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The Pharmaceutical importance of Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea: A review



Two species of the genus Althea (Malvaceae) were grown in Iraq, Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis contained pectins 11%, starch 25-35%, mono-, and di-saccharide, saccharose 10%, mucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids. The previous studies showed that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, demulcent, soothing, antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1. 3 to 1. 6 million Dalton) known as mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals. It possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, cardiovascular, prevention of urolithiasis, antiestrogenic, cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The aim of this review is to highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea species grown in Iraq.
International Journal of PharmTech Research
CODEN (USA): IJPRIF ISSN : 0974-4304
Vol.5, No.3, pp 1378-1385, July-Sept 2013
The Pharmaceutical Importance of Althaea officinalis and
Althaea rosea : A Review
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi*
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University,
Nasiriyah, P O Box 42, Iraq.
Cell: +9647801397994.
Abstract: Two species of the genus Althea (Malvaceae) were grown in Iraq, Althaea officinalis and Althaea
rosea.Althaea officinalis contained pectins 11% , starch 25-35% , mono-, and di-saccharide, saccharose 10% ,
mucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid),
coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids. The previous studies showed
that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, demulcent, soothing,
antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic
polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These
mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained
proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals. It possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial,
cardiovascular, prevention of urolithiasis,antiestrogenic,cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The aim of
this review is to highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea
species grown in Iraq.
Key words: Althaea officinalis , Althaea rosea , constituents, pharmacology.
Introduction :
Using plants from the Malvaceae family for herbal therapy is very common in the Middle East, of these plants
are Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis is native to Asia, Europe and United States of
America. It is widely used traditionally for the treatment of the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and
associated dry cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth and
throat, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract complains, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns,
constipation and diarrhea(1) .
Althaea rosea (L.) is a popular garden plant. It is native to China, southern Europe, the Middle, Near east,
Mediterranean and Central Asian regions. It was used traditionally as expectorant, cooling, diuretic,expextorant,
and emmenagogue. Decoction of flowers is used as anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, demulcent and astringent
agent. The roots are used in the treatment of ulcers. Flowers as well as roots are used in the treatment of
inflammation of the kidneys and the uterus. Seeds are thought to be diuretic and febrifuge(1-3).
Many compounds were extracted from different parts of Althaea officinalis, these included pectins 11%, starch
25-35%, mono-,and di-saccharide saccharose 10%, uucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside,
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isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine
and many amino acids(4-10).
Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as
mucilages which found in flowers and leaves.These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic
acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals (11-14)
The previous studies showed that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immuno
modulatory, demulcent and soothing, antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea also
possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial , cardiovascular , prevention of urolithiasis ,
antiestrogenic , cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The objective of the present review is to highlight the
chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea species grown in Iraq.
I-Althaea officinalis
Synonym : Malva officinalis
Common names: English name : Althaea, Marshmallow, Arabic name: khatma , Khatmi
Distribution: Native to Asia, Europe and United States of America.
Traditional use: A. officinalis is widely used in the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry
cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth, throat,
gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns, constipation and
Part used: Leaf, root, flowers
Physicochemical properties(2-3) :
Total ash: not more than 6% in the peeled root and not more than 8% in the unpeeled root , acid-insoluble ash :
not more than 3% in the peeled root , water-soluble extractive : not less than 22% ,loss on drying : not more
than 12% , and swelling index : not less than 10.
Chemical constituents :
Many compounds were extracted from different parts of the plants , these included pectins 11% , starch 25-
35%, mono-, di-saccharide saccharose 10%, mucilage 5%, flavonoids : hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin,
kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic
aicd, vanillic acid , coumarins , scopoletin, phytosterols , tannins , asparagine and amino acids(4-10).
Mucilage polysaccharidescontents reached 5-11.6 % (depending on vegetative period). They were consisted of
the mixture of colloidally soluble polysaccharides, particularly of acid arabinanogalactans, galacturonic
rhamnans, arabans and glucans acidic heteropolysaccharide (with a MW ca 30 000) containing D-galactose, L-
rhamnose, D-glucuronic acid and D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratios 1.2:1.0:1.0:1.0, L-arabinans and D-
glucans . Dominant neutral mucilage component is (1-6)-α-D-glucan. By partial acid hydrolysis Althaea
mucilage O, the following oligosaccharides were obtained: O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-2)-L-
rhamnopyranose, O-β-(D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-3)-O-α-(D-galactopyrano syluronic acid)-(1-2)-L-
rhamnopyranose and hexasaccharide, nonasaccharide, dodecasaccharide composed of a repeating unit having
the structure of the trisaccharide through position 4 of the D-galacturonic acid residue(8,15-21) .
