artificial life IV, Cambridge: MIT Press; C.G. Langton (Ed.) (1994) Artificial life III, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; C.G. Langton et al. (Eds) (1991) Artificial life II, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley), and robotics [S. Forrest (1991) Emergent computation, Cambridge: MIT Press]. I propose that novelty is a necessary property of emergent systems, and I'll explore a specific kind of emergent system: an improvisational theater ensemble. This is an example of emergence in a small social group, which I call collaborative emergence to emphasize several important contrasts with other complex systems that manifest emergence, such as connectionist networks and Alife simulations.
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Test estimates of intelligence and divergent thinking are compared with observations of social and nonsocial make-believe play in a sample of 63 socially and economically disadvantaged preschool children. Controlling for the effects of age, indices of cognitive ability correlated positively and significantly with social make-believe play but not with solitary make-believe play. Uses Task performance scored for fanciful uses, but not for common uses, related to social fantasy play. Results suggest that social interaction is an important component in the relationship of fantasy play to cognitive development. A component of divergent thinking related to metaphorical or fantasy production appears to be a useful predictor of the propensity for sociodramatic play.
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Smolucha's translations of previously untranslated works by Soviet psychologists Vygotsky, El'konin, and Moukhena provide a theoretical framework in which pretend play is learned through interactions with more experienced play partners and leads to the the development of creative imagination. Data from an ongoing study of 6 mother‐child dyads support El'konin's claim that children learn how to do object substitutions, such as using a stick as a horse, from a play partner during the second year of life. Further studies are needed to determine whether training in play techniques, such as object substitutions, enhances the development of creative imagination.
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There were three goals in this study: To determine the relation between boys’ temperament and rough‐and‐tumble (R&T) play; to determine the group composition of R&T, games, and other forms of reciprocal social interaction; and to determine the extent to which the vigor and flexibility components of R&T are related to social affiliation and social problem solving flexibility. Thirteen sociometrically defined popular boys, with a mean age of 114 months, were observed on their school playground during recess for 20 sessions. Additionally, they nominated peers they liked most and least, ordered peers in terms of dominance, and solved hypothetical social problems. Teachers completed temperament questionnaires. Results indicated that R&T groups were similar to other social groupings in terms of number and dominance symmetry. The flexibility dimension of R&T, but not vigor, was related to affiliation and social problem solving. Temperament was minimally associated with measures of behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity of design features of R&T and social problem solving flexibility.
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In this paper, I refer to two notions which are basic to the theory of Cognitive Pluralism. First, there are multiple semiotic means. Language is a primary one, but it is not the only one. Second, semiotic means are based on cultural practices. In the theory of Cognitive Pluralism, as in other pluralistic theories, musical and mathematical notation systems, diagrams, maps, and other semiotic means are examined. The use of diverse cognitive approaches is illustrated by the accounts of experienced thinkers. I discuss analytical and analogue cognitive styles in mathematics in relation to historically shifting emphases in the discipline. The developmental and cultural implications of this theory are illustrated with analyses of narratives as they are retold by children. In closing, a contrast between Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences and the theory of Cognitive Pluralism is presented.
Article
In this article, Vygotsky's theory of creative imagination is reconstructed on the basis of Francine Smolucha's translations of three papers which Vygotsky wrote on that topic. The three papers are “Imagination and Creativity in Childhood”; (1930/1967), “Imagination and Creativity in the Adolescent”; (1931/1984), and “Imagination and its Development in Childhood”; (1932/1960b). The three papers on creative imagination are discussed in chronological order with passages from other works by Vygotsky that place his statements regarding creativity into the larger context of his general theory. Vygotsky stated that early creative imagination is evident in the object substitutions that children perform during pretend play, such as the use of a stick as a horse. Creative imagination becomes a higher mental Junction directed by inner speech, and in adolescence it can be used together with conceptual thought. Creative thinking reaches its peak in adulthood as artistic, scientific, and technological innovations.
