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The Pharmaceutical importance of Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea: A review

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Abstract

Two species of the genus Althea (Malvaceae) were grown in Iraq, Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis contained pectins 11%, starch 25-35%, mono-, and di-saccharide, saccharose 10%, mucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids. The previous studies showed that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, demulcent, soothing, antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1. 3 to 1. 6 million Dalton) known as mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals. It possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, cardiovascular, prevention of urolithiasis, antiestrogenic, cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The aim of this review is to highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea species grown in Iraq.
International Journal of PharmTech Research
CODEN (USA): IJPRIF ISSN : 0974-4304
Vol.5, No.3, pp 1378-1385, July-Sept 2013
The Pharmaceutical Importance of Althaea officinalis and
Althaea rosea : A Review
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi*
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thi qar University,
Nasiriyah, P O Box 42, Iraq.
*Corres.author: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
Cell: +9647801397994.
Abstract: Two species of the genus Althea (Malvaceae) were grown in Iraq, Althaea officinalis and Althaea
rosea.Althaea officinalis contained pectins 11% , starch 25-35% , mono-, and di-saccharide, saccharose 10% ,
mucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid),
coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids. The previous studies showed
that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, demulcent, soothing,
antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic
polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These
mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained
proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals. It possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial,
cardiovascular, prevention of urolithiasis,antiestrogenic,cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The aim of
this review is to highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea
species grown in Iraq.
Key words: Althaea officinalis , Althaea rosea , constituents, pharmacology.
Introduction :
Using plants from the Malvaceae family for herbal therapy is very common in the Middle East, of these plants
are Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis is native to Asia, Europe and United States of
America. It is widely used traditionally for the treatment of the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and
associated dry cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth and
throat, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract complains, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns,
constipation and diarrhea(1) .
Althaea rosea (L.) is a popular garden plant. It is native to China, southern Europe, the Middle, Near east,
Mediterranean and Central Asian regions. It was used traditionally as expectorant, cooling, diuretic,expextorant,
and emmenagogue. Decoction of flowers is used as anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, demulcent and astringent
agent. The roots are used in the treatment of ulcers. Flowers as well as roots are used in the treatment of
inflammation of the kidneys and the uterus. Seeds are thought to be diuretic and febrifuge(1-3).
Many compounds were extracted from different parts of Althaea officinalis, these included pectins 11%, starch
25-35%, mono-,and di-saccharide saccharose 10%, uucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside,
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isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine
and many amino acids(4-10).
Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as
mucilages which found in flowers and leaves.These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic
acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals (11-14)
The previous studies showed that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immuno
modulatory, demulcent and soothing, antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea also
possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial , cardiovascular , prevention of urolithiasis ,
antiestrogenic , cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The objective of the present review is to highlight the
chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea species grown in Iraq.
I-Althaea officinalis
Synonym : Malva officinalis
Common names: English name : Althaea, Marshmallow, Arabic name: khatma , Khatmi
Distribution: Native to Asia, Europe and United States of America.
Traditional use: A. officinalis is widely used in the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry
cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth, throat,
gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns, constipation and
diarrhea(1).
Part used: Leaf, root, flowers
Physicochemical properties(2-3) :
Total ash: not more than 6% in the peeled root and not more than 8% in the unpeeled root , acid-insoluble ash :
not more than 3% in the peeled root , water-soluble extractive : not less than 22% ,loss on drying : not more
than 12% , and swelling index : not less than 10.
Chemical constituents :
Many compounds were extracted from different parts of the plants , these included pectins 11% , starch 25-
35%, mono-, di-saccharide saccharose 10%, mucilage 5%, flavonoids : hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin,
kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic
aicd, vanillic acid , coumarins , scopoletin, phytosterols , tannins , asparagine and amino acids(4-10).
Mucilage polysaccharidescontents reached 5-11.6 % (depending on vegetative period). They were consisted of
the mixture of colloidally soluble polysaccharides, particularly of acid arabinanogalactans, galacturonic
rhamnans, arabans and glucans acidic heteropolysaccharide (with a MW ca 30 000) containing D-galactose, L-
rhamnose, D-glucuronic acid and D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratios 1.2:1.0:1.0:1.0, L-arabinans and D-
glucans . Dominant neutral mucilage component is (1-6)-α-D-glucan. By partial acid hydrolysis Althaea
mucilage O, the following oligosaccharides were obtained: O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-2)-L-
rhamnopyranose, O-β-(D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-3)-O-α-(D-galactopyrano syluronic acid)-(1-2)-L-
rhamnopyranose and hexasaccharide, nonasaccharide, dodecasaccharide composed of a repeating unit having
the structure of the trisaccharide through position 4 of the D-galacturonic acid residue(8,15-21) .
