Article

The use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture: Impact on plant growth and soil fertility

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Vermicomposting is a low-technology, environmentally-friendly process used to treat organic waste. The resulting vermicompost has been shown to have several positive impacts on plant growth and health. This organic fertilizer is therefore increasingly considered in agriculture and horticulture as a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers and/or peat in greenhouse potting media. However, the effects of vermicompost on plant-soil systems are not yet fully understood. In this chapter we summarize the research carried out during the last few decades, and the proposed mechanisms explaining the effects of vermicompost on soil quality and plant growth. Although much effort has been dedicated to the investigation of biologically mediated mechanisms of promoting plant growth, the conflicting results indicate the need to open up new lines of research, defining a clear and objective concept of vermicompost, and clarifying the conditions and sources of variability in the biological effects. A case study is presented in which the direct and indirect effects of vermicompost on plant growth, as well as variability in the plant responses, are examined in a field experiment with sweet corn.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Vermicompost is an organic and nutrient rich amendment that derives from the biological interactions of earthworms (e.g. Eisenia fetida) and microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Quilty and Cattle 2011). Vermicompost is produced as solid and liquid extracts under mesophilic conditions (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). ...
... Eisenia fetida) and microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Quilty and Cattle 2011). Vermicompost is produced as solid and liquid extracts under mesophilic conditions (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). It is an important source of organic matter and plant essential nutrients, and also encompasses microbial species (Atiyeh et al. 2002). ...
... Apart from these, application of vermicompost to soils significantly changes its physicochemical properties as well as availability of air and water in the soils. In addition, it has both direct and indirect effects on plant growth, especially supply of plant growth regulating substances (PGRS) and mitigation or suppression of plant diseases (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Vermicompost has high potential to increase the P availability in soil (Ghosh et al. 2018). ...
Article
Repeated and excessive use of inorganic phosphorus fertilizers adversely affects soil fertility, reduces plant phosphorus (P)-use efficiency, increases soil heavy metal concentrations and poses human health risk via food chain interaction. Organic amendments (OAs) are considered as cost-effective and environment-friendly supplement to inorganic P fertilizers that are produced from scarce phosphate rocks. Numerous studies have reported the synergistic and antagonistic effects of OAs on crop production, P solubility and availability, and immobilization of heavy metals. However, the results of these studies are found to be variable and demand a critical review. This article summarizes the environmental and health implications of continuous inorganic P fertilizers application along with a detailed overview of commonly available OAs and their efficacy to stimulate plant growth and yield. Moreover, this review describes the potentiality of OAs to increase the bioavailability of P in soil, discusses how and to what extent these soil amendments can immobilize heavy metals and reduce plant uptake, and finally provides future research directions for organic farming and sustainable agricultural practices.
... The bio-conversion of biomass waste into organic amendments permits the recycling of large amounts of organic waste that could otherwise cause a serious threat to the environment (Chew et al. 2019). In the last two decades, vermicomposting technology has expanded to seek its potential role in sustainable agriculture (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011) and soil bioremediation (Sánchez-Hernández and Domínguez through the synergistic actions of earthworms and microbial communities, yields a nutrient-rich and biological active organic amendment known as vermicompost . Vermicomposting therefore fulfils the purpose of disposing of and recycling increasing amounts of organic waste and at the same time offering an alternative to inorganic fertilizers (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Gómez-Brandón and Domínguez 2014). ...
... In the last two decades, vermicomposting technology has expanded to seek its potential role in sustainable agriculture (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011) and soil bioremediation (Sánchez-Hernández and Domínguez through the synergistic actions of earthworms and microbial communities, yields a nutrient-rich and biological active organic amendment known as vermicompost . Vermicomposting therefore fulfils the purpose of disposing of and recycling increasing amounts of organic waste and at the same time offering an alternative to inorganic fertilizers (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Gómez-Brandón and Domínguez 2014). ...
... Beneficial effects of vermicompost on plant growth have been documented in a wide variety of agronomic and horticultural crops (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Blouin et al. 2019). In addition, extracts and teas made from vermicompost also exhibited positive influence when used as plant growth promoters or soil conditioners (Gómez-Brandón et al. 2015), even though they do not impart the same physical properties as vermicompost amendment. ...
Chapter
Vermicomposting, the process by which organic waste is broken down through the synergistic actions of earthworms and microbial communities, fulfils the dual purpose of environmental protection and fertilizer production. Vermicompost is considered a nutrient-rich and biologically active organic amendment with various beneficial effects when used as a soil conditioner and/or as a plant growth promoter. The underlying biological mechanisms involved in vermicomposting largely determine the dynamics of the process and, consequently, the properties of the end product. However, it is still necessary to further explore the plausible microbial-based mechanisms by which vermicompost may exert a positive influence on plant growth. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to compare and provide a detailed characterization of the microbiome of different green vermicomposts by applying 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. An in-depth characterization of the taxonomic and functional diversity of bacterial communities and their metabolic functions was assessed in the vermicomposts and the respective parent materials.
... Vermicomposts have low C:N ratios, high porosity and high water-holding capacity (e.g. Lazcano and Domínguez 2011), are rich in nutrients (e.g. Domínguez 2004) and in humic-like compounds (e.g. ...
... Domínguez 2004) and in humic-like compounds (e.g. Canellas et al. 2002), possess active micro-organisms fuelling enzyme activities (Lazcano et al. 2013;Zhao et al. 2020) and can enhance soil fertility through improving soil physicochemical properties (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Zhao et al. 2017;Demir 2019), microbial properties (Doan et al. 2013;Lazcano et al. 2013;Zhao et al. 2020) and enzymatic activities (Srivastava et al. 2011;Tejada and Benítez 2011;Usmani et al. 2019). Through their role as organic fertilizers, vermicomposts are therefore increasingly considered in agriculture, forestry and horticulture as a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers and/or peat in land application or greenhouse potting media. ...
... Positive impacts of vermicomposts on seed germination, vegetative growth, plant flowering, fruit yield and quality have been reported mostly for agricultural crop and horticultural plant species (e.g. Domínguez 2004;Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Zhao et al. 2017;Blouin et al. 2019) partly due to enhanced mycorrhizal colonization (Hameeda et al. 2007;Wathira et al. 2016;Zeighami et al. 2020) and nutrient uptake (Tejada and Benítez 2011;Kumar et al. 2013;Bellitürk et al. 2022). However, fewer data are available on woody forestry species such as acacia, eucalyptus and pine, in particular regarding the early growth of such species (Donald and Visser 1989;Lazcano et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The impact of vermicompost on tree-soil systems is not yet fully understood. This study aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of chemical fertilizer, compost and vermicompost on soil enzymatic activities, seedling mycorrhizal colonization, growth and nutrition of one exotic tree species (radiata pine, Pinus radiata D. Don) and two native tree species (mānuka, Leptospermum scoparium and tōtara, Podocarpus totara). Methods A 12-month-long pot trial was set up in the glasshouse with a factorial design of three tree species (radiata pine, tōtara and manuka) by six treatments, including T1-control, T2-chemical fertilizer, T3-HS compost, T4-HS vermicompost, T5-LS vermicompost and T6-CM vermicompost. We assessed the main effects and interactions of treatment and species on soil chemical and biological properties, plant growth and nutritional responses. Results Compared to the untreated control (T1), application of vermicomposts (T4-T6) and compost (T3) significantly improved soil chemical properties and enzymatic activities, and increased total seedling dry weight by 160–260%, shoot concentrations of nitrogen (N) by 54–97% and phosphorus (P) by 61–91%. Vermicomposts were comparable to diammonium phosphate (DAP) applied at 133 kg N ha⁻¹ (T2) in stimulating the growth of native species (mānuka and tōtara) without negative impact on mycorrhizal colonization, with T5 being better than DAP (T2) in promoting mānuka growth. However, application of vermicompost alone was less effective than DAP in stimulating the exotic radiata pine growth. Overall, soil activities of dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and invertase were significantly and positively correlated to total C and N and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Conclusion The increased growth of three tree species after application of vermicomposts was mainly related to improved N and P nutrition associated with enhanced root growth and soil enzymatic activities. Our findings imply that the vermicomposting products from septic tank waste could be a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers in land application or greenhouse potting media of native tree species.
... The presence of earthworms in the vermicompost has been shown to reduce methane emissions by 10-35% (Nigussie et al. 2016). Furthermore, vermicompost can potentially boost plant productivity by raising the available plant nutrients (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Besides providing nutrients for the plant, vermicompost can promote plant growth, restrict plant diseases and increase soil porosity and microbial activity ). ...
... The main pillar of sustainable agriculture can be described as a collection of practices that preserve resources and the environment without disrupting human needs and the use of organic fertilisers (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Ever since the dawn of the green revolution, chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides have been widely used to increase food productivity (Maji et al. 2017). ...
... Water holding capacity is enhanced due to the presence of organic matter and the production of mucus in the intestines of the earthworm, thus influencing the soil structure (Singh et al. 2020). For example, the soil macropore size has been reported to increase significantly from 50 to 500 µm after a single dose of vermicompost was applied, thus allowing a better airwater interaction in the soil (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Not only that, the addition of vermicompost to agricultural soil was also found to significantly increase soil porosity and aggregate stability over two consecutive years (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption of natural resources and waste generation continues to rise as the human population increases. Ever since the industrial revolution, consumers have been adopting a linear economy model based on the ‘take-make-dispose’ approach. Raw materials are extracted to be converted into products and finally discarded as wastes. Consequently, this practice is unsustainable because it causes a massive increase in waste production. The root problems of the linear system can be addressed by transitioning to a circular economy. Circular economy is an economic model in which wastes from one product are recycled and used as resources for other processes. This literature review discovers the potential of vermicompost as a sustainable strategy in circular economy and highlights the benefits of vermicompost in ensuring food security, particularly in improving agricultural yield and quality, as well as boosting crop’s nutritional quality. Vermicompost has the potential to be used in a variety of ways in the circular economy, including for agricultural sustainability, managing waste, pollutant remediation, biogas production and animal feed production. The recycling of organic wastes to produce vermicompost can benefit both the consumers and environment, thus paving the way towards a more sustainable agriculture for the future.
... Treatments of 25% RDN by (Urea & DAP Fertilizer)+75% RDN by vermicompost have shown that the application of chemical fertilizer will increase the soil's physical properties and adversely affect microbial species within the soil, thus reducing the total soil productivity with high pH and electrical conductivity (Urea & DAP Fertilizer) Such observations are compatible with data obtained by Ferreras et al. (2006), Marinari et al. (2000), Lazcano et Dominguez (2011). ...
... It may also have been attributed to a decrease in the soil pH and electrical conductivity composed of bio-manure, which created more humic and organic acids when decomposed during the analysis after the experiments had ended. (Yadav et al., 2013) Vermicompost's capacity to alter physical characteristics of land improves plant air or water quality, further enabling plant seedlings to emerge or root development (Lazcano et al., 2011). Based on the fact that a number of the previous experiments have shown major beneficial adjustments in the retaining ability of soil water or accessible plant water, improvements in physical assets of soil through the introduction of vermicompost may promote nutrient preservation in soils Broz et al. (2016). ...
Preprint
Intensive cultivation and excess chemical fertilizer continuous tillage activity have shown that environmental, soil & water degradation in South Asia has produced serious problems in soil health or agricultural development with a rise in population. The desire for renewable alternatives has therefore been underestimated. The effect on cropping efficiency, machine productivity and development economy of two tillage cum (Vermicompost and FYM manure, Urea, and DAP) or two facts regarding the application of foliar spray and without zinc fertilizers were evaluated. Conventional tillage (1 ploughing by tractor drawn disc plough + 2 harrowing + 1 fb cultivator with planking) increased grain yield (10.85 percent) and (7.21), both during the first and second years of experimental plots, over minimum tillage (1 ploughing by tractor drawn rotavator) (MT). The improved grain output of wheat was primarily due to increased tiller development in CT treatments during both the years. Similarly, maximum most of the growth attributes, productivity components and physical quality charcters were recorded in CT tillage practice. In the joint management of inorganic or organic nitrogen, significant and maximum grain (4.63 t/ha) and straw (8.97 t/ha) yield, weight of spike (2.68 g), length of grain (6.49 mm), breadth of grain (3.29 mm) and length: breadth ratio of grain (1.98) were recorded during 2015-16, However purely chemical fertilizer applied treatment recorded during first year significant and maximum number of tillers per hill (3.14), leaf area index (2.31), plant dry matter (13.09 g plant-1), grain yield (4.00 t ha-1), straw yield (7.87 t ha-1), number of grains per spike (42.42) and weight of spike (2.62 g), respectively.Soil cultivation by CT with fertilized fertilizer at the prescribed total dose of nitrogen 120 kg/ha, in which ½ nitrogen through organic (Vermicompost 3000 kg/ha) and ½ through inorganic (Urea, 117.69 kg/ha and (Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 32.60 kg/ha) during second year with foliar applications of zinc (2.50 kg/ha) were found to increase crop productivity and resilience in management.Soil chemical quality status increased after second year of experiment in combined used of MT (1 ploughing by tractor drawn rotavator) and organic (Vermicompost 4500 kg/ha) and inorganic fertilization ½ through inorganic (Urea, 44.16 kg/ha and (Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 48.91kg/ha) with foliar applications of zinc (2.50 kg/ha).
