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Conditioned Reflexes

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... Classical conditioning theory (Pavlov 1927), 553 15 ...
... Many theories have an evolving nature, and new theories often emerge by adding a new element or perspective to an existing theory. For example, most of the learning and conditioning theories originate from the classical conditioning theory by Pavlov (1927). The theory of planned behavior is a theory that added the concept of perceived behavioral control on top of the existing theory of reasoned action (Icek Ajzen 1991; Adjei and Behrens 2012). ...
... The authors are grateful to the Economic and Social Research Council and the Cambridge Humanities Research Grant for financial support and to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. Connectionism; Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944); I Ajzen (1985); Olson (1965); Ostrom (1997); Coase (1937); Mazur (1987); Thaler and Sunstein (2008); Knight (1921); Deci and Ryan (1985); Zadeh (1965); Hamilton (1964); Pavlov (1927); Kahneman and Tversky (1979); Rosenstock (1966); Kauffman (1993); Marshall (1890); Simon (1982); E. Rogers (1962); Latour (2005); Skinner (1938); Festinger (1957); Watson (1913); J. Smith and Price (1973); Bandura (1986); Jensen and Meckling (1976); Markowitz (1952); Carpenter and Grossberg (1987);Freeman (1984); Tanner and Swets (1954); R. Rogers (1975); Ostrom (1990); A. Smith (1759); Bandura (1977); Gonzalez, Lerch, and Lebiere (2003); Edwards (1961); Putnam (1993); Venkatesh and Davis (2000); Bernoulli (1954); Arrow (1951);Oliver (1980); Liberman and Trope (1998);Von Hippel (1986); Dickinson and Oxoby (2011);Bell (1982); Lashley (1951); Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990); Pfeffer and Salancik (1978); Spencer et al. (2007); Thibaut and Kelley (1959); Allais (1953); Stern et al. (1999); Maskin and Sjöström (2002);Camerer, Ho, and Chong (2004); Wiseman and Gomez-Mejia (1998) ;Shove, Pantzar, and Watson (2012); Westaby (2005); Guo (2011); Shefrin and Statman (2000); and Baumol and Bradford (1970). 3. eXtensible Markup Language (XML), JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and Rich Site Summary and Really Simple Syndication (RSS). ...
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The term “behavioral” has become a hot topic in recent years in various disciplines; however, there is yet limited understanding of what theories can be considered behavioral theories and what fields of research they can be applied to. Through a cross-disciplinary literature review, this article identifies sixty-two behavioral theories from 963 search results, mapping them in a diagram of four groups (factors, strategies, learning and conditioning, and modeling), and points to five discussion points: understanding of terms, classification, guidance on the use of appropriate theories, inclusion in data-driven research and agent-based modeling, and dialogue between theory-driven and data-driven approaches.
... In the past century however, many theories were developed to explain behavior change focusing solely on the individual level and coming from biology, medicine and psychology. This started with Pavlov (1927), whose theory on classical conditioning showed that creating or changing personal associations can be used to influence behavior [38]. Subsequently, other scientists developed theories explaining behavior change. ...
... In the past century however, many theories were developed to explain behavior change focusing solely on the individual level and coming from biology, medicine and psychology. This started with Pavlov (1927), whose theory on classical conditioning showed that creating or changing personal associations can be used to influence behavior [38]. Subsequently, other scientists developed theories explaining behavior change. ...
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Despite policy intentions and many interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic health inequalities in recent decades in the Netherlands and other affluent countries, these inequalities have not been reduced. Based on a narrative literature review, this paper aims to increase insight into why socioeconomic health inequalities are so persistent and build a way forward for improved approaches from a theoretical perspective. Firstly, we present relevant theories focusing on individual determinants of health-related behaviors. Thereafter, we present theories that take into account determinants of the individual level and the environmental level. Lastly, we show the complexity of the system of individual determinants, environmental determinants and behavior change for low socioeconomic position (SEP) groups and describe the next steps in developing and evaluating future effective approaches. These steps include systems thinking, a complex whole-system approach and participation of all stakeholders in system change.
... One possible reason for relapse is that drug-related cues may trigger strong craving and arousal as described in the clinical anecdotes at the opening of the chapter. In the authors' view, the cues may acquire the "triggering" properties through classical, or Pavlovian, conditioning (Pavlov 1927). In this type of learning, stimuli reliably signaling arrival of the drug could acquire the ability to later elicit special drug- related responses such as those described in the opening paragraphs. ...
... The study of conditioned cue reactivity began, appropriately, with Pavlov. He first described the ability of cues that had reliably signaled the injection of a drug, morphine, to later trigger drug-like responses that resembled the effects of morphine itself (Pavlov 1927). In the late 1940's, Wikler (1948) was the first to suggest that certain kinds of conditioned drug-related responses might play a clinical role in relapse to drug use. ...
... With repeated presentations of the cue in the absence of the outcome, the associative value approaches zero. Extending the R-W to conditioned inhibition, one of the most common inhibitory training procedures is to intersperse reinforced trials of one cue (CS+) with nonreinforced trials of that cue in compound with the intended conditioned inhibitor (CS−), a procedure known as Pavlovianconditioned inhibition training (Pavlov, 1927). The R-W model uses a global error correction rule; therefore, the update mechanism for each trial takes into account the total associative value over all stimuli present on that trial and applies that correction term to each stimulus based on how well the total associative strength of all stimuli present predicted the actual outcome. ...
... We suggest that collectively these findings suggest a parallel between renewal and Pavlovianconditioned inhibition. The present series was designed to explore that parallel by taking a closer look at the apparent resistance to extinction of conditioned inhibition produced using Pavlov's (1927) procedure. Renewal differs from Pavlovian-conditioned inhibition in that it involves phasic reinforcement and nonreinforcement rather than the interspersed training trials typically used in conditioned inhibition training, and the potential inhibitor during renewal is contextual rather than punctate. ...
Article
Conditioned inhibitors have been shown to be largely unaffected by non-reinforced exposure (i.e., extinction treatment). Although excitatory associations are readily diminished by extinction treatment, so-called inhibitory associations appear to be largely immune to them. In two fear-conditioning experiments with rats, it was found that a decrease in inhibitory control can result from a massive number of extinction exposures to the inhibitor. Experiment 1 provided evidence that extinction treatment attenuated negative summation between the potential inhibitor and a transfer excitor. However, the extinction treatment had no influence on responding to the original training compound, indicating that some stimulus-specific inhibitory potential remained even after massive extinction. Experiment 2 indicated that retarded excitatory acquisition to the inhibitory stimulus observed after extinction treatment of the inhibitor is no greater than that following a similar amount of stimulus pre-exposure without prior inhibition training (i.e., latent inhibition). The findings indicate that inhibitory associations can be extinguished with large numbers of extinction trials, but they appear to be much more resistant to extinction than excitatory associations.
... Extinction was first described by Pavlov (Pavlov (1927)), using an "alimentary" conditioning paradigm, in which conditioned stimuli were paired with the presentation of food or acid, both of which elicited salivation as the unconditioned response (UR). Pavlov showed that the conditioned response (CR) declined in strength when the CS was repeatedly presented without the US. ...
... One of Pavlov's most influential conclusions was that extinction reflects neither a wholesale loss of the CS-US association nor fatigue of the sensory or motor systems. This conclusion was based on evidence that the CR could return after extinction without additional training, which was termed spontaneous recovery (Pavlov, 1927). This indicates that extinction does not abolish the associative link between the CS and US. ...