Valiei et al extracted many compounds from extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis , these included :
undecyne, nonanoic acid methyl ester (nonanoic acid), phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl,
tetradecanoic acid methyl ester (tetradecanoic acid), pentadecanoic acid methyl ester (pentadecanoic acid), 9-
hexadecenoic acid methyl ester(9-hexadecenoic acid), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester ( hexadecanoic acid) ,
cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-hexyl), heptadecanoic acid
methyl ester (heptadecanoic acid), octadecyne-5, 7,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (7,10-octadecadienoic
acid), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid(ω-6) methyl ester (9,12-octadecadienoic acid), 8,11-octadacadienoic acid,
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methyl ester(8,11-octadacadienoic acid), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid -3) methyl ester (9,12,15-
octadecatrienoic acid), octadecanoic acid methyl ester (octadecanoic acid), naphthalene, decahydro-2,6-
dimethyl , 10-nonadecenoic acid methyl ester (10-nonadecenoic acid), cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-octyl,
methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid,2-octyl), dihydroionone, 3-heptadecen-5-yne, heneicosane, methyl 2-
octylcyclopropene-1-heptanoate, eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (eicosanoic acid) , tetracosan, heneicosanoic acid
methyl ester (heneicosanoic acid), pentacosane, docosanoic acid methyl ester (docosanoic acid), tricosane,
tricosanoic acid methyl ester (tricosanoic acid), heptacosane, tetracosanoic acid methyl ester (tetracosanoic
acid), octacosane, squalene, nonacosane , γ-sitosterol(22) .
Pharmacological effects :
Antimicrobial activity :
A methanolic extract prepared by exhaustive extraction from marshmallow root has been shown to possess an
inhibiting activity able to diminish significantly the periodontal pathogens resident in the oral cavity
(Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp.,Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella
corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp.). Antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus has been documented for chloroform and methanolic
extracts of marshmallow roots(18). The hexane extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis exerted
antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and
Staphylococcus epidermidis), as well as three fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces
cerevisiae)(22).
Rashidi et al also found that 80 % ethanolic Althaea officinalis extract was active against Aspergillus niger,
Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus species. MIC of Althaea officinalis 80 % ethanolic extract 50-100
mg/ml(23). However , ethanol, water and hexane extracts of the dried seed at a concentration of 10.0 mg/ml,
were inactive on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis(24). Ethanolic extract of dried whole plant, in cell
culture at variable concentrations is inactive on adenovirus, coxsackie B2 virus, Herpes virus type 1, measles
virus, poliovirus 1 and Semlicki-Forest virus vs plaque inhibition (Berghe, 1978). Water extract of the dried
leaf, in cell culture at a concentration of 10.0%, was inactive on Herpes virus type 2, influenza virus A2,
poliovirus 11 and vaccinia virus A (25) .
Antiinflammatory:
Aqueous extracts of the roots stimulated phagocytosis, and the release of oxygen radicals and leukotrienes from
human neutrophils in vitro. The aqueous extract also induced the release of cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumour
necrosis factor from human monocytes in vitro, thereby exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immune stimulant
activity(26).
A polysaccharide fraction (500mg/ml) isolated from a root extract had anticomplement activity in human serum
in vitro(27). Marshmallow mucilage polysaccharides administered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg
produced a 2.2-fold increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages in the carbon-clearance test (24). However,
with a dry 80% ethanolic extract administered orally (100 mg/kg b.w.), no inhibition of carrageenan induced rat
paw oedema has been proved(29) .
Hypolaetin 8-glucoside has been tested for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcer activity in rats. This
flavonoid (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) was more potent than phenylbutazone (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) in
suppressing the acute phase of adjuvant carrageenan-induced inflammation but had less effect in the prolonged
inflammatory phase. In contrast to phenylbutazone, it did not cause gastric erosions. Analgesic activity of
hypolaetin 8-glucosid has been found to be lower than the one of phenylbutazone . Hypolaetin 8-glucoside was
also more potent than troxerutin (both at the doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg s.c.) in inhibiting histamine-
induced capillary permeability in rats(18) .
