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Indian Materia Medica

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... Syphilis, visceral obstructions, and enlargements of the spleen and liver produced by persistent intermittent fevers are treated with juice mixed with ghee. Externally, the juice is used to eradicate warts [43]. ...
... When youngsters have respiratory difficulties, E. neriifolia leaf extract combined with common salt and honey is used topically and orally. To heal severe cracks in the soles of the feet, boiling E. neriifolia milk is administered topically together with castor oil and salt [43]. ...
... Hydrophobia can be cured with stem pulp and fresh ginger. Stem juice is also used to remove warts from the skin and to treat earaches [43]. ...
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Medicinal plants have considerable potential as antimicrobial agents due to the presence of secondary metabolites. This comprehensive overview aims to summarize the classification, morphology, and ethnobotanical uses of Euphorbia neriifolia L. and its derived phytochemicals with the recent updates on the pharmacological properties against emerging infectious diseases, mainly focusing on bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. The data were collected from electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Semantic Scholar, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink by utilizing several keywords like ‘Euphorbia neriifolia’, ‘phytoconstituents’, ‘traditional uses’, ‘ethnopharmacological uses’, ‘infectious diseases’, ‘molecular mechanisms’, ‘COVID-19’, ‘bacterial infection’, ‘viral infection’, etc. The results related to the antimicrobial actions of these plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals were carefully reviewed and summarized. Euphol, monohydroxy triterpene, nerifoliol, taraxerol, β-amyrin, glut-5-(10)-en-1-one, neriifolione, and cycloartenol are the leading secondary metabolites reported in phytochemical investigations. These chemicals have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological functions. Different extracts of E. neriifolia exerted antimicrobial activities against various pathogens to different extents. Moreover, major phytoconstituents present in this plant, such as quercetin, rutin, friedelin, taraxerol, epitaraxerol, taraxeryl acetate, 3β-friedelanol, 3β-acetoxy friedelane, 3β-simiarenol, afzelin, 24-methylene cycloarenol, ingenol triacetate, and β-amyrin, showed significant antimicrobial activities against various pathogens that are responsible for emerging infectious diseases. This plant and the phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and alkaloids, have been found to have significant antimicrobial properties. The current evidence suggests that they might be used as leads in the development of more effective drugs to treat emerging infectious diseases, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
... Literally, Kushta means killed, in Persian [1,2] but technically it means incinerated material containing only oxides of inorganic materials. Neela-Tutia is a mineral origin drug [3]. It is semimetal derived from copper. ...
... It is semimetal derived from copper. It occurs in blue crystalline masses [3,4]. it is prepared by roasting copper pyrites with sulfur [5]. ...
... In English, it is called Verdigris [7]. Externally copper sulphate is applied to indolent ulcers, exuberant granulations, sinuses, fistula in ano and is used in solid or preferably liquid form as the solution (2 grains in an ounce of water) [3,6]. Important formulations in which Neela-Tutia is one of the ingredients are Kushta Tutia [8] Marhum zangar [9], Habbe dibbe-atfal [9], Manjan mufeed [9], Marham sa'afa 9 Salaya Tutia [1], Koahal Chikni dawa [9]. ...
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Introduction: Kushta Nella-Tutia has a wide range of Pharmacological actions in Unani system of medicine. It is used both internally as well as externally. In Unani system of medicine, it is commonly used for Qatil e-deedaneam’a (Anthelmintic), Mundamil qurooh (Healing of wound), Aatishak (syphilis), Juzam (leprosy), Qarha asir al indimal (Indolent ulcers), Nawasir nafidha (Fistula). Methods: Kushta Nella-Tutia has been evaluated by using classical, organoleptic and physicochemical tests. The methodology was followed according to the protocol of ASU drugs. Results: Physiochemical results revealed that Kushta Nella-Tutia is Black in color, odorless, lusterless, tasteless and soluble in organic solvents, but insoluble in water and all the physiochemical standards were set. Conclusion: The present study has provided evidence-based scientifically validated data for the standardization of Kushta Nella-Tutia and will serve as a useful tool to minimize adulteration and substitution of Kushta NellaTutia. The standardization of herbal drugs is very important for quality control. it improves the efficacy and safety of the drug. Physiochemical results of Kushta Nella-Tutia will serve as a reference standard for identification in the future and the intern will prevent adulteration and improve the quality, identity, and purity of the drug.
... also known as Amritphale has astringent, sedative activity and act as febrifuge. Its leaves and bark can be used in wound healing and thus also acts as antiinflammatory Leaves, buds, and bark of the tree are domestic remedies among the Arabs on account of their astringent action [28] . Pear is a rich source of Vitamin C, ascorbic acid and it is an antioxidant. ...
... The leaves contain arbutin, isoquercitrin, sorbitol, ursolic acid, astragalin and tannin [21] .The bark contains friedelin, epifriedelanol and beta-sitosterol [14] . Phloridzin is present in the root bark [28] . ...
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Ethnomedicinal implies the usage of medicinal plants used by a group of people on account of their traditional knowledge and phytochemical means the individual chemical that plant contains. This review involves the ethnomedicinal and phytochemical perspectives of Pyrus communis Linn. In the "The Indian Materia Medica", the common pear or gabbu gosha is considered as 'Amritphale' because of its immense potential in human health care system. Various phenolic glucoside compounds have been isolated and identified from Pyrus communis Linn. e.g. arbutin, quercetin, kaempferol, fredielin, sterols, isoquercitrin, ursolic acid, sorbitol, astragalin, phloridzin and various tannins responsible for different activities viz. in urinary therapeutics, as skin whitening agent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, analgesic, astringent, spasmolytic. It is also used in diabetes because of low sucrose content.
... It gives a good complexion to the skin and is applied to face as a depilatory and facial tonic. The drug is also useful in cold, cough, bronchitis, conjunctivitis and liver affections [10,11]. Several pharmacological studies were conducted to support the use of C. longa. ...
... Pilot human studies of curcumin have demonstrated promise for improving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease [23,24]. Curcumin also demonstrated antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antifertility and cardiovascular protective and immunostimulant activity [11]. Curcumin, one of the most studied chemopreventive agents, allows suppression, retardation or inversion of carcinogenesis. ...
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Curcuma longa (turmeric) has traditionally been used in Ayurvedic, Unani and herbal drugs to cure numerous ailments. Due to the high demand, the quantitative standardization of herbal products is challenging to maintain their quality. We aim to develop a rapid, sensitive and validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous determination and quantification of curcumin I, curcumin II and curcumin III in C. longa and herbal formulation. The three standards were separated using centrifugal preparative thin-layer chromatography (CPTLC) silica gel and identified by different spectroscopic methods. The developed HPTLC method was validated by following ICH guidelines (linearity; limit of detection, LOD; limit of quantitation; accuracy; precision; and robustness). The calibration curves of both the compounds were linear (50–500 ng/spot), with a correlation coefficient (r2) of >999. The developed HPTLC method was effectively applied to the concurrent detection and quantification of curcumins I–III in fresh, dry rhizomes and the herbal formulation of C. longa extracts was obtained by hot and cold extraction methods.