Article
Every day we are bombarded by stimuli that must be assessed for their potential for harm or benefit. Once a stimulus is learned to predict harm, it can elicit fear responses. Such learning can last a lifetime but is not always beneficial for an organism. For an organism to thrive in its environment, it must know when to engage in defensive, avoidance behaviors and when to engage in non-defensive, approach behaviors. Fear should be suppressed in situations that are not dangerous: when a novel, innocuous stimulus resembles a feared stimulus, when a feared stimulus no longer predicts harm, or when there is an option to avoid harm. A cardinal feature of anxiety disorders is the inability to suppress fear adaptively. In PTSD, for instance, learned fear is expressed inappropriately in safe situations and is resistant to extinction. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of suppressing fear responses during stimulus discrimination, fear extinction, and active avoidance, focusing on the well-studied tripartite circuit consisting of the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
... when paired with an outcome (e.g., food), the conditioning of the weaker CS (X) will be weaker, it is said to be "overshadowed" (Pavlov, 1927). If A was previously trained to predict food, it will further "block" the amount of conditioning X will have for food. ...
... For example, when AX is paired with shock (US), CSA and CSX will gain less associative strength each than if they were separately paired with the same US. This phenomenon is overshadowing (Pavlov, 1927). ...
Article
Associative learning phenomena have been widely used to understand the deficits in selective attention in schizophrenia by using the personality trait, schizotypy, as a proxy. However, other personality traits such as anxiety and the Big 5 personality traits have been under-looked despite a comorbidity between schizophrenia/schizotypy and anxiety as well as the psychopathology links of the Big 5 traits. Moreover, there is evidence of different thinking styles exhibited by different cultures (e.g., individualistic and collectivistic cultures), where the majority of members in an individualistic culture learn and think in an analytical/elemental manner while the majority of members in a collectivistic culture have a predisposition to think and learn holistically/configurally. It is therefore proposed that other personality traits and cultural differences in thinking/learning can explain conflicting evidence found in the schizotypy and associative learning literature. Previous studies of variations in attention-driven associative learning have demonstrated an emphasis on latent inhibition and less so on blocking and learned predictiveness. Furthermore, there are very few studies that have attempted to reproduce two learning effects within the same individual. Therefore, Study 1 aimed to create a paradigm which can generate the effects of blocking and learned predictiveness within the same participant to first, fill the gap in the literature, and second, to develop a better, converging, understanding of the role of attention in learning. The results of this study found an effect of learned predictiveness but no effect of blocking. It was proposed that the effect of learned predictiveness somehow masked the effect of blocking, so Study 2 aimed to replicate the previous study but with only the blocking trials. The results still showed no blocking effect despite the removal of the learned predictiveness trials. There was a possibility that a within-compound association effect was the reason why blocking was not found. Therefore, in Study 3, the design of Study 2 was replicated but now with an addition of a Stage 3 where the blocked stimuli’s contingencies were switched, and if there really was a within-compound association, the ratings for these blocked stimuli would be reduced compared to the first test stage. The results showed at test stage 1, the ratings for the control stimuli were lower than the blocked stimuli, replicating results of Study 2. At test stage 2, with a change in contingency from Stage 3, the ratings for the blocked stimuli were reduced but it was still higher than the control stimuli, suggesting a within-compound association. Study 4 aimed to use a simpler blocking design (Kamin, 1969) to determine if the previous design used was too complicated. While there the ratings for the control stimuli were higher than the blocked stimuli, a paired samples t-test revealed no significance. The results from Studies 1-4 can be explained using acquired distinctiveness/acquired equivalence theories and the redundancy effect. Since attempts to demonstrate a blocking effect throughout Study 1 to 4 failed, Study 5 aimed to generate the effects of latent inhibition and learned predictiveness using a letter prediction task (Granger et al., 2016) and a food allergist task (Le Pelley and McLaren, 2003). Personality traits including the Big 5, schizotypy and anxiety were also measured. The participants were divided into individualistic and collectivistic groups using Hofstede’s database which sorts individuals via their nationalities. The results initially showed that participants, overall, exhibited both latent inhibition and learned predictiveness. When split by culture, only participants from the individualistic group showed both effects while participants from the collectivistic group showed only latent inhibition. There was also no correlation between latent inhibition and learned predictiveness overall and within groups. Moreover, there was an effect of impulsive nonconformity that was related to a greater magnitude of latent inhibition in the individualistic group. It was also found that participants high in conscientiousness from the individualistic group learned more about the relevant stimuli in the learned predictiveness task but participants from the collectivistic group learned about the relevant stimuli less. There was no evidence of anxiety predicting latent inhibition or learned predictiveness. Since Study 5 was exploratory by nature, Study 6 aimed to replicate the findings but specifically focussing on the relationship between personality traits and culture in latent inhibition. It could be seen from the results of this current study that latent inhibition was observed in both the individualistic and collectivistic group, replicating Study 5. This study was also conducted online due to Covid-19 and the results demonstrated that there was no difference in response times between the lab-based task and this online version. The effect of impulsive nonconformity predicting enhanced latent inhibition in participants from the individualistic group found in Study 5 was not replicated. Instead, it was revealed that conscientiousness predicted latent inhibition in the individualistic group and openness predicted latent inhibition in the collectivistic group. There was again no evidence of anxiety being related to the magnitude of latent inhibition. Study 7 was a replication of Study 5, but specifically investigating the relationship between the Big 5, schizotypy and cultural orientation and learned predictiveness. Since there were limitations to sorting participants into individualistic and collectivistic groups with their nationalities (Cohen, 2009; Kitayama and Uskul, 2011; Maisuwong, 2012), a cultural orientation questionnaire (Sharma, 2010) was employed to provide a more accurate measure of trait individualism and collectivism to provide further validity to the results found. The results showed a learned predictiveness effect in the individualistic group but not the collectivistic group, replicating results from Study 5. The effect of conscientiousness predicting the learning of relevant stimuli was not replicated but an effect of extraversion positively predicting the learning of irrelevant stimuli was found within the collectivistic group. There was also an effect of introvertive anhedonia negatively predicting the learning of irrelevant stimuli in the collectivistic group. The final chapter of this thesis begins with a summary of results from all the studies. It then discusses how the individual and cultural differences exhibited by participants influenced the results throughout Studies 1-7 and provides suggestions as to why evidence from previous literature was not always consistent. The strengths and limitations faced in this thesis are discussed and suggestions for future research described.
... A widespread and well-established example is the process of associative conditioning in which an external stimulus that is repeatedly presented just before a significant event comes to represent that event and to evoke the response previously associated with it. A simple non-linguistic example is that of 'classical' or 'Pavlovian' conditioning famously demonstrated in dogs by I. P. Pavlov (1927) in which an auditory stimulus frequently associated with a subsequent event such as the delivery of food can itself in due course elicit salivation. Interestingly, Charles Richet 'was very close to formulating classical conditioning, before Pavlov, as he demonstrated in 1878 a psychic reflex that produced an abundant flow of pure gastric juice on a fifteen-year-old boy' (Evrard et al. 2021; final paragraph page 10). ...
... Interestingly, Charles Richet 'was very close to formulating classical conditioning, before Pavlov, as he demonstrated in 1878 a psychic reflex that produced an abundant flow of pure gastric juice on a fifteen-year-old boy' (Evrard et al. 2021; final paragraph page 10). It is important here to note that Pavlov also considered spoken language and its consequences as the best example of a conditioned response in humans (Pavlov 1927). As part of their evolutionary progression, humans have become a symbolic species and are distinguished from other animal species in communicating via a formally constructed language, although some rudimentary grammatical understanding is present in our closest primate relatives (Seidenberg and Petitto 1987). ...