An ointment containing an aqueous marshmallow root extract (20%) applied topically to the external ear of
rabbits reduced irritation induced by UV irradiation or by tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The ointment has been
compared to pure dexamethasone 0.05% ointment and a combined marshmallow and dexamethasone product.
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The anti-inflammatory effect of marshmallow ointment was lower than that of a dexamethasone ointment. The
combined product had higher anti-inflammatory effect than the ointments with the individual ingredients(18).
Scopoletin exert anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil induced mouse ear edema(30).
Immunomodulatory effects :
Althaea-mucilage O, an acidic polysaccharide isolated from marshmallow root, has been demonstrated to have
an anti-complement activity on normal human serum in concentrations of 100 1000 ug/ml(27).
An extract (extraction medium 45 % 1,3-butylene glycol solution) of marshmallow root was found to inhibit
intracellular calcium mobilisation in normal human melanocytes activated by endothelin-1, and to strongly
inhibit endothelin-1-induced proliferation of melanocytes. The extract can diminish the physiological effect of
endothelin-1 on normal human melanocytes following UVB irradiation(18).
Scopoletin produced dual action on tumoral lymphocytes exhibiting both a cytostatic and a cytotoxic effect on
the cell , and also exert apoptosis. Proliferation of normal T lymphocytes was found due to the interaction with
kinase C (PKC) protein. It indicates that scopoletin may be a potential anti-tumoral compound (30).
Demulcent and soothing :
The demulcent effects of Radix Althaeae are due to its high content of polysaccharide hydrocolloids, which
form a protective coating on the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, soothing local irritation and inflammation(1).
However,weak inhibition (17%) of mucociliary transport in isolated, ciliated epithelium of the frog oesophagus
was demonstrated after treatment of the isolated tissues with 200 ml of an aqueous root macerate (6.4 g/140
ml)(31).Polysaccharides from marshmallow root showed moderate adhesion to epithelial tissue of porcine buccal
membranes (18) .
Antittusive effects :
Marshmallow root extract and isolated mucilage polysaccharide were tested for antitussive activity in
unanaesthetised cats of both sexes at oral doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight, in a cough induced by
mechanical stimulation, in acomparison with the cough-suppressing effects of Althaea syrup (1000 mg/kg),
prenoxdiazine (30 mg/kg), dropropizine (100 mg/kg) and codeine (10 mg/kg). Both the extract and isolated
polysaccharide significantly reduced the intensity and the number of cough efforts from laryngopharyngeal and
tracheobronchial areas. The root extract was less effective than the isolated polysaccharide. The antitussive
activity was found to be lower than that of codeine, but higher than those of prenoxdiazine and
dropropizine(18,32).
Polysaccharides of Marshmallow exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was
noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. By testing many
plants, the most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marshmallow,
containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent(33).
In a double blind clinical study, Rouhi and Ganji used Althaea officinalis in patients with hypertension who had
been developed cough during taking of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.The patients received 40mg
of Althaea officinalis three times daily as 20 drops for four weeks . The Mean scores of the severity of the
cough in the group which have been treated by Althaea officinalis had a significant change from the score of
2/66+0.958 (to) 1/23+1.006. Eight patient in the Althaea officinalis group showed almost complete cough
abolition(34).
Other pharmacological effects :
Polysaccharide from the root of A. officinalis (Althaeamucilage-O) administered intraperitoneally to nondiabetic
mice significantly reduced blood glucose(35).
Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) is therapeutically evaluated in rats for hyperthyroidism, lipid
peroxidation and hyperglycemia. Scopoletin (1.00 mg/kg, p.o.) administered daily for 7 days decreased the
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levels of serum thyroid hormones and glucose as well as hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Scopoletin also
mimic hepatic lipid peroxidation and promote antioxidants activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase. It
indicated that scopoletin produce anti-thyroid activity and hyperglycemia without hepatotoxicity(36).
Ethanol/water f(1:1) extract of the dried entire plant, at a concentration of 5.0 mcg/ml, produced weak activity
vs superoxide anion when estimated by the neotetrazolium method(37).The extract of A. officinalis exhibited
strong antioxidant activity in different antioxidant tests(38). Their antioxidant activity is accounted for
approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol(40). Sadighara et al examined
three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total
antioxidant activity . The results showed that the reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant
activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white(40).