... Ayurveda and Siddha to treat reproductive and neurological disorders 7,8 . It has been referred to by different names in different languages and in English, it is referred to as Velvet bean or Cowhage 9 . The book "Indian Materia Medica" reported the seed and leaf extracts as nervine tonic and were recommended for the treatment of nervous disorders such as facial paralyzes, hemiplegia, etc 9 . ...
... It has been referred to by different names in different languages and in English, it is referred to as Velvet bean or Cowhage 9 . The book "Indian Materia Medica" reported the seed and leaf extracts as nervine tonic and were recommended for the treatment of nervous disorders such as facial paralyzes, hemiplegia, etc 9 . ...
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Experimental studies found extracts of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC, a plant used in the traditional medical systems to possess strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties among a wide range of other beneficial effects. Hypothesizing the possibility for a multifaceted beneficial effect, the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (MP) in treating spinal cord injury (SCI) was tested using the highly standardized Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study (MASCIS) animal model of contusive SCI. Male Wister rats with SCI were treated with the ethanolic extract of MP at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. The outcome was assessed through molecular, biochemical, histological, and behavioral scoring parameters. Results indicated anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of MP. Nevertheless, many of these beneficial effects were not statistically significant and there was no functional improvement due to MP treatment. MP at comparable doses was reported to be significantly effective in mitigating oxidative stress and/or inflammation under various other pathological conditions. Lack of significance in the present study could be due to the presence of blood-spinal cord-barrier; that might have prevented the components of MP from reaching spinal cord tissue in adequate quantities. Additionally, heterogeneity in the function of the cells typical to the CNS environment could be the reason for the failure of recovery. To conclude, the limitations posed by the structural and functional distinctions in the spinal cord environment in comparison to other non-CNS tissue environments deserve attention while adjudicating the efficacies of herbal remedies for SCI.
... The flowering spikes or seeds, ground and made into a paste with water, are used as external application for bites of poisonous snakes and reptiles, used in night blindness and cutaneous diseases. [22] For snake bites the ground root is given with water until the patient vomits and regains consciousness. Inhaling the fume of Achyranthes aspera. ...
... Bacopa monniera (B.monniera) or Brahmi is an ayurvedic medicine, clinically used for memory enhancing and as nerve tonic in Indian traditional medicine (Chopra et al., 1969). The plant had been used as a nootropic, digestive aid and to improve learning, memory and respiratory functions (Nadkarni, 1988). The activities of Bacopa monniera are believed to be associated with the polar fraction, mainly containing saponins as a complex mixture of Bacoside-A, Bacoside B & Bacoside C and pseudojujubogenin glycosides Bacopaside I & Bacopaside II (Rastogi et al., 1994;chakravarthy et al., 2001). ...
Article
Bacopa monniera (B.monniera) plant has been reported as nerve tonic and memory enhancer from ancient times in Indian system of medicine i.e. Ayurveda. The active components present in B.monniera are Bacoside-A & Bacopaside-II which are mainly responsible for its memory effects and other health benefits. Calcium gluconate (CG), organic calcium having available calcium (13 %) is one of best sources for calcium fortification in ice cream. In this study, B.monniera extract 10 mg/100g (Ethanol extraction) and calcium gluconate 217mg/100g was added to ice cream mix subjecting to ageing, freezing, hardening and storage. Sensory and physico-chemical analysis of the prepared product was carried out. HPLC analysis was carried out to confirm the presence of bacosides (BacosideA & Bacopaside-II) and to estimate the quantity of bacosides. Calcium content in fortified ice cream was 165 mg/100g where as control ice cream was 145 mg/100g.
... Celery )Apium Gravolens L. (and Parsley )Petvoselinum crispum ( belongs to the family Apiaceae (Norman and Max, 2001). The original home is India and the USA ( Nadkarni and Nadkarni, 1976). Its fruits are small in size, greenish-white, tentacle-shaped, grayish-brown in color and aromatic (Teng and et al., 1985) . ...
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This Experiment was carried out in the fields of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad during the autumn season 2014-2015. Plants seeds (celery, parsley and Chamomile) planted in dishes, Seedlings transferred after month when seeds germination .The seedlings were planted in the field on lines between 75 cm and 40 cm between one plant and another. This experiment was carried out using the design RCBD on three replicates. The first factor represents different plants, While The second factor represents harvest dates .The results were showed that The harvest of leaves celery at three o'clock in the afternoon gave the highest percentage of volatile oil and penol, which was 0.75 ml / 100 g and 5 mg/100g. Parsley gave highest level of volatile oil at 6 pm, which was 0.5 ml / 100 g, While the harvest time at three in the morning produced the highest percentage of phenols, which reached 3.7 mg/100g. The amount of volatile oil in the flowers of chamomile plant increased when harvesting at 12 AM, which gave the highest amount of 0.063 ml / 100 g compared to the date of harvest at three in the afternoon, which produced the lowest amount of volatile oil amounted to 0.026 ml / 100 g. and harvest time at 9 pm in the content of total phenols.
... This cysteine helps to avoid heart attack ot stroke . [9] 3. The papaya fruit is globally used in different form such as fresh or the form of juices, jams, and crystallized dry fruit [15]. 4. The ripe C. papaya fruit is the rich source of vitamin A, C, and calcium [16]. ...
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number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. In Pakistan 505,430 dengue cases reported. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. Fever reducers and pain killers can be taken to control the symptoms of muscle aches and pains, and fever. The best options to treat these symptoms are acetaminophen or paracetamol. The first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia but there are not properly beneficial for dengue disease. Carica papaya leave's juice is given to those who are effected with dengue fever they used their leaves as an herbal medicine. Carica papaya leaves juice significantly accelerates the rate of increase in platelet count among patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.
... It is popularly cultivated in Mediterranean Sea regions with warm climatic conditions, summers, and mild winters. The optimal temperature required for favorable growth and development of the almonds is between 15 and 30 °C, and the tree buds have a chilling requirement of 300 to 600 hrs below 7.2 °C (45.0 °F) break the dormancy 5,6 . Literature Search: An extensive literature search was employed to summarize the traditional medicinal uses of Prunus amygdalus and its pharmacological properties comprising information from journals and traditional books. ...