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Recent information technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) allow the creation of simulated sensory worlds with which we can interact. Using programming language, digital details can be overlaid onto displays of our environment, confounding what is real and what has been artificially engineered. Natural language, particularly the use of direct verbal suggestion (DVS) in everyday and hypnotic contexts, can also manipulate the meaning and significance of objects and events in ourselves and others. In this review, we focus on how socially rewarding language can construct and influence reality. Language is symbolic, automatic and flexible and can be used to augment bodily sensations e.g. feelings of heaviness in a limb or suggest a colour that is not there. We introduce the term ‘suggested reality’ (SR) to refer to the important role that language, specifically DVS, plays in constructing, maintaining and manipulating our shared reality. We also propose the term edited reality to encompass the wider influence of information technology and linguistic techniques that results in altered subjective experience and review its use in clinical settings, while acknowledging its limitations. We develop a cognitive model indicating how the brain’s central executive structures use our personal and linguistic-based narrative in subjective awareness, arguing for a central role for language in DVS. A better understanding of the characteristics of VR, AR and SR and their applications in everyday life, research and clinical settings can help us to better understand our own reality and how it can be edited.
... The term "conditioning" refers to the modification of behaviour through the setting up of an association between two processes or events. There are two forms of conditioning: Classical, in which a stimulus is paired with a response e.g. a dog might be conditioned to salivate in response to the sound of a bell (Pavlov, 1927); and Operant, in which trainees learn that a particular response will be followed by a particular consequence or action eg. a caged rat might be operantly conditioned to press a lever to obtain food (Skinner, 1938). ...
Thesis
p>This thesis addresses the questions of cause and effect in Raynaud's symptomatology (the former theoretically; the latter through questionnaire and interview), describes medical and behavioural approaches to treatment, and investigates the effect of one behavioural approach to the management of symptoms. The subjective effects of Raynaud's are often ignored in the literature; therefore, pilot interviews with 4 patients were used in the design of a larger scale (79 participants) questionnaire based description of Raynaud's through the eyes of the sufferer. Results described three areas of interest: symptoms; the onset of Raynaud's and 'vasospastic' attacks; and the subjective effects of symptoms. Amongst other details, results suggested that for many sufferers the term attack is inappropriate as symptoms are continuous. The treatment investigation consisted of a longitudinal, controlled comparison of the efficacy of Autogenic Training and Applied Relaxation with or without supplementary EMG or Temperature Biofeedback in 30 Raynaud's trainees and 10 Raynaud's controls. A cognitive model of biofeedback was adopted such that rather than being viewed as a treatment in its own right, EMG or temperature biofeedback signals 'fed back' to participants provided an insight into the effects on skin temperature control of the taught relaxation technique. 6 or 0 (control participants) training sessions were provided, and results evaluated across 3 sets of pre-, post- and follow-up assessments. The results indicated that whilst the treated participants reported subjective improvement at both post-treatment and follow-up assessment, objective laboratory tests of voluntary control of finger skin temperature and cold stress, and ambulatory monitoring tests of finger skin temperature away form the laboratory, provided no such evidence of efficacy of treatment.</p
... Secteur à l'étude : secteur de l'alimentaire Source : Auteurs3. Le modèle SORLe modèle Stimuli -Organisme -Réponse a été proposé par Woodworth en 1929, comme extension ou adjonction au modèle classique Stimuli -Réponse(Pavlov, 1927). Il s'agit d'un modèle explicatif du comportement du consommateur qui prend en compte le rôle des facteurs situationnels et personnels du consommateur. ...
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With the advent of social media and the growth of Instagram in recent years, a new key figurehas emerged the influencer. Due to his effectiveness and his ability to persuade, more and more companies are calling on these modern-day opinion leaders to shape their image, promote their products or even encourage customers to buy. Instagram is now the preferred platform for marketing teams, who attach a particular importance to this platform in their marketing mix. The choice of the influencers for these companies is crucial in the success of their marketing strategies. That is why marketing research is increasingly focusing on the attributes of influencers and the mechanisms they use to influence the decision-making process of their followers. This is about understanding the process by which consumers adopt the tourist trips recommended by influencers on Instagram. The objective of this article is to propose a conceptual model, based on the SOR (stimuli -organism -response) model, which aims to theoretically examine how the stimuli generated by influencers through their publications impact the purchase intention of the followers. Thus, the visual presentation of the content and its informative value are retained as powerful stimuli shaping the perception that followers have of the influencer. In addition, this model suggests considering the credibility of the influencer and the perceived homophily between the influencer and his audience as mediators in the influencer-follower relationship. This global and systemic model allows a better understanding of the phenomenon of influence in a sector hitherto little covered by the literature: tourism.
... Experiment 1 (see Table 1) was designed to conceptually replicate, now with additional control conditions, Amundson et al.'s (2008) observation with rats that numerous perceptual learning trials (i.e., XB/AB) attenuated subsequent overshadowing of CS X by CS A. In an overshadowing treatment (e.g., Pavlov, 1927), a target cue (X) is paired with a US in compound with a second cue (A; i.e., AX-US) and ordinarily results in reduced responding to X relative to X having been paired alone with the US (i.e., X-US). Critically, Amundson et al. found that XB/AB trials prior to overshadowing treatment attenuated overshadowing of X by A, but XB/AC trials did not. ...
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Exposure to a set of complex stimuli yields an enhanced ability to discriminate between these stimuli. In previous experimental studies, two distinguishable stimuli, X and A, were each repeatedly paired with a common Stimulus B to create compound Stimuli XB and AB. Prior evidence suggests that unique Features X and A form mutually inhibitory associations. This was evidenced by pairing Feature A with a biologically relevant stimulus (i.e., an unconditioned stimulus [US]) and observing that Stimulus X alone later serves to inhibit anticipatory behaviors for that US. These observations may reflect the mutually inhibitory nature of the two Features X and A. However, by assessing the influence of X on behavior that anticipates the US rather than Feature A, these experiments tested inhibition only indirectly. In the present experiments, a more direct measure of inhibition is proposed and tested with rats. We found evidence of retardation and negative summation of associations between unique Features X and A in their capacity to serve as competing cues during overshadowing treatments. Stimulus X was less susceptible to overshadowing by A (which is indicative of retardation of the establishment of an X–A within-compound association) and was able to suppress overshadowing by A of another stimulus (Y) when X was presented with Y at test (which is indicative of negative summation of the representation of A by X). Thus, XB/AB trials were seen to establish an inhibitory relationship between X and A.
... The capacity to solve discriminations has been demonstrated in species ranging from planaria (Hennesey, Rucker, & McDiarmid, 1979) to humans (e.g., Wasserman, 1990), and understanding how discriminations are solved constitutes one of psychology's most enduring theoretical endeavours (e.g., Pavlov, 1927;Spence, 1936). One topic that has repeatedly been considered in discussion of discrimination learning concerns the fate of cues that are present during a discrimination, but are irrelevant to its solution. ...
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In four experiments, participants were shown a sequence of pairs of pictures of food and asked to predict whether each pair signalled an allergic reaction in a hypothetical patient. The pairs of pictures were used to present two simple discriminations that differed in their outcome ratio. A rich discrimination, 3AX+ BX−, involved three trials in which the compound of two foods, AX, was followed by a reaction, for every trial in which the compound BX was not followed by the outcome. A lean discrimination, CY+ 3DY− was based on the opposite outcome ratio. Upon the completion of this training, participants were asked to rate how likely an individual food would be followed by the allergic reaction. In each experiment, the rating for X was stronger than for Y. This outcome ratio effect poses a challenge for theories of learning that assume changes in associative strength are governed by a common error term, based on the significance of all the cues present on a trial. Instead, the results are consistent with the assumption that changes in associative strength are governed by an individual error term, based on the significance of a single cue.