... Vermicompost is a good source of nitrogen (N) (Bansal and Kapoor 2000), phosphorus (P) (Pramanik et al. 2007), and potassium (K) as well as vitamins, antibiotics, humic acid , N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria, enzymes such as protease, amylases, lipases, cellulases, and chitinases, and growthpromoting substances such as auxins and gibberellins (Sinha et al. 2009;Lazcano and Dominguez 2011). The process of breaking down complex organic substrates into a stabilized humus-like substance through the action of earthworms is called vermicomposting. ...
... Earthworm burrows lined with earthworm casts act as an excellent medium for harboring nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. Bacterial growth, particularly of gram-negative bacteria, was increased significantly after application of high doses of vermicompost (Lazcano and Dominguez 2011). Liberal application of vermicompost increased the population of soil microbes such as Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter vinelandii, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis. ...
Chapter
The greatest challenge in the coming years is to fulfill the demand for safe food, healthy soil, and a pollution-free environment for the growing populations of the world. Indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional crop production is considered to be one of the prime factors for deterioration in crop productivity, degradation of soil health, and serious threats to the environment and human health that largely affect the sustainability of the agricultural production system. With increasing awareness of the ill effects of conventional farming/chemical faming, recent years have seen renewed interest in the sustainability of our food production system by revitalizing and restoring soil fertility and reviving microbial activity to make the soil lively and healthy. Consequently, awareness has been generated on recycling of available organic residues for the production of quality organic manures. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active organic amendment that is obtained in the form of castings by earthworms of ingested biomass after undergoing physical, chemical, and microbial transformation. Several research findings have established the beneficial effect of vermicompost on soil health through improvement in the physical, chemical, and biological properties and subsequently better crop growth and yield. Microbial enrichment of vermicompost by addition of biofertilizers and bioinoculants further enhances the microbial population of the soil, nutrient mineralization uptake, and availability of nutrients. Vermicomposting is gradually emerging as a potential technology for recycling available organic wastes as a source of quality organic manures, and vermicompost is rising as a promising organic fertilizer for maintaining good soil health and crop growth as well as reducing dependence on nonrenewable resources. The present work highlights the beneficial role of vermicompost and the preparation and utilization of vermicompost with special emphasis on how vermicompost can address the emerging soil health problems for sustainability in soil health and the ecosystem.
... Addition of chemical fertilizers to the soil damaged biological activities of the soil organisms. Soil microbial processes like nutrient immobilization and mineralization, which are the common sources of soil nutrients, got affected and resulting in the depletion with decreased soil fertility and nutrient status (Li et al. 2014;Damodaran et al. 2013). To mitigate the requirement of new seeds farmers continued to supply increasing quantity of fertilizers, which further continued to decrease the important nutrients from the soil (like nitrogen, iron, phosphorus and manganese) (Zwerling 2009). ...
... and potassium (1.85-2.25%) along with many micronutrients (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). The method of vermicomposting is a very efficient technology to recycle organic waste into very nutritious compost that indeed could improve soil health and productivity of the crop plants (Azarmi et al. 2008;Guerrero 2010;Yadav and Garg 2011;Hema and Rajkumar 2012). ...
Chapter
Soil is a very important and sensitive resource of any country as the crop yield of a nation on which the whole population depends is directly linked to the soil health. The dependence of a nation on others for meeting the demand of its population for food and other crop products is a matter of great concern. The Green Revolution in India intensified agricultural productivity to meet urgent public needs and for the commercialization of crop products. Indeed, Green Revolution helped in achieving goal up to a certain level with the use of high input of chemicals in the form of fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides and weedicides along with intense irrigation practices. After Green Revolution, the decline in crop yield in spite of fertilizer application reveals the loss of soil fertility. Toxic chemicals in soil affected the life of beneficial soil organisms, which indeed are responsible for maintaining soil fertility. Further, these chemicals polluted groundwater, air and adversely affected human and animal health. Hence, restoration of soil health and environment is an urgent need. Avoidance of chemical fertilizers and use of natural fertilizers like biofertilizers, vermicompost, farm yard and green manure, and biopesticides can be a sustainable approach in achieving the crop productivity along with nourishing the soil and environment. Present chapter discusses about the effects of Green Revolution on soil health in India and suggests for consideration of techniques with eco-friendly approaches to heal soil loss and to manage soil fertility for sustainable agriculture.
... In this research were no statistically-significant differences between the layers, however statistically-significant differences were found between the layers of the vermicomposters, except for Layer II, where the highest activity occurred. Lazcano and Domínguez (2011) conducted an experiment assessing the effect of vermicompost on soil fertility and plant growth. They also studied the enzyme content in the soil after the application of vermicompost, conventional fertilizer and manure. ...
... h − 1 ). Lazcano and Domínguez (2011) performed an experiment testing the effect of vermicompost on soil fertility. They found that the variant fertilized by vermicompost had higher phosphatase content (160,000 μg p-nitrophenol. ...
Article
World mushroom production in 2018 was approximately 8.99 million tonnes. The most commonly cultivated species in the Czech Republic are Agaricus spp., which are sold fresh or canned. In 2017, 2018 mushroom production in the Czech Republic was approximately 540 tonnes. Vermicomposting is an easy and less ecologically harmful way to process the spent mushroom substrate. Earthworms, which are referred to as the engine of the process of vermicomposting, and microorganisms, help convert organic waste into fertilizer. This study is concerned with laboratory vermicomposting in a system of continuous feeding of earthworms Eisenia andrei. It compares the differences between variants with and without earthworms. The dry matter percentage was approximately 20% or more in both variants. The variant with earthworms showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. The C/N ratio was very low in both variants. The highest total P was recorded in the variant with earthworms, but the highest values of K and Mg were found in the control. Both variants recorded higher content of bacteria than fungi. All values of microorganism contents were higher in the vermicomposter without earthworms, but the bacterial/fungal ratio was higher in the variant with earthworms. The highest content in both variants shows the bacteria especially G-bacteria, on the other side, the lowest content shows the actinobacteria. The highest activity of β-D-glucosidase and acid phosphatase was measured in the vermicomposter with earthworms, but the activity of other enzymes was higher in the control. In both vermicomposters laccase activity was below the detection limit. The method of classical vermicomposting can be used for processing the spent mushroom substrate. However, in terms of higher content of total and available nutrients, there seems to be a better method of processing the substrate without earthworms.
... With regard to the positive effect of vermicompost, our results are also in agreement with other studies. Indeed, this organic amendment has been reported to enhance the growth of a wide range of plant species including cereals, legumes, horticultural and fruit crops, aromatic and medicinal species, ornamentals and forestry plants [36,37]. Increasing the Swiss chard growth parameters observed in our experiment could be attributed to the higher amounts of available mineral N and P in the soil amended with vermicompost. ...
... Increasing the Swiss chard growth parameters observed in our experiment could be attributed to the higher amounts of available mineral N and P in the soil amended with vermicompost. According to Lazcano and Dominguez [36], vermicompost constitutes a source of macro (NO3, PO4, Ca, K, Mg, S) and micronutrients in forms readily available to plants or gradually released through organic matter mineralization, thus exhibiting similar effects as inorganic fertilizers. In addition, the authors described that vermicompost is a finely-divided material able to improve soil porosity and water holding capacity thus promoting plant rooting, and represents a microbiologically active organic manure containing growth regulating hormones. ...
Preprint
In recent years, soil addition with organic amendments, such as biochar and compost, has gained attention as an effective agronomic practice to sustain soil fertility, enhance plant growth and crop yield. Well known are the positive effects of compost on yield of a wide crop varieties, while both positive and negative responses are reported for biochar Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of biochar mixed with three types of compost on quanti-qualitative response of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. cycla), a leafy green vegetable rich in dietary antioxidants, largely consumed worldwide. A factorial experiment in pots with two factors, including biochar (without biochar and with biochar from vine pruning residues) and compost (without compost, with compost from olive pomace, with vermicompost from cattle manure and with compost from cattle anaerobic digestate), was setup. Two growth cycles were considered and a set of quantitative (height of plants, number, area and fresh weight of leaves) and qualitative parameters (carotenoid, chlorophyll, total N and NO3-content of leaves) were analyzed. Biochar decreased plant growth and NO3- leaf content; on the contrary, it increased total N leaf content, while compost improved all the considered parameters. The interactive effect of biochar and compost was evident only on total N and NO3- leaf content. In our experimental conditions, the compost showed to be the best option to improve Swiss chard growth and increase the phytopigments content, while the biochar-compost mixtures didn’t produce the expected effect.
... With regard to the positive effect of vermicompost, our results are also in agreement with other studies. Indeed, this organic amendment has been reported to enhance the growth of a wide range of plant species including cereals, legumes, horticultural and fruit crops, aromatic and medicinal species, ornamentals, and forestry plants [36,37]. Increasing the Swiss chard growth parameters observed in our experiment could be attributed to the higher amounts of available mineral N and P in the soil amended with vermicompost. ...
... Increasing the Swiss chard growth parameters observed in our experiment could be attributed to the higher amounts of available mineral N and P in the soil amended with vermicompost. According to Lazcano and Dominguez [36], vermicompost constitutes a source of macro (NO 3 , PO 4 , Ca, K, Mg, S) and micronutrients in forms readily available to plants or gradually released through organic matter mineralization, thus exhibiting similar effects as inorganic fertilizers. In addition, the authors described that vermicompost is a finelydivided material able to improve soil porosity and water holding capacity thus promoting plant rooting, and represents a microbiologically active organic manure containing growth regulating hormones. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, soil addition with organic amendments, such as biochar and compost, has gained attention as an effective agronomic practice to sustain soil fertility, enhance plant growth and crop yield. Well known are the positive effects of compost on yield of a wide crop varieties, while both positive and negative responses are reported for biochar Therefore, the aim of the study was to verify the effect of biochar mixed with three types of compost on quanti-qualitative response of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. cycla), a leafy green vegetable rich in dietary antioxidants, largely consumed worldwide. A factorial experiment in pots with two factors, including biochar (without biochar and with biochar from vine pruning residues) and compost (without compost, with compost from olive pomace, with vermicompost from cattle manure, and with compost from cattle anaerobic digestate), was setup. Two growth cycles were considered, and a set of quantitative (height of plants, number, area and fresh weight of leaves) and qualitative parameters (carotenoids, chlorophyll, total N, and NO3−content of leaves) were analyzed. Biochar decreased plant growth and NO3− leaf content; on the contrary, it increased total N leaf content, while compost improved all the considered parameters. The interactive effect of biochar and compost was evident only on total N and NO3− leaf content. In our experimental conditions, the compost showed to be the best option to improve Swiss chard growth and increase the content of phytopigments, while the biochar-compost mixtures did not produce the expected effect.
... In a non-thermophilic and bio-oxidative process of associated VM, microbes also help to decompose biological organic wastes [32]. VM is a low-cost and environmentally friendly process [33]. The resultant VM is a finely divided, peat-like material with high porosity and good aeration, drainage, water holding capacity, and buffering capacity, which enhances the soil and is beneficial to microbial biodiversity [32]. ...
... VM enhances plant growth through the production of plant growth-regulating hormones and enzymes [32]. Therefore, this agricultural and horticultural organic fertilizer is increasingly seen as a good alternative to inorganic fertilizers [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Poor soil organic content is a major cause of declining crop productivity in developing countries. Less precipitation and high temperatures oxidize organic matter in the soils of semi-arid regions. Such a deficiency in the organic matter of the soils decreases the bioavailability of many nutrients. Organic amendments like vermicompost (VM) have the potential to overcome this problem, while decreasing the dependency on inorganic fertilizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the best application rate of VM for the improvement of nutrient contents in buckwheat. We used two buckwheat cultivars i.e., Aktaş and Güneş were sown under variable rates of soil-applied VM (0, 0.75, 1.50, 2.25 and 3.00 t ha−1) in semi-arid highland conditions. The results demonstrated that the nutritional quality parameters were improved when VM was applied at the rate of 2.25 t ha−1. In addition, VM at 2.25 t ha−1 resulted in an improvement of the N and P contents of the grains. The P contents in the grains of the Güneş variety was higher (0.26%) than the Aktaş variety (0.24%). A significant improvement in Fe (%), Cu (%), Zn (%) and Mn contents (%) in the grains of buckwheat validated the efficacious functioning of 2.25 t ha−1 of VM. The Zn content of the grains was higher in the Güneş variety (34.06%) than the Aktaş variety (31.96%). However, no significant change in K, Ca and Mg was noted at any level of VM in both Aktaş and Güneş. It is concluded that a 2.25 t ha−1 VM application in the buckwheat crop under zero conventional fertilizer was the best level to boost the nutritional quality of the grains.