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Prunus amygdalus Batsch (family-Rosaceae), popularly known as Badam, Almond, is the most important familiar nuttree for global nut production that includes apples pears, prunes and raspberries. Almond seed skin is a prominent source of polyphenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids, bioflavonoids, flavanones, isoflavones, flavonol glycosides and lignansthat are reported in a ripened nut. Bioflavonoids such as flavanolglycosides, chieflycatechins, epicatechin, procyanidins and flavonol include 3-hydroxyflavone backbone glycosides, particularly isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin, naringenin and kaempferol are novel agents isolated from ripened seeds. The review aims to renew the interest in this promising plant, thus stimulating researchers to go further with the study for discovering novel medicinal agents for the treatment and management of several kinds of ailments. The present study compiled a detailed and unique summary of traditional folk medicine Prunus amygdalus based on screening the various databases from traditional textbooks, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Nature, and Research Gate, etc. The kernels of the seeds are a major source of vitamin E and B, dietary fiber, essential elements calcium and magnesium, monounsaturated fatty acids, and phytosterols with significant cholesterol-lowering effects. It is the most popular folk remedy and nutritive food that can relieve different kinds of ailments. This review summarizes recent advances in the studies regarding Prunus amygdalus's nutritional and therapeutic significance. Further, there is a need to isolate and evaluate the active chemical constituents of Prunus amygdalus having significant pharmacological values.
... A new sesquiterpene glycoside, Parthenolide isolated from the flowers of S. indicus has been shown to produce 40% increase in the antibody secreted cells. It has been used for glandular swelling, bronchitis, jaundice and nerves depression [128]. ...
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Immunomodulation is basically a process that can alter the immune system of an organism by interfering with its functions. The current approach is to know about the medicinal plants that are biologically active and could potentially be of help in the development of modern and new immunomodulating agents. As in modern-day life, extensive exposure to industry-based pollutants/xenobiotics has resulted in the emergence of a variety of immune deficiencies or hypersensitivity situations, where immunology can play an important role. The inference results in either immune-stimulation, an enhancement of immune reactions, or immune-suppression imply mainly to reduce resistance against infection, stress which may be because of environmental or chemotherapeutic factors. Bioactive natural products provide the excellent raw material for the discovery and development of novel immune-modulatory compounds. A good number of bioactive natural products used as medicinal plants have stood the test of time, particularly for the treatment of allergic metabolic and degenerative diseases associated with aging. These bioactive natural products are believed to promote positive health and maintain organic resistance against infections by reestablishing body equilibrium and conditioning the body tissues. A large variety of natural bioactive plants mentioned in Ayurveda for their immunomodulation, adaptogenic and rejuvenating properties have been under study.
... Lepidium sativum L. is known in Indian traditional medicine as aphrodisiac [29]. The results of a study of Naji and Abood [30] have revealed that due to tocopherol administration from Lepidium sativum, fertility was increased; they have shown a significant increase in testicular sperm concentration, epididymus sperm concentration and in the sperm count, sperm motility, grade activity, sperm viability with a decrease in abnormal sperm morphology percent of caudal epididymis. ...
... The Spine gourd fruits and leaves have good medicinal properties such as diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective, anti-venomous, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, antipyretic, antileprosy, antidiabetic, and antidepressant, while the leaves are antihelminthic, aphrodisiac, antihemorrhoidal, hepatoprotective, antibronchitic, antipyretic, antiasthmatic etc. (Nadkarni, 2007). ...
... The Spine gourd fruits and leaves have good medicinal properties such as diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective, anti-venomous, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, antipyretic, antileprosy, antidiabetic, and antidepressant, while the leaves are antihelminthic, aphrodisiac, antihemorrhoidal, hepatoprotective, antibronchitic, antipyretic, antiasthmatic etc. (Nadkarni, 2007). ...
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Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizers directly to their leaves. Plants are able to absorb materials that are essential through their leaves. The absorption takes place through their epidermis. The application of fertilizers to foliage of crop as spray solution is known as foliar spray. This method is suitable for application of small quantities of fertilizers, especially micro nutrients. Foliar application is not a substitute for soil application but only a supplement to it.
... It is applied against an antiseptic, emetic, purgative, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antispasmodic, anti-psychotic, anti-epileptic and useful to treat the liver and spleen enlargement [9]. The mixture of dried V. verrucosum powder and water is applied for the cure of swelling, intense burning sensation and difficulty in breathing. ...
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Viscum articulatum is a parasitic herbaceous perennial plant mostly associated with deciduous trees. A number of parasitic plants remained unexplored just like various species of Viscum. It was deducted from various literature studies that phytochemical analysis of various Viscum species indicated the presence of antimicrobial properties. Hence, authors designed the present study to verify the antimicrobial potential of V. articulatum. For this, we followed phytochemical screening of various plant parts and antimicrobial activity was also checked as well by considering agar well diffusion assay, disc diffusion assay and broth diffusion assay. Along with this presence of secondary metabolites was also analysed by calculating Rf value from thin layer chromatography. From the result it was observed that V. articulatum is potentially rich in saponin, phenolics and tannins. Antibacterial screening showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentraction (MIC) at 100 mg/ml was 1.9 cm in agar well diffusion and MIC was found at 400 mg/ml in broth diffusion assay against Vibrio cholerae.
... It is also used as anti-bronchial and anti-asthmatic by local people (Said, 1970). In Ayurveda, Withania has been claimed to posses potent aphrodisiac, sedative, rejuvenative, and life prolonging properties (Nadkarni, 1976;Williamson, 2002). Other biological activities of extracts of various parts of W. somnifera include cholinesterase inhibition of whole plant (Choudhary et al., 2004(Choudhary et al., , 2005, anti-inflammatory via COX-2 enzyme inhibition of leaves extract , antibacterial activity of extracts of leaves and roots (Owais et al., 2005), and sex hormones deficiency regulation in diabetic rats from roots extract (Kiasalari et al., 2009). ...
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Phytochemical studies on the aerial parts of Withania somnifera L. Dunal. (Solanaceae) led to the isolation of a chlorinated steroidal lactone (27-acetoxy-4b,6a-dihydroxy-5b-chloro-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide), a diepoxy withanolide (5b,6b,14a,15a-diepoxy-4b,27-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,24-dienolide), and withaf-erin A. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic techniques. All three compounds exhibited a growth inhibition and cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460), with withaferin A being the most potent (GI 50 = 0.18 lg/mL and LC 50 = 0.45 lg/mL) among three compounds tested.
... The juice of leaves has been used as an antidote in opium poisoning, and an oral intake of leaves for 2-3 days has been reported to be effective in reducing jaundice in adults and children [8]. Traditionally, S. cumini leaves juice along with mango leaves and myrobalan fruit administered with honey and goat milk has been used also to combat dysentery [9], whereas bark decoction of S. cumini with water has been used to treat diabetes [10], dysentery, to increase appetite, to achieve sedation, and to relieve headache when taken orally [4]. Bark decoction has been given to females with recurrent miscarriages [5]. ...
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Syzygium cumini, locally known as Jamun in Asia, is a fruit-bearing crop belonging to the Myrtaceae family. This study aims to summarize the most recent literature related to botany, traditional applications, phytochemical ingredients, pharmacological activities, nutrition, and potential food applications of S. cumini. Traditionally, S. cumini has been utilized to combat diabetes and dysentery, and it is given to females with a history of abortions. Anatomical parts of S. cumini exhibit therapeutic potentials including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimalarial, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities attributed to the presence of various primary and secondary metabolites such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids (i.e., quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol), phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside). Different fruit parts of S. cumini have been employed to enhance the nutritional and overall quality of jams, jellies, wines, and fermented products. Today, S. cumini is also used in edible films. So, we believe that S. cumini’s anatomical parts, extracts, and isolated compounds can be used in the food industry with applications in food packaging and as food additives. Future research should focus on the isolation and purification of compounds from S. cumini to treat various disorders. More importantly, clinical trials are required to develop low-cost medications with a low therapeutic index.