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This article describes a triarchic analysis of an aptitude–treatment interaction in a college-level introductory psychology course given to selected high school students. Of the 326 total participants, 199 were selected to be high in analytical, creative, or practical abilities, or in all 3 abilities, or in none of the 3 abilities. The selected students were placed in a course that either well matched or did not match their pattern of analytical, creative, and practical abilities. All students were assessed for memory, analytical, creative, and practical achievement. The data showed an aptitude–treatment interaction between students' varied ability patterns and the match or mismatch of these abilities to the different instructional groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A key issue dividing holists and elementarists concerns the connection between the whole, its parts, and the relations between the parts. Piaget is sometimes classed as a holist and sometimes as an elementarist but he advocates a third position – relationalism – in which neither the whole is primary, nor the parts, but the relations between the parts. After contrasting holism, elementarism, and Piaget’s relationalism, I then suggest Piaget’s views are close to those of ‘transactionalism’. I then contrast two kinds of structures, those which Piaget calls Gestalt holistic structures and his own operatory structures, the key difference between them being whether the composition laws are additive or not. Piaget’s own version of structuralism (relationalism), therefore, is distinctive in being committed to both transactionalism and additive composition laws.
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Presents an overview of previous studies on characteristics of Ss with high verbal ability, and describes 6 experiments conducted by the authors. Ss were a total of 103 high and 103 low verbal ability undergraduates, as measured by the Washington Pre-College Test. Experiments were conducted on name accessing and code arousal, sensitivity to order, speed of processing, and psychometric classification of high and low verbals. Results show that high verbal Ss did unusually well on the above current information processing tasks. It is concluded that verbal intelligence test scores indirectly identify people who can code and manipulate stimuli rapidly in situations in which knowledge per se is not a factor. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In an attempt to examine the relationship between neural speed, as indicated by nerve conduction velocity (NCV) along the median nerve of the arm, and intelligence, four relevant studies have been carried out: two finding the relationship and two not finding evidence of such a relationship. In an attempt to replicate the two studies (Vernon & Mori, 1992) finding this relationship, 38 healthy, right-handed females, aged 20 to 30 years, completed the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (Jackson, 1984), a series of reaction-time tasks and were submitted to the same NCV procedures as in Vernon and Mori (1992). Contrary to prediction, NCV did not correlate with intelligence or reaction time. A reanalysis of Vernon and Mori (1992), however, showed evidence for a possible sex difference in relation to NCV and intelligence, with a pronounced correlation between these variables being found in males but a much smaller correlation being found in females.
Article
We tested the idea that young people who have creative potential (are complex and unconventional) increase in intrapsychic awareness as they mature but often have difficulty with psychosocial growth, especially the development of a cohesive identity; and that for some women commitment to creative work solves the problem of psychosocial integration and leads to creative achievement. In a longitudinal sample of 109 women, these ideas were supported: Creative potential and creative achievement were both associated with intrapsychic growth but only creative achievement was associated with psychosocial growth. Regression analyses showed that the development of a cohesive identity from early to middle adulthood added to and interacted with creative potential in the prediction of creative achievement.
Article
Two studies (with sample sizes of 85 and 88) are reported that investigated relationships among measures of intelligence, speed of information processing, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV). In both studies, NCV was significantly correlated with IQ scores (rs = .42 and .48) and with reaction times (RTs; rs = −.28 and −.18): Thus, faster NCV was associated with higher IQ scores and faster speed of processing. In both studies, NCV and RTs contributed significantly, in combination, to the prediction of fullscale IQ (shrunken multiple Rs = .53 and .57), but the expected pattern of causal relationships between the variables was not borne out. The results are interpreted in terms of a “neural efficiency” model of intelligence, which has recieved support from other studies of physiological correlates of human intelligence.
