Article

The use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture: Impact on plant growth and soil fertility

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Abstract

Vermicomposting is a low-technology, environmentally-friendly process used to treat organic waste. The resulting vermicompost has been shown to have several positive impacts on plant growth and health. This organic fertilizer is therefore increasingly considered in agriculture and horticulture as a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers and/or peat in greenhouse potting media. However, the effects of vermicompost on plant-soil systems are not yet fully understood. In this chapter we summarize the research carried out during the last few decades, and the proposed mechanisms explaining the effects of vermicompost on soil quality and plant growth. Although much effort has been dedicated to the investigation of biologically mediated mechanisms of promoting plant growth, the conflicting results indicate the need to open up new lines of research, defining a clear and objective concept of vermicompost, and clarifying the conditions and sources of variability in the biological effects. A case study is presented in which the direct and indirect effects of vermicompost on plant growth, as well as variability in the plant responses, are examined in a field experiment with sweet corn.

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... They further con-279 firm the beneficial effect of vermicompost on plant productive performance, highlighting 280 the fertilizing value of this organic amendment [46]. According to Lazcano et al. [49] and 281 Joshi et al. [50], vermicompost has a high nutritional value due to earthworm action that 282 increases the mineralization rate and humification degree of feedstocks, which allows a 283 richer end product than compost. This amendment is a rich source of plant nutrients in a 284 readily available form (such as potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and cal-285 cium) and plant growth regulators; it also contains functional microorganisms, particu-286 larly bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and is characterized by a highly porous structure 287 with high water-holding capacity and aeration. ...
... This amendment is a rich source of plant nutrients in a 284 readily available form (such as potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and cal-285 cium) and plant growth regulators; it also contains functional microorganisms, particu-286 larly bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and is characterized by a highly porous structure 287 with high water-holding capacity and aeration. There are many studies reporting the ef-288 fectiveness of vermicompost in increasing the productivity of many horticultural crops, 289 including spinach [51], lettuce [52], tomato [53] and a number of other crops, such as ce-290 reals and legumes, fruit, aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and forestry plants [50]. Our 291 results suggest that vermicompost can be used as a chemical fertilizer substitute in Swiss 292 chard production for a more sustainable cultivation practice, allowing us to reduce the 293 application of nitrogen fertilizers that are often the cause of environmental pollution [54]. ...
... They further confirm the beneficial effect of vermicompost on plant productive performance, highlighting the fertilizing value of this organic amendment [46]. According to Lazcano et al. [49] and Joshi et al. [50], vermicompost has a high nutritional value due to earthworm action that increases the mineralization rate and humification degree of feedstocks, which allows a richer end product than compost. This amendment is a rich source of plant nutrients in a readily available form (such as potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and calcium) and plant growth regulators; it also contains functional microorganisms, particularly bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and is characterized by a highly porous structure with high water-holding capacity and aeration. ...
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This study evaluates the effect of a chemical fertilizer (ammonium nitrate), a compost (vermicompost from cattle manure) and two biochars (from vine prunings and wood chips, respectively), applied to the soil alone or in mixture, on the yield, phytochemical content and biological activity of Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla (Swiss chard). The respective treatments, each replicated four times, were arranged according to a completely randomized block design. Results showed that vermicompost, both alone and in mixture with vine pruning biochar, significantly increased yield parameters (plant height and leaf area) and yield over the untreated soil and the biochars alone, similar to ammonium nitrate. Moreover, vermicompost, both alone and in mixture, respectively, with the two biochars, determined lower total N and NO3− contents than ammonium nitrate, both alone and in mixture, respectively, with the two biochars. In particular, NO3− content was within the safe thresholds fixed for leafy vegetables by the European Commission to prevent any adverse implication on human health from dietary NO3− exposure. The biochars alone resulted in very low yield and leaf total N content, likely due to a limited release of N for plant uptake, also evidenced by the undetectable NO3− leaf content, similarly shown by plants grown in untreated soil. Vermicompost, alone or in mixture, respectively, with the two biochars, increased the content of specialized metabolites, with a positive effect on antioxidant activity. The organic amendments, particularly compost, could be an alternative to chemical fertilizers to reach a trade-off between yield, nutritional and health qualities in Swiss chard, meeting the needs of farmers and consumers as well as the targets for sustainable food production.
... BAF can have values lower than 0.1, and higher than 10, depending on the amount of metals and the type of worms [35]. To remove excess bioaccumulated metals [67] as in the case of copper and zinc, an initial rapid uptake by earthworms was followed by an equilibrium period. For cadmium bioaccumulation, excretion was slow or absent [68]. ...
... Vermicompost, due to its nutrient content, stimulates the development of the following crops: tomatoes [67], pepper [68], garlic [69], sweet corn [70], eggplant [71], bananas [72], Chinese cabbage [73], spinach [74], and lettuce. It stimulates the development of chrysanthemum, marigold, geranium, petunia, and poinsettia flowers, and stimulates the development of acacia, eucalyptus, and pine trees [67]. ...
... Vermicompost, due to its nutrient content, stimulates the development of the following crops: tomatoes [67], pepper [68], garlic [69], sweet corn [70], eggplant [71], bananas [72], Chinese cabbage [73], spinach [74], and lettuce. It stimulates the development of chrysanthemum, marigold, geranium, petunia, and poinsettia flowers, and stimulates the development of acacia, eucalyptus, and pine trees [67]. ...
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Considering that worldwide the amount of sludge from sewage treatment plants has increased, which through storage pollutes the environment, solutions must be found for its management. In this paper, through an analysis of studies from the literature, we present an ecological method of recovery of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture through vermicomposting with Eisenia etida, Eisenia andrei, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus earthworms, thus we analyzed the possibility that sewage sludge can be transformed from waste into quality fertilizer that benefits the soil, plants, and people, thus being able to replace chemical fertilizers which, if applied to the soil, can acidify and pollute the soil and agricultural crops. We observed that the total nitrogen content of the phosphorus increased. Through the vermicomposting process, organic substances are rapidly decomposed and nitrogen mineralization is accelerated. We studied the impact of dewatered sewage sludge vermicomposting on pH value, electrical conductivity, porosity, moisture content, nitrogen content, water retention capacity, metal content, and the development of agricultural crops, highlighting the positive impact of vermicompost application on the soil. Adding vermicompost to the soil has been observed to improve plant development.
... Vermicomposts have low C:N ratios, high porosity and high water-holding capacity (e.g. Lazcano and Domínguez 2011), are rich in nutrients (e.g. Domínguez 2004) and in humic-like compounds (e.g. ...
... Domínguez 2004) and in humic-like compounds (e.g. Canellas et al. 2002), possess active micro-organisms fuelling enzyme activities (Lazcano et al. 2013;Zhao et al. 2020) and can enhance soil fertility through improving soil physicochemical properties (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Zhao et al. 2017;Demir 2019), microbial properties (Doan et al. 2013;Lazcano et al. 2013;Zhao et al. 2020) and enzymatic activities (Srivastava et al. 2011;Tejada and Benítez 2011;Usmani et al. 2019). Through their role as organic fertilizers, vermicomposts are therefore increasingly considered in agriculture, forestry and horticulture as a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers and/or peat in land application or greenhouse potting media. ...
... Positive impacts of vermicomposts on seed germination, vegetative growth, plant flowering, fruit yield and quality have been reported mostly for agricultural crop and horticultural plant species (e.g. Domínguez 2004;Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Zhao et al. 2017;Blouin et al. 2019) partly due to enhanced mycorrhizal colonization (Hameeda et al. 2007;Wathira et al. 2016;Zeighami et al. 2020) and nutrient uptake (Tejada and Benítez 2011;Kumar et al. 2013;Bellitürk et al. 2022). However, fewer data are available on woody forestry species such as acacia, eucalyptus and pine, in particular regarding the early growth of such species (Donald and Visser 1989;Lazcano et al. 2010). ...
Article
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Purpose The impact of vermicompost on tree-soil systems is not yet fully understood. This study aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of chemical fertilizer, compost and vermicompost on soil enzymatic activities, seedling mycorrhizal colonization, growth and nutrition of one exotic tree species (radiata pine, Pinus radiata D. Don) and two native tree species (mānuka, Leptospermum scoparium and tōtara, Podocarpus totara). Methods A 12-month-long pot trial was set up in the glasshouse with a factorial design of three tree species (radiata pine, tōtara and manuka) by six treatments, including T1-control, T2-chemical fertilizer, T3-HS compost, T4-HS vermicompost, T5-LS vermicompost and T6-CM vermicompost. We assessed the main effects and interactions of treatment and species on soil chemical and biological properties, plant growth and nutritional responses. Results Compared to the untreated control (T1), application of vermicomposts (T4-T6) and compost (T3) significantly improved soil chemical properties and enzymatic activities, and increased total seedling dry weight by 160–260%, shoot concentrations of nitrogen (N) by 54–97% and phosphorus (P) by 61–91%. Vermicomposts were comparable to diammonium phosphate (DAP) applied at 133 kg N ha⁻¹ (T2) in stimulating the growth of native species (mānuka and tōtara) without negative impact on mycorrhizal colonization, with T5 being better than DAP (T2) in promoting mānuka growth. However, application of vermicompost alone was less effective than DAP in stimulating the exotic radiata pine growth. Overall, soil activities of dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and invertase were significantly and positively correlated to total C and N and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Conclusion The increased growth of three tree species after application of vermicomposts was mainly related to improved N and P nutrition associated with enhanced root growth and soil enzymatic activities. Our findings imply that the vermicomposting products from septic tank waste could be a promising alternative to inorganic fertilizers in land application or greenhouse potting media of native tree species.
... The presence of earthworms in the vermicompost has been shown to reduce methane emissions by 10-35% (Nigussie et al. 2016). Furthermore, vermicompost can potentially boost plant productivity by raising the available plant nutrients (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Besides providing nutrients for the plant, vermicompost can promote plant growth, restrict plant diseases and increase soil porosity and microbial activity ). ...
... The main pillar of sustainable agriculture can be described as a collection of practices that preserve resources and the environment without disrupting human needs and the use of organic fertilisers (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Ever since the dawn of the green revolution, chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides have been widely used to increase food productivity (Maji et al. 2017). ...
... Water holding capacity is enhanced due to the presence of organic matter and the production of mucus in the intestines of the earthworm, thus influencing the soil structure (Singh et al. 2020). For example, the soil macropore size has been reported to increase significantly from 50 to 500 µm after a single dose of vermicompost was applied, thus allowing a better airwater interaction in the soil (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Not only that, the addition of vermicompost to agricultural soil was also found to significantly increase soil porosity and aggregate stability over two consecutive years (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). ...