... absence of the outcome to eventually produce a new CS association, at which point cue associability diminishes as the absence of the outcome is fully predicted (Pearce and Hall, 1980). Yet learning by omission seems to be a rather passive strategy to generate a competitive long-term extinction memory, as evidenced by a century of research on postextinction recovery of conditioned behaviors (Pavlov, 1927;Bouton, 2002;Rescorla, 2004). The imbalance between conditioning and extinction is especially evident in threat learning, where there is an evolutionarily conserved bias toward anxiety conservation (Solomon and Wynne, 1954;Bate- son et al., 2011) to ensure that threat associations are maintained "just in case." ...
Article
Standard fear extinction relies on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to form a new memory given the omission of threat. Using fMRI in humans, we investigated whether replacing threat with novel neutral outcomes (instead of just omitting threat) facilitates extinction by engaging the vmPFC more effectively than standard extinction. Computational modeling of associability (indexing surprise strength and dynamically modulating learning rates) characterized skin conductance responses and vmPFC activity during novelty-facilitated but not standard extinction. Subjects who showed faster within-session updating of associability during novelty-facilitated extinction also expressed better extinction retention the next day, as expressed through skin conductance responses. Finally, separable patterns of connectivity between the amygdala and ventral versus dorsal mPFC characterized retrieval of novelty-facilitated versus standard extinction memories, respectively. These results indicate that replacing threat with novel outcomes stimulates vmPFC involvement on extinction trials, leading to a more durable long-term extinction memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Psychiatric disorders characterized be excessive fear are a major public health concern. Popular clinical treatments, such as exposure therapy, are informed by principles of Pavlovian extinction. Thus, there is motivation to optimize extinction strategies in the laboratory so as to ultimately develop more effective clinical treatments. Here, we used functional neuroimaging in humans and found that replacing (rather than just omitting) expected aversive events with novel and neutral outcomes engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during extinction learning. Enhanced extinction also diminished activity in threat-related networks (e.g., the insula, thalamus) during immediate extinction and a 24 h extinction retention test. This is new evidence for how behavioral protocols designed to enhance extinction affects neurocircuitry underlying the learning and retention of extinction memories.
... Generalization of conditioned contexts to similar yet novel contexts (and generalization to stimuli similar to, but different, from the original conditioned stimuli) occurs to facilitate approaching likely rewards and the avoidance of potentially dangerous situations. The concept of stimulus generalization and its importance for understanding behavior has existed since the work of Pavlov (Pavlov 1927) and was advanced by cognitive psychologists, including Eleanor Rosch (Rosch 1978) among others. Issues surrounding stimulus generalization are central to understanding the development of mood and anxiety disorders in humans (Dunsmoor and Paz 2015). ...
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Emotional responses are not static but change as a consequence of learning. Organisms adapt to emotional events and these adaptations influence the way we think, behave, and feel when we encounter similar situations in the future. Integrating recent work from rodent models and research on human psychopathology, this article lays out a model describing how affective events cause learning and can lead to anxiety and depression: affective events are linked to conditioned stimuli and contexts. Affective experiences entrain oscillatory synchrony across distributed neural circuits, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, which form associations that constitute the basis of emotional memories. Consolidation of these experiences appears to be supported by replay in the hippocampus—a process by which hippocampal firing patterns recreate the firing pattern that occurred previously. Generalization of learning occurs to never before experienced contexts when associations form across distinct but related conditioned stimuli. The process of generalization, which requires cortical structures, can cause memories to become abstracted. During abstraction, the latent, overlapping features of the learned associations remain and result in the formation of schemas. Schemas are adaptive because they facilitate the rapid processing of conditioned stimuli and prime behavioral, cognitive, and affective responses that are the manifestations of the accumulation of an individual’s conditioned experiences. However, schemas can be maladaptive when the generalization of aversive emotional responses are applied to stimuli and contexts in which affective reactions are unnecessary. I describe how this process can lead to not only mood and anxiety disorders but also psychotherapeutic treatment.
... Both observable outward displays of fear and internal subjective feelings of fear are the product of fear learning. Direct fear learning has long been understood within a classical conditioning framework, where a neutral conditioned stimulus is repeatedly paired with a naturally aversive or fear-inducing stimulus unconditioned stimulus leading to a conditioned fear response to the (previously neutral) conditioned stimulus (Pavlov, 1927(Pavlov, , 2010. For example, humans can learn to associate even non-recognized (i.e., presented subliminally) fear-relevant stimuli with aversive outcomes, including angry faces (Esteves et al., 1994) and snakes and spiders (Öhman and Soares, 1994). ...
Article
Research implicates callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, prosociality, and guilt, and reduced sensitivity to others' emotions) in the development of severe and persistent antisocial behavior. To improve etiological models of antisocial behavior and develop more effective treatments, we need a better understanding of the origins of CU traits. In this review, we discuss the role of two psychobiological and mechanistic precursors to CU traits: low affiliative reward (i.e., deficits in seeking out or getting pleasure from social bonding and closeness with others) and low threat sensitivity (i.e., fearlessness to social and non-social threat). We outline the Sensitivity to Threat and Affiliative Reward (STAR) model and review studies that have examined the development of affiliative reward and threat sensitivity across animal, neuroimaging, genetic, and behavioral perspectives. We next evaluate evidence for the STAR model, specifically the claim that CU traits result from deficits in both affiliative reward and threat sensitivity. We end with constructive suggestions for future research to test the hypotheses generated by the STAR model.
... En el presente texto nos enfocamos principalmente en tres de dichos efectos. Se conoce como recuperación espontánea a la reaparición de una conducta extinguida como consecuencia de incorporar un intervalo temporal largo entre la fase de extinción y prueba (Pavlov, 1927;Rescorla, 2004). En el efecto de restablecimiento se observa la recuperación de una conducta extinguida debido a la exposición no contingente a la conducta del EI o del reforzador (Delamater, 1997;Rescorla & Heth, 1975). ...
... Following the introduction of motivational theories by the Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1914), and some proponents of experimental psychology (e.g., McDougall, 1923) in the early 20 th century, motivation has been brought to the fore, stirring up a lot of controversies. Studies were then extended by some pioneers of behavioral psychology (e.g., Hull, 1943;Pavlov, 1927;Skinner, 1957) rendering motivation mainly as an instinct rooted in extrinsic reinforcement. This view lost popularity due to multiple shortcomings of behaviorism, and theories shifted toward a more cognitive-based perspective characterized by the belief that behavior is affected by cognition rather than being the consequence one's actions (Stipek, 1996). ...
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Digging into the history of motivation research, we deduced that, the investigations have targeted individuals' performance as the overt indication of this invisible drive. Yet, it is hypothesized that there exists a variation of motivation which does not lead to a certain action and is only confined to one's mental engagement with a concept or activity. To further explicate, we put forward a dual continuum model of motivation, under the term immersion, and named this so-far-hidden aspect as passive motivation, standing against active motivation. To provide empirical evidence, a total of 54 English language teachers were recruited and interviewed about the four proposed conditions of motivation (i.e., active motivation, active demotivation, passive motivation, and passive demotivation). The extracted themes revealed that teachers' habitus may largely account for this lack of willingness and passivity. Analyzing the themes, we made reference to sensory motivation, which relies on sensory experiences as one of the major triggers of de/motivation.
... Following the introduction of motivational theories by the Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1914), and some proponents of experimental psychology (e.g., McDougall, 1923) in the early 20 th century, motivation has been brought to the fore, stirring up a lot of controversies. Studies were then extended by some pioneers of behavioral psychology (e.g., Hull, 1943;Pavlov, 1927;Skinner, 1957) rendering motivation mainly as an instinct rooted in extrinsic reinforcement. This view lost popularity due to multiple shortcomings of behaviorism, and theories shifted toward a more cognitive-based perspective characterized by the belief that behavior is affected by cognition rather than being the consequence one's actions (Stipek, 1996). ...
