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Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning

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Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning
Fisher, Robert J
Journal of Consumer Research; Sep 1993; 20, 2; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 303
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... Respondents may give strategic responses because they want a particular project to be established (Carson & Groves, 2007). Further, social desirability bias may occur when responses are influenced by the desire to be viewed favorably by others (Fisher, 1993). However, the research team made it clear that the scenarios were hypothetical. ...
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Wild meat alternatives projects addressing unsustainable hunting by providing alternative foods to wild meat are commonplace across many parts of the Global South. However, understanding their possible conservation and social outcomes prior to implementation is vital, to ensure that they are well designed, that scarce funds are correctly directed, and that the intended outcomes of the project are achievable. We used scenario‐based interviews to explore the potential effects of six hypothetical wild meat alternatives projects in Cameroon on household rates of hunting and consumption over five years. We conducted 171 interviews across four rural villages around the Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon, and investigated how the alternative food offered, the addition of income‐generating opportunities, and the scale at which the project was implemented would affect people's willingness and ability to participate. Predicted household rates of hunting and consumption reduced the most under wild meat alternatives projects that offered both food and income‐generating activities. However, this depends on the project being offered at the household, rather than the community, level. Community‐level wild meat alternatives projects only resulted in marginal reductions in hunting and consumption compared to the current baseline and, as such, in this study area community‐level projects are unlikely to achieve their intended conservation goals. These results illustrate the importance of effective dialogue with communities to explore not only their preferences, but also the characteristics of preferred and successful wild meat alternatives projects, before the project design is finalized and implemented. Our findings provide an understanding of the characteristics of wild meat alternatives projects preferred by communities around the Dja Faunal Reserve, using a generalisable approach. We identify factors that may undermine the success of wild meat alternatives projects in rural areas, and provide guidance to conservation practitioners seeking to develop similar projects in future. It is vital to understand the possible conservation and social outcomes of alternatives prior to implementation. We used scenario‐based interviews to explore the potential effects of six hypothetical wild meat alternatives projects in Cameroon on household rates of hunting and consumption. Hunting and consumption reduced the most under projects that offered both food and income‐generating activities at the household level. Our findings provide an understanding of the characteristics of wild meat alternatives projects preferred by communities around the Dja Faunal Reserve, using a generalisable approach, and identify factors that may undermine the success of wild meat alternatives projects in rural areas.
... previous literature by Idris and Baker (2017) and Mamo (2012), who argued that inflation negatively affects economic growth. Fisher (1993) argued that inflation distorts the price mechanism, and it will affect the efficiency of resource allocation and hence negatively influence economic growth. Inflation erodes business confidence and may cause both local and international to shy away from countries with high inflation and vice versa. ...
... 'it is believed' or 'others think')was carefully discussed with the supervisors because there is evidence that Japanese people tend to choose their responses according to social desirability; it has also been reported that Japanese people tend to choose mid-points when five-point (Zax and Takahashi 1967) and seven-point scales (Chen et al. 1995) are applied in studies. To minimise this effect, Fisher (1993), reporting study findings in the USA, suggested indirect question formats rather than direct formats. ...
Thesis
p>The main research question is to investigate how perceptions of information provision are associated with the Quality of Life. Three studies were conducted, with participants being recruited from self-help groups in Japan. First a symptom checklist and physical discomfort scale in lymphoedema was developed. Test-retest reliability and the internal structure of the scale were investigated by a prospective study. Second, a qualitative study was conducted in order to explore perceptions of lymphoedema and how they were formed in the society. A dual analytic approach was applied to primary transcripts: thematic analysis and conceptual analysis using symbolic interactionism. Based on the findings of the conceptual analysis, a psycho-social discomfort scale was developed. Psychometric properties were investigated. The WHO QoL-BREF Japanese version was used to check criterion validity in a cross-sectional survey study. Test-retest reliabilities of the check list and physical discomfort scale were acceptable. Perceptions of information provision at diagnosis and loss of strength were associated with reported discomfort. The qualitative analysis revealed cognitive and emotional processes in breast cancer and lymphoedema. Experiences of lymphoedema were often interpreted in breast cancer contexts. The third study showed that the "breast cancer" subscales of the psycho-social discomfort scale had good internal consistency, and good convergent and divergent validity. However, the lymphoedema subscales had a weak internal structure. ‘Perceptions of information provision’ were associated with the ‘resources to live with breast cancer’ subscale. In conclusion, the validity of the symptom checklist, physical discomfort scales and breast cancer subscales were acceptable. Since the lymphoedema subscales had a weak internal structure, further work is needed in the development of the measure.</p
... Satisfaction of BPN at work was the postulated mediator. Autocratic leadership was measured using De Hoogh et al. (2009) (Fisher, 1993;Kim andKim, 2016a, 2016b), the questions in the PSM scale were asked in an indirect manner to reduce social desirability. All the constructs were measured using a 7-point Likert scale. ...