... Vermikompos memiliki efek langsung dan tidak langsung terhadap tanaman antara lain, dapat memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah dan menyediakan unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Penggunaan vermikompos dalam sistem budidaya tanaman terbukti mampu mengurangi penggunaan pupuk mineral (Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011) serta mampu memberikan efek residu selama tiga periode penanaman ( Nurhidayati et al., 2018). Berdasarkan informasi tersebut perlu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menguji aplikasi vermikompos dengan dosis yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan kualitas hasil tomat secara hidroganik. ...
... Lot of Indians were accustomed to practise Organic agriculture however current farming training has pushed it to the divisive. Vermicomposting is very effective in plant growth and maintaining plant health and also it is environmentally friendly and used in such a way it that welfare the biodiversity (Lazcano, C and Dominguez J., 2012) [13] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Organic farming with sustainable agriculture may not only meet the nutritional requirements of our generation but also the needs for future species and generation and keep our environment in rhobust condition. Modern agriculture that includes the use of pesticides and fertilizers has a direct effect on the environment by influencing a bad effect on soil fertility, water intake, restrict insect enhancement activity, genetic diversity of plants, increased risk of malnutrition and increased health defoliation in this way that it exacerbate health problems and many other concerns about the welfare and destruction of the environment. Planting by Organic method leads to provides macronutrients and micronutrients in plants continuously basis with the development of soil, physical, chemical and organic properties of the soil that is very beneficial to soil.
... vermicompost). Vermicompost production is an environment-friendly technology helpful to improve the soil nutrients and supports sustainable agriculture (Lazcano and Dominguez 2011;Pathma and Sakthivel 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Vermicompost produced by earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) using lignocellulosic organic matter (leaf litter, vegetable wastes and paper wastes) was amended with soil (1:3) to evaluate productivity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). The nine parameters tested in two legumes (seed germination, plumule emergence, first leaf emergence, plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number of pods, pod length and number of root nodules) were significantly higher in vermicompost than the control. The ideal duration to harvest the tender pods in cowpea was 10-11 weeks, while for winged bean it was about 30 weeks. This study demonstrated the improved production of protein-rich indigenous legumes using vermicompost produced by lignocellulosic wastes. Key words: Earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae, Lignocellulosic wastes, organic agriculture.
... Thus, the earthworms act to modify physical and chemical status of waste, reduces C: N ratio making it an odorless, finely divided peat like material with high porosity and water holding capacity along with enhanced nutrient contents. (Dominguez & Edwards, 2004;Lazcanoa & Domínguez, 2011). ...
Research
Full-text available
Vermicomposting is the process of conversion of biodegradable wastes into high quality manure through the use of earthworms. It is a cost effective method of producing organic fertilizer and a reliable means of bio-waste management. A research was carried out at Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal, to identify the manuring potential of different agricultural wastes through vermicomposting. Eisenia foetida, an epigeic species of earthworm was used for the conversion of these wastes into manure. The research consisted of eight treatments with three replications for each treatment in completely randomized design. Plastic bins of diameter 43 cm and height 16 cm were used for composting purpose where 200 earthworms of similar size were introduced in all bins except in control treatment. The substrates used in vermicomposting were Lantana camara, Ageratum conyzoides, banana pseudo stem, garden waste, vegetable waste and cow dung. Cow dung alone and mixture of cow dung with respective substrates were subjected to vermicomposting. Vermicompost samples collected after seventy five days upon the completion of process were analyzed for NPK content and compared with each other. All vermicompost samples were high in nutrient content than the control; however, nutrient content varied significantly among the substrates. Similarly, all other samples were superior to sole cow dung vermicompost. Lantana camara, mycostraw and Ageratum conyzoides contained highest percentage of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium respectively. In an Overall comparison, Lantana was found most effective with 2.53% N, 1.38% P and 2.28% P.
... Soil chemical properties improved due to the addition of vermicompost. Where the elevated pH and soil salinity declined with the vermicompost addition as a result of the release of organic acids from vermicompost, as well as vermicompost is characterized by the high contents of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and micronutrients, which lead to enhance soil fertility (Tharmaraj et al., 2011).On the other hand, the implementation of different types of vermicompost assists in increasing quantitatively and qualitatively the content of beneficial microorganisms for plants (Lazcano and Dominguez, 2011). Parthasarathi et al., (2007) showed that the vermicompost includes nutrients in available forms for the plants. ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of vermicompost rates (0, 6, 8 and 10 ton fed-1) and ascorbic acid levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm) on growth, yield and nutritional status of tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv Kasel rock) grown in saline soil of Tamia District, El-Fayoum Governorate at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The results indicated that the addition of vermicompost supplemented by spraying with concentrations of ascorbic acid has a significant and clear effect on the growth characteristics and quality and quantity of the tomato plants grown in saline soil at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The highest values of the various components of the tomato plants growth and yield were obtained by adding the high rate of vermicompost (10 ton fed-1) and spraying the high concentration of ascorbic acid (200 ppm). Increasing the addition of vermicompost followed by spraying with ascorbic acid increased the content of the nutrients that benefit tomato plants (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium), while the sodium content of the leaves decreased.
... Since organic and biological fertilizers such as VER and HA have positive effects on yield without any environmental damages, their introduction and promotion will be a suitable and promising model to replace chemical fertilizers. Moreover, VER is a bio fertilizer that contains a highly biologically active combination of bacteria, enzymes, plant debris, and earthworm capsules that decompose soil organic matter and improve microbial activities in the planting bed (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). Although the effects of fertilizers on growth crops have been extensively studied, the research on the behavior of medicinal herbs under organic fertilizer in Iran has not been so extensive (Shaabani et al., 2020). ...
Article
This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of vermicompost (VER) and humic acid (HA) on some traits of Marigold (Calendula officinalis), Mandarin cultivar. Treatments included VER (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and foliar application of HA (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/l) at four levels. Chlorophyll content, relative water content, ion leakage in leaves and flowers, carotenoid, flavonoid, and protein content in flowers, number of flowers, and flower yield were measured. According to the results, higher levels of VER increased ion leakage while decreasing the relative water content of the leaves. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and leaf ion leakage were not affected by VER. The results revealed that the VER treatment had significant effects on petal flavonoids, carotenoids, petal electrolyte leakage (PEL), chlorophyll a, and relative water content. The use of HA did not affect the flower protein and reduced relative water content. All physiological traits, including petal carotenoid, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, ion leakage of leaves and flowers, and relative water content were significant under the influence of HA treatment at the probability level of 1%, while petal flavonoids and chlorophyll b were significant at the probability level of 5%. Investigate the interaction effect revealed the 10% VER + 600 mg/l HA allocated the highest amount of several flowers per plant, whereas this amount in flower protein with a mean of 661.1 mg fresh weight (FW), observed in 10% VER + 400 mg/l HA. In general, the use of HA at a concentration of 600 mg/l and 10% VER is recommended.
... Vermicomposting is a non-thermophilic process by which organic materials are converted by combined action of earthworms and micro-organisms into soil amendments with greatly increased microbial activity and nutrient availability [1,3,4] Remarkable focusses have been given on vermiculture studies (rearing of useful earthworms species) for achieving quicker and cheaper solutions for waste management [5,6], land and soil remediation [3,7] and safe and sustainable food production [3, 8,9] with reduced use of agro-chemicals. Charles Darwin called them 'friends of farmers and unheralded soldiers of mankind working day and night under the soil'. ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons to evaluate the effect of different bedding materials and waste feeds on vermicompost production and local earthworm performance at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia. This activity was conducted in special constructed bins or divided cement-constructed pool (up to 35 cm long × 60 cm width × 45 cm depth) for each earthworm type under shade condition. Treatment arrangements were three earthworm species by four feeding materials, with the total number of 12 bins. Cow dung + Soil + Stevia leaves and Stevia leaves + Maize stalk + Fresh food scraps + Khat /Chat/ wastes were used as source of bedding and feed materials for vermicompost production respectively. The earthworm population and size increased during incubation for 90 days. The Meskan local worms increased from 70 to 6233, Zway local worms to 6198 and Ambo exotic worms increased to 6041when grown individually using maize stalks, chat and stevia leaves, and fresh food scraps. Meskan local and Zway local worms performed better than exotic Ambo worms. Maize stalk, chat and stevia leaves, and fresh food scraps were best to least feed materials for earthworm multiplication. The stinger number of worms (2067) was obtained by feeding worms on maize stalk, whereas the lowest worm number (713) was obtained on fresh food scraps. The highest cast was also produced (13.3) from worms fed with maize stalk, while the lowest cast was produced (9.3) from worms fed with fresh food scraps. Therefore, maize stalk, chat wastes, stevia leaves and fresh food scraps were also best to least feeding ZXmaterials for cast production. The nutrient contents of vermicomposts prepared from different crop residues and waste materials were indicated that higher N content was found in Ambo + stevia leaves followed by Zeway + stevia leaves, while P, K and Na contents were higher in Meskan + fresh food scraps, followed by Zway + fresh food scraps. The highest CEC, Mg, Mn and Ca contents were recorded from chat leaf vermicompost, followed by maize stalk waste vermicompost.
... IAA) [5]. Several studies have been conducted regarding the effect of VC application on the growth and development of crops [6][7][8]. For instance, for Maize (Zea mays), it has been shown that VC increased plant growth yield by creating favorable conditions for plant nutrition [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humic acid (HA) is a specific and stable component of humus materials that behaves similarly to growth stimulants, esp. auxin hormones, contributing to improving growth indices and performance of plants. As a rich source of HA, vermicompost (VC) is also a plant growth stimulating bio-fertilizer that can enhance growth indices and performance in plants. The purpose of the present study is to compare the influence of VC enriched with bacterial and/or fertilizer, commercial humic acid (CHA) extract, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on improving growth characteristics and performance of rapeseed under greenhouse conditions. The results showed the complete superiority of VC over the CHA and IAA (approximately 8% increase in the dry weights of root and aerial organ and nearly three times increase in seed weight). The highest values of these indices were obtained with VC enriched with Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus, Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens; the lowest value was obtained with VC enriched with urea. Additionally, the application of 3% VC and the control involved the highest and lowest values in all traits, respectively. The SPAD (chlorophyll index) value and stem diameter were not significantly affected by different application levels of VC. Overall, the applications of IAA and the CHA were not found to be suitable and therefore not recommended.
... Vermicompost is a combination of the earthworm casts, partially decomposed bedding materials, seeds or cocoons, humic substances, and associated microorganisms that is stabilized to small particles of a peat-like material with high porosity, and with more waterholding capacity and low C/N ratio with a very large surface area, which facilitate holding and retaining plant nutrients Dominguez (2004). Vermicompost is a good source of nitrogen (N) Bansal and Kapoor (2000), phosphorus (P) Pramanik et al., (2007), and potassium (K) as well as vitamins, antibiotics, humic acid Pramanik et al., (2007), N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria, enzymes such as protease, amylases, lipases, cellulases, and chitinase, and growth promoting substances such as auxins and gibberellins Sinha et al., (2009);Lazcano and Dominguez (2011). The process of breaking down complex organic substrates into a stabilized humus-like substance through the action of earthworms is called vermicomposting. ...
Article
Full-text available
Land degradation is a major threat to the food security, with increasing world population the agricultural land is declining and degrading. Biofertilization with Fungi and bacterial inoculate, and their combination with organic fertilizers can be a promising approach for recovering degradation of the soil, minimizing the extensive use of chemical fertilizers. Biofertilization can enhance the bioavailability of nutrient for plant growth, though; fixation, chelation as well as improving the physical characteristics of soil aggregation by their execration of hydrophobins and Glomalin protein. The mechanisms of microbial inoculate in the provision or mobilization of nutrients in degraded land is a key for their success in field applications. Microbes are important, for improving the physical characteristics as well as reinstating the soil fertility of degraded soils. Such mechanisms may help in the developer of innovative cost-effective management practices in order to improve the soil fertility and crop production in degraded soils. The role of bacterial and fungal inoculated in combination with organic materials could have a potential for restoration of soils degradation due to the effectiveness of organic matter that can fulfill the nutrient demand. Applications of bio-fertilizaters generally reduce the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Several researchers reported that endophytes bacterial play a very crucial role in enhancing and promoting plant growth and resilience against abiotic and biotic stress. For enhancing nutrient availability, biomass production, leaf area, hydraulic activity, chlorophyll content, shoot and root ratio, there is a growing need to improve nutrients use efficiency in the soil in an eco-friendly manner, that can be achieved by the application of microbial nutrients solubilizes. Physical characteristics of soils provide by the plant rhizosphere and their microbial communities for a long time, the presence of plants with symbiotic fungal community always encourage the formation of stable macro-aggregates.
