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Abstract

Energy is one commodity on which the provision of goods and services depend. Its availability and consumption rate is an economic index to measure the development of any community. In Nigeria, there is a limitation to power supply from the National grid which has adversely affected the economic and social development of the populace. This really necessitates the need for decentralized power source as a viable alternative to which hydro power schemes readily fits in. Major rivers and dam's development provide an enviable energy potential for the exploitation of hydro energy in Nigeria. This study presents analysis of hydro power as renewable energy resource potentials in Nigeria with the status of the database including its adequacy and gaps. A detailed analysis of the technical and technological assessment, present demand and supply situation is also made.
... The current electric power generation falls below 4000MWwhich is 30% of the projected energy demand in the country. Inadequate fuel supply couples with security challenges are some of the reasons why the generation falls below 50% as more than 80% of the installed generation capacity are thermal power plants [2,3]. Apart from technical challenges encountered during power transmission and distribution, the issue of losses cannot be overlooked which account a waste of significant percentage of energy along the energy production chain. ...
... The power available from a hydropower scheme is dependent on the volume flowing in the system and its drop in height. The relationship is expressed by the commonly used power equation = eρgQH (2) Where GHP or P is power (Watts), e is the overall efficiency (%), ρ is the density of water (1,000 kg/m 3) , g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s 2 ), Q is the water discharge expected to pass through the turbine (m 3 /s), and H is the gross head (m). ...
Article
The quest for other alternative and sustainable energy prompted the feasibility assessment of Zobe dam meant for irrigation to produce electricity; In this write-up the scheme is designed to operate with two turbines; turbine T1 to operate all year round to take account of the irrigation need downstream, The second turbine T2 will operate on a spill discharge, and to be available for four months with a generation capacity of 0.969 MW. T1 is expected to discharge 55,500,000m3 within six months to cater for irrigation need with an average discharge rate of 3.6m3 /s. it was found that, the dam has the potential to generate a minimum 0.671MW all year round and a maximum of 1.5MW of power during Peak discharge period. The scheme was designed with minimum modification of the existing infrastructure at site which translate to minimum cost implication in construction, system operation and maintenance. Keywords: Economic transformation, Energy, hydropower, Irrigation farming, Zobe dam
... Hydropower is widely utilized all over the world as it provides multiple benefits to various countries. For example, Nigeria utilizes hydropower as a decentralized power source to solve the country's limited power supply [1]. On the other hand, China has built more than 47000 dams all over the country [2,3], including the biggest dam in the world namely the Three Gorges Dam which can produce up to 84.7 billion kilowatt-hours per year of electricity, equivalent to the amount of energy that could be produced by burning 50 million tons of coal [4]. ...
Article
Sarawak is a state in Malaysia that has many potential sites for hydropower dams as Sarawak houses many hilly areas which are yet to be developed. As a result, many hydropower dams were proposed in Sarawak. This paper reviews the environmental and social impacts of hydropower projects in Sarawak. The murky river waters of Sarawak contributed to a high level of sedimentation in the hydroelectric plant reservoirs which increases the emission of greenhouse gases through mineralization and indirectly affects the lifespan of a hydroelectric plant. The ecosystem is adversely affected by the loss of trees, destruction of habitat for flora and fauna, and the narrowing of rivers due to sedimentation. The construction of hydropower plants forces nearby indigenous communities to relocate, which are given compensation by the Sarawak government. The issues behind the relocation process are explored in this paper with further details. The communities that are affected by the construction of the hydropower dams will have to be displaced from their original lands; thus, the approach by the government to compensate the affected locals in Sarawak is explored in this paper.
... The frameworks for sustainable development and utilization of SHP across the globe that are well documented in different literatures present some information that are useful as guidelines and adaptation for implementing this SHP project at Jibia dam. Although SHP is still experiencing slow growth in its development in Nigeria, yet recent reviews have shown that Nigeria is blessed with huge hydropower potentials (Manohar and Adeyanju 2009) .With the difficulty of starting new small hydropower scheme from the scratch, this study desires to look into the feasibility of incorporating hydropower schemes in existing dams with other supplementary functions. ...
... 51 Large HP produce approximately 40% of Nigeria's total electricity production at 1,938,000 kW, while small HP generates about 30,000 kW. 51,52 To join the world's top 20 rapidly flourishing economies by 2020, Nigeria has targeted to expand its economy by 11% to 13%. The government has hydropower production targets of 6156 MW by 2020 and double-fold by 2030 to achieve this aggressive growth. ...