... The juice of leaves has been used as an antidote in opium poisoning, and an oral intake of leaves for 2-3 days has been reported to be effective in reducing jaundice in adults and children [8]. Traditionally, S. cumini leaves juice along with mango leaves and myrobalan fruit administered with honey and goat milk has been used also to combat dysentery [9], whereas bark decoction of S. cumini with water has been used to treat diabetes [10], dysentery, to increase appetite, to achieve sedation, and to relieve headache when taken orally [4]. Bark decoction has been given to females with recurrent miscarriages [5]. ...
... The bark and wood are hot, acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, expectorant, antipyretic allays thirst, vomiting, cures skin diseases, ulcer, leucoderma, dysentery, abortifacient, diseases of the blood and dyspepsia (Ahmad, 2007). It is a stimulant used remedies and folk medicine (Nadkarni, 1954). Sheesham is a cash tree because it financially supports the farmer by selling wood which is used in making furniture, plywood industries, construction work and fuel purposes. ...
... Camphor Tree (English); Kapoor (Hindi); Kafoor (Arabic,Urdu); Karpoor (Sanskrit); Karpooam (Tamil, Kannad). [1,2,[9][10][11][12] Mizaj (Temperament) The Unani physicians unanimously described the Mizaj of kafoor as Cold and Dry in third degree. [2][3][4][13][14] Actions (Af'aal) The drug camphor is described in detail in ethnobotanical and classical Unani literature literature. ...
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Kafoor or camphor is a well known Unani drug used in a number of pathological conditions including skin diseases (Amraze Jildiya) since centuries. Its therapeutic values are clearly defined in classical Unani literature. The source of this drug is the tree of Cinnamomum camphora. The tree is native of Japan, China, and Florida. In India it is found in northern hilly areas of middle and lower Himalaya. Kafoor is mohallil (resolvent), dafe awram (anti�inflammatory). It dissolves dry and wet pruritus by its natural counter irritant action. Due to these medicinal properties, kafoor is therapeutically used in skin disorders. The pharmacological actions described in Unani literature have been scientifically validated by a number of studies. The result of various scientific studies shows that camphor possesses anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties but it reduces the activity of male hormone function by effect on male hormonal glands. A number of compounds are prepared using camphor such as Marhame Kafoor, Marhame Raal, Roghane Hindi that are being used to treat various skin diseases. There is an emphasis that availability of low cost in term of money, high cost in term of efficacy, safe in term of side effects because kafoor possess hepatoprotective and anti-oxidative properties also. The present review reveals that kafoor is a precious source of natural medicament and provides credible support for its potential use in modern medicament. The drug has shown diverse biological and pharmacological activities. It has been used in Unani Medicine and other traditional systems of medicine from time immemorial. Keeping in view the high medicinal importance of the drug in Unani Medicine, the present review provides available information on traditional uses and pharmacological properties of the Unani drug Kafoor. KEYWORDS: Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora, Kafoor, Skin Disease.
... The chief constituents of the heartwood are catechin and catechutannic acid, acacatechin, epicatechin, catechin tetramer, dicatechin, gallocatechin, gossypin, kaempferol and dihydro derivative, taxifolin, procyanidine, isorharnnetin, (+) afzelchin and flavonoids like quercetin. 6,7 Yadava RN & Sodhi S (2002) isolated a new flavone glycoside: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(14)-resin contains catechin, catechu-tannic acid & tannins 9 . Acid hydrolysis of the gum afforded Larabinose, D-galactose, Dvrhamnose, aldobiuronic acid (6- 6,7,10 . ...
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Present work has been undertaken to establish the necessary pharmacognostic standards and phytochemical evaluation of roots of Acacia catechu Willd. Various morphological parameters of fresh as well as shade dried form of the roots were studied. Microscopy shows the presence of medullary rays, starch grains, pith, phloem fibres, cork cells and xylem cells. Physico-chemical constants such as Fluorescence analysis of root powder and extracts, ash values, loss on drying, extractive value, swelling index, percentage extractive values for successive extracts, consistency and color of different extracts under ordinary and UV light were evaluated. Phytochemical screening of total ethanolic and aqueous extracts shows the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponin glycosides, & reducing sugars. HPTLC was carried out for quantification of quercetin in ethanolic extract of the roots of A. catechu Willd. It was concluded that plant contains various phytochemicals; among these tannins and flavonoids are its main constituents.
... It is one of the prominent drugs in Ayurveda, which is mainly used to treat fevers. The drug is bitter, diuretic, digestive, anthelmintic and relieves constipation (Nadkarni, 1996). The drug is used in the management of Rakta Pitta (hemorrhage), Brama (giddiness), Trishna (thirst) and Daaha (burning sensation) (Lakshmipati, 1973). ...
... Ocimum gratissimum, also known as clove basil, African basil, (Nadkarni, 1999) and in Hawaii as wild basil, (Effraim et al, 2003] is a species of Ocimum. It is native to Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, and the Bismarck Archipelago, and naturalized in Polynesia, Hawaii, Mexico, Panama, West Indies, Brazil, and Bolivia. ...
... Celery )Apium Gravolens L. (and Parsley )Petvoselinum crispum ( belongs to the family Apiaceae (Norman and Max, 2001). The original home is India and the USA ( Nadkarni and Nadkarni, 1976). Its fruits are small in size, greenish-white, tentacle-shaped, grayish-brown in color and aromatic (Teng and et al., 1985) . ...
... Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Vern: Hingot) is a scraggy shrub or a Small tree belonging to family Simaroubaceae. The bark is considered as pungent, bitter, purgative and anthelmintic, and used in worms in children (Nadkarni, 1976). The bark of 'Hingot' is also useful for ebullition of blood, leprosy and itches. ...
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PHARMACOGNOSY OF THE BARK OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA DEL.
... [9] The fruits and seeds of lotus are astringent and used to treat hyperdipsia, dermatopathy, halitosis, menorrhagia, leprocy and fever . [10] Seed powder mixed with honey is useful in treating cough, while roots with ghee (melted fresh butter), milk and gold promote strength, virility and intellect. Lotus seeds have been reported to possess rich antimicrobial properties . ...
... Kapikachhu seeds are prophylactic against oligospermia and are useful for increasing sperm count ovulation in women. 11 It's a strong aphrodisiac, and it's also a nerve tonic. It is used in the treatment of spermatorrhoea and genitourinary system diseases. ...