Valiei et al extracted many compounds from extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis , these included :
undecyne, nonanoic acid methyl ester (nonanoic acid), phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl,
tetradecanoic acid methyl ester (tetradecanoic acid), pentadecanoic acid methyl ester (pentadecanoic acid), 9-
hexadecenoic acid methyl ester(9-hexadecenoic acid), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester ( hexadecanoic acid) ,
cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-hexyl), heptadecanoic acid
methyl ester (heptadecanoic acid), octadecyne-5, 7,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (7,10-octadecadienoic
acid), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid(ω-6) methyl ester (9,12-octadecadienoic acid), 8,11-octadacadienoic acid,
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methyl ester(8,11-octadacadienoic acid), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid -3) methyl ester (9,12,15-
octadecatrienoic acid), octadecanoic acid methyl ester (octadecanoic acid), naphthalene, decahydro-2,6-
dimethyl , 10-nonadecenoic acid methyl ester (10-nonadecenoic acid), cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-octyl,
methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid,2-octyl), dihydroionone, 3-heptadecen-5-yne, heneicosane, methyl 2-
octylcyclopropene-1-heptanoate, eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (eicosanoic acid) , tetracosan, heneicosanoic acid
methyl ester (heneicosanoic acid), pentacosane, docosanoic acid methyl ester (docosanoic acid), tricosane,
tricosanoic acid methyl ester (tricosanoic acid), heptacosane, tetracosanoic acid methyl ester (tetracosanoic
acid), octacosane, squalene, nonacosane , γ-sitosterol(22) .
Pharmacological effects :
Antimicrobial activity :
A methanolic extract prepared by exhaustive extraction from marshmallow root has been shown to possess an
inhibiting activity able to diminish significantly the periodontal pathogens resident in the oral cavity
(Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp.,Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella
corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp.). Antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus has been documented for chloroform and methanolic
extracts of marshmallow roots(18). The hexane extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis exerted
antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and
Staphylococcus epidermidis), as well as three fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces
Rashidi et al also found that 80 % ethanolic Althaea officinalis extract was active against Aspergillus niger,
Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus species. MIC of Althaea officinalis 80 % ethanolic extract 50-100
mg/ml(23). However , ethanol, water and hexane extracts of the dried seed at a concentration of 10.0 mg/ml,
were inactive on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis(24). Ethanolic extract of dried whole plant, in cell
culture at variable concentrations is inactive on adenovirus, coxsackie B2 virus, Herpes virus type 1, measles
virus, poliovirus 1 and Semlicki-Forest virus vs plaque inhibition (Berghe, 1978). Water extract of the dried
leaf, in cell culture at a concentration of 10.0%, was inactive on Herpes virus type 2, influenza virus A2,
poliovirus 11 and vaccinia virus A (25) .
Aqueous extracts of the roots stimulated phagocytosis, and the release of oxygen radicals and leukotrienes from
human neutrophils in vitro. The aqueous extract also induced the release of cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumour
necrosis factor from human monocytes in vitro, thereby exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immune stimulant
A polysaccharide fraction (500mg/ml) isolated from a root extract had anticomplement activity in human serum
in vitro(27). Marshmallow mucilage polysaccharides administered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg
produced a 2.2-fold increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages in the carbon-clearance test (24). However,
with a dry 80% ethanolic extract administered orally (100 mg/kg b.w.), no inhibition of carrageenan induced rat
paw oedema has been proved(29) .
Hypolaetin 8-glucoside has been tested for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcer activity in rats. This
flavonoid (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) was more potent than phenylbutazone (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) in
suppressing the acute phase of adjuvant carrageenan-induced inflammation but had less effect in the prolonged
inflammatory phase. In contrast to phenylbutazone, it did not cause gastric erosions. Analgesic activity of
hypolaetin 8-glucosid has been found to be lower than the one of phenylbutazone . Hypolaetin 8-glucoside was
also more potent than troxerutin (both at the doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg s.c.) in inhibiting histamine-
induced capillary permeability in rats(18) .