Article
Digging into the history of motivation research, we deduced that, the investigations have targeted individuals' performance as the overt indication of this invisible drive. Yet, it is hypothesized that there exists a variation of motivation which does not lead to a certain action and is only confined to one's mental engagement with a concept or activity. To further explicate, we put forward a dual continuum model of motivation, under the term immersion, and named this so-far-hidden aspect as passive motivation, standing against active motivation. To provide empirical evidence, a total of 54 English language teachers were recruited and interviewed about the four proposed conditions of motivation (i.e., active motivation, active demotivation, passive motivation, and passive demotivation). The extracted themes revealed that teachers' habitus may largely account for this lack of willingness and passivity. Analyzing the themes, we made reference to sensory motivation, which relies on sensory experiences as one of the major triggers of de/motivation.
... By comparing different behavioural models, this effect was best explained by including two additional parameters to a simple reinforcement learning model: (i) a cue salience parameter, which scaled the influence of the RPE on future value estimates as a function of which auditory cue had been presented, and (ii) a cue "arousal" parameter, which was a constant term applied from the start of training. It has long been established that cue salience can be an important determinant of learning rates [e.g., 79,80,81] and this is a standard term in the Rescorla-Wagner and other influential association learning models, capturing the effect that more salient or intense cues are learned about faster and are more readily discriminated than weaker or less salient cues. ...
Article
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In an uncertain world, the ability to predict and update the relationships between environmental cues and outcomes is a fundamental element of adaptive behaviour. This type of learning is typically thought to depend on prediction error, the difference between expected and experienced events and in the reward domain that has been closely linked to mesolimbic dopamine. There is also increasing behavioural and neuroimaging evidence that disruption to this process may be a cross-diagnostic feature of several neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders in which dopamine is dysregulated. However, the precise relationship between haemodynamic measures, dopamine and reward-guided learning remains unclear. To help address this issue, we used a translational technique, oxygen amperometry, to record haemodynamic signals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while freely moving rats performed a probabilistic Pavlovian learning task. Using a model-based analysis approach to account for individual variations in learning, we found that the oxygen signal in the NAc correlated with a reward prediction error, whereas in the OFC it correlated with an unsigned prediction error or salience signal. Furthermore, an acute dose of amphetamine, creating a hyperdopaminergic state, disrupted rats’ ability to discriminate between cues associated with either a high or a low probability of reward and concomitantly corrupted prediction error signalling. These results demonstrate parallel but distinct prediction error signals in NAc and OFC during learning, both of which are affected by psychostimulant administration. Furthermore, they establish the viability of tracking and manipulating haemodynamic signatures of reward-guided learning observed in human fMRI studies by using a proxy signal for BOLD in a freely behaving rodent.
... While this link has somewhat been overlooked since the ascent of cognitivism and its focus on "information processing", it is interesting to note that it was an inherent part of early theories of the orienting response. In fact, Pavlov (1927) initially talked about a "novelty reflex." The momentary slowing of our behavior may be viewed as "distraction" in the context of a psychology experiment, but it is a mechanism through which an organism interrupts ongoing behavior, orients its receptor organs toward the source of change in the immediate environment and enhances its probability of selecting the most appropriate plan for action. ...
Article
Performance in sustained attention tasks is known to be slowed by the occurrence of unexpected task-irrelevant distractors (novelty distraction) and the detection of errors (posterror slowing), 2 well-established phenomena studied separately and regarded as reflecting distinct underpinning mechanisms. We measured novelty distraction and posterror slowing in an auditory-visual oddball task to test the hypothesis that they both involve an orienting response. Our results confirm that the 2 effects exhibit a positive interaction. We show that a trial-by-trial measure of surprise credibly accounts for our empirical data. We suggest that novelty distraction and posterror slowing both reflect an orienting response to unexpected events and a reappraisal of action plans.
... Through Pavlovian associative learning, a conditioned stimulus (CS) that reliably predicts food reward (unconditioned stimulus [US]) is endowed with motivational significance and the ability to activate and retrieve food memories (Pavlov, 1927;Jansen, 1998;van den Akker et al., 2018). These CS-activated food representations can elicit actions to facilitate food procurement. ...
Article
Animals selectively respond to environmental cues associated with food reward to optimize nutrient intake. Such appetitive conditioned stimulus–unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) associations are thought to be encoded in select, stable neuronal populations or neuronal ensembles, which undergo physiological modifications during appetitive conditioning. These ensembles in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) control well-established, cue-evoked food seeking, but the mechanisms involved in the genesis of these ensembles are unclear. Here, we used male Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in recently behaviorally activated neurons, to reveal how dorsal mPFC neurons are recruited and modified to encode CS-US memory representations using an appetitive conditioning task. In the initial conditioning session, animals did not exhibit discriminated, cue-selective food seeking, but did so in later sessions indicating that a CS-US association was established. Using microprism-based in vivo 2-Photon imaging, we revealed that only a minority of neurons activated during the initial session was consistently activated throughout subsequent conditioning sessions and during cue-evoked memory recall. Notably, using ex vivo electrophysiology, we found that neurons activated following the initial session exhibited transient hyperexcitability. Chemogenetically enhancing the excitability of these neurons throughout subsequent conditioning sessions interfered with the development of reliable cue-selective food seeking, indicated by persistent, nondiscriminated performance. We demonstrate how appetitive learning consistently activates a subset of neurons to form a stable neuronal ensemble during the formation of a CS-US association. This ensemble may arise from a pool of hyperexcitable neurons activated during the initial conditioning session.
... Trace fear conditioning is a procedure where animals are required to learn the association of an initially neutral conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g. a tone) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US, e.g., a footshock) with a trace interval in between (Pavlov, 1927;Connor and Gould, 2016). The presence of a temporal gap affects the mechanism of associative learning (Shors et al., 2000); more trials are needed to learn the association, and higher-order brain regions, such as the hippocampus (HPC), are recruited Shors et al., 2001;Czerniawski et al., 2009;Czerniawski et al., 2012). ...
Article
Background The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei (ReRh) of the midline thalamus interconnect the hippocampus (HPC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The HPC and mPFC are both involved in the acquisition of trace fear conditioning, in which a conditioned stimulus (tone) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (footshock) are paired but separated in time with a trace interval. Earlier, we demonstrated that ReRh inactivation during trace conditioning impaired the acquisition of cued fear. In contrast, ReRh inactivation during both conditioning and test resulted in heightened fear to tones during retrieval. Because there was a generalized contextual fear on top of heightened fear to tones in the latter experiment, here we aimed to examine the specific importance of the functional ReRh in cued fear and contextual fear through introducing prolonged contextual exposure. Methods The ReRh were pharmacologically inactivated with muscimol (or saline as controls) before each experimental session. Results We showed that although ReRh inactivation before trace fear conditioning impaired the acquisition of cued fear, the animals still acquired certain level of fear to the tones. However, without the functional ReRh throughout the entire behavioral sessions, these animals showed heightened contextual fear that did not decline much with the passage of time, which generalized to the other context, and fear to tones reoccurred when the tones were presented. Conclusions Our results suggested that functional ReRh are important for proper acquisition and expression of fear to context and tones acquired under trace procedure.
... (Izquierdo, Barros et al., 1998, McGaugh, 2000. Reexposure only to the training environment may trigger memory reconsolidation (Nader, Schafe et al., 2000, De Oliveira Alvares, Crestani et al., 2013, Haubrich, Crestani et al., 2015 or extinction, if it takes longer (Pavlov, 1927, Quirk & Mueller, 2008. ...