Article
Background: Infertility is an issue of global proportions, affecting 8-12% of couples globally on average. Latest studies have shown that the prevalence of oligozoospermia is exceedingly high in the metropolis as well as in smaller cities in India. Infertility is characterized as the failure to become pregnant after 1 year of unprotected coitus. Male infertility is marginally less complicated than female infertility, but can account for 30-40 per cent of infertility. Oligozoospermia is one of the key factors in male infertility and is characterized as a subnormal concentration of sperm in the penile ejaculate, i.e. less than 20 million per ml. The different drugs are mentioned to encourage fertility, and may be used to treat certain types of cases. Since the condition is still unresolved and there is no full cure available. Acharya Charaka has identified numerous drugs that are helpful in the treatment of Alpa, dushta retas that function directly on the properties of Shukra janana (spermatogenesis) and shukra shodhana. One of them is Apatyakar Ghrut. Go-ghrut is strongest of all the Jangam snehas because it has a special capacity to adopt, i.e. Samsakarysa Anuvartanam, and this is Vrushya. In this research, an attempt was made to investigate the role of Apatyakar Ghrut in the infertile male in which oligozoospermia is the cause of infertility. Apatyakar Ghrut is a poly herbal formulation stated to be useful for enhancing fertility. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two months of oral administration of Apatyakar Ghrut. Materials and Methods: 30 eligible male participants between the ages of 21 and 50 years of age, with sperm count <20 million/ml, received Apatykar Ghrut at a dosage of 10ml orally twice daily before food containing lukewarm water as Anupana for a span of two months. Results: Apatykar Ghrut given an increase of 58.93% in overall sperm count, a 45.61% increase in sperm motility, a 14.45% increase in semen volume, a pH of 0.45% and a 14.51% decrease in liquefaction time. Conclusion: Administration of Apatykar Ghrut provided statistically significant improvement in desire, ejaculation, erection, orgasm, performance anxiety, sperm count, sperm motility, liquefaction period, volume of semen parameters relevant to male infertility, like oligozoospermia.
... In India, the plant is a reputed drug in indigenous systems of medicine, and is widely used in southern India as a domestic remedy [5]. The plant is used in dyspepsia, fevers, incontinence of urine, treatment of halitosis, and reduction of voice hoarseness during throat infections [6]. In Thailand, the rhizomes are used as carminative, anti-flatulence, antifungal, and antiitching agents [7]. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and reveal the selective inhibitory activity of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. essential oil (AGO) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) compared to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The chemical composition of AGO was investigated by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Ellman’s method was used to determine the inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. Microemulsion systems with desirable anticholinesterase effects were developed. Methyl cinnamate and 1,8-cineole were reported as the major component of AGO. The IC50 values of A. galanga oil against AChE and BChE were 24.6 ± 9.6 and 825.4 ± 340.1 µg/mL, respectively. The superior selectivity of AGO on AChE (34.8 ± 8.9) compared to galantamine hydrobromide (6.4 ± 1.5) suggested AGO to be an effective ingredient with fewer side effects for Alzheimer’s treatment. Interestingly, the microemulsion of AGO possessed significantly higher anticholinesterase activity than that of native oil alone. Therefore, microemulsion of AGO is a promising alternative approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
... S. occidentalis is considered as common weed, found throughout India up to an altitude of 1500 m [11] from Jammu-Kashmir to Kanyakumari. It is used differently in traditional medicine [12][13][14]. Despite a large amount of S. occidentalis consumption by animals and humans, certain effects are observed due to the toxicity of the seeds and leaves of this plant [15][16][17][18]. ...
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Senna occidentalis L. has been used in several traditional medicines against various diseases and this is based on its botanical, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry profiles. This powerful herb is recognized for its antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimutagenic, protective, and inflammatory hepatic activity. Multiple chemical compounds, including achrosine, aloe-emodin, emodin, anthraquinones, etc., have been isolated from this plant. The results of this bibliographic research thus presented in this review have demonstrated the ability of certain extracts from S. occidentalis L. to lower the lipid peroxide content, the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and phospholipase A2 in exudates of the granuloma of cotton pellets, thus resulting in a reduced availability of arachidonic acid, an important precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which are the only likely source and/or cause of dysmenorrhea. Thus, based on its phytochemical profile and its pharmacological properties, it is therefore suggested that S. occidentalis would be a potential and effective remedy in the treatment of dysmenorrhea.
... The drumstick plant is a nutrient-rich green tree of the Moringaceae family with many applications and is grown around many parts of the world including the United States [1,2]. In English, this plant is known as Moringa oleifera (M. ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the most essential medicinal plants primarily found in the rainforest area and forest ecosystem, but is now well-adapted in an organized cultivation system. Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is well-known as Drumstick tree, Moringa kai, color, Marengo, Moringe, mulangay, Sahjan, and Sajna, which are its native names commonly used. It has nourishing, beneficial, and preventive effects when taken as food and has an extensive scope of high restorative properties with huge dietary benefits. Different parts of the M. oleifera plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, and roots, contain a significant amount of protein, ß-carotene, amino acids, important minerals, and various phenolic compounds. Because of its multifarious health benefits for its therapeutic value, it is considered an essential plant. The plant is found to be blessed with several medicinal characteristics such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, cholesterol-level down, cell reinforcement, and hepatoprotective. Moreover, it is used traditionally in the local curative system against cardiac problems, and the antifungal properties are efficiently utilized for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. The present review article was designed to explore the nutritional and economic benefits, medicinal and therapeutic applications, and the future biomedical prospects of Moringa with a view towards human wellbeing.
... Literature survey reveals that the whole plant is astringent, sweet, cooling, diuretic, alternant, stomachic, constipating and attenuant. It is reported to be useful in vitiated condition of pitta, burning sensation, strangury, gastropathy, ulemorrhagia, ophthalmodynia, sores, bums, suppuration, diarrhea, skin eruption and obesity (Nadkarni, K.M. and A.K. Nadkarni, 1976, ICMR, 1987, Orient Longman, 2003. Understanding the physicochemical properties of a compound is essential so that the product process can be rational and streamlined. ...
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Phyllanthus reticulatus (Family: Euphorbiaceae) is commonly a condensed deciduous shrub through a distinctive fragrance. Subsequently centuries, the shrub has been utilized for the cure of innumerable ailments. Present investigation deals with the evaluation of the physicochemical activity of extracts of vegetative parts leaves, stem and root of Phyllanthus reticulatus (Poir) rendering to the ordinary techniques. Consumption of the plant for remedies of countless diseases is stated in Ayurvedic book alike Charaka Samhita. Nevertheless there was no enough information concerning about all organs of the plant. Therefore the existing comparative analysis was planned and accompanied to estimate the physicochemical evaluation of stem, leaf and root of Phyllanthus reticulatus (Poir). The present experiment exposed to the bio searching of diverse plant parts of leaf, stem and root of Phyllanthus reticulatus (Poir) for several therapeutic ideologies in addition to properties.
... All parts of tree are edible and have medicinal values. Aegle marmelos leaf possess contraceptive (Bhattacharyay, 1982); cardiotonic (Nadkarni, 2000;Rajadurai and Prince, 2005); Hypoglycemic (Sabu and Ramadasan, 2004); antiperoxidative and antispermatogenic activity (Sur et al., 2002). ...