An ointment containing an aqueous marshmallow root extract (20%) applied topically to the external ear of
rabbits reduced irritation induced by UV irradiation or by tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The ointment has been
compared to pure dexamethasone 0.05% ointment and a combined marshmallow and dexamethasone product.
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The anti-inflammatory effect of marshmallow ointment was lower than that of a dexamethasone ointment. The
combined product had higher anti-inflammatory effect than the ointments with the individual ingredients(18).
Scopoletin exert anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil induced mouse ear edema(30).
Immunomodulatory effects :
Althaea-mucilage O, an acidic polysaccharide isolated from marshmallow root, has been demonstrated to have
an anti-complement activity on normal human serum in concentrations of 100 1000 ug/ml(27).
An extract (extraction medium 45 % 1,3-butylene glycol solution) of marshmallow root was found to inhibit
intracellular calcium mobilisation in normal human melanocytes activated by endothelin-1, and to strongly
inhibit endothelin-1-induced proliferation of melanocytes. The extract can diminish the physiological effect of
endothelin-1 on normal human melanocytes following UVB irradiation(18).
Scopoletin produced dual action on tumoral lymphocytes exhibiting both a cytostatic and a cytotoxic effect on
the cell , and also exert apoptosis. Proliferation of normal T lymphocytes was found due to the interaction with
kinase C (PKC) protein. It indicates that scopoletin may be a potential anti-tumoral compound (30).
Demulcent and soothing :
The demulcent effects of Radix Althaeae are due to its high content of polysaccharide hydrocolloids, which
form a protective coating on the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, soothing local irritation and inflammation(1).
However,weak inhibition (17%) of mucociliary transport in isolated, ciliated epithelium of the frog oesophagus
was demonstrated after treatment of the isolated tissues with 200 ml of an aqueous root macerate (6.4 g/140
ml)(31).Polysaccharides from marshmallow root showed moderate adhesion to epithelial tissue of porcine buccal
membranes (18) .
Antittusive effects :
Marshmallow root extract and isolated mucilage polysaccharide were tested for antitussive activity in
unanaesthetised cats of both sexes at oral doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight, in a cough induced by
mechanical stimulation, in acomparison with the cough-suppressing effects of Althaea syrup (1000 mg/kg),
prenoxdiazine (30 mg/kg), dropropizine (100 mg/kg) and codeine (10 mg/kg). Both the extract and isolated
polysaccharide significantly reduced the intensity and the number of cough efforts from laryngopharyngeal and
tracheobronchial areas. The root extract was less effective than the isolated polysaccharide. The antitussive
activity was found to be lower than that of codeine, but higher than those of prenoxdiazine and
Polysaccharides of Marshmallow exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was
noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. By testing many
plants, the most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marshmallow,
containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent(33).
In a double blind clinical study, Rouhi and Ganji used Althaea officinalis in patients with hypertension who had
been developed cough during taking of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.The patients received 40mg
of Althaea officinalis three times daily as 20 drops for four weeks . The Mean scores of the severity of the
cough in the group which have been treated by Althaea officinalis had a significant change from the score of
2/66+0.958 (to) 1/23+1.006. Eight patient in the Althaea officinalis group showed almost complete cough
Other pharmacological effects :
Polysaccharide from the root of A. officinalis (Althaeamucilage-O) administered intraperitoneally to nondiabetic
mice significantly reduced blood glucose(35).
Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) is therapeutically evaluated in rats for hyperthyroidism, lipid
peroxidation and hyperglycemia. Scopoletin (1.00 mg/kg, p.o.) administered daily for 7 days decreased the
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levels of serum thyroid hormones and glucose as well as hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Scopoletin also
mimic hepatic lipid peroxidation and promote antioxidants activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase. It
indicated that scopoletin produce anti-thyroid activity and hyperglycemia without hepatotoxicity(36).
Ethanol/water f(1:1) extract of the dried entire plant, at a concentration of 5.0 mcg/ml, produced weak activity
vs superoxide anion when estimated by the neotetrazolium method(37).The extract of A. officinalis exhibited
strong antioxidant activity in different antioxidant tests(38). Their antioxidant activity is accounted for
approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol(40). Sadighara et al examined
three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total
antioxidant activity . The results showed that the reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant
activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white(40).
II-Althaea rosea
Common names : English name : garden Hollyhock , Arabic name : Khatma wardi , Khatmi wardi.