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Abstract Purpose - Public service motivation (PSM), among actual and prospective employees in the public sector, lead to positive work outcomes. However, there is limited integration of PSM with existing motivational theories, especially self-determination theory (SDT). The impact of destructive leadership styles on PSM is also understudied. The study aims to fill the gap. Methodology - The study used a cross-sectional survey of 693 public sector officials employed in Indian Railways to test the hypotheses. PLS-SEM was used for the analysis. The study found that fulfillment of basic psychological needs (BPN) at work leads to improved PSM while BPN partially mediates the positive/negative effect of constructive/destructive leadership styles like servant/autocratic leadership on employees’ PSM. Findings - Autocratic/servant leadership was negatively/positively and significantly related to PSM and to all three BPN needs. Servant leadership was found to be positively and significantly related to all three BPN needs, while the BPN needs partially mediated the relationship between servant leadership and PSM. Research limitations/implications - The study identifies servant leadership as a driver of PSM and suggests that managers employed in public sector establishments should be trained to be less autocratic and more attuned to subordinates’ needs. The baneful impact of autocratic leadership on employee PSM is highlighted. The cross-sectional nature of study makes it susceptible to common-method bias. The sample was limited to a single country. Future longitudinal and experimental studies based on samples drawn from multiple countries can yield more robust results. Originality - The study advances the integration of PSM with self-determination theory (SDT) by identifying PSM with introjected motivation. It is also the first study to link destructive leadership styles with a reduction in employees’ PSM. It identifies a counterintuitive, negative relationship between competence need satisfaction and PSM in the Indian public sector. Keywords: Public service motivation, leadership styles, self-determination theory, basic psychological needs, autocratic leadership
... After that, researchers have to deal with the implied bias in the data. Respondents tend to present themselves in a positive or expected way (Fisher, 1993;Rapley, 2007), which might misrepresent the information provided. In addition, interviews provide a retrospective version of past actions (Rapley, 2004). ...
Thesis
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This doctoral thesis investigates the work and skillset of graphic designers as described by companies in their job advertisements. The literature on design suggests that the role of designers is changing and they are now making a more strategic contribution to organisations. In the case of graphic design, the literature describes the work and skillset of graphic designers as being traditionally connected to delivering visual outcomes, such as designing posters, and being knowledgeable about typography and visual composition. In addition to that, and parallel to the expansion of the role of designers in general, graphic designers also work and have skills in areas such as business, research and technology (e.g. coding). The broad work and skillset of graphic designers pose challenges to both educators and practitioners in being able to keep themselves up to date on graphic designers' work. The studies of this doctoral thesis unveil the work and skillset of graphic designers mentioned in job advertisements from the UK, Finland and Brazil. This doctoral thesis investigates the job market for graphic designers in these different countries and assesses the variations between geographical contexts and their distinct design cultures, economic and educational infrastructures, while also drawing attention to their similarities. The results of the studies show that the work and skillset of graphic designers are broader than often typified. Graphic designers mainly deliver digital and print work. To deliver this type of work, however, graphic designers need to have not only visual design skills, but also skills commonly associated with other fields, such as 'business, 'project management' and 'research'. Another result of the studies is that they shed light on how the skillset is described when graphic designers move (1) from junior to senior level positions, (2) from in-house departments to a design consultancy (or vice versa) and (3) from traditional to digital graphic design functions (or vice versa). Overall, the results of the reported studies suggest that job advertisements reflect the past while also guide future developments in the field. For design practitioners and educators, job advertisements provide a proxy for understanding the job market that can shape educational activities and self-development efforts. For design researchers, job advertisements provide information about the qualifications sought by companies in design professionals and also about how much (or little) organisations know about a profession. For example, an organisation that believes designers should code would present 'coding' as one of the requirements in an advertisement. This thesis then suggests that design researchers should take advantage of the availability and coverage provided by job advertisements for investigating professional developments.
... Tout d'abord, l'ISSE a été calculé à partir de scores métiers se basant sur une classification américaine ne correspondant pas à la classification française établie par l'INSEE. Il existe aussi des biais inhérents à la cotation (Montreuil, 2009), l'un des plus célèbres étant le biais de désirabilité sociale (Fisher, 1993). Notons également que ce sont majoritairement des mères qui ont complété le questionnaire, ceci constituant un biais de recrutement. ...