Article
ABSTRACT The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead in aquatic system on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of fish was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 5 mg/L of combined (Cd+Pb+Cr+Ni) metal solution containing 1.25 mg/L of each metal ion (1/10th of LC 50/48 h) for a period of 32 days. The results indicated that the values of the hemoglobin were in the range of 55.30±1.20 g/L to 74.55±1.33 g/L (p<0.001) and the packed cell volume was in the range of 26.72±0.26% to 30.68±0.43% (p<0.01). Concentrations of red blood cells, blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly elevated. The level of serum iron and copper was increased. The results showed the decreased activity of vitamin C during chronic exposure to toxic heavy metals, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species–induced peroxidation. The study suggested that the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic environment has strong influence on the hematological parameters in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Key words: Heavy metals, hematology, blood glucose, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
... Oxalidaceae Whole plant a) Plant is rich in vitamin c. so drink is prepared by infusing leaves in hot water for 10 minutes, sweetened, chilled, and consumed to increase the immunity b) Juice of plant mixed with some oil and applied on the region of muscular swellings or boils treats it. 22 Polygonum barbatum 65,66 (knotweed or chimti saag) ...
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An ethnomedicinal exploration of weeds of Jhansi district, located in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, has been carried out to identify and find out the use of weeds to treat different ailments. Folklore people living in remote areas do not have easy access to hospitals or medical facilities, so they depend on the plants and weeds present in their surroundings to treat various diseases or physical ailments. A survey was made to get the knowledge of medicinal values of weeds in three regions of Jhansi, and it was found that a total of 30 weeds was used at most by folklore people for their treatments. Identified weeds belonging to families Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Ceasalpinaceae, etc. were found to treat various ailments like fever, cough, flu, nausea, skin diseases, body ache, and overall weeds were also known to increase the immunity of the body. Although there is literature known about the uses of weeds or other plants, it is still required more to explore the medicinal values of weeds to break the fact that they are unwanted plants and conserve the biodiversity by avoiding their unnecessary cutting. It was found that all the parts of weeds were used to treat diseases, but leaves were mostly used, followed by stem, root and seeds for the treatment of particular diseases.
... Blood purifiers have been used to treat a variety of ailments based on the Musaffī-i-Dam theory (removal of unwanted and waste from the blood). 35,67 Both single drugs such as Charaita (Swertia chirata), 70,71 Neem (Azadirachta indica), 88,104 Mundi (Sphaeranthus indicus), 67 Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia), 67 and Shahtara (Fumaria parviflora). 67 Additionally, compound drugs such as Habb Musaffi Khoon, 68 Itrifal Mundi, 68 Majoon Musaffi Khas, 69 Arq Ushba, 69 and Arq Chiriata, 69 are used to purify the blood. ...
... In Unani medicine the fruits of the drug is used as Mudir-e-Haiz (Emmenagogue), Munaffis-e-Balgham (Expectorant) (Khare, 2007), Mujaffif (Desiccant / Siccative), Mulattif (Demulcent), Kasir-e-Riyah (Carminative), Moharrik (Stimulant), Muqawwi-e-Meda wa Ama (Stomachic and Intestinal tonic), Zimad (Liniment) and also in neurological affections (Ahmed et al., 2005;Nadkarni, 1976). The drug Habb-e-Balsan is used in the preparation of compound formulations viz. ...
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H abb-e-Balsan consists of dried fruits of Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engl. belongs to family Burseraceae. Unani medicines are prepared using different parts of the plant materials such as seeds, fruits, flowers, stems, bark, wood, leaves, roots and gums etc., The dried fruits of the drug in Unani System of Medicine are used as expectorant and emmenagogue and also to cure diseases of the urinary tracts and neurological disorders. The present study deals with pharmacognostical (to identify), physico-chemical (purity) and WHO parameters (safety) of the samples of Habb-e-Balsan procured from Chennai and Hyderabad. Pharmacognostical studies show the presence of epidermal cells with occasional anomocytic stomata, mesocarpic parenchyma cells, stone cells up to 100µ, druses of calcium oxalate crystals up to 35µ and cotyledonary parenchyma cells. Physico-chemical data obtained included moisture content (8.68% & 7.95%), total ash (8.52% & 8.31%), acid insoluble ash (1.37% & 1.41%) and solubility in alcohol (10.08% & 9.93%) and water (20.01% & 20.43%). TLC studies of chloroform and alcohol extracts showed identical spots at 254nm, 366nm and in visible light (Vanillin Sulphuric acid reagent). WHO parameters such as microbial content (TBC, TFC, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonellae and Staphylococcus aureus) and the heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb and Hg) were found within the permissible limit. The aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 were not detected from the drug samples Habb-e-Balsan.
Article
Background : A. europaeum is a well mentioned Unani herb, belonging to Aristolochiaceae family and indigenous to the Eastern and Southern Europe. A. europaeum has traditionally been utilised in Unani medicine to treat respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, neurological disorders, hepatic disorders, genitourinary disorders, snake poisoning, vector-borne infections, and epidemic prophylaxis. This review aims to the compile previous and present available information concerning about the ethno-botanical aspects, phyto-chemical constituents, isolated metabolites, and pharmacological profiling of this herb correlating the principles of Unani doctrine, thereby may offer series of valuable data for researchers and pharmaceuticals to develop novel therapeutic ways. ‏ Material and methods : A detailed literature review has been conducted on A. europaeum in various electronic databases, including Pub Med, Web of Science, Wiley, Science Direct, Elsevier, Google Scholar, ACS publications, Springer Link etc. Furthermore, books (Unani ancient classical books) were consulted in Urdu, Arabic, Persian and English to collate the particulars. Results : The present literature survey incorrigibly illustrated the usage of A. europaeum as a prophylactic drug in several diseases such as chicken pox, plague, and viral fevers, including COVID-19 and therapeutically, aid in managing bronchitis, epilepsy, hepatitis, ascites, amenorrhea, paralysis, sciatica, lumbago, and urolithiasis. It has been well documented its usage in the form of powder, decoction, syrup, extract, and oil as a single drug or in compound formulations with the amalgamation of other herbs. Phyto-chemical analysis from various sections of the plant revealed the presence of varied chemical constituents for example essential oils (with four chemotypes), flavonoids, phenolic compounds, organic acids, vitamins, terpenes and sesquiterpenes. It has also been evaluated through in vitro, in vivo, in silico, preclinical and clinical trial models for diverse pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, anti-diabetic, and anti-proliferative activities, etc. Still, only sporadic herb studies have been published so far. Conclusion : The current paper highlights botany, ethno pharmacology, phyto-chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology in depth. Preliminary pharmacological studies on different extracts and fractions of A. europaeum support the claim of Unani scholars that it is useful in the treatment of various diseases. However, immediate efforts must be made to determine its mechanism of action, efficacy, dosage, and safety in combating various pathological states. The study will undoubtedly serve as the basis for future research to further demonstrate the ethno medicinal and therapeutic potential for health-care product improvement.