Distribution : It is native to China , southern Europe , the Middle and Near east , Mediterranean and central
Asian regions. The plant grows best in medium-fertile, moist, but well-drained soil. The plant can not grown in
the shades. It can be found in woodlands, cultivated beds and sunny edges.
Traditional use: It is used as expectorant, cooling and diuretic, cough mixtures, and emmenagogue. Decoction
of flowers is used as anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, demulcent and astringent agent. As a demulcent and
astringent, the roots are useful in the treatment of ulcers. Flowers as well as roots are used in the treatment of
inflammation of the kidneys and the uterus. Seeds are thought to be diuretic and febrifuge(41-43).
Physicochemical properties(11)
Total ash 7.3 ± 0.32 %, acid insoluble ash 1.48 ± 0.16 %, water soluble ash 3.33 ± 0.24 %, and loss on drying
in crude drug (%) 8.2 ± 0.38 % .
Successive extraction (% Extractable matter) : petroleum ether extract 8.18 ± 0.85 %, chloroform extract 2.76
± 0.12 % , methanol extract 3.63 ± 0.32 % , and aqueous extract 11.24 ± 0.14 % .
Chemical constituents:
Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as
mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic
acid, rhamnose and galactose(12).
Fahamiya found that aqueous extract of the seeds of Althaea rosea Linn contain alkaloids, carbohydrates
,phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while methanolic extracts contained all the above compounds as well as
glycosides . However, chloroform extract contained only carbohydrate(11).
Dudek et al investigated the distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra . They
studied the methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts of whole flowers, petals and calyxes of Althaea rosea
(L.) Cav. var. nigra. They found that the plant contained, cinnamic (ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic), benzoic (p-
hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic) acids and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. p-Coumaric, syringic and p-
hydroxybenzoic acids were detected almost in all fractions. In the petals almost all of detected phenolic acids
were found (except caffeic acid in methanolic extract, syringic and p- ydroxyphenylacetic acids in methanolic-
aqueous extract). In the calyxes the vanilic and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acids were not found. The total content
of phenolic acids in whole flowers was 60 mg%, in petals , 120 mg% and 30 mg% in calyxes(13).
Raknimov and Mezthlumyan found that the amount of pectins in the stems was greater than in the roots. Sugars
isolated from the plant stems and roots included arabinose, rhamnose , galactose, xylose and galacturonic acid.
The percentage of hemicelluloses was 26.6 % in the stems and 14.1% in the roots. The amount of proteins in the
stems was 11.3% and in the roots 12.1%. 17 amino acids were found in Althaea rosa stems and roots. The
amino acid composition included valine, threaonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine,
histidine and arginine. The predominant amino acid were asparagine, glutamine and leucine. The amount of
hemicellulose was 26.6% in the stems and 14.1 % in the roots. trace elements in Althaea rosa were determined.
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The amount of microelements : Pb , Cd , Cu, Zn, Sn, Cr, and Fe in the stems were 30.1 , 0.67 , 30.0, 93.6,
23.1, 196.0 mg/kg and 106.0, while, their amounts in the roots were 26.1, 0.83, 24.2, 37.5 , 18.5 , 200.5 , and
790 mg/kg respectively(14).
Pharmacological activities :
Antimicrobial effects :
The antimicrobial activities of n-hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Althaea rosea L.
flowers were reported against Escherichia coli ATCC 29998, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli
ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus
epidermidis ATCC 12228, Salmonella thyphimurium CCM 5445, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047,
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27853 as bacteria and Candida albicans
ATCC 10239 by disc diffusion method(44).
Cardiovascular effects
Alcoholic extract of the flower of Althaea rosea (L.) increased the outflow of coronary artery of isolated guinea
pig's heart and markedly dilated the blood vessels in the hind-limbs of rats. The extract showed a transient
hypotensive effect on anesthetic cats. It inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP and showed a inhibitory
effect on experimental thrombosis formation(45).
Prevention of urolithiasis
In both preventive and curative protocols, treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of Althaea rosea roots
significantly reduced the kidney calcium oxalate deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Administration
of Althaea rosea extract also reduced the elevated urinary oxalate due to ethylene glycol(46).