Thesis
Contexte : La qualité de vie (QdV) des personnes autistes devrait être la cible ultime des interventions. Cette thématique de recherche reste peu développée, particulièrement chez les enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire.Objectifs : Cette étude vise à (a) développer un module adapté aux enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire destiné à être passé avec l’échelle de QdV Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0, version 2-4 ans), (b) évaluer les qualités métrologiques du PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans), dont la traduction française n’a pas été validée, et du module « autisme », et c) explorer les facteurs pouvant influencer la QdV des enfants autistes de ce groupe d’âge. Méthodes : Dix adultes autistes verbaux ont participé à un entretien semi-directif questionnant les critères qu’ils estimaient importants pour que leur vie soit satisfaisante lorsqu’ils étaient enfants. Une analyse de contenu thématique a fourni une première banque d’items pour le module « autisme ». Celle-ci a ensuite été évaluée par un panel d’experts et pré-testée auprès de dix parents d’enfants autistes. 279 parents d’enfants au développement typique d’âge préscolaire ont complété le PedsQLTM 4.0, et 157 parents d’enfants autistes du même âge ont rempli le PedsQLTM 4.0 ainsi que le module « autisme ». L’âge et le genre du parent participant et de leur enfant, l’état civil, le niveau d’éducation et la profession du parent, le lieu de résidence et la composition de la fratrie ont été récoltés auprès des deux échantillons. Le niveau de flexibilité psychologique des parents d’enfants autistes, ainsi que le tempérament de leur enfant ont été respectivement mesurés à l’aide du questionnaire d’acceptation et d’action (AAQ-II) et de l’outil « Émotivité, Activité et Sociabilité » (EAS).Résultats : L’analyse de contenu des entretiens a révélé quatre thèmes majeurs : intérêts, régularité de l’environnement, perception sensorielle et relations sociales. Ce dernier a été subdivisé en deux thèmes (interactions sociales et communication) et une première banque de 44 items découpés en cinq dimensions a pu être constituée. Suite à l’évaluation du panel d’experts et au pré-test, les 27 items retenus constituent le module opérationnel d’évaluation de la QdV adaptée à l’enfant autiste d’âge préscolaire perçue par le parent, et s’utilise conjointement avec le PedsQLTM 4.0 (version 2-4 ans). L’étude psychométrique (a) a montré que le PedsQLTM 4.0 pouvait être utilisé de façon fiable auprès des enfants français autistes ou ayant un développement typique, (b) a conduit à remanier la version opérationnelle du module « autisme » constitué en définitive de 24 items répartis en trois dimensions. L’analyse des facteurs a principalement révélé que la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire est associée négativement à son émotivité, cette relation étant influencée par la flexibilité psychologique du parent.Conclusion : Cette étude renseigne sur la QdV des enfants autistes d’âge préscolaire. Elle fournit un outil de mesure de la QdV adaptée à cette population. Celui-ci pourra être utilisé par les cliniciens pour évaluer les interventions précoces qu’ils mettent en œuvre. Enfin, les résultats de cette recherche permettent de mieux comprendre les facteurs d’influence de la QdV des jeunes enfants autistes, en ouvrant notamment des pistes d’intervention auprès de leurs parents.
... However, the items included in the tool were generated after evaluation of existing measures and patient feedback was then used to effectively optimize the SPUR tool. More generally, one of the main limitations of adherence tools is that they are particularly exposed to social desirability bias [19,20]. However, in the case of the SPUR tool, we aimed to limit this risk of bias by deliberately avoiding including items related to treatment compliance ("how many times did you take your medication", etc.). ...