Article
The literature concerning the controversy between dissonance and selfperception theories is reviewed. It is proposed that the two theories be regarded not as “competing” formulations but as complementary ones and, furthermore, that each theory is applicable only to its own specialized domain. Self-perception theory, it is suggested, accurately characterizes attitude change phenomena in the context of attitude-congruent behavior and dissonance theory attitude change in the context of attitude-discrepant behavior. Attitude-congruent is defined as any position within an individual's latitude of acceptance; attitude-discrepant as any position in the latitude of rejection. An experimental test of these notions produced confirming evidence. Subjects who were given an opportunity to misattribute any potential dissonance arousal to an external stimulus did not change their attitudes, relative to low choice subjects, if they were committed to endorsing a position in their latitude of rejection. If the commitment concerned a position in the latitude of acceptance, however, these subjects did exhibit attitude change relative to low choice subjects.
Article
The concepts of giftedness and creativity are often equated. It is argued here, however, that giftedness and creativity are different capacities. In this paper, three kinds of creativity in the domain of the visual arts are analyzed: universal creativity (the creativity that characterizes all normal young children); gifted creativity (the creativity that characterizes children who are particularly gifted in the visual arts); and domain creativity (the creativity that characterizes adults who alter a domain). Distinctions between these three kinds of creativity are pointed out. The striking difference between childhood giftedness and domain creativity can help us to understand why it is that there is no necessary link between early high ability and adult creative mastery.
Article
Cognitive scientists who model creative thinking on computers claim that the ability of their programs to replicate the discovery of scientific laws (e.g., Kepler's third law from Brahe's data) means that creative thinking in humans is nothing but problem solving of the kind computer heuristics use. This claim is shown to be a mystification based on a misunderstanding of creativity, on unrealistic replications of the initial conditions present at the inception of creative processes, and on a misleading identification of rationality with complex human thought processes. Some of the implications of such mystification for understanding thought processes in general are reviewed.
Article
This experiment addressed the effect of precue information, which may be either familiar or novel, and either relevant or irrelevant, on the solution of inductive reasoning problems. Sixty undergraduate students each completed 216 verbal inductive reasoning problems and five psychometric ability tests. The reasoning problems were equally divided among analogies, classifications, and series completions, with half of each kind of item presented in a standard, uncued format, and half presented with a precue. With respect to internal validation, it was found that for analogies and classifications, subjects take longer to process irrelevant than relevant information if the precue is familiar, but they take longer to process relevant than irrelevant information if the precue is novel. For series completions, this relation does not hold; rather, both novelty and irrelevance add time to the processing of information, with the time for irrelevance greater than that for novelty. The utility of precues for different tasks was explored, and it was found that familiar relevant precues facilitated solution of the more difficult kinds of items (classifications and series completions), but hampered solution of the easier, more automatically solved items (analogies). With respect to external validation, it was found that the nonentrenched induction tasks overlapped with psychometric tests in terms of abilities measured, that the abilities measured were fluid rather than crystallized, and that the precued (more nonentrenched) items were better measures of fluid abilities than were the uncued items.
Article
IN a series of studies of curiosity and exploration in young children1-6, it was found that 3 to 5 year olds could be placed in one of three categories, according to their responses to a new toy. Usually, when a child is confronted with a new toy, he first inspects and investigates it; then, when he is familiar with it, he ``plays'' with it. These two categories of behaviour have been more formally characterized as ``specific'' and ``diversive exploration'' respectively7, and their distinctive behavioural features have been described4,5. Essentially, in specific exploration or investigation the implicit query seems to be ``What can this object do?'' in diversive exploration or play it is ``What can I do with this object?''
Article
Despite venerable stereotypes and even some recent empirical observations regarding the personality of artists, the following questions remain unanswered in any objective way: (1) Do personality factors differentiate art students from other students of the same age and sex? (2) Is there a relationship between the personality of art students and the values they hold? (3) Are there differences in the personality factors of art students in the several fields of specialization, e.g. commercial art v. fine art? (4) Is there a relationship between the personality factors of art students and their performance in art school? (5) Finally, what is the relationship between the personality factors of successful young artists and eminent scientists, both groups presumably engaged in creative endeavour? The present investigation of a sample of 205 advanced art students applied Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionaire supplemented by the Allport–Vernon–Lindzey Study of Values in an attempt to answer these questions. The findings are placed in a tentative theoretical framework regarding the personality of artists and the expectations of their professional role.