Antiestrogenic effects :
In traditional folk medicine the Althaea rosea flowers were regarded as an emmenagogue. Literature data have
proved that the infusion and methanolic extract of Althea rosea influence hormonal activity and affected the
morphology of the sexual organs of the rats. It exerted estrogenic activity, but exact component of this plant
responsible for this activity was not determined. The in vivo test proved that p-hydroxybenzoic acid was
estrogenic. Dudek et al proved that this compound present in different parts of Althea rosea and could be
responsible for its estrogenic activity (13).
Effect on Immune system :
Water extract of Althaea rosea produce the following effects on immune system(47) :
1- Induced a transient non-specific polyclonal response indicated by the production of IL-4 in treated, non-
immunized mice.
2- Initially boosted the production of anti-EA antibodies and IL-4, a T- helper 2 cytokine.
3- Suppress production of gamma-interferon, a T- helper 1 cytokine.
Cytotoxic effects:
The cytotoxic activity of n-hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Althaea rosea L. was
investigated by brine shrimp assay. Ethyl acetate extract showed cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp(44).
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... The essential oil extracted from the various flower petals generally imparts aroma to the flowers shown to have antimicrobial activity. These oils are widely used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (Al-Snafi, 2013;Aliyazicioglu et al., 2017). The vitamins found in Rosa hybrida, Borago officinalis, Camellia japonica, and Centaurea cyanus provides antioxidant activity as well as nutraceutical properties (Fernandes et al., 2019a). ...
... The difference in the values and abundance of metabolites varies with respect to season, geographic area, extraction solvent, and varieties used for analysis. In the present experiment, the phenyl ethyl alcohol was found to be 1.51 % of total peak area of Dianthus, while Dianthus caryophyllus L. were represented by the highest amount of these metabolites in its essential oil (Al-Snafi, 2013;El-Ghorab, 2006). The principle scent compound in rose flowers is phenyl ethanol, which has potential biological activities (Akbar and Raghav, 2006;Hirata et al., 2016;Roccia et al., 2019). ...
In this work, the nutritional value and phytochemical content of the six annual flower petals such as Pansy (Viola wittorckiana), Dianthus (Dianthus chinensis), Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus), Calendula (Calendula officinalis), Petunia (Petunia hybrida), and Geranium (Pelargonium hortorum), were assessed. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to characterize their metabolites in addition to assessing their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Dianthus chinensis was found to have the highest concentrations among all six an-nuals' components, including total protein (19.5 gm/100 g), ascorbic acid (100 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (1.23 mg Cyn. H./g), total reducing capacity (9.47 mg GAE/g), and hydrolysable tannin (36.96 mg TAE/g). While TPC and TFC values in all of the studied flowers ranged from 13.94 to 107.9 mg catechol/g and 13.3 to 135.84 mg rutin /g, respectively. Maximum TPC was found in geranium flowers (107.9 mg catechol/g). The pansy was shown to have a minimum amount of total phenol (13.9 mg catechol/g). Calendula has the highest level of β-carotene (0.85 mg/g), whereas the cosmos has the highest amount of carotenoid (18.8 µg/g) and lycopene (0.55 µg/g) among the flowers. Petunia flowers showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.3 %), according to the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, followed by pansies (87.6 %), cosmos (65 %), geraniums (56.3 %), and calendula (46.4 %), with the exception of Dianthus. The concentration of micronutrients differed significantly among all six flowers which accumulated nutrients in descending order from (highest to lowest) Fe (1771 ppm) > Zn (143 ppm)>Cu (21.1 ppm) with maximum concentration obtained in Cosmos, Dianthus, and Calendula, respectively. It was found that Petunia extracts exhibited the highest antimicrobial properties, with a maximum growth inhibition zone against Salmonella typhi A (S. typhi A), S. typhi B, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas with hexane extract, except for S. typhi. However, Dianthus extracts exhibited the highest growth inhibition zones against Enterobacter. Several bioactive metabolites were found in the petals during GC-MS analysis. Among others, notable metabolites include ß-Amyrin, Caryophyllene, 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, ß-Sitosterol, and Stig-masterol, while brewing samples include significant amounts of phenylethyl alcohol, indole, 4-Vinylphenol,.tau.-Muurolol, and 2-Methoxy-4-Vinylphenol. The results are significant information that may be utilized to promote the consumption of annual edible flowers and to recognize their usage as flower infusions or as tea supplements.