II-Althaea rosea
Common names : English name : garden Hollyhock , Arabic name : Khatma wardi , Khatmi wardi.
Distribution : It is native to China , southern Europe , the Middle and Near east , Mediterranean and central
Asian regions. The plant grows best in medium-fertile, moist, but well-drained soil. The plant can not grown in
the shades. It can be found in woodlands, cultivated beds and sunny edges.
Traditional use: It is used as expectorant, cooling and diuretic, cough mixtures, and emmenagogue. Decoction
of flowers is used as anti-inflammatory, febrifuge, demulcent and astringent agent. As a demulcent and
astringent, the roots are useful in the treatment of ulcers. Flowers as well as roots are used in the treatment of
inflammation of the kidneys and the uterus. Seeds are thought to be diuretic and febrifuge(41-43).
Physicochemical properties(11)
Total ash 7.3 ± 0.32 %, acid insoluble ash 1.48 ± 0.16 %, water soluble ash 3.33 ± 0.24 %, and loss on drying
in crude drug (%) 8.2 ± 0.38 % .
Successive extraction (% Extractable matter) : petroleum ether extract 8.18 ± 0.85 %, chloroform extract 2.76
± 0.12 % , methanol extract 3.63 ± 0.32 % , and aqueous extract 11.24 ± 0.14 % .
Chemical constituents:
Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as
mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic
acid, rhamnose and galactose(12).
Fahamiya found that aqueous extract of the seeds of Althaea rosea Linn contain alkaloids, carbohydrates
,phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while methanolic extracts contained all the above compounds as well as
glycosides . However, chloroform extract contained only carbohydrate(11).
Dudek et al investigated the distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra . They
studied the methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts of whole flowers, petals and calyxes of Althaea rosea
(L.) Cav. var. nigra. They found that the plant contained, cinnamic (ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic), benzoic (p-
hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic) acids and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. p-Coumaric, syringic and p-
hydroxybenzoic acids were detected almost in all fractions. In the petals almost all of detected phenolic acids
were found (except caffeic acid in methanolic extract, syringic and p- ydroxyphenylacetic acids in methanolic-
aqueous extract). In the calyxes the vanilic and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acids were not found. The total content
of phenolic acids in whole flowers was 60 mg%, in petals , 120 mg% and 30 mg% in calyxes(13).
Raknimov and Mezthlumyan found that the amount of pectins in the stems was greater than in the roots. Sugars
isolated from the plant stems and roots included arabinose, rhamnose , galactose, xylose and galacturonic acid.
The percentage of hemicelluloses was 26.6 % in the stems and 14.1% in the roots. The amount of proteins in the
stems was 11.3% and in the roots 12.1%. 17 amino acids were found in Althaea rosa stems and roots. The
amino acid composition included valine, threaonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine,
histidine and arginine. The predominant amino acid were asparagine, glutamine and leucine. The amount of
hemicellulose was 26.6% in the stems and 14.1 % in the roots. trace elements in Althaea rosa were determined.
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The amount of microelements : Pb , Cd , Cu, Zn, Sn, Cr, and Fe in the stems were 30.1 , 0.67 , 30.0, 93.6,
23.1, 196.0 mg/kg and 106.0, while, their amounts in the roots were 26.1, 0.83, 24.2, 37.5 , 18.5 , 200.5 , and
790 mg/kg respectively(14).
Pharmacological activities :
Antimicrobial effects :
The antimicrobial activities of n-hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Althaea rosea L.
flowers were reported against Escherichia coli ATCC 29998, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli
ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus
epidermidis ATCC 12228, Salmonella thyphimurium CCM 5445, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047,
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27853 as bacteria and Candida albicans
ATCC 10239 by disc diffusion method(44).
Cardiovascular effects
Alcoholic extract of the flower of Althaea rosea (L.) increased the outflow of coronary artery of isolated guinea
pig's heart and markedly dilated the blood vessels in the hind-limbs of rats. The extract showed a transient
hypotensive effect on anesthetic cats. It inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP and showed a inhibitory
effect on experimental thrombosis formation(45).
Prevention of urolithiasis
In both preventive and curative protocols, treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of Althaea rosea roots
significantly reduced the kidney calcium oxalate deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Administration
of Althaea rosea extract also reduced the elevated urinary oxalate due to ethylene glycol(46).