Article
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Consumption of natural resources and waste generation continues to rise as the human population increases. Ever since the industrial revolution, consumers have been adopting a linear economy model based on the ‘take-make-dispose’ approach. Raw materials are extracted to be converted into products and finally discarded as wastes. Consequently, this practice is unsustainable because it causes a massive increase in waste production. The root problems of the linear system can be addressed by transitioning to a circular economy. Circular economy is an economic model in which wastes from one product are recycled and used as resources for other processes. This literature review discovers the potential of vermicompost as a sustainable strategy in circular economy and highlights the benefits of vermicompost in ensuring food security, particularly in improving agricultural yield and quality, as well as boosting crop’s nutritional quality. Vermicompost has the potential to be used in a variety of ways in the circular economy, including for agricultural sustainability, managing waste, pollutant remediation, biogas production and animal feed production. The recycling of organic wastes to produce vermicompost can benefit both the consumers and environment, thus paving the way towards a more sustainable agriculture for the future.
... Vermicompost is an organic and nutrient rich amendment that derives from the biological interactions of earthworms (e.g. Eisenia fetida) and microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Quilty and Cattle 2011). Vermicompost is produced as solid and liquid extracts under mesophilic conditions (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). ...
... Eisenia fetida) and microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011;Quilty and Cattle 2011). Vermicompost is produced as solid and liquid extracts under mesophilic conditions (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). It is an important source of organic matter and plant essential nutrients, and also encompasses microbial species (Atiyeh et al. 2002). ...
... Apart from these, application of vermicompost to soils significantly changes its physicochemical properties as well as availability of air and water in the soils. In addition, it has both direct and indirect effects on plant growth, especially supply of plant growth regulating substances (PGRS) and mitigation or suppression of plant diseases (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). Vermicompost has high potential to increase the P availability in soil (Ghosh et al. 2018). ...
Article
Repeated and excessive use of inorganic phosphorus fertilizers adversely affects soil fertility, reduces plant phosphorus (P)-use efficiency, increases soil heavy metal concentrations and poses human health risk via food chain interaction. Organic amendments (OAs) are considered as cost-effective and environment-friendly supplement to inorganic P fertilizers that are produced from scarce phosphate rocks. Numerous studies have reported the synergistic and antagonistic effects of OAs on crop production, P solubility and availability, and immobilization of heavy metals. However, the results of these studies are found to be variable and demand a critical review. This article summarizes the environmental and health implications of continuous inorganic P fertilizers application along with a detailed overview of commonly available OAs and their efficacy to stimulate plant growth and yield. Moreover, this review describes the potentiality of OAs to increase the bioavailability of P in soil, discusses how and to what extent these soil amendments can immobilize heavy metals and reduce plant uptake, and finally provides future research directions for organic farming and sustainable agricultural practices.
... pea cultivation [42] and cucumber [15]. A more in-depth analysis of the effects of vermicompost on soil characteristics is provided by Lazcano and Dominguez [43], who reported an increase in soil nutrients and organic carbon after vermicompost treatment. They also found higher enzyme activity in soil treated with vermicompost and increased microorganism growth. ...
... They also found higher enzyme activity in soil treated with vermicompost and increased microorganism growth. In contrast to Lazcano and Dominguez [43], who found a significant effect of vermicompost on bacterial growth and no significant effect on fungal growth, our findings showed higher fungal biodiversity in soil treated with vermicompost after solarization and lower bacterial biodiversity. Moreover, the economic profitability due to the use of vermicompost is consistent with a few recent studies that have examined the economic performance of vermicompost in the cultivation of broccoli ( [17] and strawberries [18]. ...
Article
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Industrial symbiosis is being increasingly recognized as a valuable tool for promoting a more sustainable production process in agriculture. However, the primary motivation for implementing industrial symbiosis is economic viability. In the context of industrial symbiosis, by linking agriculture and food together, the study examines the impact of the use of vermicompost, derived from agricultural by-products, on spinach yield as well as on nutritional and biochemical soil aspects. Moreover, the economic feasibility for spinach farmers is also investigated. A field experiment with five treatments i) solarization ii) solarization and vermicompost iii) green manure and solarization iv) green manure, solarization, and vermicompost, and v) vermicompost has been realized in "Piana del Sele", a rural area in Southern Italy. Collected data have been analysed through a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling approach to assess the overall impact (direct and indirect effects) of vermicompost on both spinach yield and soil characteristics. Lastly, the economic profitability of using vermicompost is pointed out for spinach growers. The study findings show that the highest positive impact on yield occurs when vermicompost is combined with solarization (+15%). Moreover, with regard to soil characteristics, the combination of vermicompost and solarization has a positive impact on nutrients, fungal biodiversity, and the biochemical quality of the soil. The economic profitability of using vermicompost in conjunction with solarization is guaranteed when the price of vermicompost is below € 0.84/kg. In light of these findings, some policy interventions can be implemented to enable industrial symbiosis as a viable tool for a circular economy in the agri-food sector. These include promoting the diffusion of biogas plants to valorize agricultural by-products and promoting the use of vermicompost in farms, by encouraging its purchase by farmers.
... Furthermore, earthworms interact with other species in the soil and can impact various microflora and microfauna populations (Chaulagain et al. 2017). The activities of these populations make vermicomposts improve the soil's physicochemical properties, which can ultimately have several beneficial effects on plants, including promoting plant growth and health (Lazcano and Domínguez 2014). ...
... HAs present in worm casts, even with a modest amount, provide binding sites for nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium, sulphur, iron, and calcium, releasing these elements to plants and stimulating growth (Chaulagain et al. 2017). During vermicomposting, nutrients are transformed into more plant-available forms, resulting in a higher uptake rate by plants (Lazcano and Domínguez 2014). Nitrogen fixers and solubilising phosphate bacteria increase the availability of macro-nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to plants, respectively. ...
Chapter
Vermicomposting is the decomposition of organic waste by earthworms and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. When various organic wastes are vermicomposted, a nutrient-rich product that can be used as a plant biofertiliser is produced. However, to optimise vermicomposting, a better understanding of the underlying biological dynamics in the vermicomposting community is required. This chapter seeks to explore the biological dynamics during vermicomposting. Firstly, critical organisms involved in vermicomposting, their roles, and the biotransformation processes involved are critically examined. The yields of vermicompost by different vermicomposting substrates and earthworm species are summarised. Methods for identifying vermicomposting organismal drivers are highlighted. Bacterial succession during vermicomposting is highlighted, as well as various benefits associated with applications of vermicomposting. Lastly, as part of the biological dynamics in vermicomposting, the effects of bacteria and earthworms on plant growth and health are summarised. Understanding biological dynamics in vermicomposting, as a result, can pave the way for novel techniquesthat have the potential to improve vermicompost quality, thereby improving plant growth and health.
... The purpose of these studies was to take advantage of the good properties of both manure and vermicompost fertilizers to enhance the nutrient in plants and microbes in substrates. Especially, vermicompost fertilizer results in higher macro and micronutrients than conventional organic fertilizers, which are essential for plant growth (Lazcano & Domínguez 2011;Celes et al. 2018). ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Considering all these, the present study aimed to examine the effects of vermicompost and rice husk biochar on nutrient uptake and yield of lettuce plants in the soilless culture system. ...
... Vermicompost supplies plants with N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, increases the amount of organic matter in the soil, improves soil quality, gives plant development hormones, and acts as soil support. It shows that vermicompost directly influences plant growth and yield (Lazcano & Domínguez 2011). Vermicompost has been shown to improve soil water retention, particularly in porous soils like the growing medium used in this study (Jouquet et al. 2010;Jouquet et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Various kinds of substrates have been widely used for vegetables grown in soilless culture systems. The use of biochar is getting a lot of attention. However, the ideal proportion of biochar in the substrates combined with the use of vermicompost for high yields has not been thoroughly studied. This study aimed to examine in the pot experiment the effect of a combination of rice husk biochar (15% and 30%) and vermicompost (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g per pot) in growing substrate on nutrient uptake and yield of green lettuce. The other components of the substrates were cocopeat and sand. The results showed that the 30% of rice husk biochar in the growing substrate resulted in a significantly higher uptake of N, P, and K in leaves compared to lower biochar content with an average increase of 52%, 67%, and 117%, respectively. Maximum total fresh weight of marketable yield was obtained with 30% of biochar and 250 g per pot vermicompost in the substrate.
... Others have shown that vermicompost can improve the quality of seedlings [10]. In addition, the use of vermicompost can increase plant yield [8,[11][12][13]. According to other researchers, vermicompost may increase the nutritional quality of some vegetables [14][15][16]. ...
... According to other researchers, vermicompost may increase the nutritional quality of some vegetables [14][15][16]. Lazcano and Domínguez [13] showed that the effects of vermicompost vary depending on the plant species. Vermicompost is similar to peat, with high porosity, aeration and drainage and good water retention [17]. ...
Article
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Cucumbers productivity and fruit quality depend on seedlings’ quality. The success of seedling cultivation largely depends on the choice of a suitable substrate. Therefore the aim of this research is to determine the effect of peat-vermicompost substrates on cucumber seedling quality and crop yield. The research was carried out in a greenhouse covered with double polymeric film in the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. Cucumber seedlings were grown in different substrates: peat, peat+10% vermicompost, peat+20% vermicompost, and peat+30% vermicompost. The growth of cucumber seedlings in peat and vermicompost substrates was induced. They were 1.9–18.6% taller, and the leaf area of this seedlings was 1.2–1.4 time larger. Furthermore, the fresh leaves mass of these seedlings was 22.7–33.1%, and the fresh root mass was 1.1–1.5 time bigger. The addition of vermicompost to peat substrate has a positive effect on the physiological parameters in the leaves of cucumber seedlings. The total yield of cucumbers grown in peat-vermicompost substrates was 7.4–11.1% higher than that of plants whose seedlings grew in peat substrate.
... Restoration of soil quality ensuring productivity and also greatly stabilizing fragile agroecosystems is only possible through organic-based nutrient management (Das et al., 2018). Several organic acids, hormones, and useful microorganisms available in vermicompost facilitate sustainable nutrient mobilization, hence boosting crop growth (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). Sahariah et al. (2020) have researched the effect of vermicompost made from municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil crop interface. ...
... A spectacular crop growth and yield of paddy crop during both the wet and dry seasons were due to the reduction in chemical fertilizers and increasing use of vermicompost and FYM application and the crop productivity of paddy was higher in the rainy season than during the rest part of the year. Plant growth is affected through the supply of growth-promoting hormones like gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin due to vermicompost (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). As such, vermicompost application facilitates microbial proliferation in Kumar et al., 2015;Indoria et al., 2018;Sahariah et al., 2015 2 Nutrient status Singh and Singh, 2017;Banik et al., 2004;Jeyabal and Kuppuswamy, 2001 3 Color of the soil Sahariah et al., 2020;Goswami et al., 2017 4 Weed problem Bharamappanavara et al., 2010 5 Beneficial insects Sinha et al., 2010 6 Population of earthworm Sinha et al., 2010 7 Soil structure Kumar et al., 2015;Mishra and Dash, 2014;Nayak et al., 2012 8 Soil aggregation Kumar et al., 2015;Sinha et al., 2010 9 Water To protect the rights of the author(s) and publisher we inform you that this PDF is an uncorrected proof for internal business use only by the author(s), editor(s), reviewer(s), Elsevier and typesetter SPi. ...