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Valeriana wallichii DC (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used traditional remedies for various complications associated with nervous system and digestion. No antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory studies have so far been carried out on the aerial parts of the plant. The present work was focused to evaluate the antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) and anti-inflammatory properties of Valeriana wallichii using reported methods. Chloroform fraction (VW-2) and hexane fraction (VW-3) exhibited significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus, respectively. The chloroform fraction (VW-2) showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus with 0.27 mg/ml MIC, where 0.31 mg/ml MIC was deduced for hexane fraction (VW-3) against Bacillus subtilus. Hexane fraction (VW-3) was also found to be the most potent inhibitor of Microsporum canis, showing 70% inhibition with an MIC value of 0.19 mg/ml. Considerable inhibitory activity was also observed for chloroform fraction (VW-2) and water fraction (VW-6) against Microsporum canis and Aspergillus flavus. A remarkable anti-inflammatory like activity was observed for the crude extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg at all observed durations. Other doses of the sample also showed excellent activity. Looking to these results it may be concluded that Valeriana wallichii may be a potential source for activity guided isolation of natural products with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory-like properties.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part I focuses on the general aspects of spice biotechnology, structure activity relationships and the natural products that can be used to treat different diseases - such as neurological diseases, inflammation, pain and infections. This part also covers information about phenolic compounds, flavonoids and turmeric supplements. This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
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The Unani system of medicine is one of the traditional systems of medicine practised since centuries in many parts of the world. Katan or Alsi is popularly known as flaxseed and is one of the famous Unani drugs used in various pathological conditions. It belongs to the family Linaceae. Although entire plant has medicinal value but its seed and oil are more important and have wide medicinal use. It is an emerging important functional food ingredient as of its rich contents of ฀- linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. In classical Unani literature, many physicians have mentioned Katan for various potential health benefits such as in the reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout, sciatica, autoimmune and neurological disorders. It also supports the immune system. Through this review, an effort has been made to focus on the evidence of the potential health benefits of Katan
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The discipline 'urban ethnopharmacology' emerged as a collection of traditional knowledge, ancient civilizations, history and folklore being circulated since generations, usage of botanical products, palaeobotany and agronomy. Non-traditional botanical knowledge increases the availability of healthcare and other essential products to the underprivileged masses. Intercultural medicine essentially involves 'practices in healthcare that bridge indigenous medicine and western medicine, where both are considered as complementary'. A unique aspect of urban ethnopharmacology is its pluricultural character. Plant medicine blossomed due to intercultural interactions and has its roots in major anthropological events of the past. Unani medicine was developed by Khalif Harun Al Rashid and Khalif Al Mansur by translating Greek and Sanskrit works. Similarly, Indo-Aryan migration led to the development of Vedic culture, which product is Ayurveda. Greek medicine reached its summit when it travelled to Egypt. In the past few decades, ethnobotanical field studies proliferated, especially in the developed countries to cope with the increasing demands of population expansion. At the same time, sacred groves continued to be an important method of conservation across several cultures even in the urban aspect. Lack of scientific research, validating the efficiency, messy applications, biopiracy and slower results are the main constrains to limit its acceptability. Access to resources and benefit sharing may be considered as a potential solution. Indigenous communities can copyright their traditional formulations and then can collaborate with companies, who have to provide the original inventors with a fair share of the profits since a significant portion of the health economy is generated by herbal medicine. Search string included the terms 'Urban'+ 'Ethnopharmacology' , which was searched in Google Scholar to retrieve the relevant literature. The present review aims to critically analyse the global concept of urban ethnopharmacology with the inherent plurality of the cross-cultural adaptations of medicinal plant use by urban people across the world.
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This present study evaluated and rationalized the medicinal use of the fruit part of Acacia nilotica methanolic extract. The phytochemicals were detected using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) while the in vivo antidiarrheal test was done using Swiss albino mice. To determine the details of the mechanism(s) involved in the antispasmodic effect, isolated rat ileum was chosen using different ex vivo assays by maintaining a physiological environment. GC–MS results showed that A. nilotica contained pyrogallol as the major polyphenol present (64.04%) in addition to polysaccharides, polyphenol, amino acid, steroids, fatty acid esters, and triterpenoids. In the antidiarrheal experiment, A. nilotica inhibited diarrheal episodes in mice significantly (p < 0.05) by 40% protection of mice at 200 mg/kg, while 80% protection was observed at 400 mg/kg by the orally administered extract. The highest antidiarrheal effect was observed with loperamide (p < 0.01), used as a control drug. In the ex vivo experiments, A. nilotica inhibited completely in increasing concentrations (0.3 to 10 mg/mL) the carbachol (CCh; 1 µM) and high K+ (80 mM)-evoked spasms in ileum tissues at equal potencies (p > 0.05), similar to papaverine, a dual inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase enzyme (PDE) and Ca++ channels. The dual inhibitory-like effects of A. nilotica on PDE and Ca++ were further validated when A. nilotica extract (1 and 3 mg/mL)-pre-incubated ileum tissues potentiated and shifted isoprenaline relaxation curves towards lower doses (leftward), similar to papaverine, thus confirming the PDE inhibitory-like mechanism whereas its CCB-like effect of the extract was confirmed at 3 and 5 mg/mL by non-specific inhibition of CaCl2-mediated concentration response curves towards the right with suppression of the maximum peaks, similar to verapamil, used as standard CCB. Thus, this study characterized the chemical composition and provides mechanistic support for medicinal use of A. nilotica in diarrheal and hyperactive gut motility disorders.
Article
Saraca asoca, family: Caesalpiniaceae distributed throughout India. Himalaya, Kerala, Bengal and whole south region. In ancient times medicinal plants have been used in various culture of the world which has been blessed by Nature to our country. Traditionally Saraca asoca (Sita Ashoka) used as mental disorder and gynaecological disorders. Different parts of plant like leaves, bark, flowers and seeds are used in different type of activity. Proven pharmacological activities are antimennorhagic, oxytocic, uterine tonic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antiulcer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, analgesic, anti-nephrolithiatic, dermatoprotective, larvicidal and anti-helminthic. It also revealed various types of phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, tannins, steroids, volatile oil, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, proteins and fatty acids.
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In vivo and in vitro screening of anti inflammatory activity of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves crude extract was performed, using standardized procedures. Methanolic crude extract topical formulation (cream) of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves (Family Valerianaceae and Amaranthaceae respectively), were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity, through "Carrageenan induced hind paw edema" test, for their effect on the acute and chronic phase inflammation models in male Wistar rats. Methanolic extract and its fractions were also evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Leaves of Valeriana wallichii showed significant (p<0.001), dose dependant anti inflammatory activity, comparable with that of the standard, in animal model. The ethyl acetate fraction of Valeriana wallichii also showed considerable (IC 50=73±0.36) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard (6.11±0.02). Similarly Achyranthes aspera leaves showed relatively weak (p>0.05) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. However, its activity was comparable with that of standard at 10% concentration after 5 hrs of carrageenan injection. This activity was present in ethyl acetate fraction during in vitro screening (IC 50=76±0.14) as compared to that of standard (IC 50=6.11±0.02). The combined in vitro and in vivo Anti-inflammatory screening shows that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera can be used for the isolation of new Anti-inflammatory lead compounds.