... Associative learning describes the processes by which discrete stimuli, or a behavioural response and stimuli, become associated with one another. During Pavlovian conditioning, previously neutral cues and environmental stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) are associated with a reinforcer (unconditioned stimuli; US) that elicits a behavioural response (Pavlov, 1927). Through paired-presentation with the US, the presentation of the CS alone eventually produces the response that was previously elicited by the US. ...
Conference Paper
Under certain conditions memories can re-enter a transient, labile state in which they are susceptible to modification. ‘Reconsolidation’ thus describes the hypothetical process by which a reactivated memory is returned to a stable state. The current thesis will explore the potential of pharmacological reconsolidation-interference strategies in attenuating the maladaptive appetitive memories underlying alcohol dependence and binge eating disorder (BED). Chapter 1 presents an overview of the reconsolidation literature and its potential to treat disorders of maladaptive appetitive memory. In Chapter 2, a review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of treatments utilising behavioral and pharmacological reconsolidation strategies in clinical or sub-clinical populations is presented. In Chapter 3, the requirement for the inclusion of a prediction error (PE) at retrieval in a population of hazardous drinkers is assessed in a randomised, between subjects design (N=60). Although no effect of post-retrieval N2O (a predicted blocker of reconsolidation) was observed initially, exploratory analysis showed a memory-weakening effect only when administration occurred after cue-alcohol retrieval and PE. Chapter 4 presents a single blind, randomised, between subjects (N=90) study of the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Relative to placebo and a no-reactivation group, ketamine produced significant reductions in drinking and putative measures of cue-alcohol memory strength. Chapter 5 explores the efficacy of rapamycin, a proven blocker of reconsolidation in pre-clinical models, to attenuate non-drug reward memory in a population with a tendency of overeat or binge on chocolate (N=75). No effect of rapamycin was observed, although this may represent the limited scope to see improvement in measures of disordered eating within this sample. Finally, Chapter 6 summaries and integrates the current findings into the existing literature. A discussion of the implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research on reconsolidation is given.
... In speaking of the basic properties of the nervous system, Pavlov referred to the strength of the processes of excitation and inhibition, the equilibrium between their respective strengths, and the mobility of these processes. Although Pavlov's (1927) theoretical formulations dealt with what Donald Hebb (1955) termed a conceptual nervous system, his experiments and those of his students led to innumerable direct investigations of brain activity. Central to Pavlov's thesis was the distinction between strong and weak types of nervous systems that is, high versus low tolerance and need for stimulation. ...
Research Proposal
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Despite major neuroscientific advances in the past two decades and parallel conceptual refinement in evolutionary theory, personality-in-politics inquiry remains adrift, divorced from these broader spheres of scientific knowledge. This paper reviews the neurobiological substrates of three major domains of evolutionary biology and behavioral ecology relevant to political personality assessment and the psychological examination of political leaders; furnishes a context and set of guiding ideas to revitalize the study of the person as biopsychosocial entity in politics; advances a generative theory of personality and political leadership performance; and proposes an agenda for advancing personality-in-politics and leadership inquiry, informed by insights derived from the contextually adjacent fields of behavioral neuroscience and evolutionary ecology.
... A classic example is represented by Pavlov's experiments with dogs. 55 These dogs salivated (unconditioned response) in the presence of food (unconditioned stimulus, US) and were trained to associate the presence of food to the sound of a bell (CS), so that eventually they salivated at the sound of the bell, even without food. In the most basic version of CPP assays, the rodent is placed in an apparatus constituted by two distinct chambers (e.g., with different textures and shading patterns, to provide different contextual stimuli). ...
Chapter
The substance use disorders are chronic relapsing brain diseases associated with drug use, often referred to as addictions, with behavioral manifestations and considerable morbidity. Addictions are complex disorders with genetic, epigenetic, neurobiological, and drug exposure factors, as well as environmental factors. Addictions to specific drugs such as alcohol, nicotine/tobacco, cocaine/psychostimulants (e.g., methamphetamine), and μ-opioid peptide receptor agonists such as heroin, abused prescription opioids, and fentanyl analogs have some common direct or downstream effects, including modulation of dopaminergic systems, which underlie aspects of mood and reward. Specific addictions also have unique trajectories, morbidities, and pharmacotherapeutic approaches based on direct and delayed neurobiological adaptations for each drug. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated with the addictions, notably opioid receptor and opioid neuropeptide gene systems, stress-responsive systems including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin and orexin, as well as glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid systems. Cumulatively, public health costs of the addictions are massive; there remains a great need for translational neurobiological understanding of these diseases, potentially leading to better treatments, including advances in personalized medicine.
... Currently, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has the greatest efficacy in treating PTSD symptoms; however, the nonresponse rates of PTSD patients to CBT are as high as 50% [5,6]. In particular, therapies involving fear extinction learning, such as exposure therapy, cannot confer sustained, successful extinction, and the spontaneous recovery of fear occurs over time [7][8][9][10]. Therefore, spontaneous recovery after extinction has faced validity regarding clinical interventions for PTSD [11]. ...
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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) modulators have recently received increased attention as potential therapeutics for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we tested a novel NMDAR-positive modulator, NYX-783, in the following two rodent models of PTSD: an auditory fear-conditioning model and a single-prolonged stress (SPS) model. We examined the ability of NYX-783 to reduce subsequent fear-based behaviors by measuring enhanced fear extinction and reduced spontaneous recovery (spontaneous return of fear) in male mice. NYX-783 administration significantly reduced spontaneous recovery in both PTSD models and enhanced fear extinction in the SPS model. Furthermore, NYX-783 increased the NMDA-induced inward currents of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL mPFC) and that the GluN2B subunit of NMDARs on pyramidal neurons in the IL mPFC is required for its effect on spontaneous recovery. The downstream expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was required for NYX-783 to achieve its behavioral effect. These results elucidate the cellular targets of NYX-783 and the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of spontaneous recovery. These preclinical findings support the hypothesis that NYX-783 may have therapeutic potential for PTSD treatment and may be particularly useful for inhibiting spontaneous recovery.
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The measurement of Pavlovian forms of fear extinction offers a relatively simple behavioral preparation that is nonetheless tractable, from a translational perspective, as an approach to study mechanisms of exposure therapy and biological underpinnings of anxiety and trauma-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Deficient fear extinction is considered a robust clinical endophenotype for these disorders and, as such, has particular significance in the current “age of RDoC (research domain criteria).” Various rodent models of impaired extinction have thus been generated with the objective of approximating this clinical, relapse prone aberrant extinction learning. These models have helped to reveal neurobiological correlates of extinction circuitry failure, gene variants, and other mechanisms underlying deficient fear extinction. In addition, they are increasingly serving as tools to investigate ways to therapeutically overcome poor extinction to support long-term retention of extinction memory and thus protection against various forms of fear relapse; modeled in the laboratory by measuring spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal of fear. In the current article, we review models of impaired extinction built around (1) experimentally induced brain region and neural circuit disruptions (2) spontaneously-arising and laboratory-induced genetic modifications, or (3) exposure to environmental insults, including stress, drugs of abuse, and unhealthy diet. Collectively, these models have been instrumental in advancing in our understanding of extinction failure and underlying susceptibilities at the neural, genetic, molecular, and neurochemical levels; generating renewed interest in developing novel, targeted and effective therapeutic treatments for anxiety and trauma-related disorders.