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Background Long-term treatment adherence is a worldwide concern, with nonadherence resulting from a complex interplay of behaviors and health beliefs. Determining an individual’s risk of nonadherence and identifying the drivers of that risk are crucial for the development of successful interventions for improving adherence. Here, we describe the development of a new tool assessing a comprehensive set of characteristics predictive of patients’ treatment adherence based on the Social, Psychological, Usage and Rational (SPUR) adherence framework. Concepts from existing self-reporting tools of adherence-related behaviors were identified following a targeted MEDLINE literature review and a subset of these concepts were then selected for inclusion in the new tool. SPUR tool items, simultaneously generated in US English and in French, were tested iteratively through two rounds of cognitive interviews with US and French patients taking long-term treatments for chronic diseases. The pilot SPUR tool, resulting from the qualitative analysis of patients’ responses, was then adapted to other cultural settings (China and the UK) and subjected to further rounds of cognitive testing. Results The literature review identified 27 relevant instruments, from which 49 concepts were included in the SPUR tool (Social: 6, Psychological: 13, Usage: 11, Rational: 19). Feedback from US and French patients suffering from diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or breast cancer (n = 14 for the first round; n = 16 for the second round) indicated that the SPUR tool was well accepted and consistently understood. Minor modifications were implemented, resulting in the retention of 45 items (Social: 5, Psychological: 14, Usage: 10, Rational: 16). Results from the cognitive interviews conducted in China (15 patients per round suffering from diabetes, breast cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the UK (15 patients suffering from diabetes) confirmed the validity of the tool content, with no notable differences being identified across countries or chronic conditions. Conclusion Our qualitative analyses indicated that the pilot SPUR tool is a promising model that may help clinicians and health systems to predict patient treatment behavior. Further steps using quantitative methods are needed to confirm its predictive validity and other psychometric properties.
... Additionally, other reviewed studies are conducted in the laboratory. As detailed by DellaVigna (2009), laboratory experiments raise serious questions because subjects are time-inconsistent (Thaler, 1981), the results violate rational expectations (e.g., participants tend to overestimate their skills) (Camerer and Lovallo, 1999), and the experiments are likely to suffer from a social desirability bias that may deviate from actual behaviour (Fisher, 1993). One conclusion that researchers suggest to solve the problem of this mixed evidence is that future research on NCs and HCs should examine such claims on authentic packages in more realistic settings (Hieke and Taylor, 2012;Jaeger and Porcherot, 2017;Kaur et al., 2017;Lähteenmäki, 2013). ...
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This systematic literature review collected and summarized research on consumer preferences and the purchase behaviour of food products with nutritional claims (NCs) and health claims (HCs), to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. First, considering that consumer behaviour is affected by a wide range of factors, to narrow the research we used a theoretical framework and divided the determinants of the effects of NCs and HCs on consumers’ preferences and purchasing behaviour into consumer characteristics, product characteristics, and consumers’ personal processes, using the quality perception process. Second, since most studies were conducted within the European Union (EU), we collected the scientific literature from 2006, when the law on NCs and HCs was harmonized in the EU, until September 2020. This same period was used to scan for other studies outside EU who used similar terminology on NCs and HCs. In total, 125 articles were found to be relevant for further analysis. The results showed that consumer characteristics such as familiarity, nutritional knowledge, motivation, and demographics affected choices. Extrinsic product characteristics, such as price, brand, colour, packaging shape and NCs and HCs, affected purchase decisions. Taste was the most important intrinsic characteristic, and consumers are not willing to sacrifice the pleasure of sensory function for health benefits. Perceived healthiness, understanding of the claims, liking and use were important factors that affected consumers’ personal processes in purchasing food with NCs and HCs. A challenge for future research is to consider exploiting new technologies and more realistic experimental methods to provide information that represents as close as possible consumers’ behaviour in real-life situations.
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Increasing use of recycled water to irrigate agricultural products and decreasing consumption of bottled water are important components of sustainable water management practices and consumer‐driven efforts to improve water security and quality. However, consumers frequently discount agricultural products irrigated with recycled water relative to products irrigated with conventional water and place a premium on bottled water relative to tap water. This study measures consumer attitudes regarding recycled water and bottled water to understand more fully the reasons behind these preferences. We conduct two studies involving 2,616 adult consumers in the United States designed to measure consumer attitudes and preferences: the use of recycled water versus conventional water to irrigate food products and tap water versus bottled water for drinking. In each study, implicit attitudes are measured using an Implicit Association Test as well as explicit attitudes. We find that respondents have negative implicit attitudes regarding recycled water compared to conventional water and tap water compared to bottled water, and a negative explicit attitude toward recycled water. Tap water and food grown with recycled water were believed to be less healthy to consume and less tasty, although these are believed to be more sustainable options. Beliefs about water attributes (i.e., healthfulness, taste, and sustainability) are associated with attitudes, and both beliefs about attributes and attitudes are associated with preferences for products. Further, we find that respondents' stated preferences are consistent with their implicit and explicit attitudes.
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A decline in the monarch butterfly population led the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acknowledge monarchs should be listed under the 1973 Endangered Species Act. This research evaluates farmer interest in restoring monarch habitat on their non‐cropped acres to help circumvent such a listing. Results suggest that efforts to promote habitat restoration on non‐cropped acres should focus on voluntary participation and make programs as easy as possible through design and technical assistance. The results also suggest that even a successful program can only provide a small fraction of the habitat needed to meet current restoration goals.
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