Chapter
Sustainability has become the keyword for agriculture sector due to the devastating effects of using chemicals. The purpose of the research is to find the effect of vermicompost (VC) on paddy-grown soil health and the role of vermicompost usage on farmers’ socioeconomic sustainability. The nature of research is analytically based upon mostly primary data. Data collected were disproportionate over the following sample domains through purposive sampling. Respondents were farmers who belong to diverse demographic profiles that were selected for the survey. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings revealed that there was an enhancement of soil health conditions by the continuous use of vermicompost. Further, an increase in paddy productivity and labor productivity was also seen. Prolonged use of vermicompost in the paddy fields also decreased the labor demand and labor cost which led to an increase in the income of the farmers. This contributed to better socioeconomic sustainability by improving their living standards and health and education. This research is based on the opinion and experience of farmers practicing organic agriculture using vermicompost as manure for their crops. The social and economic sustainability of farmers who are using vermicompost is also recorded. The benefits of using vermicompost over other chemical manures not only in context to soil health and plant growth but also the socioeconomic sustainability of farmers are analyzed.
... In this study, vermicompost was seen to increase all growth parameters of safflower plants except TPC and RWC. There are other reports that confirm positive effects of vermicompost on plants Chamani et al., 2008;Chand et al., 2011;Javed & Panwar, 2013;Joshi et al., 2013;Khan & Ishaq, 2011;Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011;Mirakalaei et al., 2013;Pant et al., 2009;Papathanasiou et al., 2012). As the vermicompost amount increased, the growth parameters of the safflower also increased. ...
Article
Understanding the mechanisms underlying tri-trophic interactions between insect herbivores, their host plants and natural enemies is an important aim in ecology. In the present study, the effect of urea fertilizer and vermicompost on a tri-trophic level cascade, comprising safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, safflower aphid, Uroleucon carthami and its primary parasitoid wasp, Praon yomenae, was investigated. Vermicompost increased the number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, the total number of aphids and reduced the number of winged aphids and aphid load (Aphid load = number of aphids / plant fresh weight). Only two variables, plant phenol content and relative water content, were not significantly affected by vermicompost. Urea fertilizer had no impact on all variables except a significant effect on plant height. In another experiment, the effect of urea fertilizer and vermicompost on the wasp parasitoid was studied. The number of parasitoid mummies, mummification time, developmental time, the number of emerged adults, sex ratio, percentage of parasitism and hind tibia length was measured. Vermicompost had no significant effect on any of the measured parameters, but urea fertilizer increased the hind tibia length of the parasitoid. Vermicompost increased plant growth parameters and had an indirect and inhibiting effect on the safflower aphid itself. There was evidence of a bottom-up cascade to the third trophic level by adding fertilizers in this system: Urea fertilizer enhanced plant height but seemingly had no impact on the attacking herbivore. It is interesting that the effect of urea can be transferred to the third trophic level, that is parasitoid. This suggests that vermicompost could be used simultaneously with urea fertilizer, because urea fertilizer had a positive impact on the parasitoid and vermicompost had a positive impact on plant growth as well as the ability to reduce aphid load.
... The soil organic matter act as food source for microbial growth. The soil functional indicator microbes i.e., Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, PSB, Starch and cellulose hydrolyzing microbes show elevated population in response to the combined application of vermicompost, organic materials with fertilizer and an ecofriendly environment is created (Lazcano and Dominguez 2011). This research focuses on reducing and converting waste to vermicompost for soil health and quality enhancement. ...
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Unbalanced use of fertilizers has deteriorated soil health and caused pollution at large scale. The different doses of household waste based vermicompost and fertilizer combination and its effect on soil fertility with microbial diversity analysis as well as its quanti-fication was primary focus of this research with using Completely Randomized Design with two factors. Rice crop in pot culture was taken at experimental station, department of soil science, Dr RPCAU, Pusa in kharif, 2018. The higher dose of vermicompost and RDF fertilizer i.e., vermicompost (3.75t ha-1) + 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer elevated the higher nutrient content in soil of pot culture with rice crop in pots. The nutrients content increased from tillering to grain filling stage and decreased from that particular stage to post harvest condition in pot culture soil and it might be due to the exhaustion of nutrients by crop plants and higher amount of organic matter present in soil provided the suitable habitat for growth and proliferation of functional indicator microbes i.e., Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, starch and cellulose hydrolyzing microbes from initial crop growth to post harvest condition soil in pot culture.
... The application of VC enhances soil microbial diversity. Numerous N-fixing bacteria have been reported to reside in earthworm burrows [61]. ...
Chapter
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Despite increasing crop production, indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers in conventional crop production is an essential factor that decreases crop productivity, impacts the sustainability of agricultural production systems, and negatively impacts soil health. Hence, restoring soil health and the environment is urgently needed. It is possible to achieve higher crop productivity through natural fertilizers, such as biofertilizers, vermicompost, green manures, farmyard manure, and crop residues, which are sustainable approaches to nourishing the soil and the environment. The present chapter looks at the significance of healthy soil, how it can be affected by agricultural inputs and practices, and strategies for enhancing soil health.
... VC is often generated by epigeic earthworms that feed on fresh organic materials in the litter layer and the rst centimeter of the soil. The most well-known earthworm used in vermicomposting is Eisenia fetida, which has a remarkable ability to change the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of organic substances, as well as its resilience and wide temperature tolerance (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011;Domínguez et al., 2019;Ghorbani and Sabour, 2021;Przemieniecki et al., 2021). It is a nutrient-rich peat-like substance with high porosity, water-holding capacity, low C: N ratio , ventilation, drainage (Hosseinzadeh et al., 2016), cation exchange capacity, and hormonelike activity (Amooaghaie and Golmohammadi, 2017). ...
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Leucojum aestivum L. includes galanthamine and lycorine, which are two pharmaceutically valuable alkaloids. Vermicompost (VC), an organic waste product created by earthworms enhances soil quality and can improve the medicinal quality of the plant that is crucial to the pharmaceutical industry. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effects of four different VC concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) on L. aestivum growth parameters, alkaloid levels (galanthamine and lycorine), total phenol-flavonoid content, free radical scavenging potential, and defense enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) compared to control (no VC). Methods A 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical assay was performed for antioxidant activity. Folin-Ciocaltaeu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods were applied for the determination of total phenol and flavonoid content, respectively. Alkaloid amounts (galanthamine and lycorine) were analyzed by the HPLC-DAD system. Results The width, length, and fresh weight of the leaves were improved by 10% VC treatment. The highest total phenolic content was found in bulbs and leaves treated with 50% VC. HPLC-DAD analysis of alkaloids showed that 10% and 50% VC treatments contained the most galanthamine in the bulb and leaf extracts, respectively. The application of 25% VC was the most efficient in terms of lycorine content in both extracts. CAT activity was elevated at 10%, 25%, and 50% VC. Conclusions Based on the growth performance and galanthamine content of the bulbs and leaves, it can be concluded that a 10% VC application was the most effective in the cultivation of L. aestivum.
... EW burrows coated with VC provide an excellent medium for harboring nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. The growth of gram-negative bacteria was significantly improved after vermicompost treatment [114]. Vermicompost (VC) stimulates microbes to fix nitrogen into mucoprotein, which prevents nitrogen leaching into the soil and reduces the C/N ratio [115]. ...
Article
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Extensive application of agrochemicals for crop production and protection has negatively affected soil health, crop productivity, and the environment. Organic amendments have been proposed as an efficient alternative for enhancing soil and plant health. Vermicompost amendment offers a sustainable approach to plant nutrition, improving soil health and fertility. This review aims to provide key insights into the potential of vermicompost to boost crop production and protect crops from biotic and abiotic stresses without harming the environment. The role played by earthworms in improving organic matter decomposition, soil fertility, and soil microorganisms' activity is also discussed here. The value of vermicompost is its promotion of plant growth based on its enrichment with all essential nutrients, beneficial microbes, and plant growth hormones. This review analyzes how vermicompost regulates plant growth and its role in mitigating abiotic stresses such as soil salinity and drought, as well as biotic stresses such as diseases and insect pests attack. The beneficial effects of hormones and humic substances present in vermicompost are also discussed in this review. In fact, due to its properties, vermicompost can be a good substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides and its usage could contribute to producing healthy, contaminant-free food for the growing population without negatively affecting the environment.
... Vermicomposting as a means of organic waste treatment fulfils the dual purpose of environmental protection and fertilizer production [1]. In line with the circular economy principles [2,3], the bio-conversion of biomass waste through vermicomposting contributes not only to overcome the liner "take-make-dispose" model but also to generate value-added products with the potential to improve soil health and crop yields [4,5]. This is of particular interest for the winemaking industry whose ever increasing activity goes hand in hand with the generation of an ample variety of liquid and solid by-products that need to be treated, disposed of and reused in a sustainable manner [6]. ...
Article
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The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of vermicomposting for the valorization of distilled grape marc, one of the main solid by-products of the winery sector during a 56-day pilot-scale trial. The increase in the density and biomass of earthworms ( Eisenia andrei ) during the earlier stages of the process reflected the suitability of the distilled marc ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mencía) as feedstock in order to sustain large earthworm populations on a pilot-scale level. Supporting this, from 14 days onwards the pH of Mencía distilled marc fell within weak-alkaline levels and the electrical conductivity was between 0.21 and 0.11 mS cm ⁻² providing optimum conditions for earthworm growth. A rapid decrease in microbial activity as well as in the content of total polyphenols, both indicative of stabilized materials was also recorded after 14 days of vermicomposting. Moreover, the content of macro- and micronutrients in the end product matched with those considered to have the quality criteria of a good vermicompost with respect to plant health and safe agricultural use. Altogether, it underlines the feasibility of vermicomposting as an environment-friendly approach for the biological stabilization of distilled grape marc fulfilling both environmental protection and fertilizer production.
... Plant height is a critical trait that influences the production and processing of agricultural products [6]. This trait helps to analyze and predict plant growth, the amount of biomass production and final grain yield [7][8][9][10]. Plant height is also recognized as an important index in the plant's evaporation and transpiration [11] and crop health [12]. ...
... Liu et al. (2016) observed that the application of carbon-rich natural fertilizers positively affected the biodiversity of soil, leading to the soil that is more resistant to pathogenic infections and environmental stress. Also, Lazcano and Domínguez (2011) earlier confirmed that the growth, yield, and phytochemical concentrations of different plant species can potentially be influenced and accelerated by applying various kinds of natural amendments. The positive results of growing medium amendments on plant growth are most likely connected to the optimum supply of essential macro and micronutrients required for growth and development, as well as the enhancement of soil functional activities. ...