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This paper presents a concise history of psychometrics. It is an important field of Psychology concerned with the psychological measurement. Psychometrics can help, practitioners, students, managers, and other professionals in general, stimulating the reflection on their social and workplace behaviors, in order to deepen their self-awareness and thus provide an opportunity self-learning, behavior changes and development. It encompasses also intelligence, achievement, aptitudes, and the personality traits test. This research addressed the history of such tests, such as social value orientation tests, IQ, 16-PF, Big Five personality traits tests, among others. This literature review is
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Humans are social creatures, engaging almost constantly in social behaviors that serve ultimate social goals, such as forming strong bonds with one another. However, most social behaviors provide only incremental progress toward an ultimate goal. Instead, the drive to engage in any individual social act may derive from its proximal value rather than its ultimate goal. Thus, this proximal value forms the foundation on which the complexities of human sociality are built. We describe two complementary approaches for using proximal social rewards to understand social behaviors and their ultimate goals: (a) decontextualizing social rewards-paring down complex social interactions can help identify which basic building blocks remain valuable even in minimalistic contexts-and (b) recontextualizing social rewards-reintroducing motivational and contextual factors into the study of social experience can help identify how proximal rewards serve their ultimate function. We discuss how this dual-approach framework can inform future research by bridging basic social building blocks and real-world social goals.
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Impulsivity is an important construct in many different fields of behavioral science. A number of authors consider response inhibition deficit as an important part of impulsive behavior. Viewpoints range from those claiming that such an inhibitory deficit is a fundamental feature of all manifestations of impulsivity, to those that consider that it is just one of various independent components of impulsive behavior. In this article, we review some of the most common laboratory procedures used to evaluate response inhibition and their relation to impulsivity. We focus on one of these procedures, conditioned inhibition, which has fallen into neglect in the impulsivity literature. We consider three main reasons for this: (1) harsh critiques of the concept of inhibition by influential theorists, (2) difficulties with the control procedures needed to demonstrate conditioned inhibition, and (3) an apparent mismatching between conditioned-inhibition performance and typical definitions of response inhibition. We provide evidence and arguments that could help to overcome those critiques and methodological and conceptual barriers. We also note that the conditions assumed to induce conditioned inhibition are present in some other paradigms designed to measure impulsivity. If our assertions are correct, then studying conditioned inhibition as a learning process is of great importance for understanding impulsive behavior. Further research is needed to test how critical conditioned inhibition is to impulsivity.
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Discussions of model selection in the psychological literature typically frame the issues as a question of statistical inference, with the goal being to determine which model makes the best predictions about data. Within this setting, advocates of leave-one-out cross-validation and Bayes factors disagree on precisely which prediction problem model selection questions should aim to answer. In this comment, I discuss some of these issues from a scientific perspective. What goal does model selection serve when all models are known to be systematically wrong? How might “toy problems” tell a misleading story? How does the scientific goal of explanation align with (or differ from) traditional statistical concerns? I do not offer answers to these questions, but hope to highlight the reasons why psychological researchers cannot avoid asking them.
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Aim While emotional processing is implicated in various psychiatric illnesses, its differences among diagnoses are unclear. We compared associative learning of social values in patients with depression and schizophrenia by measuring skin conductance response (SCR) to the interpersonal stimuli. Methods We included twenty female outpatients each with depression and schizophrenia. They underwent Pavlovian conditioning experiments in response to a classical aversive sound, and an interpersonal stimulus that was designed to cause aversive social conditioning with actors’ faces coupled with negative verbal messages. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between the degree of conditioned response and the clinical characteristics of the participants. Results Conditioned responses during the acquisition phase in both conditions were higher in depression compared to schizophrenia. Patients with depression successfully showed fear conditioning in both conditions, and they exhibited slower extinction in the interpersonal condition. The conditioned response during the extinction phase showed a positive association with Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) expressive suppression score, and a negative association with the ERQ cognitive reappraisal score and the use of antidepressants. Patients with schizophrenia did not get conditioned in both conditions. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative syndrome score was negatively associated with the degree of conditioned response during the acquisition phase in the interpersonal condition. Conclusion Female patients with schizophrenia, especially who prominently demonstrated negative symptoms, suggested their intrinsic impairments in the associative learning of social context. Antidepressants and adaptive emotional regulation strategy may enhance the extinction learning of aversive social conditioning in depression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Because humans live in a dynamic and evolving social world, modeling the factors that guide social behavior has remained a challenge for psychology. In contrast, much progress has been made on understanding some of the more basic elements of human behavior, such as associative learning and memory, which has been successfully modeled in other species. Here we argue that applying an associative learning approach to social behavior can offer valuable insights into the human moral experience. We propose that the basic principles of associative learning—conserved across a range of species—can, in many situations, help to explain seemingly complex human behaviors, including altruistic, cooperative, and selfish acts. We describe examples from the social decision-making literature using Pavlovian learning phenomena (e.g., extinction, cue competition, stimulus generalization) to detail how a history of positive or negative social outcomes influences cognitive and affective mechanisms that shape moral choice. Examining how we might understand social behaviors and their likely reliance on domain-general mechanisms can help to generate testable hypotheses to further understand how social value is learned, represented, and expressed behaviorally.
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The immediate extinction deficit describes a higher return of fear when extinction takes place immediately after fear acquisition compared to a delayed extinction design. One explanation for this phenomenon encompasses the remaining emotional arousal evoked by fear acquisition to be still present during immediate, but not delayed extinction. In the present study, the predictive learning task, a learning task not involving arousal or stress, was used testing the hypothesis that no immediate extinction deficit should occur in this neutral task. Twenty-six participants underwent an immediate extinction procedure and were tested in a recall session 24 h later. For the delayed extinction group (n = 26), acquisition, extinction, and recall were realized 24 h apart from each other. Recall performance of a third group (n = 26) was tested 48 h after the immediate extinction procedure. The immediate extinction deficit was indeed observed for a stimulus not subject to a contextual change from acquisition to extinction, but not for other stimuli involving contextual changes or no extinction control stimuli. Even in a neutral learning task and without emotional arousal, the immediate extinction deficit could be detected but was restricted to the specific contextual embedding of stimuli. Thus, contextual processing appears to differentially modulate the emergence of the immediate extinction deficit. © 2019 Merz and Wolf; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
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This study examined the influence of school environmental variables on students' performance in Junior Secondary School mathematics in Gwer-East Local Government Area of Benue State. The study adopted an expo-facto design. A sample of 120 Junior Secondary School II students from ten schools was drawn out of a population of 3,482 JSS II students from Gwer-East Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. A validated 20-item Influence of Environmental Variables on Students Performance Questionnaire (IEVSPQ) was used to collect data. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the four research questions raised for the study. The result revealed that nearness of school to noisy facilities has a negative influence on the performance of mathematics students in Junior Secondary Schools. Classroom size, library facilities and power supply influences the performance of mathematics students in Junior Secondary School to a high extent. It was recommended among others that school environmental variables should be taken into consideration in the siting and running of schools in order to enhance the students' performance in Junior Secondary School mathematics.