... It is described as improver of soil health and nutrient status (Adhikary, 2012), the miracle plant growth promoter (Sinha et al., 2009). It increases germination, growth, flowering, fruit production and accelerates the development of a wide range of plant species (Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011). The addition of compost improves soil physical properties by decreasing bulk density and increasing the soil water holding capacity (Weber et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Vermicompost is increasingly becoming popular as an organic fertiliser used for different crops. Effects of vermicompost on strawberry plant growth and soil properties were studied in this investigation. The research was performed in LatHort from 2015 to 2017. Strawberry was grown on open field in rows. Two trials were established. In Trial 1, the application of vermicompost with a dose of 50 mL per plant was compared to growing without any fertilization. In Trial 2, several treatments were used: 1) only inorganic mineral fertilization applied; 2) vermicompost applied with a dose of 100 mL per plant in planting holes, later mineral fertilization applied; 3) vermicompost applied with a dose of 100 mL per plant in planting holes, no additional fertilization applied; 4) vermicompost applied two times per season on the ground around plants with dose of 50 mL per plant, no mineral fertilization applied. The plant growth was assessed two times per season by evaluating the amount of leaves and plant height. Soil dehydrogenase activity was evaluated during all growing seasons as indicator of soil microbial activity. The application of vermicompost positively influenced plant growth in comparison to growing without fertilization. In Trial 2, plant growth varied among years. During first two growing seasons better plant growth was observed for plants fertilized by inorganic mineral fertilizers, while later the growth levelled off for all treatments applied. The application of vermicompost had positive influence on the soil dehydrogenase activity in contrary to fertilization by mineral fertilizers.
... Vermicomposts are known to increase the amounts of vitamins, ferments, and growth stimulators [13,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors conducted an experiment on the effect of different types of biofertilizers (vermicomposts) on tomato productivity in Central Yakutia greenhouses. The experiment was replicated three times. The greenhouse soil mixture consisted of equal parts sod (turf), decomposed manure, and old wood shavings. The experimental data show the optimal specifications and timing of vermicompost addition. The dose of 100 grams of vermicompost per plant increased the tomato yield in July and August by 7.6 kg/m ² and in early yields by 1.6 kg/m ² . The application of biofertilizer increased Vitamin C concentration by 22.8-25.6 mg% in fruits. The local vermicompost application method allowed to decrease the prime cost of tomato growing by 11%. As a result of this study, the authors developed a series of guidelines on vermicompost addition in the Yakutia environment that allowed maximizing yields while lowering prime costs.
... Variety Fertilization Height (cm) Dried shoot (g) Dried roots (g) Therefore, this study confirmed the effectiveness of organic fertilization for improving coffee development, and also highlighted that this effect was more significant for Arabica and the old M38 Robusta variety compared to the new TR9 one. However, this study did not confirm the general assumption that vermicompost is more effective than aerobic compost for improving plant growth and yield and mitigating plant stresses [19][20][21][22]. Conversely, these results show that the positive effect of vermicompost on plant growth and yield is dependent on a large number of environmental factors, including crop varieties and soil properties [10,23,24]. ...
Article
This study is aimed at studying the influence of organic fertilization on coffee growth and its resistance to drought. The experiment was carried out on young coffee plantlets in a greenhouse in Viet Nam and compared three varieties (Arabica L, Robusta TR9, and Robusta M38) and two types of organic amendments (compost or vermicompost). This study showed that both compost and vermicompost aided in the increase of soil chemical properties and above-ground plant biomass an as a comparison with chemical fertilizer. The vermicompost amendment has higher effect than compost could be observed for Arabica variety in term of soil organic carbon, total P, available N forms (N-NH 4) except available K and shoot biomass weight (p<0,05), with no difference between two Robusta varieties TR9 & M38 (p>0,05). Interestingly, the plantlets fertilized with organic amendments had lower d (7 days) for resistance to drought than mineral chemicals (9 days.) Therefore, these results suggest that the resistance of coffee plantlets to drought is reduced if the nursery growing media contains compost or vermicompost.
... Las propiedades biológicas del vermicompost lo conviertenen un excelente fertilizante orgánico; cuando se añade alsuelo o a los medios de cultivo de plantas, el vermihumus aumenta la germinación, el crecimiento, la floración y la producción de fruta y acelera el desarrollo de las plantas. La mejora del crecimiento de las plantas se puede atribuir a varios mecanismos directos e indirectos, que incluyen mecanismos mediados biológicamente, tales como elaporte de sustancias reguladoras del crecimiento de las plantas y la mejora de las funciones biológicas del suelo (Lazcano & Domínguez 2011). Evolución del índice de polifenoles totales (IPT) en la retama negra a lo largo del proceso de Vermicompostaje La cantidad inicial de polifenoles totales fue de 32,44 ± 1,11 mg GAE g -1 p.s., y disminuyó rápidamente durante la primera semana, y de hecho un 50% de los polifenoles desaparecen en ese periodo. ...
Article
Este traballo busca caracterizar aos usuarios potenciais das terras que actualmente se atopan en situación de abandono ou infrautilización en Galicia. O sector vacún leiteiro constitúe o núcleo básico do sector agrario galego polo que coñecer a súa opinión como demandantes de terra é unha prioridade para poder establecer un plan de mobilidade de terras. A través da aplicación dunha variante da metodoloxía Delphi comprobouse que dende o sector existe un interese por conseguir máis terra e poder aumentar así a base territorial das explotacións e, en consecuencia, a súa capacidade produtiva. A falta de información tanto técnica como lexislativa relativa aos instrumentos que poden axudar á mobilización de terras e o seu funcionamento, quedou presente en moitos dos xuízos emitidos polo panel de expertos consultados para este traballo, polo que este constituiría o primeiro paso cara a consecución dunha mobilidade efectiva de terras.
... On the other hand, vermicompost has good physical, chemical and biological properties, including particular microbiomes, which provide a whole range of bene cial effects to the soil-plant system 16 . Those effects have been found to be independent of the chemical composition of the vermicompost, hence suggesting they are likely related to biostimulation mechanisms derived from microbial activity 17,18 . Since vermicompost is an organic biofertilizer that is of interest not only for its chemical properties and nutrients, but also for its biological properties in terms of microbial inoculums, it is important to thoroughly characterize the structure and composition of its microbial content; particularly of the fungal communities, which have been largely ignored in vermicomposting microbiome research. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wastewater treatment plants produce hundreds of million tons of sewage sludge every year all over the world. Vermicomposting is well established worldwide and has been successful in processing sewage sludge, which can contribute to alleviate the severe environmental problems caused by their disposal. Here, we utilized 16S and ITS rRNA high-throughput sequencing to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and structure during the gut- and cast-associated processes (GAP and CAP, respectively) of vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity changed significantly during both vermicomposting processes. Most of the bacterial and fungal taxa in the sewage sludge were eliminated during vermicomposting, mainly through the GAP. Vermicomposting of sewage resulted in a stable and rich microbial community with potential biostimulant properties that may aid plant growth. Our results support the use of vermicompost derived from sewage sludge for sustainable agricultural practices.
... Vermikompos memiliki efek langsung dan tidak langsung terhadap tanaman antara lain, dapat memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah dan menyediakan unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Penggunaan vermikompos dalam sistem budidaya tanaman terbukti mampu mengurangi penggunaan pupuk mineral (Lazcano & Dominguez, 2011) serta mampu memberikan efek residu selama tiga periode penanaman (Nurhidayati et al., 2018) Aplikasi pupuk organik pada sistem budidaya hidroganik dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara, namun cara aplikasi mana yang terbaik belum dapat diketahui dengan pasti. Berdasarkan informasi tersebut perlu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menguji beberapa metode aplikasi vermikompos dengan dosis yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tomat dengan sistem budidaya tomat tanpa tanah (hidroganik). ...
Article
Full-text available
The soilless culture system now developed rapidly in line with the decrease of the area ofproductive farmland as well as to meet healthy food needs and nutritious high. Thisresearch developed a soilles culture by using vermicompost organic fertilizers.This studyaimed to test influence of application methods and doses vermicompost on the growthand yield of tomato grown in hidroganic system. This experiment used a FactorialRandomized Block Design. The first factor : application methods of vermicompostconsisting of three levels namely M1 = solid vermicompost, M2 = combination of solid andliquid vermicompost, M3 = liquid vermicompost. The second factor : doses ofvermicompost consisting of five levels namely V1 = 150 grams, V2 = 300 grams , V3 = 450grams , V4 = 600 grams and V5 = 750 grams per polibag, plus control treatment usinginorganic fertilizer. The research results showed that interaction between applicationmethods and vermicompost doses had a significant effect on the growth and yield oftomato plants. The best combination of treatment was solid vermicompost at a dose of600 g/polybag gave a growth of plant height of 78.50 cm, leaf number of 205.33, leaf area of 4516.75 cm2 and flower number 24.78. This treatment had the best yield parametersby the fruit number of 24,33, fruit set of 98,20% and total weight of fruit 447,22 g/plant.Based on the regresion analysis showed that the optimum dose of vermicompost for solidvermicompost was 709.50 g/plant and the maximum yield was 494.70 g/plant. This resultsuggests that the solid vermicompost application can be recommended for hidroganicculture of tomato.Keyword : Tomato, Soilless Culture, Vermicompost, Growth, Yield
... On the other hand, vermicompost has good physical, chemical and biological properties, including particular microbiomes, which provide a whole range of beneficial effects to the soil-plant system 16 . Those effects have been found to be independent of the chemical composition of the vermicompost, hence suggesting they are likely related to biostimulation mechanisms derived from microbial activity 17,18 . Since vermicompost is an organic biofertilizer that is of interest not only for its chemical properties and nutrients, but also for its biological properties in terms of microbial inoculums, it is important to thoroughly characterize the structure and composition of its microbial content; particularly of the fungal communities, which have been largely ignored in vermicomposting microbiome research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wastewater treatment plants produce hundreds of million tons of sewage sludge every year all over the world. Vermicomposting is well established worldwide and has been successful at processing sewage sludge, which can contribute to alleviate the severe environmental problems caused by its disposal. Here, we utilized 16S and ITS rRNA high-throughput sequencing to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and structure during the gut- and cast-associated processes (GAP and CAP, respectively) of vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Bacterial and fungal communities of earthworm casts were mainly composed of microbial taxa not found in the sewage sludge; thus most of the bacterial (96%) and fungal (91%) taxa in the sewage sludge were eliminated during vermicomposting, mainly through the GAP. Upon completion of GAP and during CAP, modified microbial communities undergo a succession process leading to more diverse microbiotas than those found in sewage sludge. Consequently, bacterial and fungal community composition changed significantly during vermicomposting. Vermicomposting of sewage resulted in a stable and rich microbial community with potential biostimulant properties that may aid plant growth. Our results support the use of vermicompost derived from sewage sludge for sustainable agricultural practices, if heavy metals or other pollutants are under legislation limits or adequately treated.
... It also enhances plant growth by production of hormones and enzymes (Pathma and Sakthivel, 2012). This organic fertilizer increasingly becoming a good alternative to inorganic fertilizers (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). However, high concentrations of soluble salts that may be available in vermicomposts may reduce growth by application of vermicomposts at high concentrations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study was conducted to determine the effects of microbial fertilizer and vermicompost applications on the yield and yield related parameters of broad beans (Vicia faba L.) under zero chemical fertilizer applied conditions. Trial area was a highland remote to sea under Mediterranean climate in South Eastern Anatolia of Turkey. It is located in fertile crescent and 180 km away to Karacadag Mountains (Diyarbakir) where Einkorn wheat (Aegilops monococcum L.) was first cultivated in history approximately ten thousand years ago. The broad bean was also among the founder crops of the Near East including the trial location. Methods: Rhizobium leguminosarum inoculant were used as microbial fertilizer in the experiments. Applied vermicompost doses were 0, 400, 800 and 1200 kg ha-1. The trials was conducted for two years and replicated thrice in a randomized block deign. Conclusion: Application of vermicompost was found significantly effective on the plant height, first pod height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 grain weight and grain yield. Aapplication of 800 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 vermicompost along with Rhizobium leguminosarum inoculation was found superior for grain yield.
... Lovett and Ruesink (1995) described a "visible mat of fungal hyphae" in soil samples amended with gypsy moth frass, albeit at a much higher rate (>20%) than in our study. Fungal growth was not reported to be increased by vermicompost application to soil by Lazcano and Domínguez (2011), in contrast to our results (Fig. 2). However, these authors observed stimulated bacterial growth following vermicompost amendment, as did we (Fig. 1). ...