... However, polysaccharides are considered to be responsible for the pharmacological activity of Althaea. According to previous research, a mucilage polysaccharide exerted immune stimulative and anti-inflammatory activity (Yamada 1985;Mascolo 1987;Al-Snafi 2013). Also, it has been shown in research of Ali Shah et al. 2011, that the demulcent effects of radix Althaeae are mediated by the presence of a high content of polysaccharide hydrocolloids, which form a protective coating on the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, and thus, limit local irritation and inflammation (Sutovska et al. 2007). ...
... It should be noted that the most expressive antitussive activity was observed for the polysaccharides, containing the highest proportion of uronic acid monomers (Ali Shah et al. 2011;Sutovska et al. 2007). Mucilage polysaccharides consist of a mixture of colloidally soluble polysaccharides, namely arabinogalactans, galacturonic rhamnans, arabans and glucan acidic heteropolysaccharides, containing D-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-glucuronic acid and D-galacturonic acid (Al-Snafi 2013;Ali Shah et al. 2011;Sutovska et al. 2007;Blaschek and Franz 1986;Deters et al. 2010;Valiei et al. 2011). ...
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Pharmacopoeias are important resources for the quality control of medicinal plants and their products. Considering that approximately 80% of the world population to different extents relies on medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of medical ailments the safety and suitability of medicinal plants is extremely important. Unfortunately, for many medicinal plants the active component or group of components responsible for their pharmacological activity are unknown. In such cases, the standardization of the medicinal plant material is performed using reference compounds that are either contained in the plant, but are known to not mediate the plants biological activity or are not contained in the plant at all, but find use as auxiliary reagents, for example, to help identify the necessary chromatographic zones/peaks. Additionally, many medicinal plants do not have qualitative or quantitative analysis procedures in place or use methods with low selectivity (spectrophotometry, colour reactions). In these cases, it is impossible to confidently and adequately standardize the medicinal plant material. Two other issues that complicate medicinal plant standardization include the variability of its chemical composition depending on multiple biotic and abiotic factors and the lack of sufficient data on the chemical composition of some plants. In this review, we analyzed medicinal plants common to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), European, United State and Japanese Pharmacopoeias. We have analysed and systematized literature data devoted to the relation between the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of the plants presented in this review. Based on the analysed data, we have suggested more rational and adequate methods for the quality assessment and quantitative standardization of medicinal plants.
... В уйгурской народной медицине цветки шток розы применяют как противокашлевое, успокаивающее, противоастматическое средство - [3]. В цветках шток розы определены красящие вещества, во всем растении много полисахаридовглюкуроновая кислота, ксиоза, арабиноза, рамноза - [4], гиполаетин-8-глюкозид, изокверцетин, кемпферол кофейная, p кумарическая кислоты, кумарины, скополетин, фитостерины, танины - [5]. Растение широко использовалось в древней медицине. ...
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Цель нашей работы заключается в выделении и изучении физико-химических свойств полисахаридов (кислого полисахарида) выделенных из лепестков лекарственного растения шток розы (Álcea rósea) произрастающий на нижней части Амударьи. В статье приведены результаты выделения и химического исследования полисахаридов методами бумажной и газожидкостной хроматографии. Уста¬новлено, что данный углеводный комплекс представлен пектин содержащими полисахаридами. Установлен их качественный и коли¬чественный моносахаридный состав. Шток роза является весьма перспективным фармакологическим средством, которое можно употреблять в пищу животным и людям, а также в медицине. По хроматографии моносахаридный состав состоит из уроновой кислоты, галактозы, глюкозы, арабинозы, маннозы, ксилозы и рамнозы. Полученные полисахариды из шток розы относятся к пектин содержащим слизистым кислым полисахаридам.
... MAF can be found in gardens in Southern Europe, the Middle, Near East, the Mediterranean, the Central Asian region, and China. Plants from the Malvaceae family are commonly used in tea therapy, especially Althaea rosea and Althaea officinalis [3]. In folk medicine, the hollyhock flowers are primarily appreciated for ailments of the respiratory, urinary, and digestive tracts, as they possess anti-inflammatory properties and are applied externally in the case of ulcers [1). ...