Thesis
p>The current work studies the correlation between birth-weight and autonomic cardiovascular modulation in adult life, in order to investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying the fetal origins of cardiovascular disease. However, factors other than autonomic modulation may strongly influence the estimation of cardiovascular indexes. In this thesis, two such confounding factors were investigated in detail. Firstly, the between-task and inter-individual differences in respiratory patterns, especially in tasks involving speech were found to be strongly reflected in cardiovascular indexes. Clear evidence was found that a very significant part of changes in indexes during the psychophysiological experimental protocol considered can be explained by modifications in respiration, without assuming between-tasks or inter-individual differences in autonomic activation elicited by psychological/cognitive processes. The second factor is the presence of within-task dynamics in the cardiovascular reaction to psychophysiological tasks. The common approach in psychophysiological investigations is to estimate cardiovascular indexes as average values over the whole length of the task. However, the results found show that such an approach may obscure significant within-task changes in the indexes that might carry useful psychophysiological information. Choosing shorter epochs within the tasks for estimating the indexes has also a notable impact in terms of assessing changes elicited by the tasks. Since these two factors are intrinsic in the reaction to psychophysiological tasks, they can have a profound impact on the indirect estimates of autonomic reaction through cardiovascular indexes. Controlling them during psychophysiological experiments may be difficult (if not impossible). However, their effects should be minimized, for example by avoiding tasks involving speech and choosing appropriate data epochs for the analysis.</p
Chapter
Mammalian decision-making is mediated by the interaction of multiple, neurally and computationally separable decision systems. Having multiple systems requires a mechanism to manage conflict and converge onto the selection of singular actions. A long history of evidence has pointed to the prefrontal cortex as a central component in processing the interactions between distinct decision systems and resolving conflicts among them. In this chapter we review four theories of how that interaction might occur and identify how the medial prefrontal cortex in the rodent may be involved in each theory. We then present experimental predictions implied by the neurobiological data in the context of each theory as a starting point for future investigation of medial prefrontal cortex and decision-making.
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Scientists are often asked to what extent a simple finding in a laboratory can be generalized to complicated phenomena in our daily lives. The same is equally true of vision science; numerous critical discoveries about our visual system have been made using very simple visual images, such as Gabor patches, but to what extent can these findings be applied to more natural images? Here, we used the fMRI decoding technique and directly tested whether the findings obtained with primitive visual stimuli (Gabor patches) were applicable to natural images. In the fMRI experiments, participants performed depth and resolution tasks with both Gabor patches and natural images. We created a fMRI decoder made from the results of the Gabor patch experiments that classified a brain activity pattern into the depth or resolution task, and then examined how successful the task-dependent decoder could sort a brain activity pattern in the natural image experiment into the depth or resolution task. As a result, we found that the task-dependent decoder constructed from Gabor patch experiments could predict which task (depth or resolution task) a participant was engaged in the natural image experiments, especially in the V3 and middle temporal (MT+) areas of the brain. This is consistent with previous researches on the cortical activation relating to depth perception rather than perceptual processing of display resolution. These results provide firm evidence that fMRI decoding technique possesses the power to evaluate the application of Gabor patch results (laboratory findings) to the natural images (everyday affairs), representing a new approach for studying the mechanism of visual perception.
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Absolute beginners rapidly solve several word learning problems after minimal exposure to second language speech. In this article, we report on laboratory research that supports this claim. Explaining second language acquisition is a goal of foundational research. While our findings are consistent with the generativist enterprise, generativists have been content to describe what learners have acquired while avoiding discussion of the ‘how’. We describe a specific generativist approach (the Autonomous Induction Theory) that directly addresses the role of specific learning mechanisms proposed by cognitive psychology. In contrast to alternative non-generative approaches, the Autonomous Induction Theory offers a constrained theory of language acquisition. Both the data from laboratory settings and the theoretical explanations of how adult learners learn have potential implications for language teaching. One should not, however, make teaching recommendations directly from laboratory results. Rather, the findings should be reinterpreted as a research agenda for the classroom, one that recognises its complexities. In this paper, we make several proposals as to how to get from laboratory findings to a classroom-based research agenda.
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When repeatedly exposed to simultaneously presented stimuli, associations between these stimuli are nearly always established, both within as well as between sensory modalities. Such associations guide our subsequent actions and may also play a role in multisensory selection. Thus, crossmodal associations (i.e., associations between stimuli from different modalities) learned in a multisensory interference task might affect subsequent information processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the processing level of multisensory stimuli in multisensory selection by means of crossmodal aftereffects. Either feature or response associations were induced in a multisensory flanker task while the amount of interference in a subsequent crossmodal flanker task was measured. The results of Experiment 1 revealed the existence of crossmodal interference after multisensory selection. Experiments 2 and 3 then went on to demonstrate the dependence of this effect on the perceptual associations between features themselves, rather than on the associations between feature and response. Establishing response associations did not lead to a subsequent crossmodal interference effect (Experiment 2), while stimulus feature associations without response associations (obtained by changing the response effectors) did (Experiment 3). Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that associations in multisensory selection, and the interference of (crossmodal) distractors, predominantly work at the perceptual, rather than at the response, level.
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This is a response to the critical points made by Alexandrova, Beck, Boumans, and Gilboa in their reviews of my book Measuring Utility. A common thread in the reviewers’ comments is that my history of utility measurement is too internalist, that is, I failed to account for some external factors that they contend influenced the history of utility measurement. In response, I make two main points: (1) at the general level of historiographical methodology, I argue against what I call the ‘externalist fallacy’ in the historiography of science and contend that, in principle, internalist narratives can provide good explanations of the development of a science; (2) with respect to the history of utility measurement reconstructed in the book, I argue that the available historical evidence indicates that the history of utility measurement was mostly determined by internal factors.
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The students positively benefited from the activities performed in the classroom. Students are happy, although they are facing some minor difficulties. The actions brought positive changes in knowledge, understanding, knowledge application, and skill enhancement. Since mathematics is a difficult subject, to get an exciting learning experience in mathematics, activity-based learning helps the students to learn and retain information. Activity-based learning engages the children physically and mentally. It helps to develop skills in the students than the standard approach of teaching and allows them to participate in their own learning experience through practically engaging in activities.
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The basal ganglia are widely implicated in action selection and timing, but the relative contributions of the striatonigral (direct) and striatopallidal (indirect) pathways to these functions are still a matter of intense debate. This study investigated the effects of optogenetic stimulation of D1+ (direct) and A2A+ (indirect) neurons in the ventrolateral striatum in head-fixed mice on a fixed time reinforcement schedule. Direct pathway stimulation initiates licking, which can be frequency locked with the laser pulses. Indirect pathway stimulation suppresses non-consummatory licking but elicits rebound licking behavior whose latency is frequency dependent. During peak probe trials that measure the timing of expected reward, direct pathway stimulation reset the internal clock, as measured by the timing of the next bout of anticipatory licking. By contrast, indirect pathway stimulation paused the clock and proportionally delayed the onset of the next bout of licking. Our results provide evidence for the continuous and opposing contributions of the direct and indirect pathways in the production and timing of reward-guided behavior.
Article
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Soft matter systems and materials are moving toward adaptive and interactive behavior, which holds outstanding promise to make the next generation of intelligent soft materials systems inspired from the dynamics and behavior of living systems. But what is an adaptive material? What is an interactive material? How should classical responsiveness or smart materials be delineated? At present, the literature lacks a comprehensive discussion on these topics, which is however of profound importance in order to identify landmark advances, keep a correct and noninflating terminology, and most importantly educate young scientists going into this direction. By comparing different levels of complex behavior in biological systems, this Viewpoint strives to give some definition of the various different materials systems characteristics. In particular, the importance of thinking in the direction of training and learning materials, and metabolic or behavioral materials is highlighted, as well as communication and information‐processing systems. This Viewpoint aims to also serve as a switchboard to further connect the important fields of systems chemistry, synthetic biology, supramolecular chemistry and nano‐ and microfabrication/3D printing with advanced soft materials research. A convergence of these disciplines will be at the heart of empowering future adaptive and interactive materials systems with increasingly complex and emergent life‐like behavior. This Viewpoint article describes the elementary concepts and principles to move from responsive materials to adaptive and interactive materials systems that are increasingly inspired from the behavior of living systems.
Chapter
The previous scenario is based on a first-person recollection of attending a party that was developed into a virtual reality scenario by Dr. Bordnick at the Virtual Reality Clinical Research Lab. This scenario was used to construct a virtual reality platform to assess and eventually decrease alcohol craving, offering a novel approach to substance abuse treatment.
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