Article
The commercial rearing of insects is a growing economic sector. Therefore, an assessment was made of the potential of its by-product, frass, to be a soil improver. Essential plant nutrients were extracted (using 0.01 M CaCl2 or Mehlich 3) from frass of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor), black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens) and buffalo worms (Alphitobius diaperinus). A 28-day incubation, in which frass was added to a sandy loam soil at application rates of 2.5% or 5% (w/w), assessed its effects on soil microbial biomass, abundance of bacteria, archaea and fungi, carbon mineralisation and nitrification. In a separate 56-day incubation, the impact of frass on heavy metal bioavailability in an artificially contaminated, carbon-poor substrate was tested. All frass types featured high electrical conductivity, a mildly acidic to neutral pH and C: N ratios between 11 and 16. Black soldier fly frass (BSFF) was richer in extractable ammonium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium than mealworm frass (MWF) and buffalo worm frass (BWF) but poorer in extractable calcium. All frass types stimulated carbon mineralisation, nitrification, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, and fungal biomass as determined by ergosterol concentrations. Bacterial and particularly fungal abundances were stimulated by the 5% frass application rate whereas archaeal abundances were greater in the 2.5% application rate regimes. The 2.5% application rate of MWF and BWF led to a profound build-up of soil extractable nitrite. Correspondingly, these treatments featured the highest 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of archaea, a domain encompassing organisms which oxidise ammonium to nitrite. No nitrite was detectable in soil amended with BSFF. The 5% application rates induced microbial biomass growth (as determined by extractable DNA concentrations) only when BSFF was applied. This was possibly due to differences in the frass types' extractable nutrient or labile carbon contents. BSFF and BWF amendment led to significantly higher microbial biomass in a metal-contaminated substrate. This was likely due to frass providing nutrients, energy and reduced metal bioavailability: extractable zinc, copper, cadmium and nickel concentrations fell due to increased metal sorption and complexation. All frass types could be used as ameliorants in metal-contaminated soils, while BSFF shows most promise as an organic fertiliser as its use did not cause soil nitrite build-up.
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study was conducted in 2016-2017 to determine the effects of Mesorhizobium ciceri inoculation and different doses of vermicompost applications on the yield components and yield of chickpea under semi-arid Mediterranean highland condition of Turkey. Methods: Mesorhizobium ciceri inoculant were applied to seeds (at 108 cfu bacteria per seed dose) as microbial fertilizer in the experiments. Vermicompost doses were 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 kg ha-1. The trials were set up with three replications according to the randomized complete blocks design. Conclusion: Plant height, first pod height, pod number per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100 grain weight and grain yield were determined as 56.1-61.9 cm, 29.4-34.9 cm, 31.4-46.3 pods plant-1, 32.9-44.0 seed plant-1, 30.4-37.4 g and 1463-2072 kg ha-1, respectively. Co-application of 1000 kg ha-1 vermicompost with Mesorhizobium ciceri inoculation produced the highest values for all examined parameters for both years. Further applications of vermicompost reduced yield and related components. Control parcels and excess vermicompost applications (2000 and 3000 kg ha-1) produced lowest values. Mesorhizobium ciceri inoculation produced medium values between Co-application of 1000 kg ha-1 vermicompost with Mesorhizobium ciceri and control and excess vermicompost applied conditions. In conclusion, use of Mesorhizobium ciceri + 1000 kg ha-1 vermicompost was recommended in chickpea cultivation for maximum yield in the ecological conditions of Siirt province of Turkey or in similar ecologies.
Article
Full-text available
Vermicompost, manure, compost and organic fertilization are ecofriendly. Nowadays, many products resulted from sericulture consumed by humans such as mulberry leaves, fruits, mulberry tea, silk and natural silk cosmetics. Soil applications of three treatments with vermicompost (0.5, 1 and 2 tons per 0.42 hectare) and recommended rate of mineral fertilizers of nitrogen phosphorus potassium were used for investigation. Impact of fertilization on mulberry plant traits of moisture, number of shoots/tree, total shoots length/tree, number of leaves/shoot, number of leaves/ (100g), leaf yield/tree and leaf yield of fadden/season were recorded. In addition the effect of fertilization on larval and cocoon characters of young instar duration, fifth instar duration, total larval duration, larval mortality percentage, weight of third instar larvae, weight of fourth instar larvae, weight of fifth instar larvae, fresh cocoon weight, fresh shell weight, pupae weight, cocoon shell ratio, silk productivity, cocooning percentage, pupation ratio, number of cocoons/ liter, crop cocoons by number, crop cocoons by weight, fecundity and fertility. Using vermicompost treatment was enhancing plant characters. Treatments of V 3 , V 2 and V 1 were shortage young, fifth and larvae durations. Mostly feeding silkworm during the whole larval duration on treated mulberry leaves with vermicompost improving the traits average. Using vermicompost for fertilization by rate of V 3 and V 2 is better than others for cocoon characters for females and males.V 3 and V 2 of vermicompost per 0.42 hectare is recommended for rearing mulberry silkworm instead of mineral fertilization.
Article
In a society that produces large amounts of solid waste, the search for new methods of valorisation has led to the development of techniques that make it possible to obtain new products from waste. In the case of bio-waste, biological treatment such as anaerobic digestion or composting appear to be suitable options for producing bio-energy or bio-fertilizers respectively. Vermicomposting is a method of converting solid organic waste into resources through bio-oxidation and stabilization of the organic waste by earthworms. The purpose of this study is to establish the environmental impacts of a complete route for the valorisation of grape pomace in order to identify environmental hotspots. In this valorisation route, different value-added products are produced with potential application in the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical sectors. Priority was given to the use of primary data in the elaboration of the data inventories needed to perform the life cycle assessment (LCA). The main findings from this study reported that the energy requirement of the distillation process is an important hot spot of the process. Although the valorisation route has some poor results in terms of the two environmental indicators (carbon footprint and normalised impact index), when economic revenues were included in this analysis, its environmental performance was better than that of other alternatives for bio-waste recovery.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract An experiment was conducted to study the effect of eleven treatments of organic fertilizer as well as chemical recommending fertilizer and control without fertilizer. It included adding poultry manure, cattle manure, granular humus and foliage with humic acid, seaweed extract and some combinations on broad bean leaves content of some nutrients . It was carried out at the farm of Agric. Coll. Babylon in 2012/2013 growth season as a simple experiment according to Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications . The results could be summarized as follows: All fertilization treatments caused a significant increase in nitrogen concentration in leaves compared to control. Poultry and cattle manure, humus and chemical fertilizer caused a significant increase in leaves P concentration compared to control. All treatments (except seaweed extract ) significantly increased K concentration in leaves compared to control. Adding poultry or cattle manure , whether alone or with humic acid were significantly superior on chemical fertilizer in increasing K. While all transactions ( except poultry manure) had no significant effect on Na concentration in leaves compared to control. Most organic treatments and the chemical fertilizer caused increases in leaves Ca concentration compared to control treatment. Key wards : poultry and cattle manure, humic acid, granular humus, seaweed, broad bean. * part of M.Sc. Thesis to the second author. (10) (PDF) Effect of adding some organic fertilizers on some nutrients and hormones content of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343675590_Effect_of_adding_some_organic_fertilizers_on_some_nutrients_and_hormones_content_of_faba_bean_Vicia_faba_L_leaves [accessed Nov 12 2020].
Article
Food waste and leftovers were common materials that were currently used as bio-compost or soil conditioners upon decomposition. Food waste was a source of food that has declined nutritional value and is not deemed favorable for human consumption. Leftovers were defined as uneaten edible remains of a meal. Biodegradation of these components contributes to many macronutrients, including carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the compost, which makes it a suitable growing condition for plants. In this study, the main sources of research data were one hundred thirty-one scientific articles relating to food waste treatment methods and the growth quality of plants over the last few years. This review was the consensus of the role and characteristics of food waste and leftovers as fertilizers. Moreover, the paper briefly discusses the different composting methods for these materials and their corresponding effects on the growth quality of plants.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT In recent years, increasing consumer concern about issues such as food quality,environmental safety and soil conservation has lead to a substantial increase in the use ofsustainable agricultural practices. Globally, roughly one-third of the food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted, which amounts to about 1.3 billion tons per year. Vermicomposting which is one of the most sustainable methods of handling food waste and are completely environmentally friendly technology that is viable method of diverting the organic portion of waste streams, avoiding the costs of disposal and converting it to a value-added vermicompost. This product is nutrient-rich but also contains high quality humus, plant growth hormones, enzymes, and substances which are able to protect plants against pests and diseases. Many cropping areas in the world are deficient in organic matter and nutrient. KEYWORDS: Vermicompost, Food security, Earthworms, Environment, Agriculture
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In the past decades, due to the use of chemical fertilizers, numerous environmental impacts, including various types of water and soil contamination, have caused problems for human health and other organisms. Sustainable agricultural policy and sustainable agricultural development have prompted experts to make greater use of soil organisms to meet the plant's nutritional needs, and that is why the production of biofertilizers began. Biological imbalances in the field of sustainable agriculture can be attributed to the fungi of myoderma and its species. According to various studies, it seems that this microorganism having high ability to compete for food and space, and the establishment of spores in the environment and in particular soil around the roots of most crops and non-farm and can induce plant resistance not only reduces pathogen agents The soil may end in cases with the addition of higher boiling points to the growth of underground organs or air. Vermicompost is a microbiologically rich, nutrient-rich, organic modifier that is produced by the interaction between earthworms and microorganisms during the decomposition of organic matter. This type of organic fertilizer contains the waste of certain species of earthworms as a result of alteration, conversion, and relative organic residues as they pass through the digestive tract of these animals. Research has shown that vermicompost has a positive effect on growth, crop development, and crop yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different amounts of vermicompost and different concentrations of Trichoderma Bi isolate on different properties of celery. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Trichoderma and vermicompost as a biofertilizer promoting growth in research greenhouse at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad with an average daily temperature of 15-27 ° C and relative humidity of 40-70%. Was. The present study was a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replicates as a pot experiment under no-tillage conditions in the greenhouse. The first factor consisted of four concentrations of Trichoderma harizianum isolate Bi: zero percent (control), 5%, 10%, and 15% volume of 50 liters of water consumed. The second factor also included 4 vermicompost treatments: zero percent (control), 25 percent, 50 percent, and 75 percent pot volume. Celery seeds were sown in transplant trays. The transplants were ready for transfer to the main litter after 10 weeks. The pots used were of plastic-type with a span diameter of 20 cm and a height of 25 cm. The plant media consisted of a mixture of 20% cocoon and 80% perlite, the roots of which were easily separable. After full harvest of plants at the commercial size, when a complete set of petiole sets was created (40 days after transplanting) morphological traits including the fresh and dry weight of roots and stems, a number of leaves, stem diameter, Stem and root lengths were evaluated. The dry and dry weight of plant root was measured using a digital marking scale AND with an accuracy of 0.01 g. Dry weight was determined after placing the specimens in the oven at 72 ° C for 48 hours. Also, the stem diameter was measured using a caliper machine with 0.01 mm accuracy. Root and shoot lengths were measured separately in the laboratory by a ruler in cm. Chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids were read at 663 nm, 653 nm and 470 nm for absorption by spectrophotometer, respectively. Data were analyzed using JMP8 software and ANOVA was performed using the LSD test at 5% probability level. Charts were drawn using Excel 2013 software. Results and Discussion: The results of this study showed a positive and optimal effect of combined vermicompost and Trichoderma fungi. The highest shoot dry weight (49.23 g), leaf number (46), stem diameter (15 mm) and chlorophyll and carotenoid were observed in the effect of vermicompost and Trichoderma fungi compared to the control treatment. The main stem length (77.20 cm) was affected by the fungus with a 10% concentration at the highest rate compared to other treatments. Also, 50% vermicompost treatment had the highest root length (36.66 cm). The highest chlorophyll a was observed at 75% vermicompost interaction at 15% fungi concentration (10.02 mg/g fresh leaf weight). Application of vermicompost in the culture medium and application of Trichoderma fungus extract resulted in improved growth and yield. As can be seen in the results, the best treatment was 15% and 75% vermicompost, respectively. They can be used to improve plant growth and function. Many researchers believe that mainly isolates of Trichoderma produce biochemical stimuli to stimulate plant growth or reduce the inhibitory effects of certain compounds, biological and chemical toxins. According to available reports, the application of vermicompost with 30% volume in ornamental Lilium increased leaf area, fresh and dry weight of plant and plant height. Also, fresh and dry weights of bean stem under vermicompost application significantly increased compared to the control treatment, which is in line with the results of this study. However, the researchers believe that the wet and dry weight gain of the plant body if used with vermicompost is probably due to the high amount of humic acids in this biofertilizer. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study and other studies on vermicompost as an enriched fertilizer with numerous growth enzymes and hormones, as well as Trichoderma, it can be concluded that the use of bio-fertilizers plays an important role in the production of high-quality products. Also, the effect we find depends on the concentration used, but in the end, even their application at the lowest concentration compared to the control treatment increased growth and morphological characteristics of the plant. Overall, the results of this study showed that, in the case of the studied species, the combination of vermicompost and Trichoderma had a significant advantage over their separate application, and considering the superiority results of most traits at the time of application of these two together. Was. Therefore, a combination of Trichoderma and vermicompost based on the results (concurrent use of 15% fungus extract and 75% vermicompost) is recommended to improve plant growth and yield. Keywords: Concentration, Biofertilizer, Morphological, Isolate Bi
Article
Full-text available
Organic amendments not only promote soil quality but also indirectly facilitate the establishment of bacteria. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic substrates and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria inoculation on morphological characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Cv Rabicon.) in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with four replications. Experimental treatments included organic fertilizers (vermicompost 20% v/v, spent mushroom 10% v/v and soil) and seed priming with promoting growth regulating bacteria (Pseudomonas putida P10, Pseudomonas fluorescence R159 and R150 and non-inoculated). At the end of growth stage, morphological traits (plant height, leaf number, crown diameter, leaf area, root length and volume, shoot fresh and dry weight), photosynthesis pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoid), vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid and nitrate concentration were measured. The results indicated that the simple effects of substrate and bacterial strains inoculation were significant on traits including plant height, crown diameter, leaf area, root length and volume, shoot dry and fresh weights, chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoid, vitamin C, phenol and flavonoid. Interaction of both factors had significant effects on leaf area, root length and volume, chlorophyll a and phenol. However, plants treated with vermicompost and Pseudomonas fluorescence R159 had higher values for both fresh and dry weight, phenol content and chlorophyll. Although some traits were higher in plants treated with compost and Pseudomonas putida P10 or vermicompost and Pseudomonas putida P10, but finally it seems that Pseudomonas fluorescence R159 has played a higher role in the final quantity and quality of lettuce.
