: A. europaeum is a well mentioned Unani herb, belonging to Aristolochiaceae family and indigenous to the Eastern and Southern Europe. A. europaeum has traditionally been utilised in Unani medicine to treat respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, neurological disorders, hepatic disorders, genitourinary disorders, snake poisoning, vector-borne infections, and epidemic prophylaxis. This review aims to the compile previous and present available information concerning about the ethno-botanical aspects, phyto-chemical constituents, isolated metabolites, and pharmacological profiling of this herb correlating the principles of Unani doctrine, thereby may offer series of valuable data for researchers and pharmaceuticals to develop novel therapeutic ways.
Material and methods
: A detailed literature review has been conducted on A. europaeum in various electronic databases, including Pub Med, Web of Science, Wiley, Science Direct, Elsevier, Google Scholar, ACS publications, Springer Link etc. Furthermore, books (Unani ancient classical books) were consulted in Urdu, Arabic, Persian and English to collate the particulars.
: The present literature survey incorrigibly illustrated the usage of A. europaeum as a prophylactic drug in several diseases such as chicken pox, plague, and viral fevers, including COVID-19 and therapeutically, aid in managing bronchitis, epilepsy, hepatitis, ascites, amenorrhea, paralysis, sciatica, lumbago, and urolithiasis. It has been well documented its usage in the form of powder, decoction, syrup, extract, and oil as a single drug or in compound formulations with the amalgamation of other herbs. Phyto-chemical analysis from various sections of the plant revealed the presence of varied chemical constituents for example essential oils (with four chemotypes), flavonoids, phenolic compounds, organic acids, vitamins, terpenes and sesquiterpenes. It has also been evaluated through in vitro, in vivo, in silico, preclinical and clinical trial models for diverse pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, anti-diabetic, and anti-proliferative activities, etc. Still, only sporadic herb studies have been published so far.
: The current paper highlights botany, ethno pharmacology, phyto-chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology in depth. Preliminary pharmacological studies on different extracts and fractions of A. europaeum support the claim of Unani scholars that it is useful in the treatment of various diseases. However, immediate efforts must be made to determine its mechanism of action, efficacy, dosage, and safety in combating various pathological states. The study will undoubtedly serve as the basis for future research to further demonstrate the ethno medicinal and therapeutic potential for health-care product improvement.