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Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with no definite treatment, but it can be controlled by changing lifestyle and diet. Consumption of high-fiber and nutrient-rich foods including vegetables have been shown to reduce risks of obesity and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Also, many herbal plants have been associated with reduced risks of T2DM because of their composition of secondary metabolites. Antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites have potent inhibitory effects against inflammation linked with insulin resistance and oxidative stress. More than 800 known medicinal plants are used to control diabetes and its relevant complications. However, variations in preharvest factors including plant genotype, growing medium properties, climatic factors, and management practices can influence plant growth and their accumulation of phytochemicals with health-promoting properties. However, the effects of these preharvest factors on the antidiabetic properties of plant secondary metabolites are neither explicit nor easily accessible in the literature. Therefore, this review aims to document recent studies that reported on under-exploited medicinal plants with antidiabetic properties. We reviewed several important preharvest factors that can potentially affect the synthesis of phytoconstituents which possess antidiabetic properties. This review will help identify gaps for future research in phytomedicine and functional foods.
... Pemanfataan metode vermikompos dapat meningkatkan kualitas tanah dan hasil tanaman. Hal ini karena pupuk ini mengandung unsur N, K, P, Ca, dan Mg secara seimbang, terdapat hoormon pertubuhan tanaman, dan kandungan bahan organik (Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011). Pembuatan metode vermakopos tidak terlalu sulit dengan menggunakan kotoran sapi yang telah diproses dan digabungkan dengan cacing tanah (Brata, 2017). ...
Article
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Pengabdian masyarakat klaster warung jajanan (HSCC) di sekitar Universitas Bengkulu (UNIB) ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan tingkat kognitif, sikap, dan keterampilan produk kascing sebagai media tanam bethel untuk kelangsungan ekonomi dan aktivitas tambahan di era pandemi covid-19 . Metode yang digunakan adalah pembelajaran online (slide oral), video, dan diskusi. Output dari kegiatan ini ditunjukkan dengan kehadiran peserta 100%, 12 peserta, dan hasil pretest dan posttest yaitu “meningkat” kognitif, sikap, dan keterampilan dalam membuat kascing sebagai pupuk organik menggunakan BBM-pot. Evaluasi kegiatan ini dikategorikan “sangat berhasil” untuk meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif dan “berhasil” untuk meningkatkan sikap dan keterampilan.
... Vermicompost along with earthworm casts provides a magnificent channel to harbour bacteria for nitrogen fixation in the soil. There was a significant increase in Gram-negative bacteria following application of increased dosage of vermicompost (Lazcano and Dominguez 2011). A generous amount of vermicompost enhances the community of microorganisms like Bacillus stearothermophilus, Azotobacter chroococcum, and Pseudomonas putida. ...
Chapter
The use of chemicals in agriculture to achieve the highest yield was trending in farming practices, which led to the depletion and shifting of microbial community over the years. In sustainable agriculture, the use of organic products was the innovative approach along with the incorporation of microbial products to enhance the growth and productivity of the crop with minimizing the various biotic and abiotic stresses. Instead of adding the microbial population to the soil, conservation of microbial population or microbiome by adopting the various strategies was the most prominent approach in sustainable agriculture, which enhanced the income of farmers as well as improved the growth and development of the crop. This chapter highlights the importance of microbial community, keeping the rhizosphere parameters in view and utilizing their activity to develop enrichment strategies for the growth and development of plant system.
... The application of VC enhances soil microbial diversity. Numerous N-fixing bacteria have been reported to reside in earthworm burrows [61]. ...
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Despite increasing crop yields, the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers in conventional agriculture damages soil health, reduces crop productivity, and negatively impacts agricultural sustainability. Therefore, restoring soil health and the environment is imperative. Higher crop productivity can be achieved with natural fertilizers such as biofertilizers, vermicompost, green manures, farmyard manures, and crop residues, which are a sustainable approach to nourishing the soil and the environment. This chapter addresses the importance of healthy soils, how it can be influenced by agricultural inputs and practices, and strategies for enhancing soil health.
... In the latest study, lettuce yield increased by 43%-45% with the application of vermicompost. Together with the observed increase in plant shoot and total biomass, the increase in yield suggests that vermicompost is an efficient treatment to enhance crop yield and also confirms the results of former studies (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). The use of vermicompost seemed particularly useful in organic farming because vermicompost provides nutrients that would otherwise need to be brought by synthetic fertilizers that are prohibited in organic agriculture. ...
Article
The vermicompost and exogenous plant extracts as a foliar application can provide as an alternative means to enhance the growth and yield of leafy vegetable crops under low-fertility soil conditions. The objectives of the recent study sought to characterize the effect of vermicompost tea in combining some natural plant extracts to enhance the growth and yield of the lettuce plant. A study on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) took place during two successive seasons, in 2018–2019 and 2019–2020, using foliar spray— vermicompost-tea rates in combination with rosemary leaf extract (RLE) and eucalyptus buds extract (EBE). It sought to determine the effects on growth, yield, and some physiological and biochemical traits of lettuce (cv. ‘Dark Green’) grown on sandy soil with drip irrigation. The experiment employed the split-plot design, with four rates of vermicompost tea (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) as main plots and three plant extract levels (without, RLE, and EBE) as subplots. The vermicompost tea and plant extracts increased the growth characteristics, photochemical activity, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content, membrane stability index, excised leaf water retention, vitamins C and E, and total soluble solids in lettuce plants compared with the untreated control plots. The interaction and combined application of vermicompost tea (20%) and RLE proved most effective in enhancing the growth and yield traits and physio-biochemical properties in lettuce. Therefore, the integrative application of vermicompost tea (20%) with RLE comes highly recommended for growing lettuce in sandy soil conditions.
... by-products obtained during vermicomposting, a nonthermophilic process mediated by earthworms and microorganisms that bio-oxidize and stabilize organic materials into usable bio-stimulants (Lazcano and Domínguez 2011). For that reason, LVE is a microbiologically active product that contains a wide range of macro-and micro-nutrients, extracellular enzymes, chemical attractants, and hormone-like molecules that confer various benefits to soil and plants (Gudeta et al. 2021). ...
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Purpose Commercial production and the use of liquid vermicompost extract (LVE) is gaining attention as a technique that supports integrated soil-microbial-crop management for sustainable agriculture. However, the interaction effects of LVE, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and host plants on the delivery of agroecosystem services in alkaline soil have been less studied. Methods We carried out a 3-year field experiment in Central Italy, to investigate the short-term effect of LVE on soil mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP), AMF root colonization, and productivity of berseem clover, lentil, and sunflower. LVE produced in different years were screened for microbial properties using Illumina Miseq sequencing. LVE was applied at seeding, crop stem elongation and flowering stages. Control crops received water as a placebo. Results LVE bacterial communities were more diverse and showed a higher turnover between 2019 and 2020 than fungal communities. Diverse microbial groups, the majority of which belonged to phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Mucoromycota, were detected, including N-fixers (Flavobacterium, Malikia, and Citrobacter), P-solubilizers (Pseudomonas), and C-degraders (Tolumonas, Arcobacter, and Mucor). Notably, LVE treatment enhanced soil MIP and AMF root colonization in most crops, but selectively improved shoot biomass of berseem clover (+ 32%) and sunflower (+ 34%), and grain yield (+ 37%) and oil concentration (+ 5%) in sunflower, compared to the corresponding non-treated controls. Conclusions LVE had diverse groups of bacteria and a few fungal taxa, and its application enhanced mycorrhizal properties and selected growth- and yield-related variables in lentil, berseem clover, and sunflower. This could be due to LVE’s biostimulating effect arising from the vermicompost-associated microbiome and biomolecules.
... More specifically, an increase in the anion (P 2 O 4 3− and SO 4 2− ) and cation (Na + , K + and Mg 2+ ) contents was detected in the soil following the co-application of both Bw and Bv with OF. The rich content of these nutrients in the vermicompost likely accounted for this result, as also reported by other authors [57,58]. This assumption is supported by the higher P 2 O 4 3− , SO 4 2− , Na + , K + and Mg 2+ contents detected in the soil treated with organic fertilizer alone than in the soil treated with inorganic fertilizer alone and the untreated control (Table 4). ...
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From the perspective of sustainable agri-food production, farmers need to make the best use of natural resources. Biochar can be a solution to adopt a more sustainable way of farming. Despite its environmental and agronomic advantages, biochar has a low plant nutrient value. This study evaluated the effect of biochar and the co-application of an inorganic or organic fertilizer on the soil properties, growth and nutrient content of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla, Caryophyllales order, Chenopodiaceae family). The experiment consisted of two factors: biochar type (from vineyard prunings and wood chips) and fertilizing source (ammonium nitrate and vermicompost). Biochars were applied at a 2% rate (w/w) and fertilizers at a dose providing 280 kg N ha−1. The soil properties (pH, EC, extractable anions, cations, total N, Corg and C/N ratio) were measured before the plants were transplanted and at the end of the growing cycle, along with the growth parameters (leaf number, length and fresh weight) of each leaf cut, the productive parameters (total number of leaves and yield per plant) at the end of the growing cycle and the leaf content of anions (NO3−, P2O43−, SO4−), cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and total N. The co-application of biochar and a fertilizing source had a positive effect on soil properties and leaf nutrient content. Vermicompost increased plant growth by 22% and plant yield by 116%, in contrast to biochar, and increased limited leaf NO3− accumulation by about 81% in comparison to ammonium nitrate. The co-application of biochar and vermicompost is the better option to increase Swiss chard yield while preserving the nutritional and health qualities of the product.
... Throughout the study, wildlings grown in M2 had lower mortality compared to the others with additional nutrients (compost and burnt oil palm mesocarp). This is because vermicompost contains live earthworms, which indirectly increased soil porosity through burrowing and repaired the soil structure, allowing for better aeration and a healthier rhizosphere (Lazcanoa & Domínguez, 2011;Kumar et al., 2018). Besides, vermicompost improves the chemical properties in soil by providing more microsites for organisms and allows the nutrient cycle happens naturally in the rhizosphere (Kumar et al., 2018). ...
Article
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In the earliest stage of development, non-dipterocarp wildlings require specific environmental conditions; they are only able to acclimate to harsher environmental conditions after this stage. As such, the environment acts as a limiting factor of early-stage development in non-dipterocarp shade-tolerant species. We examined the survival rates and growth rates of Heritiera simplicifolia and Scaphium macropodum from the family Malvaceae in the different sets of abiotic conditions. Three abiotic environmental factors medium type, greenhouse technique, and light intensity were varied. The experiment was conducted for six months in an area near Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam, at the edge of the Tembat Forest Reserve. Height, diameter, leaves numbers, and leaf area was recorded. Our results indicate that the wildlings preferred higher daytime relative humidity and natural air ventilation at night, and they grew more quickly under SN50 (358.74 Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) than under SN70 (101.41 PAR). Subsoil supplemented with vermicompost improved wildling growth more consistently than subsoil supplemented with compost or burned mesocarp. The wildling’s height relative growth rate (HRGR) and survival were affected by all treatments. These results indicate that restoration efforts using young indigenous tree species at degraded sites, supply better growth environments and organic nutrients to the rhizosphere.