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The objective of this study was to assess the impact of inulin and pectin, wherein pectin replaced inulin with weight ranging from 2% to 8%, as wall materials on various aspects: bioactive component content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bioavailability, powder recovery during the drying process, and selected physical characteristics of powders derived from Malvae arboreae flos aqueous extracts obtained through spray drying. Powders containing a soluble fraction of fiber demonstrated a recovery efficiency of over 50% during drying, along with low moisture content, water activity, and hygroscopicity, coupled with high solubility. The incorporation of pectin up to 8% did not significantly alter the color profile of the powders. However, at levels of 4% to 8% pectin, concave distortions and particle morphology cracks became noticeable, along with the potential to form agglomerates (evident when the span index ranged between 5.11 and 14.51). The substitution of inulin with pectin led to higher total contents of flavonoids (from 1.31% to 49.57% before digestion, and from 18.92% to 36.48% after digestion) and anthocyanins (from 45.79% to 78.56% before digestion, and from 65.45% to 521.81% after digestion) compared to samples containing only inulin as a carrier. Bioacceptability values exceeding 100% indicated effective preservation of compounds responsible for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, as well as the inhibition of xanthine oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 across all samples.
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Olea europaea (Family: Oleaceae) is the characteristic fruit tree of the Mediterranean basin. The oil extracted from the fruit was the essential product, olive oil was used for cooking and as salad oil. It was preferred for its flavor and beneficial health effects. While, low grade oil was used in cosmetics, as lubricants and for soap production. Plant parts were traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes, malaria, hypertension, coughs, asthma, lumbago, rheumatism, kidney problems, urinary tract infections, nose bleeding, for eye infections and to relieve sore throats. About 676 distinct chemical compounds were identified in the Olea europaea, they were included (fatty acids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, volatiles, phospholipids, triterpenic acids, sterols, hydrocarbons, sugars, amino acids, tocopherols, pigments, and many other compounds). Olea europaea extracts and oil possessed many pharmacological activities included cardiovascular, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anti-anticancer, immunomodulatory, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive and protective effects. This review discussed the contents, pharmacological, nutritional and therapeutic activities of Olea europaea.
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Plants are an important means of combating numerous harmful influences on humans (microorganisms, viruses, fungi, etc.) and have always been used to treat various diseases. In the context of the Covid pandemic, interest in the use of plants has increased. Great importance has been given to screening plants' potential against Covid (antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antioxidant). According to recent research, many of the plant species used against Covid are of Asian origin. In this review, we aim to discuss the plant species with these medicinal potentials with a focus on Romanian flora. We have listed a total of 50 Phyto-resources from Romanian flora with different potentials: 26 containing the confirmed anti-covid compounds, and 9 species having antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, and antioxidant potentials.
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Background: Sexual performance is among the most important aspects of postmenopausal women's life. The long-term side effects of hormone replacement therapy during menopause have led women towards the use of complementary therapies to improve sexual performance. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of complementary therapies in improving the sexual performance of postmenopausal women. Methods: In this systematic review, studies in English and Persian languages were searched in national (SID, Magiran, and IranMedex) and international databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) until 2023. The search keywords were selected based on the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and included "Sexual Dysfunctions", "Menopause", "Complementary medicine", "Alternative medicine" combined with Boolean operators (OR and AND). Finally, quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two researchers using Cochran's standard tool. Findings: Finally, 22 articles with a total sample size of 1617 participants were selected. The types of the articles were randomized and non-randomized clinical trials. Studies showed that aroma therapy, combined inhalation aromatherapy, and herbal compounds, including combined herbal capsules containing red ginseng extract, saffron, red clover and black cohosh, date palm pollen and Althaea officinalis improved sexual performance in menopausal women. Furthermore, performing activities, including yoga, Benson relaxation and CBT had the greatest effect on sexual performance. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, most complementary medicine treatments were effective in improving the sexual performance of postmenopausal women.
A chronic skin disorder called Atopic dermatitis (AD) is brought on by the deterioration of the skin's barrier function marked by inflammation, dryness, and bacterial infection along with immunological changes. Althaea Officinalis (AO), known for its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, has been explored as a potential treatment for AD. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel transliposomes (TL) formulation containing AO for AD treatment. Using rotary evaporation, AO-TL formulations were created and optimized employing Box Behnken Design. The optimized AO-TL formulation showed consistent characteristics: vesicle size of 145.8 nm, polydispersity index of 0.201, zeta potential of -28.22 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 86.21%. TEM imaging shows the spherical shapes of the vesicle. These findings demonstrate the formulation's stability and ability to encapsulate AO effectively. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the AO-TL formulation released 81.28% of the drug, outperforming conventional AO dispersion (56.80%). Additionally, when applied to rat skin, the TL gel demonstrated deeper penetration (30 μm) in comparison to the standard solution (5.0 μm) based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Ex vivo and Dermatokinetics studies showed improved penetration of drug-loaded transliposomes gel in rat skin than the conventional AO gel. Overall, the optimized AO-TL formulation offers promising characteristics and performance for the topical treatment of AD. Its drug release, antioxidant activity and deeper penetration suggest enhanced therapeutic effects. Further research and clinical trials are needed to validate its efficacy and safety in AD patients.