Article
Full-text available
An Experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of the Department of Crop Protection, Bayero University Kano (BUK) to evaluate the phytotoxicity effects of vermicomposts on seed germination and seedling growth of tomato. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design which consisted of three vermicomposts: poultry manure based (POBCO), cow dung based (COBCO) and rice bran based (RIBCO) vermicomposts and loamy soil (control) collected from the Teaching and Research Farms of the Faculty of Agriculture, BUK. The growth media were prepared using 1 kg of top soil and 3 kg of vermicomposts for each treatment. Treatments were replicated five times and data were analysed using analysis of variance with Gensat 17 th Edition. Treatment means were separated using LSD. The results of the experiment showed zero phytotoxicity of the vermicomposts with mean values greater than 100% for all the germination indices. Percent relative seed germination of POBCO was 193.3% which differed significantly (P≤0.05) with COBCO (136.3%) and RIBCO (127.9%), respectively. Percent relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) for the vermicomposts was significantly higher than the control. Poultry manure based vermicompost had 205% RRG and 394.8% GI compared to COBCO (136.3%; 207.4%) and RIBCO which recorded 107.3% RRG and 137.2% GI. Though all vermicomposts showed stimulating effect on tomato growth, POBCO exhibited highest germination indices than COBCO and RIBCO. Physical and chemical properties of the vermicomposts were all within the optimum requirements for plant growth. It is concluded that the vermicomposts especially POBCO are not phytotoxic and could be used as bio-fertilizer to enhance tomato seed germination and growth.
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have potentially significant application in agriculture and, with the emergence of the digital farming era and Agriculture 4.0, this platform has become increasingly important. UAV imagery may improve or even replace routine data surveys, as well as optimize phytosanitary product application. High-spatial resolution imagery makes UAVs attractive for several applications where traditional satellite sensing is still unsuitable. With the significant recent development of data science techniques, UAVs have a prominent position in assisting farmers for more efficient decision-making and automating agricultural processes. Thus, this work addresses the main agricultural applications of UAVs into five major topics: topographic survey, physiological assessments, biophysical assessments, monitoring of biological targets, and spraying of phytosanitary products and application of bio inputs.
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, I discuss the emerging concept of ‘circular economy’ within the wider debate on ‘re-thinking food systems’. With this purpose in mind, I have adopted a ‘food system design’ perspective, highlighting how this debate is becoming progressively more polarized and ambiguous, creating de facto two narratives, each leading to the identification of very different food futures. In order to introduce the two narratives and to disentangle their key elements, I will make use of few key (design) questions and namely: (i) What has circular economy to do with re-thinking food systems? (ii) For whom are we (re-)designing food systems? What are our design intentions? And finally (iii) at what scale will the ‘redesigned’ system operate?
Article
Full-text available
Leaf litter consists of vegetables (e.g., leaves, fruit, twigs) and animal debris/debris. It acts in soil fertilization through its decomposition and fragmentation by abiotic and biotic factors (such as bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates), which help in the nutrient cycling process, making it an alternative to the recovery of degraded areas. This research aims to survey information on the interactions of litter fauna with forest environments, consideringthe main groups and their contributions to nutrient cycling and soil fertilization in degraded areas. For the elaboration of the research, extensiveresearch was carried out using the academic Google, Science Direct, and Scopus platforms, where it was possible to gather information about the action of the litter fauna in the formation, fragmentation, decomposition, and fertilization of the soil. Litter production varies according to the climatic conditions in the region. There is a greater production in tropical and subtropical regionsand semi-arid regionsdue to the deciduous capacity of plants in dry periods, allowing greater deposition of biomass in the soil. The litter acts as a shelter for a high faunal diversity. Among them the most representative ones are Annelida (Oligochaeta), Myriapoda (Chilopoda/Diplopoda), Hexapoda (Diptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Blattodea, Isoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Isopoda, Thysanura), Cheliceriformes Araneae, Scorpiones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Opiliones), Mollusca (Gastropoda). All these factors make litter a source of nutrients rich in organic compounds that help improve soil fertility and provide the animals that inhabit it with a universe of ecological niches suited to the needs of each species.Keywords: Biomass, decomposition, invertebrates, nutrients, soil
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture practices in monocropping need to become more sustainable and one of the ways to achieve this is to reintroduce intercropping. However, quantitative data to evaluate plant growth in intercropping systems are still lacking. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential to become a state-of-the-art technique for the automatic estimation of plant growth. Individual plant height is an important trait attribute for field investigation as it can be used to derive information on crop growth throughout the growing season. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of UAV-based RGB imagery combined with the structure from motion (SfM) method for estimating the individual plants height of cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat in an intercropping field during a complete growing season under varying conditions. Additionally, the effect of different percentiles and buffer sizes on the relationship between UAV-estimated plant height and ground truth plant height was examined. A crop height model (CHM) was calculated as the difference between the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM). The results showed that the overall correlation coefficient (R2) values of UAV-estimated and ground truth individual plant heights for cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat were 0.86, 0.94, 0.36, and 0.49, respectively, with overall root mean square error (RMSE) values of 6.75 cm, 6.99 cm, 14.16 cm, and 22.04 cm, respectively. More detailed analysis was performed up to the individual plant level. This study suggests that UAV imagery can provide a reliable and automatic assessment of individual plant heights for cabbage and pumpkin plants in intercropping but cannot be considered yet as an alternative approach for barley and wheat.
Article
This study aims to determine the interaction of the composition of planting media and vermicompost dosage on the growth and yield of lettuce plants. This study is a pot experiment conducted by green house located on Jl. MT. Haryono, Dinoyo Subdistrict, Lowokwaru Subdistrict, Malang with a altitude of ± 550 meters above sea level, the average air temperature ranges from 20 °C - 28 °C, which starts in February to June 2019. The study uses experimental Randomized Block Design (RBD) arranged in factorial and consists of 2 factors. The first factor was the composition of the planting medium consisting of 2 levels, namely M1: Cocopit (55%), Biochar (15%), Sand (30%) and M2: Cocopit (55%), Biochar (30%), Sand (15%) The second factor is the vermicompost dose which consists of five types, namely V1: 50 gram / pot, V2: 100 gram / pot, V3: 150 gram / pot, V4: 200 gram / pot, and V5: 250 gram / pot. Based on the two factors, 10 treatments were obtained and each treatment was repeated 3 times with 5 plant samples per treatment, until a sample of 150 lettuce plants was obtained. The results showed that the composition of the planting medium gave growth and yield of different lettuce plants, where the composition of M1 planting media (cocopeat 55%, 15% biochar and 30% sand) gave the highest growth and yield of plants at the dosage application of 200-250 g / pot while the composition of M2 planting media (55% cocopeat, 30% biochar and 15% sand), gave the highest growth and yield at 150-250 g / pot vermicompost doses. This is caused by the influence of the composition of the planting medium and vermicompost dosage on the total fresh weight of plants, fresh weight of roots and fresh weight economically valuable curly lettuce M2V4 treatment (55% cocopeat growing media, 30% biochar and 15% sand, with vermicompost 200 gram / pot), M2V1 (planting media, 55% cocopeat, 15% biochar and 30% sand, with 50 gram vermicompost / pot dose) and M2V4 (planting media, 55% cocopeat, 30% biochar and 15% sand, with dosage 200 gram vermicompost / pot) with values of 66.06, 6.24 and 61.62 grams giving the highest results. Keywords: planting media composition, vermicompost dosage
Article
The quality of vermicompost is determined by the kinds of media materials used, the degree ofmaturity, the worm species used and the manufacturing process. In this study using plantpakkoy pakkoy (Brassica rapa L.). The purpose of this study was to determine the optimumdose of three kinds of vermicompost for N, P and K nutrient uptake and growth response andyield of mustard pakcoy (Brassica rapa L.). The research was conducted at Agricultural Land inLandungsari Village, Dau District of Malang Regency with height ± 544 m asl. This research is afield experiment using factorial randomized block design (RAK) with control. Factor 1: VariousVermicompost Materials Factor 2: Application Dose. The resulting data were analyzed variance(ANOVA) with 5% BNJ and 5% Dunnet. Regression analysis was performed to find the optimumdose of vermicompost. The results showed that the growth and production of mustard plantpakcoy using vermicompost showed higher yield compared to control. In the treatment of V2D2(coconut husk + cow dung + leaf litter + rice straw + leftover vegetables with dose of 10 ton ha-1).
Article
Sweet potatoes are an alternative source of carbohydrates that have high nutritional content. Development of sweet potato cultivation methods needs to be done to overcome the decrease of productive agricultural land due to land conversion. This study aimed to test the effect of differences in the composition of the growing media on the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. This study was a pot experiment using a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 7 treatments and 5 replications. The types of treatments tested were P0: 100% soil + inorganic fertilizer; P1: 50% soil + 50% cow manure; P2: soil 50% + vermicompost 50%; P3: soil 50% + biochar rice husk 25%, cow manure 25%, P4: soil 50% + biochar rice husk 25% + vermicompost 25%, P5: soil 50% + cocopeat 25% + cow manure 25%, P6: soil 50% + cocopeat 25% + vermicompost 25%. The research results showed that the composition of the growing medium significantly affected plant growth and yield. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the treatments of P4 and P6 gave the highest growth, while the high yield of fresh weight of tubers per pot were found in the treatments P1, P2, P3, and P4 by 165.59 g, 143.38 g, 171.56 g, and 144.80 g, respectively. The highest number of tubers was found in treatment P6 by 7.66 tubers. The highest yield of dry matter was also found in treatments P1, P2, P3, and P4 by 59.91 g, 51.73 g, 59.02 g, and 48.59 g, respectively. Based on the research results, it can be recommended that the cultivation of sweet potato plants in pots can be carried out using porous growing media in a container that is sufficient and available balanced nutrients for the development of plant tubers.Keywords: Vermicompost, composition of growing media, Sweet Potatoes, Yield, Quality
Article
Full-text available
p>Soilless culture system (SCS) production is preferred because it is more hygienic and highly nutritious and free of chemical pesticides. However, the application of organic fertilizers in SCS for green vegetable cultivation is still rarely used. This study was to test various growing media compositions and vermicompost rates on green lettuce's nutritional quality. Four types of growing media (using the mixture of cocopeat, zeolite, rice husk biochar and sand) and five levels of vermicompost rates (50-250 g pot<sup>-1</sup>) were tested. The greatest total fresh weight and marketable yield were found using 55% cocopeat, 30% rice husk biochar and 15% sand with a vermicompost rate of 250 g pot<sup>-1</sup>. The highest nutritional quality of green lettuce as measured by the highest content of chlorophyll A, B, the total chlorophyll and calcium (Ca) was found in the composition of cocopeat 55%, zeolite 30% and sand 15%. As was, the highest mineral content of of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Good quality lettuce was found in growing media using 30% biochar with a vermicompost rates of 200-250 g pot<sup>-1</sup> and growing media using 30% zeolite with a vermicompost rates of 150-200 g pot<sup>-1</sup>. Thus, the admixtures of biochar and zeolite into the cocopeat substrate for the soilless culture system of green leafy lettuce significantly affected yield and nutritional quality.</p
Article
Full-text available
Among crop fertilizer practices with low impact on ecosystems, the use of organic materials such as vermicompost has been proposed. The object of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of a vermicompost, obtained from cattle manure and coffee pulp, to substrates for the growth of papaya plants. Two experiments were conducted under nursery and field conditions for 60 and 120 days, respectively. In the first one vermicompost was applied alone, while in the second it was applied along with a nitrogen fertilizer. The vermicompost was added in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% to a substrate made of rice hulls, coconut sawdust and thin sand (1:1:1). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied at decreasing ratios in order to keep a constant amount of this element. Both experiments were conducted under a randomized design with 6 treatments, 8 plants per plot and 3 replicates per experiment. The vegetative growth of the plants was evaluated through leaf area, plant height, stem thickness and total dry weight. The largest growth was found with the highest ratios of vermicompost without fertilizer addition, while when nitrogen was added, intermediate ratios were more efficient. The results show the benefits of vermicompost as a substrate amendment for vegetative growth of papaya plants under nursery and field conditions.