Antiestrogenic effects :
In traditional folk medicine the Althaea rosea flowers were regarded as an emmenagogue. Literature data have
proved that the infusion and methanolic extract of Althea rosea influence hormonal activity and affected the
morphology of the sexual organs of the rats. It exerted estrogenic activity, but exact component of this plant
responsible for this activity was not determined. The in vivo test proved that p-hydroxybenzoic acid was
estrogenic. Dudek et al proved that this compound present in different parts of Althea rosea and could be
responsible for its estrogenic activity (13).
Effect on Immune system :
Water extract of Althaea rosea produce the following effects on immune system(47) :
1- Induced a transient non-specific polyclonal response indicated by the production of IL-4 in treated, non-
immunized mice.
2- Initially boosted the production of anti-EA antibodies and IL-4, a T- helper 2 cytokine.
3- Suppress production of gamma-interferon, a T- helper 1 cytokine.
Cytotoxic effects:
The cytotoxic activity of n-hexane, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water extracts of Althaea rosea L. was
investigated by brine shrimp assay. Ethyl acetate extract showed cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp(44).
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... The Althaea officinalis flower extract was positive for carbohydrates, traces of tannins, flavonoids, traces of saponins, and volatile oils. In agreement, Al-Snafi [60] has documented similar results. Solanum nigrum fruit extract was positive for carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols and triterpenoids and alkaloids, in agreement with the results obtained by El-Hawary et al. and Rani et al. [37,61]. ...
... Aqueous extracts of Althaea officinalis and ethanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum showed free radical scavenging activities against DPPH. The results of the in vitro anti-oxidant activity of test extracts were in agreement with previous studies [32,60,[66][67][68]. Ethanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum showed the highest anti-oxidant effect, exhibiting the smallest IC50 values. ...
... Althaea officinalis is traditionally used as a treatment for the irritation of mucous membranes, including use as a gargle for mouth and throat ulcers and gastric ulcers [60,83]. Althaea officinalis flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Middle East countries. ...
... It should be noted that there are limited studies about Pb level in A. officinalis L., radix (marshmallow root). Azizov et al. [22] and Esmail et al. [23] described that the level of Pb was 26.1 mg/kg in roots of A. officinalis L., radix collected in Syrdarinsk District of Uzbekistan. As was mentioned in the introduction, lead may be taken up by plant roots [14]. ...
... As in the case of Pb, there are limited studies about Cd levels in A. officinalis L., radix (marshmallow root). Azizov et al. [22] and Esmail et al. [23] described that the level of Cd was 0.83 mg/kg in roots of A. officinalis L., radix collected in Syrdarinsk District of Uzbekistan. This element is readily taken up by plants, and an important problem can be that the toxicity level is in the range of 0.5-1 mg/kg dry plant material, whereas crop plants tolerate at least ten-fold of that concentration in tissue [15]. ...
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The level of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in phytopharmaceuticals can be a potential threat to human health through the food chain. The traditional herbal medicinal products (THMPs) with the marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis L., radix), which we can find in European pharmacies, are widely used among the European population. However, recently, voices have been heard in the public about alleged PTE occurrence. In this article, the levels of Pb and Cd impurities were measured in samples of THMPs with marshmallow root available in Polish pharmacies (n = 10). Our proposed toxicological approach was based on two important issues. The first was PTE levels (Pb: 1.60–6.80 μg/L and Cd: 0.80–3.81 μg/L presented as raw results) in comparison with the permissible limit set by FAO/WHO for medicinal herbs (10,000 µg/kg for Pb and 300 µg/kg for Cd) and also ICH Q3D guidelines (0.5 μg/g for Pb and also Cd). The second was the estimation of exposure of investigated PTE in a single dose and daily dose for each THMP. It should be noted that the content of analyzed heavy metals in a single dose of analyzed products was very low, and hence is not a threat for patients. The obtained daily intake of heavy metals impurities in comparison with PDE values confirms the safety of all analyzed phytopharmaceuticals (all of the samples meet the standards of the ICH Q3D guideline). It can be summarized that each of the analyzed THMP with marshmallow root available in Poland are safe for the patients. Based on literature review, this article is the first study about heavy metals impurities level in final THMPs with A. officinalis L., radix (marshmallow root) available in European pharmacies.
... Allium species exerted anticancer activity against wide range of chemically induced cancers and wide range of tumor cell lines . Althaea officinalis possessed anticancer effect against tumoral lymphocytes (55)(56) . Althaea rosea showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (55)(56) . ...