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The purpose of the study is to gather and compile information about anorectal disorders and the medications from various systems that are used to treat them. Anorectal disorders are a group of medical disorders in the rectum and anal regions. 25% of the world's population is affected by these disorders. The defects in structure and function of the anorectal and pelvic floor have been seen in patients suffering from a complication such as troubled defecation, fecal incontinence, bleeding from the rectum, anorectal stress, pain, discomfort, and prolapsed. Treatment of anorectal conditions has been known since ancient times by using various systems. The article describes the mechanism of the pathophysiology of common anorectal diseases hemorrhoids, anal fissure, anal fistula, rectal prolapse, & anal abscess, and the description of drugs used for the diseases in the ayurvedic, homeopathic, and allopathic systems of medicines on a majority basis.
Althaea officinalis L., a plant of the Malvaceae family, is widely used in alternative medicine. The aim of this study is to cultivate the Althaea officinalis plant under in vitro conditions to create an appropriate callus regeneration protocol and investigate the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of calli after UV-C application. Leaf, petiole, and root parts of A. officinalis plants germinated in a sterile environment were used as explant sources. Explants were cultured on MS medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D (1, 2 mg/l) and BAP (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mg/l). The most effective (100%) callus growth and callus weight (516.24±0.48 mg) was observed on petiole explants using MS medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 0.25 mg/l BAP. Calli obtained from leaf and petiole explants were exposed to UV-C treatment. Extractions of calli were carried out using methanol and ethyl acetate solutions. 1 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml solutions of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria was investigated using the disc diffusion method for 7 different gram-positive and 9 different gram-negative bacteria. None of the three extract concentrations used had any antimicrobial activities. The anticancer activities of the extracts on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were studied using the WST-1 viability kit. 1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62.5 µg/ml concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts of leaf and petiole calli had anticancer activity.
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Althaea rosea belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is an erect, simple or sparingly branched, stellately hairy, annual or biennial herb and 0.5-2.0 m in height. The seeds of this plant having anti-pyretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, demulcent and analgesic properties. In present era, the adulteration has become a major problem due to unavailability of standards relating to genuineness of herbal drug. Hence, efforts have been made to identify the pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical analysis of Althaea rosea seed. HPTLC fingerprint profiles of methanolic extract and its chloroform fraction of the seed were also developed. This will serve as a standard reference for identification, authentication and distinguishing the plants from its adulterants.
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Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.
The complex extract and the polysaccharide isolated from the roots of marsh mallow were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetized cats of both sexes. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous area of the respiratory system with a Nylon fibre (diameter 0.35 mm). Cough was evaluated on the basis of the changes in lateral tracheal pressure. The polysaccharide and the complex extract were administered p.o. in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The efficiency of the mentioned compounds was compared with the cough-suppressing effect of drugs belonging to the non-narcotic antitussics. The results of the experiments showed that administration of the polysaccharide led to a statistically significant decrease of the number of cough efforts both from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas of the respiratory system. The polysaccharide in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was as effective in inhibition of the cough reflex as Sirupus Althaeae in a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. and more effective than prenoxdiazine in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. However, the cough-suppressing effect of the polysaccharide was lower than that of dropropizine. The extract was less effective than the polysaccharide.
Partial acid hydrolysis of Althaea-mucilage O, a representative mucous polysaccharide isolated from the roots of Althaea officinalis L., led to the isolation of five oligosaccharides. Analysis of their components, as well as reduction and methylation, and partial degradation studies showed that these oligosaccharides are O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→2)-L-rhamnopyranose, O-β-(D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→2)-L-rhamnopyranose, and the hexasaccharide, the nonasaccharide, and the dodecasaccharide composed of a repeating unit having the structure of the trisaccharide through position 4 of the D-galacturonic acid residue. The polysaccharide was also subjected to chromium trioxide oxidation, and to controlled Smith degradation. The configuration and the mode of branching were determined. The structural features of the mucilage are discussed.