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 1997-99 with forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in clay loam and medium fertile soil of semi-arid climate at Jhansi, to study the effect of organic and inorganic nutrients on its dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake and changes in fertility status of the soil. Application of 50% recommended dose of NP (40 kg N + 20 kg P 2O 5/ha) + vermicompost and farmyard manure @ 5 tonnes/ha recorded significantly higher dry-matter accumulation (25.35 g/plant and 30.19 g/plant at 50 and 75 days after sowing, respectively) and dry matter yield (11.2 tonnes/ha) over the other treatments. Maximum increase in dry matter (85-87%) was attained between 25 and 50 days after sowing, corresponding with highest crop-growth rate (0.90 g/plant/day) with this treatment. Application of vermicompost and farmyard manure recorded higher NP uptake than the other levels with inorganic sources only except the 100% recommended dose of NP. The residual build up of organic carbon and available NPK in soil improved with vermicompost was maximum followed by farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers.
Article
Full-text available
Interest in using alternative materials for potting substrate is increasing in response to availability and rising costs of peat and other conventional materials. Vermicompost (VC) is one such material. It is important to understand physical and chemical changes in potting substrate when amended with VC produced from different waste sources, pig (PVC) and beef cattle (BVC) manure in this study. Distribution of particles greater than 2 mm decreased, particles 0.5 to 1 mm increased, and particles less than 0.5 mm remained unchanged as PVC and BVC amendment increased. Dry bulk density and water-holding capacity increased with increasing PVC and BVC amendment. Porosity and air volume were inversely related to VC amendment, decreasing with increasing VC amendment. Saturated substrate extract sampling revealed nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron content as well as electrical conductivity increased with increasing PVC and BVC amendment.
Article
Full-text available
A field trial was conducted on upland rice (var, TRC-87-251) using different doses of vermicompost to determine its significance in yield of rice. The control plot received neither vermicompost nor chemical fertilizer. The experimental plots received three different treatments, viz. different doses of vermicompost, the same along with recommended doses of NPK and only NPK. Significant increase in both grain and straw yield coupled with improvement in soil aggregation, water use efficiency and nutrient uptake were recorded in vermicompost treated plots compared with the control and NPK treated plots. The effects of 10 to 15 tonnes vermicompost/ha and supplementation of NPK with 5-10 tonnes vermicompost/ha on grain and straw yield were not significantly different. Recommended doses of NPK along with 5 to 10 tonnes of vermicompost led to high increase in the uptake of nutrients. From this it could be deduced that a minimum of 10 tonnes vermicompost or 5 tonnes vermicompost plus NPK per hectare may bring about a significant increase in production of rice grain and straw respectively in upland paddy besides amelioration of the soil physicochemical properties.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of different amounts of vermicompost (0, 10, 20 and 30%) to sandy loam soil on growth, yield and chemical characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivar Virofly were investigated in an unheated greenhouse at the Horticultural Department the Guilan University, Rasht, Iran, during 2006 using Complete Randomized Design (CRD). The results showed that an addition of vermicompost to soil can increase plant height and number of leaves significantly. Spinach leaves and roots were highest when fertilized with vermicompost and lowest when the vermicompost was not supplied. The plants with 10% vermicompost added to soil gave significantly highest leaf area, potassium, phosphorus, total nitrogen, calcium and magnesium and nitrate-N in petioles and leaves, total soluble solids and microelements such as iron, copper, manganese and zinc.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Soil fertility – defined as “the inherent capacity of soil to supply nutrients to plants in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions” – and plant productivity are two strictly interdependent terms of the same problem. Therefore, a look at plant metabolism as influenced by soil fauna activity is advisable to more completely understand the problem. Many experiments already performed, including the effect on root initiation, root biomass development, induction of some enzymes, nutrient uptake, protein synthesis, crop yield and protein content, and others still running, concerning the presence of some metals and their uptake, are discussed starting from analyses performed on casts of two species of earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Allolobophora caliginosa). Although to a different extent, depending on plant species, variety and environmental conditions, earthworm casts benefit plant metabolism and crop production. Both casts showed an increased nitrogen fixing activity, greater amounts of available macro- and micronutrients and polysaccharides, and an enhanced biosynthesis of growth regulators. These biological factors of fertility can contribute to explain earthworm effect on plant production, also in view of a better use of them in crop management.
Article
Full-text available
Research at Ohio State University addressed primarily the effects of solid vermicomposts on plant germination and growth and the suppression of plant diseases. Teas were produced by standing 1 l of vermicompost in 4-l of aerated water for 24 hours before draining it off and placing it in containers for use in greenhouse trials. For the actual trial, the effects of a range of concentrations of teas produced from cattle waste vermicomposts were tested on the germination and growth of tomatoes. All plants (control and with tea applied) were grown in soil-less bedding medium. In addition, all of the treatments received saturation amounts of nutrients. In the first set of experiments, vermicompost teas were prepared with a dilution range of 0.5 to 10%. Teas were applied to tomato trays at transplanting, and then twice weekly for eight weeks. Fresh teas were prepared for each applications. Preliminary results demonstrated that teas produced with aeration are much more stable and effective than those produced without aeration.
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted to evaluate earthworm castings (vermicompost) as a substrate for poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) 'Freedom Red' production. Vermicomposts produced from sheep, cattle, or horse manures were mixed at different ratios with 70 peatmoss: 30 perlite (v/v) to create 13 substrates. Chemical and physical properties were measured on all substrates used. Growth index, foliar and bract area, and dry weight were greater on plants grown in substrates with castings from sheep or cattle manure. These castings had greater initial nutrient content than the castings from horse manure. Mixtures of castings and peat produced better plant responses than castings alone. Better plant responses were sometimes associated with values outside the recommended pH and electrical conductivity levels for poinsettia production. The highest values obtained for growth index, foliar and bract area, dry weight, and root development were produced in the substrates with moderate pore space or water holding capacity. Substrates with greater air space produced plants with greater dry weight and root development than substrates with less air space. The highest quality plants were grown in substrates with 25% castings from sheep or cattle manures.
Article
Full-text available
Earthworm castings (vermicompost) were evaluated as a substrate amendment for chrysanthemum [Dendranthema xgrandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam.] 'Miramar' production. Vermicompost produced from sheep, cattle, and horse manures were mixed at different ratios with 70 peatmoss: 30 perlite (v/v) to create 12 substrates. The 70 peatmoss: 30 perlite mix at 100% and Sunshine® Mix 1 were used as control substrates. The bulk density, percentage of pore space, and water holding capacity increased as vermicompost content increased while the percentage of air space decreased. At 100% vermicompost, water holding capacity and bulk density were greatest in vermicompost from sheep manure. Plants grown in mixtures of 50% vermicompost from sheep had a greater growth index at harvest, foliar area, number of flowers per pot, and dry weight and fewer days for flower development than plants grown in other substrates. Vermicompost from sheep manure added at 50% by volume was most effective as a substrate amendment for chrysanthemum production.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of various substrates with or without earthworm [Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826] castings on growth of marigolds were evaluated. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of such substrates were determined. Castings had a greater nutrient content than the remaining substrates. The 4 pine bark: 1 sand treatment (v/v) (PBS) had higher P, K, and Zn than 7 peat moss: 3 perlite (v/v) (PP). PP had the lowest nutrient content of all substrates. Castings (C) had the highest pH followed by 1 PBS: 1 C (v/v), 2 PBS: 1C (v/v) and 3 PBS: 1C (v/v). Sunshine Mix 1 and PP had the lowest pH. EC (ER) was increased by castings, which had high ER. Castings and PP had the greatest percentage pore space. Water-holding capacity was greatest for 2 PBS: 1C (v/v) compared with Sunshine Mix 1 followed by castings. Earthworm castings increased plant growth index, stem diameter, root growth, dry weight, and flower number of marigolds compared with PP, Sunshine Mix 1, and PBS. All mixtures of castings (C) with PP, PBS, except 3 PBS: 1C (v/v), increase the growth index of plants. 1 PP: 1 C (v/v), increased flower number compared with all substrates without castings. Castings alone increased number of open flowers, but did not differ from 1 PP: 1 C or 3 PP:1 C.
Article
Full-text available
Um dos fatores mais limitantes para a produção de vermicomposto é a disponibilidade de esterco. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da substituição parcial do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosa (Gliricidia sepium) na vermicompostagem sobre a qualidade do vermicomposto e sobre a bioatividade dos humatos, avaliadas por meio da análise do crescimento radicular e da atividade das bombas de H+ isoladas de raízes de alface. A substituição do esterco por bagaço de cana e por resíduos de leguminosas não acarretou prejuízo às características químicas dos vermicompostos. No entanto, os humatos isolados dos diferentes vermicompostos apresentaram características químicas distintas, tais como: acidez e propriedades óticas distintas. Os humatos produzidos a partir de esterco de bovino e da mistura esterco bovino + bagaço proporcionaram maiores estímulos no crescimento radicular das plantas de alface, sendo os mais indicados para uso na forma solúvel. A inclusão de resíduos de leguminosas no processo de vermicompostagem produziu humatos sem efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das raízes de alface.
Article
Full-text available
The Organic manures induced production of phenols and tannins in groundnut plant and thus, the induced resistance played an important role in groundnut insect pest management
Article
Full-text available
A vermicompost, produced commercially from food wastes, was tested for its capacity to suppress populations and damage to plants, by two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), mealy bugs (Pseudococcus sp.) and aphids (Myzus persicae), in the greenhouse. A range of mixtures of food waste vermicompost and a soil-less bedding plant growth medium Metro-Mix 360 (MM360) was tested in cages (40cm × 40cm × 40cm) (0.2mm mesh aperture) into which known numbers of greenhouse-bred pests were released. The crops tested were cucumbers and tomatoes for mealy bugs, bush beans and eggplants for spider mites, and cabbages for aphids. In all experiments, four 10cm diameter pots, each containing one seedling, grown in the same MM360/vermicompost mixture were exposed to either 50 mealy bugs, 100 spider mites, or 100 aphids in cages, with each cage treatment replicated 4 times per treatment. The five growth mixtures tested were: (i) 100% MM360; (ii) 90% MM360 with 10% vermicompost; (iii) 80% MM360 with 20% vermicompost; (iv) 60% MM360 with 40% vermicompost; and (v) 20% MM360 with 80% vermicompost. Almost all of the mixtures containing vermicomposts suppressed the arthropod pest populations, and decreased pest damage significantly, compared with the MM360 controls. Not only did the vermicomposts make the plants less attractive to the pests, but they also had considerable effects on pest reproduction over time. The effects of the vermicompost substitutions tended to be least on spider mites, intermediate on mealy bugs, and greatest on aphids; however this may relate to the motility of the pests, as well as to the suppression potential of vermicomposts. Possible mechanisms for the suppression discussed include: the form of nitrogen available in the leaf tissues, the effects of vermicomposts on micronutrient availability, and the possible production of phenols, by the plants after applications of vermicomposts, making the tissues unpalatable.