... Althaea officinalis possessed anticancer effect against tumoral lymphocytes (55)(56) . Althaea rosea showed cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (55)(56) . Ammannia baccifera possessed antitumor activity against HeLa cancer cell line (58)(59) . ...
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The alternative natural therapies are required as they considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current chemotherapy. In the current review Web Science, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, were searched to provide information about medicinal plants that have shown anticancer activity against various forms of cancer.
... The alcoholic extract showed a transient hypotensive effect on anesthetic cats (13) . ...
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Plants are a valuable source of a wide range of secondary metabolites, which are used as pharmaceuticals preparations. The previous studied showed that many medicinal plants possessed hypotensive effects and affected vascular activity either by direct effect on vascular smooth muscles or indirectly by affecting endothelium vasoactive substances. The current review was designed to highlight the medicinal plants with hypotensive and vascular effects as promising future therapies because of efficacy and safety.
... The extract showed a transient hypotensive effect on anesthetic cats. It inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP and showed a inhibitory effect on experimental thrombosis formation (12) . ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) kill 17.9 million people per year, by 2030, it is predicted that more than 22.2 million people will die annually from CVDs. Many medicinal plants possessed cardiac and anti-arrhythmic effects. The current study was designed to highlight the medicinal plants which possess beneficial effect in heart failure, protect heart from the toxicity of wide range of chemicals, and exert anti-arrhythmic activities.
... A methanolic extract prepared by exhaustive extraction from marshmallow root has been shown to possess an inhibiting activity able to diminish significantly the periodontal pathogens resident in the oral cavity (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp.) (10)(11) . ...
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Medicinal plants which showed antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and inhibited biofilm formation have the capability of eliminating the oral microbes and preventing many oral infections. In the current review, PubMed, Web Science, Science Direct, Researchgate, Academia.edu and Scopus were searched to determine the medicinal plants with antibacterial effects against the common oral pathogens.
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Leea macrophylla Roxb. and Lagerstromia parviflora Roxb. are important traditionally used medicinal plants from ancient time period. In present work, medicinal significance and the pharmacological effects of the plant are discussed. It is essential to study the uses of plants and other associated knowledge which will help for researchers to introduce new phytoproducts for scientific validation. Besides, the present work suggests that the more scientific data is required to explore its chemical constituents in the treatment of diseases and disorders for making new therapeutic drugs. It is also suggested that both species are under threat of extinction so need to be protected.
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Introduction Herbal medicine is extensively used in various therapeutic strategies. Althaea officinalis L. of the family Malvaceae exhibits many biological activities through its phenolic acids, flavonoids, coumarins and polysaccharides. In Lebanon, the flowers are consumed in hot infusions. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate chemical and biological properties of Lebanese Althaea officinalis L. flower water extract. Methods Chemical characterization was performed by qualitative phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Anti-proliferative effect was evaluated in cancer cells by MTT assay. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory enzyme and inflammatory cytokines were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Cytoprotective activity was examined in red blood cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis. Antioxidant property was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, lignins, phenols, tannins, terpenoids and others. GC/MS analysis suggested that most of the phytocompounds are conjugated to sugars rather than free. LC/MS analysis identified 5 phenolic acids (syringic, gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acids) and 8 flavonoids (catechin, apigenin, chrysin, quercetin, kaempferol, genistein, rutin trihydrate and galangin). Biological evaluation of the extract showed anti-proliferative effects on A549, EB, HCT-116, MCF-7 and HeLa 229 cells, anti-inflammatory activity illustrated by decrease in mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin 1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, cytoprotective activity in red blood cells and antioxidant property. Conclusion Althaea officinalis flowers rich in phytocompounds exert interesting biological activities and hold promise in the pharmacological field.
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To develop the medicinal and edible plant resources of Althaea officinalis Linn in Europe and other places, this study concentrated on the bioactive ingredients of its different extracts. The phytochemical compositions of MeOH extracts were evaluated by UPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF-MSⁿ analysis. The in vitro antioxidant properties, enzymes inhibitory effects and nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activities of fractions obtained from the aerial parts of Althaea officinalis (APAO) were evaluated. The results identified 76 compounds, including 8 phenolic acids, 17 flavonoids, 6 coumarins, 9 triterpenes and 11 alkaloids. Fr. C-2 of APAO was found to have the highest TPC (175.8 ± 1.5 mg GAE/g) and TFC (466.9 ± 5.0 mg RE/g) with the highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays. Fr. A showed noticeable inhibition of α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 3.8 ± 0.1 μg/mL. However, Fr. B displayed stronger inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase than quercetin, with the IC50 value of 8.4 ± 1.6 μg/mL. In addition, Fr. B also possessed potent inhibitory activities on NO production toward LPS-activated RAW 264.7 Cells with an IC50 value of 15.7 ± 1.6 μg/mL. Our findings suggest that different Althaea officinalis extracts may be considered sources of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with high potential as natural antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents and blood sugar regulators. In addition, they can also be used in food and nutraceutical products with enhanced bioactivities.