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Regardless of the challenges facing renewable energy development in today’s world, hydropower is still the most broadly patronized source of renewable energy, with a global installed capacity of 1330 GW in 2020. Hydropower contributes the largest share of the total installed renewable energy globally, accounting for more than 54% of renewable energy generation capacity worldwide. In this 21 st century, the quest for a global shift to a carbon-emission-free future has been epitomized by China through its way of overcoming some crucial challenges to becoming the number one hydropower producer in the world. China is currently the top exporter of its hydropower technology and expertise to a reasonably significant number of countries across the globe. Due to failed energy policy implementation, Nigeria, on the other hand, has been languishing in air pollution from fossil fuel energy generation due to poor and erratic electrical energy supply from the grid, despite its enormous hydropower potential. However, a resurgence of Nigeria’s National renewable energy and Energy Efficiency Policy in 2015 resulted in a consortium signed between China and Nigeria, placing China at the helm of reviving Nigeria’s hydropower industry, yielding some positive outcomes so far. A partnership between technologically advanced and undeveloped countries, particularly Africa, is required to overcome significant avoidable hydropower constraints towards attaining their full hydropower output potential. In this way, the imperative to guaranteeing a globally cleaner and more sustainable energy future is more reassuring.
... *Under refurbishment Total installed capacity of all sites in Nigeria is only 31. This is grossly inadequate given unharnessed potential of 743.2 in Table 5. (Manohar &Adeyanju, 2009) There are great potentials that need to be harnessed in small hydro renewable energy source as seen in the above table 6. Unt apped potential of 734.2 can augment the current energy insufficiency of the country . ...
Article
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It is an unacceptable contradiction that Nigeria is rich in numerous energy resources and occupies an enviable place in the global energy market but is perennially confronted with severe energy poverty and energy insecurity. It is significantly blessed with fossil, wind, sunlight, water, and other renewable energy resource alternatives. However, these enormous and varied potentials in the economy largely remain undiversified and hence, unexploited over the years. This situation is as a result of the overdependence and dominance of petroleum sector in the economy. This scenario is a fundamental problem that endangers the sustainable development efforts of the nation. This study making use of document analysis method identifies lacuna in the nation’s energy sector that needs to be filled. Accordingly, strategies towards promoting the use of clean energy sources are recommended for a sustainably diversified energy sector of the country.
... The waterfall software process model is adjudged one of the oldest of all the development models. Thus, a number of researches usually refer to it as the traditional model of software development [11]. ...
Article
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Software Engineering is a branch of Computer Science that evolved as a result of urgent need to deal with decades of software crisis, characterized by low theoretical knowledge and practice of the construction of error-free and efficient software. The introduction of well-organized scientific, engineering and management strategies in the process of software development no doubt led to major breakthroughs, and solutions to software failures. One of the obvious game-changer in this regard is the evolution of Software Development Life Cycle, also known as Software Process Model for driving the different phases of software construction. A sound understanding of the process model is therefore inevitable, not just for software developers, but also to users and researchers. Such a theoretical cum practical understanding will enhance decisions on which process model is best for a particular job or perspective. This invariably, contributes immensely to the probability of success or failure of the project in question. Thus, the necessity for this research. This work presents an unambiguous expository of selected software development model variants. A total of four process model variants were studied, in a theoretical, visual and analytical manner. The variants were analyzed using strength versus weakness (SVW) tabular scenario. This work was concluded by presenting guides towards choice of these models. This research is expected to be a useful reference to software practitioners and researchers.
... Presently, this is lacking for hydrokinetic energy as most of the assessments done in Nigeria are in support of conventional small hydropower generation as described in the chapter above. [Manohar and Adeyanju 2009]. and not for hydrokinetic generation. ...