... Additionally, vermicomposting of grape marc can result in soil additives that are rich in nutrients, have a high capacity for retaining water and have a low C:N ratio [7]. Several studies have shown the positive effects of using bagasse vermicompost as a soil additive, including the potential to stimulate plant growth, seed germination and development, as well as the ability to reduce or suppress plant diseases [8][9][10]. These positive effects have been associated with plant quality improvements, such as increased shoot and leaf area, root development, plant flowering and fruit production [5]. ...
Article
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Winemaking is a well-known process that includes several steps in the production of grape must and wine. Grape marc, or bagasse, is a byproduct of wine production that can be vermicomposted and used as organic fertilizer. Grape marc vermicompost has microbial communities that are richer and more stable than grape marc alone, and its addition to a vineyard’s terroir can improve grape yields and wine quality. Here we compare the must and wine microbiota of Mencía from grapevines treated with and without (standard fertilization) vermicompost derived from Mencía grape marc. Mencía is a high-quality red wine broadly grown in Galicia, Spain, and is appreciated for its fresh acidity and fruity flavors. When Mencía grapevines are treated with vermicompost derived from its grape marc, Mencía vines increase their grape production, and the final wine improves its organoleptic properties. Metataxonomic analyses of the bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS gene regions showed that Mencía must and wine have the distinct taxonomic composition (phyla, genera and ASVs—amplicon sequence variants) of bacterial and fungal groups. Must and wine bacteriotas and mycobiotas show no significant variation in alpha-diversity, while wine bacteriotas and mycobiotas show significant differences in microbial structure (beta-diversity) between treated and control grapevines. Likewise, the functional diversity and predicted metabolic pathways (biosynthesis, degradation/utilization/assimilation, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, macromolecule modification and superpathways) of the must and wine microbiota also show significant changes. Our study proposes that changes in the abundance of microbial taxa and the metabolic processes they undergo during winemaking may improve Mencía’s organoleptic properties and productivity.
... Vermicomposting is considered more advantageous than traditional composting process [11]. The particle obtained after breakdown during vermocomposting is more homogenous and uniform with earthy manifestation than heterogeneous mixture obtained during composting process [45]. The release of nutrients is slow during application of vermicompost to the soil. ...
Chapter
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Organic fertilizers are alternative to chemicals used in agriculture which enhance soil quality, prevent harmful chemicals entering into food chain, improve health and contribute to sustainable future socially, economically and ecologically. Vermicompost is a nutrient-rich organic fertilizer which promotes plant growth and improves soil quality. Vermicomposting is an economically feasible and environment friendly technology in which organic wastes are bio-converted into value added product and various organic wastes are used in this process. Terrestrial weeds are the plant species which grow on land and invasive in nature. These plants are responsible for various nuisances in the environment, agriculture and society. The weed biomass generated after various management methods are considered as organic waste. The terrestrial weed biomass is a possible option for the production of vermicompost. In this chapter scope of vermicompost for sustainable agriculture, the vemicomposting mechanism and the bioconversion of terrestrial weed biomass into vermicompost have been discussed.
... Vermikompos ini memberikan pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman. Pengaruh langsung vermikompos terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman adalah menyediakan hara, zat perangsang tumbuh tanaman, dan meningkatkan ketersediaan air bagi tanaman, sedangkan pengaruh tidak langsung vermikompos adalah meningkatkan aktivitas mikroorganisme yang bermanfaat sehingga mampu mencegah serangan hama dan penyakit bagi tanaman (Arancon et al., 2007;Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011). Nurhidayati et al. (2017) menambahkan bahwa vermikompos memiliki C/N rasio yang rendah serta memiliki kandungan unsur hara yang tinggi. ...
Article
Dengan semakin tingginya tingkat kesadaran masyarakat tentang produk pangan sehat, mendorong berkembangnya budidaya tanaman sayuran secara hidroponik kultur substrat khususnya di wilayah perkotaan. Penggunaan pupuk organik pada sistem budidaya hidroponik masih jarang digunakan. Penelitian ini merupakan percobaan pot di rumah plastik yang menggunakan kultur substrat berupa campuran cocopeat, biochar sekam dan pasir dengan sumber nutrisi berasal dari pupuk vermikompos. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan pengaruh metode aplikasi dan dosis vermikompos padat maupun vermikompos cair terhadap pertumbuhan, dan hasil tanaman kailan. Percobaan ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok Faktorial dengan kontrol. Faktor I adalah cara aplikasi vermikompos terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu M1= Vermikompos padat, M2= kombinasi vermikompos padat dan cair, M3 = Vermikompos cair. Faktor II adalah Dosis Vermikompos yang terdiri dari lima taraf yaitu V1= 100 gram, V2= 200 gram, V3= 300 gram, V4= 400 gram, dan V5= 500 gram per pot. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi vermikompos padat pada dosis 300-500 g/pot memberikan rata-rata pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman (10,25 cm), jumlah daun (7,80) dan luas daun tanaman (295,73 cm2) yang nyata (P<0,05) lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Berat segar total biomassa dan berat segar hasil yang bernilai ekonomis tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan vermikompos padat pada dosis 500 g/pot masing-masing sebesar 62,14 gram dan 58,33 g, tetapi tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan control yaitu sebesar 66,54 gram dan 61,84 gram. Hasil penelitian ini menyarankan bahwa untk mendapatkan hasil kailan yang tinggi, penggunaan vermikompos padat dengan dosis 500 g/pot direkomendasikan pada budidaya tanaman kailan secara hidroganik.
... Vermikompos memiliki efek langsung dan tidak langsung terhadap tanaman antara lain, dapat memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah dan menyediakan unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Penggunaan vermikompos dalam sistem budidaya tanaman terbukti mampu mengurangi penggunaan pupuk mineral (Lazcano & Domínguez, 2011) serta mampu memberikan efek residu selama tiga periode penanaman ( Nurhidayati et al., 2018). Berdasarkan informasi tersebut perlu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menguji aplikasi vermikompos dengan dosis yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan kualitas hasil tomat secara hidroganik. ...
... Lot of Indians were accustomed to practise Organic agriculture however current farming training has pushed it to the divisive. Vermicomposting is very effective in plant growth and maintaining plant health and also it is environmentally friendly and used in such a way it that welfare the biodiversity (Lazcano, C and Dominguez J., 2012) [13] . ...
Article
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Organic farming with sustainable agriculture may not only meet the nutritional requirements of our generation but also the needs for future species and generation and keep our environment in rhobust condition. Modern agriculture that includes the use of pesticides and fertilizers has a direct effect on the environment by influencing a bad effect on soil fertility, water intake, restrict insect enhancement activity, genetic diversity of plants, increased risk of malnutrition and increased health defoliation in this way that it exacerbate health problems and many other concerns about the welfare and destruction of the environment. Planting by Organic method leads to provides macronutrients and micronutrients in plants continuously basis with the development of soil, physical, chemical and organic properties of the soil that is very beneficial to soil.
... Soil chemical properties improved due to the addition of vermicompost. Where the elevated pH and soil salinity declined with the vermicompost addition as a result of the release of organic acids from vermicompost, as well as vermicompost is characterized by the high contents of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and micronutrients, which lead to enhance soil fertility (Tharmaraj et al., 2011).On the other hand, the implementation of different types of vermicompost assists in increasing quantitatively and qualitatively the content of beneficial microorganisms for plants (Lazcano and Dominguez, 2011). Parthasarathi et al., (2007) showed that the vermicompost includes nutrients in available forms for the plants. ...
Article
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The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of vermicompost rates (0, 6, 8 and 10 ton fed-1) and ascorbic acid levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm) on growth, yield and nutritional status of tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv Kasel rock) grown in saline soil of Tamia District, El-Fayoum Governorate at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The results indicated that the addition of vermicompost supplemented by spraying with concentrations of ascorbic acid has a significant and clear effect on the growth characteristics and quality and quantity of the tomato plants grown in saline soil at two seasons 2018 and 2019. The highest values of the various components of the tomato plants growth and yield were obtained by adding the high rate of vermicompost (10 ton fed-1) and spraying the high concentration of ascorbic acid (200 ppm). Increasing the addition of vermicompost followed by spraying with ascorbic acid increased the content of the nutrients that benefit tomato plants (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium), while the sodium content of the leaves decreased.
... Since organic and biological fertilizers such as VER and HA have positive effects on yield without any environmental damages, their introduction and promotion will be a suitable and promising model to replace chemical fertilizers. Moreover, VER is a bio fertilizer that contains a highly biologically active combination of bacteria, enzymes, plant debris, and earthworm capsules that decompose soil organic matter and improve microbial activities in the planting bed (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011). Although the effects of fertilizers on growth crops have been extensively studied, the research on the behavior of medicinal herbs under organic fertilizer in Iran has not been so extensive (Shaabani et al., 2020). ...
Article
This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of vermicompost (VER) and humic acid (HA) on some traits of Marigold (Calendula officinalis), Mandarin cultivar. Treatments included VER (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and foliar application of HA (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/l) at four levels. Chlorophyll content, relative water content, ion leakage in leaves and flowers, carotenoid, flavonoid, and protein content in flowers, number of flowers, and flower yield were measured. According to the results, higher levels of VER increased ion leakage while decreasing the relative water content of the leaves. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and leaf ion leakage were not affected by VER. The results revealed that the VER treatment had significant effects on petal flavonoids, carotenoids, petal electrolyte leakage (PEL), chlorophyll a, and relative water content. The use of HA did not affect the flower protein and reduced relative water content. All physiological traits, including petal carotenoid, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, ion leakage of leaves and flowers, and relative water content were significant under the influence of HA treatment at the probability level of 1%, while petal flavonoids and chlorophyll b were significant at the probability level of 5%. Investigate the interaction effect revealed the 10% VER + 600 mg/l HA allocated the highest amount of several flowers per plant, whereas this amount in flower protein with a mean of 661.1 mg fresh weight (FW), observed in 10% VER + 400 mg/l HA. In general, the use of HA at a concentration of 600 mg/l and 10% VER is recommended.
... The technique doesn't produce sludge (Yang et al., 2008) but vermicompost, which has beneficial effects on soils and crops. It is a source of plant macro-and micronutrients (Hussain and Abbasi, 2018), increases soil microbial biomass and diversity (Saha et al., 2022), enhances soil health (Lazcano and Domínguez, 2011;Hussain and Abbasi, 2018), and has the potential to sequester carbon. ...
Article
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Liquid storage of manure is a leading cause of methane emissions from the dairy sector and an important source of air and water pollution. This study monitored the effect of vermifiltration on methane emissions and water quality at a California dairy that uses an anaerobic lagoon. Methane fluxes and wastewater removal rate of volatile solids, N species, salinity, major ions, and trace elements were monitored for 12 months. Vermifiltration reduced methane emissions relative to an anaerobic lagoon by 97–99% and removed 87% of the volatile solids, contaminants such as salts and trace elements, P (83%) and N (84%) from the wastewater. Vermifiltration of dairy wastewater demonstrated to be a useful tool to mitigate methane emissions, regulate excess nutrients and improve water quality at dairy farms.