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Geleneksel İran sanatlarının, sanat tarihi açısından uzun ve değerli bir geçmişi bulunmaktadır. Özellikle el dokuma kumaşları geleneksel sanatlarda önemli eserler arasında sayılmaktadır. El dokuma kumaşları kalitelerine göre; 1- Evde üretilmiş kumaşlar, 2- Saray atölyelerinden üretilmiş altın işlemeli kumaşlar olarak ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Saray ürünleri bir devletin siyasal, sosyal ve kültürel etkilerini göstermek adına değerli bir anlam ve önem taşırlar. Bu altınlı kumaşlar genellikle, yüksek dereceli Saray eşrafının giysileri için ve diğer devletlerin hükümet yetkilileri ile büyükelçilerine hediye edilmek üzere Saray atölyelerinde üretilmekteydi. Safeviler dönemi el sanatları, İran tarihinin Sasaniler'den sonraki en önemli ve verimli dönemlerinden biridir. Bu dönemde Saray sanatçılarının yaratıcılıklarından ve yeteneklerinden istifade edilerek; geleneksel yöntemler kullanılarak kalıcı el sanatları üretilmiş, müzeler ve özel koleksiyonlarda yer almışlardır. Çalışmada el dokuma ve ipekli kumaşların betimsel analizi yapılmıştır. Bu analizler Safeviler dönemi desenlerinin Ghiyaseddin Nakşibendi ve Riza Abbasi’ye ait iki farklı tarzda çalışılmış, ipekli el dokumasının ayrıntılarını kapsamaktadır. Ayrıca çalışmada altın kumaşların üzerinde ilk kez kullanılan Nestalik hattı ile minyatür formatında insan ve hayvan figürü, tasarımlarla ve el dokuma kumaşlarında yer almaktadır
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Althaea rosea belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is an erect, simple or sparingly branched, stellately hairy, annual or biennial herb and 0.5-2.0 m in height. The seeds of this plant having anti-pyretic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, demulcent and analgesic properties. In present era, the adulteration has become a major problem due to unavailability of standards relating to genuineness of herbal drug. Hence, efforts have been made to identify the pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical analysis of Althaea rosea seed. HPTLC fingerprint profiles of methanolic extract and its chloroform fraction of the seed were also developed. This will serve as a standard reference for identification, authentication and distinguishing the plants from its adulterants.
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Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.
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The complex extract and the polysaccharide isolated from the roots of marsh mallow were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetized cats of both sexes. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous area of the respiratory system with a Nylon fibre (diameter 0.35 mm). Cough was evaluated on the basis of the changes in lateral tracheal pressure. The polysaccharide and the complex extract were administered p.o. in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The efficiency of the mentioned compounds was compared with the cough-suppressing effect of drugs belonging to the non-narcotic antitussics. The results of the experiments showed that administration of the polysaccharide led to a statistically significant decrease of the number of cough efforts both from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas of the respiratory system. The polysaccharide in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was as effective in inhibition of the cough reflex as Sirupus Althaeae in a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. and more effective than prenoxdiazine in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. However, the cough-suppressing effect of the polysaccharide was lower than that of dropropizine. The extract was less effective than the polysaccharide.
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Partial acid hydrolysis of Althaea-mucilage O, a representative mucous polysaccharide isolated from the roots of Althaea officinalis L., led to the isolation of five oligosaccharides. Analysis of their components, as well as reduction and methylation, and partial degradation studies showed that these oligosaccharides are O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→2)-L-rhamnopyranose, O-β-(D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→2)-L-rhamnopyranose, and the hexasaccharide, the nonasaccharide, and the dodecasaccharide composed of a repeating unit having the structure of the trisaccharide through position 4 of the D-galacturonic acid residue. The polysaccharide was also subjected to chromium trioxide oxidation, and to controlled Smith degradation. The configuration and the mode of branching were determined. The structural features of the mucilage are discussed.