Article
Background and aim Achyranthes aspera Linn. (A. aspera) (family: Amaranthaceae) is highly recognized in ethnomedicine and traditional systems of Indian medicine as a nervine restorative for several psychiatric disorders. Study presented here was designed to appraise the antidepressant-like effects of A. aspera in murine model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression. Experimental procedures- Rodents were exposed to different stressor in unpredictive manner during CUMS protocol once a day for 4 weeks. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with A. aspera extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or betaine (20 mg/kg) once daily during day 15–28 of the CUMS protocol. Sucrose preference, motivation and self-care, immobility latency and plasma corticosterone were evaluated after 24 h of last stressor. After behavioral assessments TNF-α, Il-6 BDNF immunocontent was determined in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Results and conclusion s -A. aspera extract as well as betaine improved sucrose preference, increased grooming frequency and latency in splash test and ameliorated depression-like condition in CUMS mice in Porsolt test. A. aspera treatment decreased the elevated plasma corticosterone and reversed the effect of CUMS on TNF-α, Il-6 and BDNF immunocontent in mice. The results of the present study suggest A. aspera as a promising indigenous medicine for stress associated neurobehavioral and comorbid complications.
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Trichosanthes dioica has been used in folk medicine to treat many medical disorders. This study investigated the antinociceptive, antiinflmmatory and antidiabetic properties of Trichosanthes dioica leaves. Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 25-30 gm were divided into control (DW), standard (model specific) and test groups (n=6). Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin induced paw licking test. Antiinflammatory effect was studied using xylene and croton oil induced ear edema test. The antidiabetic effect of extract was studied OGTT. The extract was used at dose of 300 and 600 mg/kg per orally. The alcoholic extracts showed significant antinociceptive activity in acetic acid method (p<0.05) and reduced the licking time significantly (p<0.001) in formalin test. The extract had a significant (p<0.001) antiinflammatory effect characterized by a reduction of ear edema when compared to the control. The results showed that the extract had significant (p<0.05) antidiabetic potential. Trichosanthes dioica showed antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect against experimentally induced pain and inflammationin mice. It also possessed antidiabetic properties and further studies are required to evaluate these effects and the potential of the plant.
Article
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. ex D. Don. belonging to family Zingiberaceae, commonly known as kapoor kachri is, an essential oil-bearing species known for its medicinally useful scented rhizomes. The herb forms an important part of various polyherbal formulations cited in various classical texts of Chinese, Tibetian, Indian and Unani origin. The rhizome contains about 4% of essential containing a variety of terpenoids (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids) with 1, 8-Cineole, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-phellandrene as major constituents. It is traditionally used for the treatment of different kinds of pain, inflammation, respiratory and blood disorders. The present study systematically compiles its botany, distribution, cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemistry, IUCN status, pharmacological activities and granted patents with respect to the herb and formulations containing H. spicatum. It adds up to the existing knowledge of the previous reviews on the species with prioritization on metabolic profiling and need to use advanced biotechnological propagation techniques for better conservation of the herb in its natural habitat hence preventing its adulteration in trade markets.
Chapter
Spices have been used since ancient times as a flavoring agent as well as an important medicinal resource. Biotechnology, using strategies such as cell, organ, and tissue culture, genetic engineering, and the application of nucleic acid markers can escalate the productivity and efficiency of spices. Cell, tissue, and plant organ culture have enabled the rapid and mass reproduction of many disease-free spice plants, which are uniform genetically and qualitatively. In recent years, cell and limb suspension (stem and hair roots) have been considered for producing secondary metabolites and for studying the biosynthesis pathway of metabolites. Plant genetic engineering has helped in the genetic identification and manipulation of enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. Gene transformation has improved the production of secondary metabolites that have yield limitations. Molecular markers are powerful tools for accurately identifying important medicinal species, examining genetic diversity, classifying hereditary reserves, and determining their genetic map irrespective of their age, physiological, and environmental conditions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods like restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) have revolutionized the study of genetic diversity, and the enzymes and genes implied in the secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways can be studded by transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq). The ground-breaking genome editing techniques like Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), sequence-specific nucleases of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases could help in customizing the plants according to the requirements. This article provides an overview of various biotechnology solutions that increase the quality and productivity of spice plants.
Article
Cinnamomum tamala, commonly known as tej patta is widely used as a spice in Indian cuisine for its aroma and flavoring property as the leaves contain essential oil. The essential oil is extracted with the help of the Clevenger apparatus using dry leaves. This oil is mainly used as medicine for releasing gas as well as a carminative agent and diuretic agent. It also improves the digestive system and helps in increasing appetite. This study aimed to determine the phytochemical properties and antibacterial potential of different extracts (aqueous, methanol, and acetone) and oil of C. tamala leaves. The phytochemical evaluation shows the presence and absence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, proteins, and carbohydrates in the aqueous, methanol, and acetone extracts. The efficacy of antibacterial properties of prepared extracts was examined against E. coli and Salmonella typhi (gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria). These bacterial cultures were obtained from IMTech Chandigarh. From the results of the antibacterial study it has become evident that among three extracts, the maximum zone of inhibition was obtained in the aqueous extract which was followed by methanolic and acetone extract. With the help of a Clevenger apparatus, Bay leaf oil was extracted to establish antibacterial properties. Henceforth, to analyze the antibacterial potential of the oil sample, the test was performed against the mentioned bacterial species (E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis) and reported significant antibacterial activities. From the outcome of this study, it has become clear that Bay leaf oil has potent antibacterial properties against selected bacterial species.
Chapter
Since time immemorable, spices have been known to combat the onslaught of various microbes like bacteria, fungi and viruses, responsible for various diseases. These microbes also led to food spoilage, which in turn reduced its shelf life. Spices can be used as food preservatives instead of chemical preservatives that are harmful to our health. Studies have proven that the spices commonly used in the kitchen like pepper, clove, ginger, coriander, garlic, cinnamon, etc., are highly potent anti-microbial agents. Moreover, they are also eminent anti-inflammatory and carminative agents. The essential oils in spices are also used for protection against various pathogens in plants. These properties are due to the various chemical compounds like eugenol, gingerol, flavonoids, terpenes, anthocyanins, phenylpropanoids and various organosulphur compounds among others present in spices. Hence, spices can be exploited for food preservation and in the pharmaceutical industries. They can also be used as biopesticides, insecticidal agents, antioxidants and natural colorants. This chapter highlights the effect of various spices on various micro-organisms, the various metabolites in spices that lend this ability, and also reviews the various works undertaken to understand the antimicrobial activity of spices.
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