... IAA) [5]. Several studies have been conducted regarding the effect of VC application on the growth and development of crops [6][7][8]. For instance, for Maize (Zea mays), it has been shown that VC increased plant growth yield by creating favorable conditions for plant nutrition [9]. ...
Article
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Humic acid (HA) is a specific and stable component of humus materials that behaves similarly to growth stimulants, esp. auxin hormones, contributing to improving growth indices and performance of plants. As a rich source of HA, vermicompost (VC) is also a plant growth stimulating bio-fertilizer that can enhance growth indices and performance in plants. The purpose of the present study is to compare the influence of VC enriched with bacterial and/or fertilizer, commercial humic acid (CHA) extract, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on improving growth characteristics and performance of rapeseed under greenhouse conditions. The results showed the complete superiority of VC over the CHA and IAA (approximately 8% increase in the dry weights of root and aerial organ and nearly three times increase in seed weight). The highest values of these indices were obtained with VC enriched with Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorus, Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens; the lowest value was obtained with VC enriched with urea. Additionally, the application of 3% VC and the control involved the highest and lowest values in all traits, respectively. The SPAD (chlorophyll index) value and stem diameter were not significantly affected by different application levels of VC. Overall, the applications of IAA and the CHA were not found to be suitable and therefore not recommended.
Chapter
Die Kenntnis von Diversität und Aktivität der Bodenorganismen ist für die im Boden ablaufenden Prozesse und deren Stabilität sowie für die Entwicklung und Funktionsweise des Bodenökosystems von entscheidender Bedeutung. Dazu zählen u. a. der Ab‐ und Umbau organischer Substanzen, die Freisetzung und Fixierung von Nährstoffen und Gasen, die Stabilisierung des Bodengefüges sowie der Abbau von Schadstoffen. Dieses Kapitel gibt eine Übersicht verschiedener Methoden zur Erfassung von Mikroorganismen, der Bodenfauna sowie der ökotoxikologischen Bewertung von Böden. Eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die Vergleichbarkeit von Untersuchungen von Bodenorganismen und ihren Aktivitäten ist die Verwendung standardisierter Methoden, sowohl bei der sachgemäßen Entnahme und Vorbereitung von Bodenproben als auch bei der Charakterisierung der abiotischen Bodeneigenschaften (z. B. Temperatur, Wassergehalt, Sauerstoffverfügbarkeit) oder Lagerungsbedingungen (z. B. Dauer, Temperatur). Die Beprobungsstrategie der jeweiligen Organismengruppe im Freiland sowie die Erfassung der jeweiligen funktionalen und strukturellen biologischen Endpunkte im Labor sollte, soweit vorhanden, anhand der von der Internationalen Organisation für Normung (ISO) standardisierten und vom Deutschen Institut für Normung (DIN) übernommenen Richtlinien erfolgen. Dabei sind sowohl traditionelle Methoden (z. B. die Erfassung der mikrobiellen Atmung) als auch indirekte Verfahren (z. B. das Fumigations‐Induktionsverfahren sowie das Fumigations‐Extraktionsverfahren) gut geeignet. Neben etablierten Methoden zur direkten Keimzahlbestimmung, haben sich inzwischen molekulare Verfahren basierend auf extrahierten Nukleinsäuren (DNS oder RNS) etabliert, um die Diversität und Abundanz bestimmter mikrobieller Gruppen zu erfassen. Analog dazu werden Boden‐Invertebraten (z. B. Regenwürmer mittels Ausgrabung oder Collembolen durch Trockenextraktion) erfasst, wobei auch hier seit Kurzem DNS‐basierte Verfahren zur Artbestimmung der Bodentiere genutzt werden. Mittels der so erhobenen Daten sind sowohl die Bodenbiodiversität als auch die davon abhängenden Funktionen (z. B. Streuabbau, Gefügebildung etc.) der gesamten Bodenorganismengemeinschaft zur Beurteilung des biologischen Bodenzustands nutzbar. Veränderungen oder gar Verarmungen der mikrobiologischen bzw. zoologischen Organismengemeinschaften sind damit gute Indikatoren, um den jeweiligen biologischen Zustand eines Bodens zu beurteilen und bei entsprechenden Veränderungen der jeweiligen Gemeinschaft, ökologische und ökonomische Schäden frühzeitig zu erkennen und Gegenmaßnahmen einzuleiten. Darüber hinaus können Bodentiere genutzt werden, um Böden mittels prospektiver und retrospektiver Verfahren zu schützen. Insbesondere für den prospektiven Schutz von Böden vor den Auswirkungen chemischer Stressoren (z. B. Pestizide, Schwermetalle etc.) auf Bodenorganismen wurden von der OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐Operation and Development) Standardtests im Labor und Freiland entwickelt. Für den retrospektiven Schutz von Böden stehen zudem – häufig inhaltlich ähnliche – ISO‐Verfahren bzw. EN‐ISO‐Normen zur Verfügung. Dazu gehören der Netzbeuteltest und der Köderstreifentest, deren Nutzen in Hinsicht auf verschiedenste Standorte bzw. Stressoren belegbar sind. Interaktionen von Schadstoffen und Bodenorganismen wurden bei der Ableitung von Prüf‐ und Maßnahmenwerten der Bundesbodenschutzverordnung (BBSchV) nicht berücksichtigt. Diese Lücke wurde durch genormte Testverfahren (DIN, ISO) für Böden und Bodenmaterialien geschlossen. Sie erfassen sowohl die Lebensraum‐ als auch die Pufferfunktion. Mit dem durch die ISO standardisierten TRIAD‐Verfahrensansatz steht zudem ein auf drei Beweislinien (Chemie, Ökotoxikologie und Ökologie) basierender umfassender Ansatz zur Verfügung, mit dem eine effiziente, ökologisch robuste, jedoch zugleich praktikable Risikobewertung von verunreinigten Böden ermöglicht wird. Aufgrund der in diesem Kapitel vorgestellten Kenntnisse wird belegt, dass mittels eines biologischen Konzepts, kombiniert mit der Verwendung bewährter und standardisierter Testverfahren aus der Biologie, Chemie, und Ökotoxikologie, der ökologische Zustand von Böden beurteilt werden kann.
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This review highlights the potential of vermicompost and its derived products as sustainable and eco-friendly solutions for enhancing production and pest management in grain crops. It assesses their impact comprehensively on crops such as maize, wheat, barley, rice, and pearl millet. Vermicompost improves soil quality, increases nutrient availability, boosts crop productivity, and enhances pest and disease tolerance. It acts as an organic fertilizer, enriching the soil with essential nutrients, humic acids, growth-regulating hormones, and enzymes, improving plant nutrition, photosynthesis, and overall crop quality. Furthermore, vermicompost shows promise in mitigating soil degradation and sequestering organic carbon while demonstrating the potential for pest management, including effectiveness against pests like fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). This review emphasizes the importance of integrated nutrient management and proper application strategies to maximize the benefits of vermicompost in grain crops. Factors such as the form and timing of application, efficacy against specific pests, and economic viability for different farming scales are discussed. Understanding these factors is crucial for successfully implementing and adopting vermicompost-based pest management strategies in grain crops. This review also explores the potential of vermicomposting as an eco-friendly and cost-effective solution to remediate organic contaminants, emerging contaminants, personal-care and pharmaceutical products, and microplastics. The review further identifies knowledge gaps and highlights the need for future studies to effectively utilize vermicompost and its derived products in cereal production for sustainable agriculture, contributing to global food security.
Chapter
Agricultural land per unit area is needed to provide the best food quantity in order to fulfill the world's increasing food demand. It is well acknowledged that one of the most significant variables influencing agricultural output and quality is plant nutrition. Chemical fertilizers provide most of the minerals to the plants in available form and in quickest way after being applied. However, degradation of these fertilizers is said to be caused by the pollution-related decline in soil fertility over time. Moreover, the widespread use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture has killed beneficial microbes and reduced crops' natural resilience to disease. In order to solve this issue, there is a dire need to adopt some alternatives which are environment friendly and ultimately leads to sustainable production. Vermicompost and its products are important alternatives which may not only boost crop development and production, but also reduce diseases and pests sustainably. With its high nutritional content, plant growth stimulators like auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins, as well as beneficial bacteria, vermicompost not only increases crop growth and yield but also improves soil physico-chemical properties. This chapter is mainly focused on the harmful impacts of chemical fertilizers on soil, process of vermicompost and its nutritional composition along with the facts that determine vermicompost is the best suitable option for the fertilizers in terms of improving soil fertility and plant growth.
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Microalgae are gaining importance in the agriculture sector because of their biostimulant activities and thereby increasing crop and vegetable yields worldwide. In the current study, intact microalgal cells were used as bio-stimulants for Cucumis sativus root treatment in a soilless agricultural system inside a Dutch polyhouse along with routine nutrients. The control sets with routine nutrients and with only D/W were put to study the exact effect of microalga on the growth of the cucumber plant. The average length of the biostimulant treated cucumber climber was 12.25% more than nutrient set, which itself showed 48.28% more growth than the control set. Similarly, biostimulant treated set showed an increase in the stem diameter (10%), the number of leaves (37.66%), and the number of floral buds (39.47%) as compared to nutrient set, which themselves exhibited superior parameters than the control set. The numbers of flowers were 100% and fruits were 77.78% more in the biostimulant treated set than in the nutrient set. When the pigment profile was studied, the biostimulant treated set showed increased chlorophyll a (23.77%), chlorophyll b (68.78%) and decreased carotenoids (65.75%) content as compared to the nutrient set. Microscopic observation of roots of microalga biostimulant treated set revealed microalga-root association. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of the microalga-root association in C. sativus along with a positive impact on the overall growth and yield of cucumber plants under soilless conditions. The findings have the potential to lay the groundwork for a novel microbe-root interaction between microalgae and plant roots ( Phyco-rrhiza ).