Article
Full-text available
The feasibility of incorporating vermicompost as a plant growth promoter into pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) nurseries was investigated. Pines were grown in conventional peat-based nursery potting media where the peat was substituted by 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 25% solid vermicompost. In addition, in order distinguish between possible physical and biochemical mechanisms, the effects of solid vermicompost and vermicompost extracts on pine seedling growth were compared. Five different open-pollinated pine progenies were used in order to evaluate the possible genotype-dependent effects of vermicompost. All pots were provided with adequate mineral fertilization in order to avoid nutrient limitations and arranged in the greenhouse following a bifactorial randomized block design. Twenty weeks after sowing, seedlings were harvested and their aerial and root growth were measured, as well as biomass partitioning and seedling maturity. Amendment with solid vermicompost at 2.5% and 10% significantly stimulated pine seedling height, but not aerial biomass. Vermicompost also produced seedlings with greater shoot:root biomass ratios than the control. Besides, we noticed a significant inhibition of aerial and root biomass with the higher dose of solid vermicompost (25% substrate substitution). No effects, either positive or negative, were detected in plant growth due to the vermicompost extracts. All the reported results were the same for all the different progenies assayed, and therefore no genotype dependent effects were detected.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the feasibility of incorporating vermicompost as a potting amendment into a commercial ornamental production system. Pansies (Viola × wittrockiana subsp. Delta) and primulas (Primula acaulis subsp. Oriental) were grown in peat-based conventional greenhouse medium substituted with 5%, 15% and 25% (v/v) commercial and pig slurry vermicompost. Vegetative growth and flowering were evaluated and compared to plants grown with 0% vermicompost. We observed a general reduction of growth in both species with increasing concentrations of commercial and pig slurry vermicompost. The highest percentage of vermicompost (25%) showed 20% of plant mortality, high levels of stress and damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as a significant reduction in the number and biomass of leaves and in flower production. Most likely, the increase in electrical conductivity and pH interacted synergistically with the decrease in air space produced after the application of vermicompost and were magnified under sub-irrigation, causing the observed effects on plant growth. Therefore the cultivation system must be taken into account when incorporating vermicompost as a growing media constituent in commercial conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Summary The effects of vermicomposts on plant parasitic, fungivorous and baterivorous nematode populations were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera) and strawberry (Fragaria ananasa) field crops. Commercially-produced vermicomposts derived from recycled paper, and supermarket food waste were applied to replicated plots at the rates of 2.5 t ha-1 or 5.0 t ha-1 for the grape crop and 5.0 t ha-1 or10 t ha-1 for the strawberry crops. All vermicompost treatments were supplemented with in- organic fertilizer to balance the initial availability of macronutrients especially N, to the crop in all plots. After extraction from soil samples in Baermann funnels, nematodes were identified to trophic levels under a stereomicroscope. Soils from all of the vermicompost-treated plots contained smaller populations of plant parasitic nematodes than soil from inorganic fertilizer-treated plots. Conversely, populations of fungivorous nematodes and to lesser extent bacterivorous nematodes in- creased in the vermicompost-treated plots in comparison with those in plots treated with inorganic fertilizers.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present work was to investigate in a field experiment the quantity and quality of rhizodeposits of different parental inbred lines (Lo1016 and Lo964, B73 and H99) and hybrids of Zea mays L. Rhizosphere soil was collected after 40 days and several properties were determined: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, acid and alkaline phosphatases, organic acids, bioavailable phosphorous, α-amino nitrogen, total phenols, total root-derived rhizodeposits. The results showed that heterosis induced more qualitative differences within the genotypes as δC, TOC and TN did not show any significant differences. The two groups of genotypes enhance phosphorous availability adopting two different strategies. In the first group, B73 × H99 shows the best phenological performance as well as the highest concentration of bioavailable P, result which is correlated with a high organic acid concentration (in particular succinic and acetic acid), total phenols, α-amino nitrogen and acid phosphatase activity. There is thus a strict relationship between the phenological superiority of this particular hybrid and its ability to modify the chemistry of its rhizosphere whereas the second hybrid (Lo1016 × Lo964) seems to have developed different strategies as for example changing the root morphology, stimulating microbial biomass or favouring mycorrhizal symbiosis.
Article
Full-text available
A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global useable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.
Article
Full-text available
The trophic structure of soil arthropods in earthworm casts or vermicomposts produced by Eisenia fetida (Savigny) from paper waste, food waste and cow manure, and in field trials was studied during summer 1999. The numbers of soil arthropods in the soil were counted before treatment (as a control), in the vermicomposts, and after application of vermicomposts to soil in the field. The vermicomposts were applied to soil in rows of tomatoes and peppers, at rates of 4.5 ton ha–1, and the numbers of soil arthropods in trophic groups were compared with those in soil receiving conventional composts and inorganic fertilizers. All treatments received the same total amounts of nutrients. Most of the vermicomposts were rich in microbial biomass-N. There was a tendency for the application of inorganic fertilizers, and conventional compost, to tomato and pepper plots to decrease the numbers of trophic groups of soil arthropods. The applications of vermicomposts increased the number of trophic groups of soil arthropods.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of food waste vermicompost on populations of adult striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) and spotted cucumber beetles (Diabotrica undecim-punctata) on cucumbers and larval hornworms on tomatoes (Manduca quinquemacu-lata) were evaluated in both greenhouse and field experiments as well as damage caused. In the field, cucumber and tomato plants were grown, with two different application rates (1.25 and 2.5 t ha À1) of food waste vermicompost or inorganic fertilizer, in a complete randomized block design field experiment. All treatments were balanced for NPK. Field cucumber beetle populations were suppressed significantly on cucumber plants treated with food waste vermicompost at both application rates, compared with those on plants treated only with inorganic fertilizer. In the greenhouse, cucumber and tomato plants were grown in a soil-less medium MetroMix 360 (MM360) substituted with 0%, 20% or 40% food waste vermicompost, and exposed to standardized pest attacks in nylon mesh cages. In the greenhouse, both the 20% and 40% vermicompost substitution rates decreased damage by cucumber beetles to cucumber foliage and hornworms to tomato foliage significantly.
Article
During the las twenty years, considerable progress has been made in developing methods of breaking down organic wastes, including animal wastes, crop residues, urban and industrial organic refuse and sewage biosolids; which has been termed vermicomposting. Vermicomposts have a fine particulate structure, low C:N ratio, with the organic matter oxidized, stabilized and converted into humic materials. They contain nutrients transformed into plant-available forms and are extremely microbially-active. Additions of low rates of substitution of vermicompost into greenhouse soil-less plant growth media or low application rates to field crops have consistently ncreased plant germination, growth, flowering, and fruiting, independent of nutrient availability. This can be at least partially, attributed to the production, by the greatly increased microbial populations, of plant growth regulators, including plant hormones, such as indole-acetic acid, gibberellins and cytokinins and also humic acids, which simulate the effects of hormones.
Article
The agricultural lands are depleted of soil fertility due to continuous cultivation. In order to increase the soil fertility, man uses inorganic fertilizers. Though they promote the growth of crops, susceptibility is the negative impact by over utilization of fertilizers. Application of chemicals is widely practised to control plant disease in modern agriculture. It also provides mutants of pathogens. To overcome all these factors application of organic manure is suggested. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of inorganic fertilizer, farmyard manure and vermicompost on growth parameters namely root length, shoot length and number of leaves of two. selected vegetable plants Hibiscus esculentus and Solanum melongena medicinal plants. Adhatoda vasica and Solanum trilobatum. The manural potential of three manures: Inorganic Fertilizer (IF), Farmyard Manure (FYM) and Vermicompost (VC) was evaluated at different intervals of time. Vermicompost is a rich source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, enzymes and plant growth hormones, so when vermicompost was applied to the plants that help in efficient growth of piants. Our research showed the growth rate was fast and high in vermicompost applied plants when compared to other treatments.
Article
Vermicompost (VC) is a nutritionally rich natural organic fertilizer, which releases nutrients relatively slowly in the soil. It improves quality of the plants along with physical and biological properties of soil, i. e., soil aeration, water-holding capacity and ecological balance of microbial soil biota. Aqueous extracts of vermicompost (AVC) inhibited spore germination of several fungi. They also affected the development of powdery mildews on balsam (Impatiens balsamina) and pea (Pisum sativum) caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe pisi, respectively, in the field at very low concentrations (0.1-0.5 %). Soil amendment with VC (1-5%) induced synthesis of phenolic acids in pea. Maximum phenolic acids were detected in pea plants treated with 4% VC followed by 3% as compared to control. The induction of phenolic acids in plants was correlated with the degree of resistance in treated as compared to non-treated (control) pea plants. The growth of plants grown in VC-amended soil was much better than the growth of plants raised in non-amended soil.
Article
We measured the growth of tomato plants in three kinds of horticultural potting media that were substituted with five different concentrations of vermicomposted pig manure. The potting media were Metro-Mix 360 (a standard soilless commercial plant growth medium), a peat/perlite mixture, and a coir/perlite mixture. Half of the potting media were watered with nutrient fertilizer while the other half received only water. Tomato plants grew better in 100 % vermicompost than in 100 % horticultural commercial medium. Substitution of 10 %, 25 %, and 50 % vermicompost for the same amounts of commercial medium stimulated plant growth, resulting in significant increases in plant height and root and shoot biomass. Adding 10 % and 20 % of vermicompost to either peat/perlite or coir/perlite mixtures also improved plant growth significantly over that in the unamended medium. Even when the plants were fertilized with all mineral nutrients needed, the growth of tomato plants in all of the potting media was enhanced significantly with the substitution of vermicompost, which suggests that factors other than nutrient availability are responsible for enhancing plant growth. Our results demonstrate that, for all three of the potting media that we used, substitution of these media with low concentrations of vermicomposts will promote plant growth.
Chapter
Compost amendments have been shown to provide manifold benefits, as long as compost of good quality is used and care is taken not to accumulate heavy metals or organic pollutants as a consequence of repeated applications. Among the advantages of compost as soil amendment is its potential to maintain soil organic matter, foster nutrient availability, suppress plant diseases and increase soil microbial abundance and activity, thus enhancing soil quality and fertility. However, only little is known about how compost amendments act as microbial inoculum to the soil and if the compost-borne microflora leaves a long-term imprint on soil microbial communities. In this chapter, it will be analysed if and to what extent soil microbial biomass, activity and community structure are affected by compost amendments. A long-term field study, in which four different composts have been applied annually since 1991, will be presented in detail.
Article
Composts and vermicomposts from a municipal composting plant in northwestern Patagonia, both having undergone a thermophilic phase, (with the vermicompost being inoculated with earthworms after the thermophilic stage) and a nonthermophilic backyard vermicompost were studied. Their effects on soil biological and biochemical properties and plant growth were evaluated in laboratory incubations and a greenhouse trial, using a degraded volcanic soil amended at rates of 20 and 40 g kg−1 of vermicompost or compost. Between the two municipal products, the vermicompost had significantly larger nutrient concentrations than the compost; when mixed with the soil, the vermicompost also had higher microbial populations size and activity, and produced increased ryegrass yields. Compared to the municipal compost, the backyard vermicompost had similar or higher nutrient concentrations but its effects on soil microbial biomass, soil microbial activity and ryegrass yields were lower. Our results suggest that no generalization can be made regarding the higher quality of vermicomposts vs. composts, because the product quality depends both on the original materials and the technology employed.
Article
The effects of humus on plant metabolism are conditioned by the release of the hormone-like activities contained in HEf bound to HSp. HEf and HSp are both humic fractions that can be separated from each other by acidification with acetic acid or other organic acids. HEf is composed of small molecules and shows hormone-like activities; HSp possesses higher molecular weight and works as a support for HEf. The molecular sizes of the separated HEf and HSp are both low enough to permit root absorption. The dispersion and solubilization of humic molecules are essential to the release of cytokinin-like activity from HSp, but are only preliminary to the release of auxin- and gibberellin-like activities. These can be released by a partial acidification of the humic extracts that do not result in complete depolycondensation. The process appears to regulate the delivery of the hormone-like substances and is influenced by their particular arrangement in the humic aggregate. Key words: Humus fractions, biological effect, nitrate uptake, hormone-like activity
Article
Vermicomposting and composting are efficient methods for converting solid wastes to useful products. Incorporation of composts and vermicomposts into potting and container media is a potential use for these materials. In a greenhouse trial, effects of a vermicompost produced from raw dairy manure (RDM) along with some other composts produced from tobacco residue (TR), yard leaf (YL), sewage sludge + rice hull (SS + RH), sewage sludge + yard leaf (SS + YL), and RDM were studied. The mixing proportions of vermicomposts and composts were 0, 15, 30, and 45% of pot volume and tomato seedlings were grown in pots. All potting mixtures produced significantly higher biomass than the control (soil + sand) and RDM. Shoot and root dry matters (DM) were greatest in VC and SS + RH. Rates of composts in potting mixture did not generally affect DM, although a decrease in DM was observed in pots containing 45% of SS + YL. TR and YL produced lower DM in comparison with VC, SS + RH, and SS + YL. Correlation coefficients between the amounts of nutrients added to the pots by composts and nutrients taken up by plants were in the following order: phosphorus (P) > zinc (Zn) > copper (Cu) > calcium (Ca) > manganese (Mn) > potassium (K) > nitrogen (N) > magnesium (Mg) > iron (Fe).