Conference Paper
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Nigeria is endowed with a great amount of hydro potential in virtually all the rural communities across the country. About 50% of Nigeria’s population lives in the rural areas and only approximately 20% have access to electricity as a basic amenity in their daily life activities due to the low generation capacity of the national grid below the expected demand. It has been estimated that the national grid covers only approximately 30-40% of the total estimated demand of about 15000MW. When light falls in Nigeria’s subcontinent, majority of the community in the rural areas turn to candle or flammable and polluting carbon emitting kerosene lamps for illumination thereby exposing themselves to pollution and health hazard. Almost all the dams installed in Nigeria are located in these rural areas but mainly used for irrigation and other purposes. In Kano state of Nigeria for instance, there are about 17 number of dams all located in the rural areas. Most of these dams has all year round discharge with high volume of water with only two of the dams (Tiga and Challawa gorge) having electro-mechanical equipment’s (Turbine, governors and generators) installation on going and project not yet completed for electricity generation. A feasibility study carried out in one of the dams (Gari dam) has showed a great viability of a zero-head kinetic energy converters in the discharge canals of the dam. The neighbouring community have no access to the grid mainly due to vandalisation of the transmission lines and remote location of the dam. A demand analysis in the neighbouring village to the dam (Galadimawa Village) was carried out with village communities lacking basic infrastructure and social life due to no access to electricity. The community rely on backup generators for their daily business activities. On the other hand, hydrokinetic turbine has been known as a great kinetic energy converter in zero head flows. Conventional water wheels are also known to be good energy converters in to mechanical energy in the olden days. A need to revive such wheels for electricity generation is necessary in rural areas. In this research, we focus in to the way on which this zero head systems can be installed to harness energy from this flowing water in Nigerian rural areas. These hydrokinetic systems however will save us the high cost of civil works thereby making the project clean and cost effective. A pilot hydrokinetic turbine project was actually installed in river mada Nasarawa state of Nigeria by the National Agency for science and Engineering infrastructure (NASENI) Nigeria to close the gap of this loss potential in the water flows. In a research to determine the viability of such type of turbines in Nigeria, a water pool is designed as an experimental model to allow water to flow round the system using a pump. Different model turbine systems are designed with different blade angle and forms to ascertain the highest efficiency. The experimental model turbines resemble more of a conventional water wheel in an undershoot system setup. Comparing the values of the onsite experiment in Gari dam discharge channel and the experimental model would make us design a suitable system for energy harvesting in Nigeria. The actual performance analysis of the experimental model turbine is studied. Parameters of the turbine are analysed resulting a good result.
... Hydroelectric power alludes to the energy that can be captured from flowing water and is generated through a turbine, due to the mechanical conversion of energy into electricity in a highly efficient manner (Manohar and Adeyanju 2009). This energy is one of the oldest forms of renewable energy and has been employed in the form of water wheels since 200-400 b.c. in the near east (Reynolds 2002). ...
Thesis
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The increasing population and socio-economic growth of Nigeria, coupled with the current, unmet electricity demand, requires the need for power supply facilities expansion. Of all Nigeria’s electricity consumption by sector, the residential sector is the largest and growing at a very fast rate. To meet this growing demand, an accurate estimation of the demand into the future that will guide policy makers to adequately plan for the expansion of electricity supply and distribution, and energy efficiency standards and labeling must be made. To achieve this, a residential electricity demand forecast model that can correctly predict future demand and guide the construction of power plants including cost optimization of building these power infrastructures is needed. Modelling electricity demand in developing countries is problematic because of scarcity of data and methodologies that adequately consider detailed disaggregation of household appliances, energy efficiency improvements, and stock uptakes. This dissertation addresses these gaps and presents methodologies that can carry out a detailed disaggregation of household appliances, a more accurate electricity demand projection, peak load reduction, energy savings, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency in the residential sector of Nigeria. This study adopts a bottom-up and top-down approach (hybrid) supplemented with hourly end-use demand profile to model residential electricity consumption. and project efficiency improvement through the introduction of energy efficiency standards and labelling (EE S&L) under two scenarios (Business As Usual and Best Available Technology). A consumer life-cycle cost analysis was also conducted to determine the cost-effectiveness of introducing EE S& L to consumers. The results show significant savings in energy and carbon emissions, increased cooling demand due to climate uncertainty, and negative return on investment and increase lifecycle costs to consumers who purchase more efficient appliances. These results are subject to some level of uncertainties that are mainly caused by the input data. The uncertainties were analyzed based on a Monte Carlo Simulation. The uncertainties that were considered including the type of distributions applied to them were outlined and the result of the outputs were presented.
Article
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Just as the need for air is inevitable in our everyday existence, energy is consumed in every sector of any nation at every second. Due to the increase in technological advancements and high population growth rate, among other factors, in the world today, there is the need for more energy than in the past centuries. Therefore, one of the best solutions to address this issue of increasing energy demand in Nigeria is harnessing the enormous small hydropower potential sites that is scattered in many parts of the nation. It is unfortunate that out of over 278 potential sites with 734.3 MW potential capacity, Nigeria has yet explored only 37.0MW. It is noteworthy that the SHP scheme has its own challenges especially in developing nations. For instance, it is reported to have high capital investment. This challenge is offset by the fact that it incurs little operation and maintenance costs. It has very high payback ratio which proves it to be a cheap source of energy. Furthermore, it is a clean and local source of energy that is reliable, affordable and predictable due to the consistency in the availability of water in rivers and its ability to be integrated with existing projects. Such multi-purpose schemes that can be integrated with the SHP schemes while guaranteeing its primary function include; irrigation network, drinking water reservoirs, wastewater treatment plants, etc. It also has the potential to create many job opportunities and also enhance women development.
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