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نفذ هذا البحث في الهيئة العامة للبحوث العلمية الزراعية، سورية، في مركز بحوث حمص خلال الموسم الزراعي 2021/2022، بهدف دراسة تأثير التسميد بالفيرمي كومبوست بمعدلات 2، 5، 8 طن/هـكتار مقارنةً بإضافة السماد المعدني فقط (40 كغ آزوت على شكل يوريا 46% N، 60 كغ فوسفات على شكل سوبر فوسفات ثلاثي 46% H3PO4، 60 كغ بوتاس على شكل سلفات البوتاس 50% K2O/هكتار). بالإضافة لمعاملة بلا تسميد اعتبرت كشاهد. أظهرت النتائج تفوق معاملة التسميد بالفيرمي كومبوست 8 طن/ه على جميع المعاملات المدروسة، حيث حققت هذه المعاملة أفضل مؤشرات النمو (ارتفاع النبات وعدد الأفرع ومساحة المسطح الورقي والوزن الرطب والجاف للنبات)، كما حققت أفضل المؤشرات الإنتاجية (عدد القرون في النبات 22.13 قرن/النبات، وعدد البذور في القرن 4.7 بذرة/قرن، وعدد البذور في النبات 103.23 بذرة/النبات، ووزن الـ 100 بذرة 124.15 غ، ووزن البذور في النبات 128.02 غ/النبات، والغلة البذرية 3311.2 كغ/ه ونسبة البروتين في البذور 9.93%)، وبالنتيجة زادت الغلة البذرية بنسبة 8.52% والبروتين بنسبة 1.61% مقارنةً بالتسميد المعدني NPK، و 46.61% في الغلة البذرية و 10.17% في نسبة البروتين مقارنةً بالشاهد غير المسمد. بالنتيجة فإنه يمكن اعتماد التسميد بالفيرمي كومبوست على الفول بمعدل 8 طن/ه لزيادة إنتاجية النبات وبمعدل 5 طن/ه بديلاً للسماد المعدني ولترشيد استخدامه.
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Organic farming has emerged as a critical approach in promoting sustainable development and addressing the environmental, economic, and social challenges faced by the agricultural sector. With a focus on biodiversity conservation, soil health improvement, and reduced chemical inputs, organic farming embodies a holistic and ecologically friendly approach to food production. Organic farming plays a vital role in sustainable development by protecting the environment, improving soil health, mitigating climate change, enhancing human health, creating economic opportunities, and contributing to food security and resilience. Its holistic and ecologically friendly approach makes it an essential component of strategies aimed at achieving a sustainable future for both agricultural systems and the broader society. Organic farming represents a fundamental shift towards a more sustainable and ecologically responsible approach to agriculture. By prioritizing biodiversity conservation, soil health improvement, and reduced chemical inputs, organic farming offers a promising pathway towards achieving sustainable development goals. The book includes the idea of different academicians, researchers, and policymakers to deliberate on this theme of utmost importance and suggest appropriate policy solutions
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Raising sugarcane nurseries by single bud nodes cutting and using peat moss or coco peat as growth substrates are getting popular in many top sugarcane-producing countries worldwide. However, to reduce production costs, commercial growers involved in the sugarcane nursery raising business want to avoid peat moss or coco peat, which are expensive as growth substrates. We hypothesized that composted Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree) sawdust can be a suitable replacement. The objective was to assess the viability, sprouting, and seedling establishment of single bud nodes of sugarcane in composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures in two independent pot culture experiments. The experimental treatments were, T1: soil (control) (100%) (v/v), T2: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (100%) (v/v), T3: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (80%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v), T4: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v), and T5: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v) + Urea at the rate 225 kg N ha−1. The results exhibited that composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures provoked early sprouting and triggered the growth of single bud node seedlings of sugarcane than in soil (control). The composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures produced taller seedlings, more number of leaves plant−1, an increase in stem diameter, chlorophyll content index, leaf area, and root and shoot dry weight. It was concluded that composted M. azedarach sawdust mixture [T5: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v) + Urea at the rate 225 kg N ha−1] may be a suitable and productive alternative soilless substrate to raise single bud node seedlings of the sugarcane for nursery production.
Chapter
Finding strategies to treat, dispose of and reuse organic wastes is of utmost need. Biological processes offer the possibility to transform them into safer end products with benefits for both agriculture and the environment. This is of particular interest for the winemaking industry given its increasing activity worldwide with the subsequent generation of a wide variety of waste streams. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the effectiveness of the vermicomposting process as a low-cost and environmentally safe solution for the treatment and valorization of raw and distilled grape marc, the major solid by-products derived from the winery and distillery industry. We give an overview of the performance of the vermicomposting trial together with an in-depth characterization of the respective vermicomposts by looking at a combination of physicochemical, biochemical and microbiological indicators.
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Organic fertilizers and concoctions have variable nutrient contents as well as effects on soil properties, growth and yield of the crops. A split-split plot in a threefactor factorial study (2 x 5 x 3), arranged in randomized complete block design was conducted to evaluate the effects of soil types, organic fertilizers and concoctions, and rates of inorganic fertilizers on the chemical properties of acidic and neutral soil, growth, yield and nutrient uptake of Pak Choi. Nutrient contents of reformulated vermicast, IMO , fermented plant juice, and fish amino acid were 6 determined. Significant interactions were observed among the three factors for total N and total P in Pak Choi. Total N in plant was highest in acidic soil added with IMO at 50 6 % rate of inorganic fertilizer. This was significantly different from neutral soil in which the highest total was noted with the addition of 100 % inorganic fertilizer. Total P was found significantly highest in acidic soil with IMO with no significant 6 effect in neutral soil. IMO alone showed significant improvement in all of the plant 6 parameters gathered for the rates of inorganic fertilizer, Pak Choi applied with 100 % inorganic at 100 % exhibited superior performance. The addition of IMO and 6 reformulated vermicast resulted in a significantly higher total N in soil. Moreover, available P and exchangeable K were significantly higher in neutral soil while soil pH significantly decreased with the addition of 100 % inorganic fertilizer. On the other hand, FAA resulted to a significantly higher microbial respiration.
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The aim of this study is to determine the most appropriate form and dose of vermicompost applications, which can be used to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers without reducing farmer income in sustainable grain corn production. This study was carried out in 2019 and 2020 under ecological conditions of Cumra-Konya. The research was conducted using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a split plot arrangement with three replications. Different forms (C; control, I; inorganic, V; vermicompost, L; liquid vermicompost, T; vermicompost tea, ½ I + V2, ½ I + L3, and ½ I + T3) to be placed on the main plots and doses (V1; 1000, V2; 2000, V3; 3000, and V4; 5000 kg ha⁻¹, L1; 30, L2; 50, L3; 100 and L4; 150 kg ha⁻¹, T1; 150, T2; 250, T3; 500, and T4; 750 kg ha⁻¹) to be placed in split plots were selected randomly. When the results obtained in both years of the study were evaluated together, it was observed that the highest grain yield values were obtained from I, ½ I + V2, ½ I + L3, and ½ I + T3 applications (17833, 17207, 17536, and 16733 kg ha⁻¹ respectively). When yield and cost analysis results are evaluated, it is seen that ½ I + T3 fertilizer applications stand out compared to other applications.
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A field experiment was conducted at Karisalpatti village which is located at 8.60 0 latitude and 77.58 0 longitude in Cheranmahadevi block, Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu, South India in 2018 to evaluate the effect of Vermicompost (VC) an organic amendment for the sandy loam soil. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The aim of this study was to determine the Physico-Chemical and IR analysis of the soil by adding vermicompost (VC) and other organic manure like Farm yard manure(F) and Goat manure(GM) at different combinations and concentrations such as 7.5 t ha-1 , 12.5 t ha-1 , 17.5 t ha-1. The treatments of this study were applied on the soil and after 30 days of drip irrigation the soil was collected in each sample area and analysed in soil testing laboratory.
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أُجريت التجربة في هيكل البيت البالســــتيكي التابع لقســــم البســــتنة وهندســــة الحدائق كلية الزراعة والغابات – جامعة الموصــل للمدة من تشــرين األول -2019ِ إلى أيار -2020 ،لدراســة تأ ير التســميد العضـــوي والكيميائي في نمو وإزهار نباتات الشـــبوي .L incana Matthiola باســـتعمال بذور منتجة من قبل الشـــــركة اإليطالية Gulistan .وشـــــملت عاملين: العامل األول خمســـــة مســـــتويات وتضـــــمنت التســـــميد بالســـــماد العضـ ـ ــوي Vermicompost الصـــــل وبنســـــ 0 ،10 و15 %من وســـــ زراعة األصـيو و التسـميد بالسـماد العضـوي Vermicompost السـائل وبالتراكيز 5.0 و1 مل/لتر و العامل الثاني التســــميد بالســــماد الكيميائي Ipersol و بثال ة تراكيز هي 0 ،1 ،2 غم/أصــــيو ، نفذت التجربة العاملية باستعمال تصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة بثال ة مكررات ، وأشارت النتائج ِإلى اآلتي: 1 .أدت إضـافة سـماد الفيرميكومبوسـت ِإلى وسـ زراعة األصـو بنسـبة 10 %و15ِ %إلى الحصـول على أكبر القيم المعنوية الرتفاع النبات 382.45 , 929.44 ســـــــم وعدد الفروع 241.4 , 370.5 -1 فرع.نبـات وقطر الســــــــــا 181.5 , 263.5 ملم و الوزن الجـاف للمجموع الخضـ ــ ــ ــ ــري 944.6 , 247.7 غم، على التو الي في حين ســـــجلت أقل القيم لتلك الصــــــفات في معاملة المقارنة و التســـــميد بالفيرميكومبوست السائل بتركيز 5.0 و1 مل/لتر
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Food waste and leftovers were common materials that were currently used as bio-compost or soil conditioners upon decomposition. Food waste was a source of food that has declined nutritional value and is not deemed favorable for human consumption. Leftovers were defined as uneaten edible remains of a meal. Biodegradation of these components contributes to many macronutrients, including carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the compost, which makes it a suitable growing condition for plants. In this study, the main sources of research data were one hundred thirty-one scientific articles relating to food waste treatment methods and the growth quality of plants over the last few years. This review was the consensus of the role and characteristics of food waste and leftovers as fertilizers. Moreover, the paper briefly discusses the different composting methods for these materials and their corresponding effects on the growth quality of plants.
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Agriculture practices in monocropping need to become more sustainable and one of the ways to achieve this is to reintroduce intercropping. However, quantitative data to evaluate plant growth in intercropping systems are still lacking. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential to become a state-of-the-art technique for the automatic estimation of plant growth. Individual plant height is an important trait attribute for field investigation as it can be used to derive information on crop growth throughout the growing season. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of UAV-based RGB imagery combined with the structure from motion (SfM) method for estimating the individual plants height of cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat in an intercropping field during a complete growing season under varying conditions. Additionally, the effect of different percentiles and buffer sizes on the relationship between UAV-estimated plant height and ground truth plant height was examined. A crop height model (CHM) was calculated as the difference between the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM). The results showed that the overall correlation coefficient (R2) values of UAV-estimated and ground truth individual plant heights for cabbage, pumpkin, barley, and wheat were 0.86, 0.94, 0.36, and 0.49, respectively, with overall root mean square error (RMSE) values of 6.75 cm, 6.99 cm, 14.16 cm, and 22.04 cm, respectively. More detailed analysis was performed up to the individual plant level. This study suggests that UAV imagery can provide a reliable and automatic assessment of individual plant heights for cabbage and pumpkin plants in intercropping but cannot be considered yet as an alternative approach for barley and wheat.
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Among crop fertilizer practices with low impact on ecosystems, the use of organic materials such as vermicompost has been proposed. The object of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of a vermicompost, obtained from cattle manure and coffee pulp, to substrates for the growth of papaya plants. Two experiments were conducted under nursery and field conditions for 60 and 120 days, respectively. In the first one vermicompost was applied alone, while in the second it was applied along with a nitrogen fertilizer. The vermicompost was added in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% to a substrate made of rice hulls, coconut sawdust and thin sand (1:1:1). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied at decreasing ratios in order to keep a constant amount of this element. Both experiments were conducted under a randomized design with 6 treatments, 8 plants per plot and 3 replicates per experiment. The vegetative growth of the plants was evaluated through leaf area, plant height, stem thickness and total dry weight. The largest growth was found with the highest ratios of vermicompost without fertilizer addition, while when nitrogen was added, intermediate ratios were more efficient. The results show the benefits of vermicompost as a substrate amendment for vegetative growth of papaya plants under nursery and field conditions.
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A field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 1997-99 with forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in clay loam and medium fertile soil of semi-arid climate at Jhansi, to study the effect of organic and inorganic nutrients on its dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake and changes in fertility status of the soil. Application of 50% recommended dose of NP (40 kg N + 20 kg P 2O 5/ha) + vermicompost and farmyard manure @ 5 tonnes/ha recorded significantly higher dry-matter accumulation (25.35 g/plant and 30.19 g/plant at 50 and 75 days after sowing, respectively) and dry matter yield (11.2 tonnes/ha) over the other treatments. Maximum increase in dry matter (85-87%) was attained between 25 and 50 days after sowing, corresponding with highest crop-growth rate (0.90 g/plant/day) with this treatment. Application of vermicompost and farmyard manure recorded higher NP uptake than the other levels with inorganic sources only except the 100% recommended dose of NP. The residual build up of organic carbon and available NPK in soil improved with vermicompost was maximum followed by farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers.
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Interest in using alternative materials for potting substrate is increasing in response to availability and rising costs of peat and other conventional materials. Vermicompost (VC) is one such material. It is important to understand physical and chemical changes in potting substrate when amended with VC produced from different waste sources, pig (PVC) and beef cattle (BVC) manure in this study. Distribution of particles greater than 2 mm decreased, particles 0.5 to 1 mm increased, and particles less than 0.5 mm remained unchanged as PVC and BVC amendment increased. Dry bulk density and water-holding capacity increased with increasing PVC and BVC amendment. Porosity and air volume were inversely related to VC amendment, decreasing with increasing VC amendment. Saturated substrate extract sampling revealed nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron content as well as electrical conductivity increased with increasing PVC and BVC amendment.
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A field trial was conducted on upland rice (var, TRC-87-251) using different doses of vermicompost to determine its significance in yield of rice. The control plot received neither vermicompost nor chemical fertilizer. The experimental plots received three different treatments, viz. different doses of vermicompost, the same along with recommended doses of NPK and only NPK. Significant increase in both grain and straw yield coupled with improvement in soil aggregation, water use efficiency and nutrient uptake were recorded in vermicompost treated plots compared with the control and NPK treated plots. The effects of 10 to 15 tonnes vermicompost/ha and supplementation of NPK with 5-10 tonnes vermicompost/ha on grain and straw yield were not significantly different. Recommended doses of NPK along with 5 to 10 tonnes of vermicompost led to high increase in the uptake of nutrients. From this it could be deduced that a minimum of 10 tonnes vermicompost or 5 tonnes vermicompost plus NPK per hectare may bring about a significant increase in production of rice grain and straw respectively in upland paddy besides amelioration of the soil physicochemical properties.
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The effects of different amounts of vermicompost (0, 10, 20 and 30%) to sandy loam soil on growth, yield and chemical characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivar Virofly were investigated in an unheated greenhouse at the Horticultural Department the Guilan University, Rasht, Iran, during 2006 using Complete Randomized Design (CRD). The results showed that an addition of vermicompost to soil can increase plant height and number of leaves significantly. Spinach leaves and roots were highest when fertilized with vermicompost and lowest when the vermicompost was not supplied. The plants with 10% vermicompost added to soil gave significantly highest leaf area, potassium, phosphorus, total nitrogen, calcium and magnesium and nitrate-N in petioles and leaves, total soluble solids and microelements such as iron, copper, manganese and zinc.
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We evaluated the feasibility of incorporating vermicompost as a potting amendment into a commercial ornamental production system. Pansies (Viola × wittrockiana subsp. Delta) and primulas (Primula acaulis subsp. Oriental) were grown in peat-based conventional greenhouse medium substituted with 5%, 15% and 25% (v/v) commercial and pig slurry vermicompost. Vegetative growth and flowering were evaluated and compared to plants grown with 0% vermicompost. We observed a general reduction of growth in both species with increasing concentrations of commercial and pig slurry vermicompost. The highest percentage of vermicompost (25%) showed 20% of plant mortality, high levels of stress and damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as a significant reduction in the number and biomass of leaves and in flower production. Most likely, the increase in electrical conductivity and pH interacted synergistically with the decrease in air space produced after the application of vermicompost and were magnified under sub-irrigation, causing the observed effects on plant growth. Therefore the cultivation system must be taken into account when incorporating vermicompost as a growing media constituent in commercial conditions.
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Summary The effects of vermicomposts on plant parasitic, fungivorous and baterivorous nematode populations were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera) and strawberry (Fragaria ananasa) field crops. Commercially-produced vermicomposts derived from recycled paper, and supermarket food waste were applied to replicated plots at the rates of 2.5 t ha-1 or 5.0 t ha-1 for the grape crop and 5.0 t ha-1 or10 t ha-1 for the strawberry crops. All vermicompost treatments were supplemented with in- organic fertilizer to balance the initial availability of macronutrients especially N, to the crop in all plots. After extraction from soil samples in Baermann funnels, nematodes were identified to trophic levels under a stereomicroscope. Soils from all of the vermicompost-treated plots contained smaller populations of plant parasitic nematodes than soil from inorganic fertilizer-treated plots. Conversely, populations of fungivorous nematodes and to lesser extent bacterivorous nematodes in- creased in the vermicompost-treated plots in comparison with those in plots treated with inorganic fertilizers.
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The objective of the present work was to investigate in a field experiment the quantity and quality of rhizodeposits of different parental inbred lines (Lo1016 and Lo964, B73 and H99) and hybrids of Zea mays L. Rhizosphere soil was collected after 40 days and several properties were determined: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, acid and alkaline phosphatases, organic acids, bioavailable phosphorous, α-amino nitrogen, total phenols, total root-derived rhizodeposits. The results showed that heterosis induced more qualitative differences within the genotypes as δC, TOC and TN did not show any significant differences. The two groups of genotypes enhance phosphorous availability adopting two different strategies. In the first group, B73 × H99 shows the best phenological performance as well as the highest concentration of bioavailable P, result which is correlated with a high organic acid concentration (in particular succinic and acetic acid), total phenols, α-amino nitrogen and acid phosphatase activity. There is thus a strict relationship between the phenological superiority of this particular hybrid and its ability to modify the chemistry of its rhizosphere whereas the second hybrid (Lo1016 × Lo964) seems to have developed different strategies as for example changing the root morphology, stimulating microbial biomass or favouring mycorrhizal symbiosis.
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The trophic structure of soil arthropods in earthworm casts or vermicomposts produced by Eisenia fetida (Savigny) from paper waste, food waste and cow manure, and in field trials was studied during summer 1999. The numbers of soil arthropods in the soil were counted before treatment (as a control), in the vermicomposts, and after application of vermicomposts to soil in the field. The vermicomposts were applied to soil in rows of tomatoes and peppers, at rates of 4.5 ton ha–1, and the numbers of soil arthropods in trophic groups were compared with those in soil receiving conventional composts and inorganic fertilizers. All treatments received the same total amounts of nutrients. Most of the vermicomposts were rich in microbial biomass-N. There was a tendency for the application of inorganic fertilizers, and conventional compost, to tomato and pepper plots to decrease the numbers of trophic groups of soil arthropods. The applications of vermicomposts increased the number of trophic groups of soil arthropods.
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The effects of food waste vermicompost on populations of adult striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) and spotted cucumber beetles (Diabotrica undecim-punctata) on cucumbers and larval hornworms on tomatoes (Manduca quinquemacu-lata) were evaluated in both greenhouse and field experiments as well as damage caused. In the field, cucumber and tomato plants were grown, with two different application rates (1.25 and 2.5 t ha À1) of food waste vermicompost or inorganic fertilizer, in a complete randomized block design field experiment. All treatments were balanced for NPK. Field cucumber beetle populations were suppressed significantly on cucumber plants treated with food waste vermicompost at both application rates, compared with those on plants treated only with inorganic fertilizer. In the greenhouse, cucumber and tomato plants were grown in a soil-less medium MetroMix 360 (MM360) substituted with 0%, 20% or 40% food waste vermicompost, and exposed to standardized pest attacks in nylon mesh cages. In the greenhouse, both the 20% and 40% vermicompost substitution rates decreased damage by cucumber beetles to cucumber foliage and hornworms to tomato foliage significantly.
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Vermicompost (VC) is a nutritionally rich natural organic fertilizer, which releases nutrients relatively slowly in the soil. It improves quality of the plants along with physical and biological properties of soil, i. e., soil aeration, water-holding capacity and ecological balance of microbial soil biota. Aqueous extracts of vermicompost (AVC) inhibited spore germination of several fungi. They also affected the development of powdery mildews on balsam (Impatiens balsamina) and pea (Pisum sativum) caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe pisi, respectively, in the field at very low concentrations (0.1-0.5 %). Soil amendment with VC (1-5%) induced synthesis of phenolic acids in pea. Maximum phenolic acids were detected in pea plants treated with 4% VC followed by 3% as compared to control. The induction of phenolic acids in plants was correlated with the degree of resistance in treated as compared to non-treated (control) pea plants. The growth of plants grown in VC-amended soil was much better than the growth of plants raised in non-amended soil.
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We measured the growth of tomato plants in three kinds of horticultural potting media that were substituted with five different concentrations of vermicomposted pig manure. The potting media were Metro-Mix 360 (a standard soilless commercial plant growth medium), a peat/perlite mixture, and a coir/perlite mixture. Half of the potting media were watered with nutrient fertilizer while the other half received only water. Tomato plants grew better in 100 % vermicompost than in 100 % horticultural commercial medium. Substitution of 10 %, 25 %, and 50 % vermicompost for the same amounts of commercial medium stimulated plant growth, resulting in significant increases in plant height and root and shoot biomass. Adding 10 % and 20 % of vermicompost to either peat/perlite or coir/perlite mixtures also improved plant growth significantly over that in the unamended medium. Even when the plants were fertilized with all mineral nutrients needed, the growth of tomato plants in all of the potting media was enhanced significantly with the substitution of vermicompost, which suggests that factors other than nutrient availability are responsible for enhancing plant growth. Our results demonstrate that, for all three of the potting media that we used, substitution of these media with low concentrations of vermicomposts will promote plant growth.